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Exhibition: Little Ladies: Victorian Fashion Dolls and the Feminine Ideal

Date of exhibition: November 11, 2018 – March 3,2019

Attended date:   Friday, march 1st, 2019, 2:00 PM

Location: Dorrance Special Exhibition Galleries, first floor of the Philadelphia Museum of Art.


 Before the American girl dolls and Barbie dolls there were dolls referred from as Miss Fanchon. These dolls existed in the 19th and 20th century.  the most amazing thing about these dolls is their mode of dressing. These dolls were dressed in long array dresses, undergarments and crafted accessories that were very unique.  There was a total of 12 dolls. One of these dolls was being displayed by an unknown French artist, the doll dates back to 1976. The second doll was also being displayed by an unknown French artist and dates back to 1922.  There was a picture of these dolls from Godey’s Lady Book of march 1, 1894, this was owned by Philadelphia Museum of Art. Thee were doll dresses displayed and no further information about them was provided apart from the year they date to, which is the period between 1865-1875. The last display I will discuss was doll accessories that dated back to 1870, these accessories included; a fan, comb, pocket watch, pin earing, and a mirror. They had been presented to the museum by Mrs. William Hill Steeble and Martha B, Newkirk in memory of their mother, These pieces date back to 1922. The curators of these exhibition were; Kristina Haugland, the Le Vine Associate Curator and Textiles and Supervising curator for Study Room. This exhibition helped in exploring the dolls of the 19th and 20th century that reflect on the dressing mode of this century.

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History of contemporary photography


The period between 1960-1980 marked a new era in photography. Personally I feel that the academization of photography and emergence of artists who use photos in various artistic ways helped in elevating photography to a new level. Although this period was defined by the cold war that was happening during that time. The most important event of the time was the Vietnam war that had begun after world war II which America became greatly involved. This war is important because of its photographic history. It became the first war to be broadcasted on television due to the wide coverage by the press who took photos of what was taking place.

In the United States a child born after the world war two got an opportunity to study, formally before world war II in United States an education was a luxury only the rich could afford, but this period had come to an end, since the bar had been lowered and everyone could now afford a university or college education. This led to academization of photography meaning that there was a class that only specialized with photography as a study topic, the creation of photography classes led to the rise of artists using photographs as their art work, the end of 1980 academic photographic as a career had risen to replace professional photography.

In the 1970s, the use of television became dominant, and the chief mode of communication that the government was using to pass messages to the citizens. On a personal level I think that academization of photography gave artists and the general public the opportunity to think critically. This period produced a large number of artists in the USA and Europe, and earlier on in 1962, The Society of Photographic Education was formed and its main purpose was to promote photography in institutions of higher education, it was followed by the formation of the International Fund for Concerned Photography in 1966, which was later followed by the formation of Friends of Photography in 1967. Formation of these organizations led to acceptance of photography as a form of expressing art in 1968.

John Szarkowski’s in his exhibition, The Photographer’s Eye is determined to show people what constitutes a photograph, weather the photographer was talented, a professional or an amateur. The major purpose of his work is to show why pictures look the way they look, since it was a period where photography was not given much acknowledgement. It practiced by a lot of people who were not even aware of each other. They did it out of passion and even without any training. Those who practiced professional photography were quite different from those who practiced it as a form of entertainment. Towards the end of the 19th century the number of photographers taking snapshots increased.

According to Szarkowski the first thing a photographer should learn is to know that photography deals with actual things. People had come to believe that photographs could not lie, therefore what the eye saw was just an illusion and what was captured in the picture was true. In his exhibition he discussed that a photograph contains the details, the frame, the vantage point and time. He went further to elaborate what is contained in all those four components of a picture. In the details component of a photograph, it is the duty of the photographer to tell the truth that he could not tell outside the studio and therefore he had to capture this truth and tell it inform of a picture. Since photographs could not be able to be taken in a way to tell a narrative they could be read as symbols representing something. The function of a photograph is not to make a story clear but real. An example is what happened with the pictures that were taken during world war II, pictures taken at that time had long captions under them to tell the story of what was happening in the picture.

A photographer should consider the edge of is picture because it showed what was most important. Inserting a frame and enlarging one part of the picture would lead to a creation of two new pictures that had not existed before. Inserting a frame in a picture is like cropping a picture and capturing the most interesting details of the picture. Time is another factor that constitutes a photograph, each photograph taken describes a certain period of time. Photographs only represent the present time they were taken. Another component of a photograph is the vantage point in a photographs is responsible for helping to make sense of what is in the picture. These four components of a picture are important and are what makes up a photograph.

            Coleman characterized the changes that took place in Szarkoski’s exhibition “new document” because they were important and accountable for changes that took in photography in the years that followed. The new document took place in New York in the museum of modern art in the year 1967. Szarkoski exhibited the work of three photographers who were not famous at the time; Lee Friedlander, Diane Arbus and Garry Winogrand. Szarkoski was responsible for making the careers of these three photographers, since there were not many galleries exhibiting or displaying photographs. At the time of the exhibition photography was considered easy and therefore nobody took it serious but using his exhibition he was able to single-handedly change people view. He tried to show that the perspective of photographers was changing and were no long concerned with documenting events taking place that is documentary photography, but as time went by they were starting to take pictures of things that affected their personal life with the aim to understand them.

Szarkoski showcased this exhibition in a year when America was greatly involved in the Vietnam war. There were many events that needed documentary photography but Szarkoski choose to exhibit photographers who were obsessed with taking pictures that were not documentary pictures in order to bring attention to them. Their work encouraged photographers that the world can be looked at without theorizing what is taking place in it. This exhibition encouraged photographers and viewers that came later on to be open minded about ant photos since any photo worth taking is worth looking at.

It was hard to differentiate between photographs taken by travelers from documentary picture and because of this, Derrick Price seeks to elaborate what is documentary pictures by giving various definitions. He advises that documentary should be defined in terms of its connection with specific types of social investigation. Documentary work always seems to belong to a certain social investigation for a certain period in history. According to him documentary has to be true. A photograph that reveals the truth about a certain historical period can be referred to as a documentary. documentary can also be defined by the form the photograph takes.

A documentary photograph is printed as a full picture with a black boarder to show that every picture intended to capture is in the picture. Also when taking a documentary picture, it is advisable to use natural light in order to guarantee the authenticity of the picture. Documentary pictures were rarely seen as single pictures but were accompanied by written texts. The image confirmed what was written in the text. John Tagg in his work, The Burden of Representation (1998), defines documentary as part of a process in which ordinary lives are turned into photographs. Traditionally documentary pictures were black and white, but now colored pictures are being used as documentary pictures

Visual social semiotics and Allan Sekula in his work changed our understanding about images and showed us how to make meaning out of a photograph in different ways. Where an image is placed and its size can impact the visual language. Images placed in a report help to tell a story which will makes the texts in the report more memorable. A manual contains different types of picture and it is important to understand them. Examples of these pictures are lines, icons and photographs. These images reflect the beliefs of the people with different cultures appreciating different visual images. Images are grouped into three categories; icons, symbols and index. The only way one can derive the meaning in a photograph is looking at a range of different meaning by each culture. Lastly, photographs contain a narrative about something that is important to one’s life.


Academization of photography in the mid-20th century led to emergence of artists who took and displayed photographs as their art work. This led to formation of organizations that had the aim to promote photography. Szarkowski played a major role of elaborating the components of a picture and the role they play in the picture. Szarkowski was also able to change people’s perspective on street photography by exhibiting the works of three artists in a time where documentary photography was given much interest than any other form of photography. His exhibition the, New Document was responsible for some of the major changes that occurred in in photography and was responsible in shaping the careers of these three photographers. Derrick Price went ahead to help in defining what is a documentary picture and how to identify them from the rest of the pictures. Lastly, visual social semiotics helped in defining and showing the role of an image taken or inserted in a text.

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Classical and Medieval West

The spear bearer by Polykleitos and the Laocoon

            The spear bearer is among the famous Greek sculptures in the classical era. It has an illustration of a steadily built young male standing athlete. This sculpture initially had a spear on the left shoulder. This sculpture was made by Polykleitos in around 450 BC (Chapter 16, 257). The image was well idealized, over life sized and naturalistic. It has featured the face, the abdomen and the distorted genitals to suit the ideal of physical beauty. The figure was made out of bronze. This figure was purposely made to symbolize human beauty.

            The Laocoon is a Hellenistic work displayed at Museo Pio Clementino. The figure is a representation of a Trojan priest who was attacked by a giant serpent, together with his two sons. This work was found in 1506 by the three sculptors; Athanodoros, Hagesandros and Polydoros (chapter 16, 260). This sculpture was made out of bronze. The sculpture is made on the steps of an altar showing the priest with his two sons locked in the coils of two serpents. This sculpture is in a group of classical era sculptures and it has given way to tortured facial expressions, writhing movements, strained muscles and expression s of physical and emotional anguish (Chapter 16, 260).

The two works are similar because they were both made out of bronze. They all belong to the styles of art in classical period. However, the two were created or different purposes for instance the spear bearer image was created in order to bring out the symbol of human beauty. Whereas the Laocoon was purposely to give tortured facial expressions, writhing movement and strained muscles in the style of art.

Work cited

Chapter 16, the classical and medieval west.

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Art Appreciate


            Michelangelo characterize the changing artistic and cultural values between Baroque and renaissance periods. Baroque refers to a period with style of art that is known of using exaggerated action and easy to interpret detail when producing tension, drama, grandeur and exuberance in painting, sculpture, literature and architecture. Renaissance refers to a period when a new style of painting developed in Europe. Michelangelo was a painter, sculptor and an architect broadly known to be one of the greatest Italian Renaissance artists. This is because his work showed a blend of physical realism, psychological insight, and intensity never seen before (Gombrich, 308).  Michelangelo made an achievement in his work within a shortest period impossible to anyone. On painting the huge fresco on the chapel’s ceiling, preparing and sketching detailed scenes, Michelangelo had lie on the back and painted while looking up. The impression given by the illustration when one steps into chapel is up to date so different from the photographs one may have ever seen.


            Velasquez’s work is easier to interpret just as it is stated in the artistic style in the period of Baroque. For example in his early works of an old man selling water in the Seville streets (Gombrich, 406). The picture is genre invented by the Netherlanders to display their skill. The picture bears the characteristic of artistic work in the period of Baroque, which is considered to be easily interpreted. No one who stands before the picture will develop questions about the representation of the picture. The whole representation is joined together in a rich and mellow harmony such that the picture remains memorable to anyone who has ever taken a look at it.

Work cited

Gombrich, E H. description of figures on Michelangelo’s Sistine Ceiling. 1987.


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Summary or Respond To the Reading

            Clay is a widespread but unique material that helps in making ceramics possible. Clay was formed as the earth cooled slowly from its hot origins, causing its rock outer crust to harden, as internal pressure pushed up mountainous areas (1). This gradually formed water vapor leading to the creation of an atmosphere. Erosion occurred as a result of rains and winds while extremes of freezing temperatures and heat led to the contraction and expansion of the earth’s surface (1).

            Clays are classified as either sedimentary or residual and they include the following; kaolin which is the form of clay white in color and only vitrifies at very high temperatures (2). This form of clay is important in making high-fire white ware. Ball clay is another form of clay chemically similar to kaolin. However, its color varies from light tan to dark gray because of the presence of the organic material. Stoneware clays are a form of clay with particular interest to the potter (3). These clays are generally very plastic and always fire in the middle range of temperatures. Fireclay is a form of clay with high-firing clay normally used while insulating brick. There is also earthenware clay which comprises of a range of low-firing clays that do mature at relatively low temperatures. Slip clays are forms of clay that naturally contain enough fluxes that serve as glazes without extra addition (4). The best commercially known slip clay is called Albany and it is mostly mined in pits near Albany, New York. Bentonite is an extraordinary form of clay that normally functions as a plasticizer in small amounts. This can be found in most western mountain states and in several Gulf States (5). It has the fines ever know particle size of clay. In order to achieve a workable clay body, it is always necessary to mix clays.

Work cited


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            This is a German term that was established in the 20th century and forms the basis of the modern learning of perception. This theory was established by a psychologist, Max Wertheimer in 1912. It emphasizes on the idea that the whole of anything is better than its part. This is to mean that the whole is not deducible from exploration of the parts in isolation. Therefore the parts cannot be summed together so as to give description of the whole. This has an effect on the human mind by allowing the brain to generate whole forms especially with respect to the visual acknowledgement of the global figures rather than the collections of simpler parts such as points, curves or unrelated elements (Desolneux et al 2008). Art involves the diverse range of the human activities that involve creation of visuals that express the author’s creative expertise that is intended to be appreciated by those who will see it. The artist therefore uses several elements that make his drawing more aesthetic and attractive to the audience such as the use of color, depth, form and movement. These elements are considered as parts that are relatively important in any visual art. Applying the Gestalt theory therefore in art, it is quite evident that the whole brings about a better perception on the mind of the audience and these parts do not sum up to make the whole artwork (Desolneux et al 2008). This therefore enhances people to organize the various parts into forming a unified whole that people can now relate to.  This paper therefore will focus on the artistic art and the effects that the art would have when one element/part is removed and later when another element is removed.




Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa (1503–1517).

            The Mona Lisa is an oil painting piece of art work is on a popular wood pane that is done by an Italian painter and is most popular worldwide. It was painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the 1503s and 1506s in Florence. The work is regarded as aesthetic as the sitter portrays a mysterious smile with her unproven identity that has made this piece of art fascinating and still more attractive to many who are interested in  art. The oil painting involves smooth and almost imperceptible changeover from one color to the other through the use of ultra-subtle tonal gradations (Atalay 2014). This is seen in the face of the woman especially around the eyes as well as the mouth. This technique was a success and it enables the viewers to see the art better. As the artist went on to paint the painting, the impression that the painting created or creates is of great peacefulness that is enriched by a certain air of mystery. This peacefulness is evidenced by the muted color scheme of, the smoothening oil paint tonality and the coherence of the sitters pyramid shape posture and the inconspicuous drapery (Atalay 2014).

The background of the painting is a landscape that is created by use of aerial standpoint with its smoky blues and no clear defined disappeared point.  This gives the painting a composition that is of important depth though the details make known a clear imbalance between the rocky vanishing point on the right and the lower lands that stretch away towards the left (Atalay 2014).

            The removal of color element in the piece of art would result to the disappearance of some parts of the artwork that are important in making the picture a clear visual. For instance the removal of color may result to the absence of eyebrows and eyelashes of the woman in the painting which may bring out the wrong impression of the painting. Lack of the oil painting may result to the painting being a rough one and thus making it loose its beauty. Also the removal of color in this painting may result to the ugly look of the woman in the painting as the soft contouring face may not be visible in the absence of color. The theme of the painting on peacefulness may not be portrayed as a result of the absence of the muted color that represents the serenity of the painting. Lack of the aerial perspective in the painting will result to no distinction between the distant and closer objects for instance the lack of the smoky blue and lighter color to show the distant landscape will not differentiate those things that are far and nearer. With no depth and space in the painting, there will not be a translation of what one can see from a three dimension into a two dimension and thus there will not be a conviction of the presence of neither space nor depth in the painting. This therefore will make the painting less interesting and it will not have a meaning in the mind of the viewer hence the painting will be regarded as a weaker painting.




Atalay, B. (2014). Math and the Mona Lisa: The art and science of Leonardo da Vinci.

                Desolneux, A., Moisan, L., & Morel, J.-M. (2008). From Gestalt theory to image analysis: A probabilistic approach. New York, NY: Springer.

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Mrs. Daniel Sargent artwork

Mrs. Daniel Sargent is a famous painting by John Singleton Copley which was completed soon after Mary Turner Sargent got married to Daniel Sargent who came from a very wealthy family composed of merchants and ship owners. The artwork is entitled “Mrs. Daniel Sargent (Mary Turner Sargent), portrait orientation is the main style and the medium of the artwork is oil on canvas. The artwork is preserve in the Museum of Fine Art in San Francisco, United States of America. The painting was done in 1763 and portrayed the innovative ability of Copley to depict artifacts which are related to individual’s lives in the New England specifically for upper and middle class subjects of those ages (Roark, 2003).

John Singleton Copley painted Mrs. Sargent soon after their marriage and incorporated various portrait symbols of love and fertility. For instance, she holds a scallop shell in her right hand which is a reference to Venus who is a goddess of beauty and love. Besides her is a waterfall that is cascading from a wall of stone which signifies fertility, purity and life. The artwork represents the outlook of the well refined ladies of those days who were socially outstanding and who the society had treasured most (Roark, 2003). The English painting and both the subjects and objects throughout the painting give an English feeling of culture and beauty. This artwork brings an implication that the most valued standards of a woman in those days were beauty, social standard, purity and conduct. All works on the art including the painting, drawings water colors costumes and decoration have a significant meaning to the colonial America and the overall societal implications (Taylor, 2002).

The artwork of Mary Turner Sargent is attached to her history and her inspiring background. She was born in Salem a place where the first American millionaires resided.  Her father was owned many ships and also a prominent legislature in Massachusetts where he had served for quite a long period of time. The father also served as the senator of the state and also became the very first captain to serve in the Boston light infantry. Mary Turner Sargent was soon married to Daniel Sargent who also came from a wealthy family of merchants (Roark, 2003). The artwork greatly symbolizes the rich in the 18th century and how they were valued in the society of that day. The wealthy merchants of this era such as the land owners, ship owners had the control of power and influence whereby the top most social class was composed of the nobles. With much of the population being in the lower class, the society generally as looking up to these nobles to get their matters attended to (Lovell, 2007).

Mary Turner Sargent design is painted with her neck being very long. The larger image clearly shows that something is tied around her neck. She seems to be very tall especially due to the dressing code of the long undergarments. The overall features of her body are represented by extra tall body parts hence her overall height seems to be quite high. Copley however designed this kind of a body structure for a purpose. He wanted to refer the teachings of the ancient times that women were taught concerning their body posture. Women from wealthy families were expected to maintain a straight and unique posture while standing especially during their young age (Lovell, 2007).  This kind of posture was however not favorable because most of them maintained it due to lack of choice. It could not allow comfortable breathing despite being highly treasured by the noble families.

The painting is still used in the current world to define social standards and the measure wealth. Mary Sargent later died but she left two sons; Henry and Lucius. Lucius became a great writer and historian while Henry became a famous person for his portraits. This indicates that the royalty bas been passed from generation to the other. The current prominent merchants are wealthy due to their fore fathers who had held top positions in the ancient days. Various standards are majorly dependent on social backgrounds and therefore American social life is dependent on the social standards of the forefathers (Lovell, 2007).

John Singleton Copley was a great artist and he might have been chosen to design the Mary Turner Sargent sculpture because of his popularity. He had so many clients on both sides of the Atlantic and usually designed artworks for the wealthy circles (Taylor, 2002). His trapping techniques and skills were much valued especially when designed clothing furniture and laces for the rich showing how wealth and royalty was valued in those ages. He however shifted to his new residence in England and never came back to the colonial country. The Mary Turner Sargent is however one of the greatest treasures that he left to the United States by which he is remembered in the history of America (Lovell, 2007).


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Roark, E. L. (2003). Artists of colonial America. Westport, Conn. [u.a.: Greenwood Press.

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Lovell, M. M. (2007). Art in a season of revolution: Painters, artisans, and patrons in early America. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

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Taylor, L. (2002). The study of dress history. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

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Analysis of Lamentation over the Dead Christ by Andrea Mantegna

This is one of the famous artworks of the period of the Italian Renaissance. It displays the body of Christ laid down on a marble with two people watching over it. Andrea uses the medium of Tempera painting which was the most preferable medium used by Italians. Like his fellow Italians the lamentation artwork was a powerful religious paint which has remained to be remarkable in the history of this world (Lowis, Kristina, and Pickeral, 2009).

Andrea has employed perfectly the foreshortening as his mode of linear perspective. The linear perspective has helped in stimulation and the projection of the body according to the viewer’s perception. The artwork has truncated the feet so that the view of the entire body is not obscured (Lowis, Kristina, and Pickeral, 2009).

The picture is also defined by an outset of a window-like frame. This frame gives an emphasis of the confined space about the confined room so that it looks like a cold slab of a morgue. The viewer is able to capture the physicality of the lifeless body with reference to the room or space where it is kept (Lowis, Kristina, and Pickeral, 2009).

Andrea has used a series of vertical and horizontal lines in his painting. The vertical lines are used in painting the legs arms and the positioning while the horizontal ones are at the bottom edge of the painting. The main purpose of these lines is to reinforce the immobility and stillness of the body of Christ.

Andrea has also used a muted color scheme and a tones that are flesh like which enhances the unrealistic representation that is uncomfortable. The message of the artwork is clear and any viewer can deduce that there is the physical death in this earthly life and there is life after death. This is the key message of the art work (Lowis, Kristina, and Pickeral, 2009).


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Top of Form

Lowis, K., & Pickeral, T. (2009). 50 paintings you should know. Munich: Prestel.

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According to Adorno Theodor (1988) social and political philosophy refers to a way of liberating human beings and freeing them from the circumstances that enslave them. This can be achieved through music ideologies and principles that hinder human freedom. Social transformation is regarded as traditional or positivistic rather than the critical theory. This is because it is meant to interpret and give an understanding to the human text through the use of symbolic expression. Socially music is referred to as food for the soul due to its normative dimension.

Pop music is referred to as popular music because it is appealed to have a large segment of the population. It is easy and singable have melodies and its structure have a chorus that is repeated throughout the song. By the use of these songs, there has been a transition of the perception of music in people mind (Rushkoff, 2014).  In this category of music, the majority of the listeners are the youths who control the popular music market. This is done by the identification and the transformation of own values that gives them own values. Merchants of cool are the creators and the sellers of this music (Rushkoff, 2014). The teenagers form the hottest consumer demographic in the American market. The world around pop music is sophisticated and there is a midriff of character that is highly sexualized in the feminine side and highly mook in the masculine side with boorish behavior though lucrative as well.

Even with its large following there is some resistance experienced. The music is full of profanity, misogyny, and violence that literally do exist throughout the markets. The merchant of cool feels like the culture of pop music is being stoked into infatuation and the glorification of violence and sex together with attitude and anti-social behaviors. There is some looming danger in this economy that is driven by the teens. There are conflicting marketing messages as kids are being frustrated rather than empowering them (Rushkoff, 2014).

The concepts of standardization and identification according to Adorno, focuses particularly in the field of musicology, philosophy and sociology to the modern society to provide critique. He tackled the concept of aesthetics that describes the observation, interpretation and experience of the culture that is both aural and visual. This gives an understanding and the popular music concept and its nature. The value of popular music in the culture and the society diminishes due to the increasingly standardized and heteronomous nature in the art form. The concept of standardization is derived from the idea of post-industrial of Fordism. Adorno's concept still maintains high validity and relevance in the production of current popular music (Theodor, 1988).

Pseudo-individualization concept is observed in the popular music production. This is an apparent way in which a song becomes popular without listening to the music. By using hypodermic syringe model the listeners consumes the music unknowingly and unwillingly. To keep listeners interested in the music due to its true nature of the standardized form the artist has to reinforce appealing image for the identification of music (Theodor, 1988). Post-modern aesthetic portrays the knowledge of historical convection through artistic innovation that brings a vocal technique in the swing jazz era. Popular music has affected post-modern nature of consciousness hence; the industry allows standardization in order to maintain an illusion of originality and innovation to enhance acceptance of the behavior and thoughts of the listeners (Theodor, 1988).



Rushkoff, D., (2014) the merchant of cool; Retrieved from;

Theodor, A. (1988). “Popular Music” from Introduction to the Sociology of Music, New York:   Continuum Press.

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Art Visual Analysis


The essay discusses artwork presented in several designs however the message depicted majors on a similar theme. The pieces have diverse feature which is prominent in adapting aesthetics thus giving unique forms.  The four pieces of consideration are designed in painting which has got a diversity of ideas where expressions are meant to define the core philosophies with genuine basics. It was the use of oil and caravans in art response that influenced the preset-day architecture. With the many experienced cultural movements painting was the process which introduced visible ideas of artwork with functional and formal spaces (Secker & Warburg, 1980).

In our pieces painting is used in the designs because color does not necessary have particular rules but rather they have got a certain harmony which exudes from it. In the architecture color appears to be irregular to generate the fashion and design of art. The architect of postmodern architecture aims at creating structural defined and fixed characteristic for the architecture which in some instances seems to be a difficult task. The difficult part of the art work occurs since the design does not follow any principle but it also has an essential part of it where it uplifts the architecture as both functional and artistic in the environmental sector. The artist decides to design their pieces in oil and caravans to emulate desire since the architects have are able to introduce color, decoration and human (Secker & Warburg, 1980).


Representations of Women

1350-1500:  Madonna and child, 1465, oil on panel, by Jacopo Bellini

The art work is a European painting as well as sculpture at LACMA designed by one famous artist Jacopo Bellini. The Madonna and child is an oil panel painting which represents a virgin and a child who are set before the cloth of honor thus, a slice of landscape escapes. The woman in the painting is depicted as naïve an innocent clear for the viewers to understand she is a woman of honor. In representation to the theme, the art piece clarifies a virgin woman and the respect she deserves. Bellini majored on this theme by ensuring that the virgin’s image is large and imposing with a frontal monumentality of an icon (Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.), Wardropper, & Coscia, 2011).



1500-1600:  Risen Christ, 1511, oil on canvas, by Titian

The painting is religious one that changed Titian’s life completely since it gained huge appreciation from the audiences. The painting is the most essential piece on the artisan’s discovery in many years. It officially was developed by Burlington thereby, there developed a rival between Titians and Burlington though it did not prevent the portion from being observed at LACMA. I n relation to the theme representation of women, the piece portrays the female femininity in one way expressly where Mary Magadalen was the first to see the risen Christ. The woman was the first to see Jesus again thus, her role are linked to the bible where she is able to bring life to the world (Burckhardt & Stoddart, 2013).

1700-1850:  Cymon and Iphigenia, 1773, oil on canvas, by Benjamin West

Cymon and Iphigenia is an oil caravan found in Los Angeles County on of Benjamin’s achievement as an artisan. The painting is a constitution of four people two women and two gents. Cymon is the handsome guy standing beside a lady he is the son to one nobleman whom from the history was stupid and cruel thus, he was sold as a slave. The piece is evidential that the man is in love with the lovely lady beside her. In connection to the theme representation of women, the piece considers female love as well as their desires in the male eyes. This story entire story corresponds to its relationship to the theme (Staley & Baltimore museum of art, 2008).

1600-1700:  The sleeping danae being prepared to receive Jupiter, 1603, oil on canvas, by Hendrik Goltzius

Sleeping Danae is a nude piece painted by Hendric as a representation of tradional reclamation. Within the painting which is an image of a woman there are other people including children around her. The piece is probably meant to portray the theme of Representation of Women considering the nude image plus many around her however; it certainly means that woman is the source of generating life. Contrary the Sleeping Danae is being prepared to receive Jupiter where the artisan depicts those around the woman sleeping as Jupiter (Sluijter & Rembrandt, 2009).

Compare and Contrast

The four pieces compares in one way or the other according to their medium as well as the message they portrays. The artisans in all the pieces used the oil caravans in their painting and that generates their similarities. Oil and caravans are preferred in such paintings because of various reasons one being that they ensures the image appearance creates a realistic imagination in the mind of the viewers. Despite the pieces similarities there are also differences in the colors used plus time depicted in the images.  In Bellini’s painting appears darker on the top thus, it is clear that the artist majored on the woman and child. Considering The Sleeping Danae, the artist also included the surrounding where the sleeping woman is surrounded by other individuals who are termed as jupiters (Sluijter & Rembrandt, 2009).

 The pieces are similar in consideration to the kind of messages they depicts. Each piece gives a different story but they all majors on the theme of women representation. Considering Benjamin’s piece Cymon and Iphigenia, women are represented in a manner of love and desire. Cymon’s love for Iphigenia is Cleary illustrated here all the elements in the painting majors to the story. She is represented at one point clothed while in other presentation she is nearly nude with her breast uncovered. Risen Christ also acts as women representation piece considering women as capable life givers just like Christ came back to life (Staley & Baltimore museum of art, 2008). On the other hand Hendrik’s piece represents women in reflect to the nude image plus the people around it however; it certainly means that woman is the source of generating life (Sluijter & Rembrandt, 2009).

The four pieces contrast in one major way that despite being highly appreciated and preserved in the museum, they were created in different eras plus their history differs. Bejamins piece was done in the year 1773 despite other similar pieces which had been done by various artisans. The Madonna and Child art was done by Jacopo in 1465 where Bellini had painted other fewer images of the Virgin alone. All de pieces were designed at a varying period in between 1300-1800 (Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.), Wardropper, & Coscia, 2011).



  Art has been used in many centuries in representation of women thus giving the realistic of human beings commissioned by the wealthy to represent idealized issues. The above artwork acts as a better presentation of value and role of the female gender. I n relation to the theme representation of women, the piece portrays the female gender in one way especially where Mary Magadalen was the first to see the risen Christ according to Titan the artisan. Despite the various symbols used in each piece, they all touch the theme of women presentation (Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.), Wardropper,  & Coscia,2011).


Staley, A., & Baltimore museum of art. (2008). Benjamin West: American painter at the English court : [exhibition held at the Baltimore museum of art, June 4-August 20, 1989]. Baltimore: Md.

Burckhardt, T., & Stoddart, W. (2013). The essential Titus Burckhardt: Reflections on sacred art, faiths, and civilizations. Bloomington, Ind: World Wisdom

Sluijter, E. J., & Rembrandt, . (2009). Rembrandt and the female nude. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.


Vincent Scully, (1980). How Things got the way they are now, in: The Presence of the Past: First International Exhibition of Architecture, Venice (La Biennale di Venezia

Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.), Wardropper, I., & Coscia, J. (2011). European sculpture, 1400-1900, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art.









1361 Words  4 Pages


            This is a medium drawing that was basically drawn by an artist known as John Singer Sargent in the year 1914 with a dimension of 53.3*40 cm which was later purchased by Joseph Pulitzer Bequest in 1915. The artist work has an aesthetic beauty which is characterized by an apprehension with beauty and a better taste as it has a high quality visual that is clear to all. The artistic work is highly academic as it is recognized by scholars across the world especially those who are largely interested in art history. His work is more technical as he uses several varying techniques or methods which enhance him to achieve his goal to produce an effective output product. The subject matter however is the core determinant on the kind of techniques and technical skills to apply in his artistic work as in explaining the subject matter different methods are required.

            The drawing is carried out on a white woven paper where the artist has effectively applied the graphic skills in his work as well as the use of a canvas. The use of the canvas is widely seen as Sargent uses linen woven as his surface for painting all his work. The artist was driven by his experience when he was arrested in Tyrol soon after war was declared on the Australian nation by the Britain and France state. Through his period when he was in detention that’s where he was able to draw the theme of his drawing. In the drawing as many would think, the act of crucifying portrayed in the drawing does not represent the religious nature of the cross but rather has a deeper and different meaning.         The artistic work is largely conceptual as it is emphasizing on concepts or ideas rather than the objects themselves. The objects in this case are used just to symbolize an idea or occurrence and state in which the Sergent is in.

The representation of a carved crucifixion is a sign of Sargent’s somberness and threatening mood as he looked forward to acquire a travelling documentation that would permit him to travel to London. The artist is held against his self will at this place as his will is to return back to London. This is to mean that he was like a slave who just hanged waiting for a day of rescue when he would be freed. He therefore could not make any move at all as he was tied with no hopes of leaving as this is symbolized by the crucifixion.

            The sad facial expression portrayed in the drawing is perfectly represented and drawn out clearly as it symbolizes the sadness, humiliation and desperation that is present in his life. He is totally not happy as he is detained but then he has no choice as he cannot be able to get himself out of the place. However he is at a somber state and the detention has not yet given him stress that could lead to his insanity thus he is still in a position to think clearly.

            The roofing’s on top of the cross are angular meaning that the shape of the drawings such as the roofing is angulated thus having sharp corners and the angles. The roofing’s is a representation that the detention and the suffering that the Sargent is undergoing through are specifically within the Tyrol. He being under the roof clearly indicates that all his tribulations are within the Tyrol’s boundary. It is thus evident that the people of Tyrol are ruthless and heartless with no heart for humanity. The cross is erected along the roadsides and in open ground meaning that these were places that were set apart and alienated from the rest of the society. The setting of this drawing is in an environment different from that of the varying locations in Tyrol. The place is isolated and at times those places were used for celebration during functions.

The Tyrol state takes pride in their work that involves detention and this is highly celebrated at some of the nation’s functions meaning they are not at any time remorseful or sorry for their actions.

            The formation of these detention places along the roadside is to attract travelers who are using these roadside routes who would up praising the act of the Tyrol’s’.

The drawing uniquely portrays the sex of the man in the diagram using the appropriate physical characteristics that differentiates a gender. This hence allows the viewer to easily identify the gender or sex of the person being represented. This therefore in our drawing is a representation of the Sergent who is a male just as the one symbolized in the painting.

            This painting of the canvas is similar to that of an allover painting since the artist is equally taking every part of the painting equally important and the painting is all over the canvas from one edge to another and from a corner to another corner.

In his art he personifies himself to Christ to allow the reader or the viewer to create imaginary visuals in his/her mind and to be able to relate well with what he/she already knows. These will thus enabler the viewer to identify the lifeless and humiliated life that Sergent is trying to describe in his drawing. His personification is also used to show the innocence of the Sergent as his arrest or detention was not because of his mistake or fault but rather an unfortunate circumstance. The use of the tree is representing a source of support which is able to support both the cross and the man in the drawing.



This represents the hope that the Sergent has on getting documentation to allow him travel back to London was a sought of support that anchored the detainee and the bad and awful experiences that he was going through. Hope enabled him to hold firm and to not give up at all.

            The art uses the watercolors which mean that the colors used in this drawing are a mixture of water and the pigments of colors and the painting of this drawing uses these types of paints. While the darkness of the painting which is basically the tone of the drawing uses an additional grey color which gives the painting the dark tone. The painter has also applied the use of tempera which is simply the use of paint where water soluble binder pigments are mixed together with pigments so as to produce paint similar to the color of the egg yolk. This is largely applied especially on painting of the man in the drawing.


1111 Words  4 Pages

Music Jazz by New Orleans

            New Orleans jazz is sometimes known as hot jazz. This style of music jazz was produced in New Orleans in the beginning of the 20th century by New Orleans bands. The famously known songs include “Basin Street Blues” which is known as far as the non-jazz fans (Jacobsen, 2011). It started in riverboat jazz but later progressed to hot jazz style developed by Lovis Armstrong among others. The jazz was a transition of a 2 beat to 4 beat and in its earliest form, swing was introduced (Jacobsen, 2011). The hot jazz used string bass and guitar for faster paced music, and emphasized solos in swinging style. Hot jazz was the current original music that introduced Lindy Hop dance.

             The name given to the style performed by the musicians and this style is among the earliest styles in jazz music. This style was a combination of French Quadrilles, ragtime, beguine and blues. The band consisted of trumpet, trombone and clarinet plus a rhythm section of guitar or banjo, piano or drums, string bass or tuba (Jacobsen, 2011). In 1917, Dixieland underwent a first million selling and this made it to become widely used. And ever since, this music has been played continuously. Lovis Armstrong was the most influential in the band. Dixieland sound is normally created when as one instrument plays a recognizable paraphrase and the other instruments improvise the melody. This creates a strong polyphonic sound than in the well-ordered big band (Jacobsen, 2011).

            Therefore, the hot jazz has come with quite a number of new things in the music jazz that is still loved in the current music jazz system and its music has not totally disappeared since the start.


Jacobsen, T. W. (2011). Traditional New Orleans jazz: Conversations with the men who make the music. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press


310 Words  1 Pages

Topics and Questions We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

  1. Explain about Carolingian Art and Ottonian Art.(100words)
    2. Explain about artistic connection between Carolingian Art and Ottonian Art.(100words)
    3. Response to peer's thought.(20words each)
        3-1. Peer's thought1: Upon reading this module, I was shocked by the role of Charlemagne in the split of the Roman Empire and Catholicism. According to the module, the barbarian tribes converted into Christianity once they enter the former Roman territories. But, the converted barbarians were never considered as legitimate Christians as the other Christians. This is evident in the response of the Christians and Romans living in the east after the 800 crownings of Charlemagne by the pope in the old saint peter’s Basilica. The reaction led to the tension between the west and east halves. Given that Charlemagne focused on reviving the artworks made during the Constantine period, does it mean that some people did not support Constantine's arts and ideologies?

    Another thing that interests me about the Carolingian art is that it survives in sculptures, architecture, manuscripts, and the religious artifacts created in the 780-900 period. The artists who produced these arts worked exclusively for the emperor, court members, and bishops and abbots linked to the court (Ross). These again support the hypothesis that the Carolingian art is strongly centered on Charlemagne an individual and ideologies.

        3-2. Peer's thought2: This module has helped me understand why Medieval art is associated with negative connotations. It is because it had classical, Christian, and barbarian influences (Kessler 167). Besides, the fact that the art period occurred after the fall of the Roman Empire until the beginning of the Renaissance era must have made its artwork have mixed and unique elements. As a result, scholars believed that it was inferior art because it did not reflect classical Greek and Roman traditions. During this time, Manuscript art emerged to convey powerful Christian messages to the people. For instance, the Lindisfarne Gospels Carpet depicts Christian imagery (Academy of art Para1). It a highly decorated manuscript that contains a Christian cross and writhing of pagan monsters. Besides, gold leaves, mosaics, gem decorations, and panel paintings were widely used. Withal, the rise of Charlemagne to power significantly changed medieval art (Ross para8). His idea of reviving classical ideas and culture led to the creation of better art pieces that well conveyed Christian messages such as the Saint Mathew Folio and Lindau Gospel Crucifixion Front Cover.

    Muslims conquered the southern part of Spain, which opened their entry into Europe. Upon entry into Europe, they began constructing mosques and decorating them with various kinds of artwork (Kessler 169). Like Christian art, Islamic art aimed at depicting Islamic teachings and themes. Islamic art entailed recurrent motifs, the application of vegetal and geometrical patterns, and the use of repetition designs. The repetition style signifies the infinite and indivisible nature of God (Kessler 169). The decoration of the prayer Hall of Great Mosque, Spain, is a perfect example of the repetitive and geometric designs that Muslims incorporated in their art.
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