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  1. Briefly describe how each of the following mutations would affect gene expression and/or phenotype:

In a yeast haploid cell, a mutant occurs which creates a stop (nonsense) codon at the 12th amino acid in the gene responsible for excision repair


 Nonsense mutation normally causes a change in the gene which modifies the commands of creating proteins. Instead of replacing one amino acid for another, the alteration in one of the DNA base pair impulsively signals to the cells to discontinue the creation of the proteins (Peilin & Zhongming, 2017). These results in reduced proteins which can function inappropriately or fail to function at all leading to genetic based sicknesses (Peilin & Zhongming, 2017).

  1. Briefly describe how each of the following mutations would affect gene expression and/or phenotype

Reactive oxygen species have resulted in numerous G -> A transitions in various mitochondria- encoded tRNA genes


Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) synthesis is controlled by different hormones, cytokines and development aspects. When there is an upsurge in the ROS levels beyond a certain verge, this is unsafe for the existence of cells like lipid peroxidation and oxidative adjustment of proteins and nucleic acids (Zehuan Liao et al., 2017). At low concentrations, ROS act as subordinate messengers that are liable for upholding physiological roles like host defense, signal transduction and gene expression Zehuan Liao et al., 2017).





Peilin Jia, & Zhongming Zhao. (2017). Impacts of somatic mutations on gene expression: an

association perspective. Briefings in Bioinformatics, 18(3), 413–425.

Zehuan Liao, Damien Chua, & Nguan Soon Tan. (2019). Reactive oxygen species: a volatile

driver of field cancerization and metastasis. Molecular Cancer, 18(1), 1–10.

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Optogenetics has made it possible for microbial rhodopsin to be tolerated in the brain of living mammals without causing any impairment as opposed to before (Deisseroth, 2010). Optogenetics has offered new break points to help investigate neural systems, which can be accomplished by developing refined nerve cells on micro patterned substrates. Cells can be now silenced or stimulated with a simple light-beam with an unknown spatial precision (Deisseroth, 2010).

One advantage of optogenetics is the ability to specifically regulate one single cell at a precise time during a specific event. It has now become possible for scientists to also look into infection prototypes by using animals. Optogenetics has opened up opportunities that allow research into intricate brain functions and which permits an understanding of the peripheral conducts and reasoning (Regev et al., 2018). Some of the disadvantages include the fact that various neurons are predominantly receptive towards light, which can cause the neurons to react in a way that is not matching to how they react physiologically by themselves. Another disadvantage is the fact that the stimulation and inactivation in the neurons could motivate the cells to turn to neuroplasticity which would not have ensued otherwise (Raz, 2017). This could central to outcomes that cannot be comprehensive to a larger population.

One of the diseases that can be treated using optogenetic method is Parkinson disease which is a neurodegenerative disorder. This disease can be treated by a stereotactic use of a metallic bipolar to the nucleus brain subthalamicus (Williams 2017). Through the aid of these electrodes, an oscillating electric field is used that source stimulation in the neuronal cells (Williams 2017). This approach has evidenced to be effective where there is significant improvement as likened to the use of drug therapy.

Optogenetics can be applied in erasing memories. People undergo traumatic events in their lives that end up affecting the rest of their lives; most of them are unable to make meaningful life decisions all because of the trauma (Raz, 2017). Optogenetics can be used to erase these traumatic memories and allow this people to live a much more productive life that is not controlled by their traumatic memories.  This technology can be misused by malicious people to conduct unethical activities for instance key witnesses in a law suit could get their memories erased so that they do not testify.















Deisseroth K. (2010). Controlling the brain with light. Scientific American. SciShow.

Optogenetics: Using light to control your brain [Video]. Accessed August 22, 2019.

Raz G. Steve Ramirez (2017). If we could erase memories … should we? NPR’s TED Radio

            Hour. Accessed August 22, 2019.

Regev, Limor & Goshen, Inbal. (2018). Employing Optogenetics in Memory Research.


Williams S. (2017). Optogenetic therapies move closer to clinical use. The Scientist;

            Accessed August 22, 2019.

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            Most animals sleep, hunt, hide, fight, or swim erratically as a means of survival. In the case of fish, the manner in which they end up surviving in water environments is what has the ability of determining the rate at which they grow, swim, hunt, hide, sleep, or escape from predators.  The reason for that is because those are the main adaptations that have been realized to impact the survival of various fish species. Despite that, regardless of the means that fish species utilizes in fostering their survival mechanisms, each one of them is absolutely adapted differently (Iwaya-Inoue et al., 2018). The period of metabolism, defense, and activity, for instance, is also determined by the manner in which the fish species feed, conserve energy, as well as restore its body mass.

            The collected information regarding the impact of physical environment, feeding ingredients, as well as other factors affecting sleep, defense, growth, and swimming on fish are some of the important factors for that have to be taken into consideration. However, although the existing literatures suggest that such mechanism any fish species is dependent on the surrounding stimuli subjected to, it is important to understand the performance or adaptations of each fish species in such an environment (Planas et al., 2017). The essence of this research is to determine the defense mechanisms and the activity rate of angelfish and tetra fish when subjected to similar aquariums.


            Determining whether angelfish has better defense mechanism and high rate of activity as compared to tetra fish when subjected to different stimuli


The null hypothesis for this experiment indicates that angelfish has a higher rate of activity and defense mechanism as compared to tetra fish


5 angel fish chosen randomly and placed in a bucket filled with fresh water

5 tetra fish chosen randomly and placed in a bucket filled with fresh water

Two aquariums of about 100cm by 100cm and each built with different habitats comprising of wood, stones, or plants.

A thermometer, a stick, and ice cubes of preferable sizes

Food especially small phytoplankton and zooplanktons


Introduce the 5 angelfish into one of the aquariums prepared and let them to maneuver freely.

Then place the 5 tetra fish into the other aquariums and give the time to maneuver freely.

Using a stick, try to disturb the angel fish contained in separate habitats of their aquarium and note how faster they swim before coming to rest. Introduce both the phytoplankton and zooplanktons into the aquarium and note their reactions or the feeding characteristics of the fish.

Next, place the ice cubes in the aquarium, record its temperature, and then note the activity of the fish. Conduct the experiment for two hours in the morning, then two hours in the afternoon, for one hour in the evening, and finally for one hour in the midnight. The same procedure should take into account determining the time taken for the fish to sleep both at daytime and nighttime.

Perform the same experiment on the aquarium containing the 5 tetra fish in each habitat.


            For the aquarium containing angelfish, it was found out that they liked occupied same habitat regardless of their shape and size. On introducing both phytoplankton and zooplanktons to the aquarium, it was found out that the angelfish were more attracted to zooplanktons as compared to phytoplankton. Although they are faster swimmers once disturbed, their activeness decreases at nighttime as compared to daytime. Ideally, they did not take a lot of time to sleep whether during the day or at night. Feeding also took place both on the surface and the bottom of the water within their aquarium. Moreover, introducing ice cubes into the aquarium made the fish to be relatively inactive. 

            On the other hand, for the aquarium containing tetra fish it was found out that each one of them liked staying in groups regardless of their size. They consumed both phytoplankton and zooplanktons. At nighttime, they still take time to feed hence limiting their sleep time as well as increasing their activeness. Once the water was disturbed, the smaller tetra fish tended to cling to larger ones for defense. Likewise, they liked feeding closer to the surface of the water than on the bottom. Introducing ice cubes into the aquarium made the fish to be relatively inactive. 








                        A graph showing the activity rate for angelfish and tetra fish against time






           Activity    30                                                                    

             Rate        25

                           20                                                                                          Curve A

                            15                                                                                          Curve B



                                                                                                                                               X- Axis

                                          1       2        3      4        5     6       7       8       9       10

                                                                    Time (hours)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           


Curve A= activity rate for angel fish

Curve B= activity rate for tetra fish


            From the above experiment, it was found out that angelfish always move in groups as one of their structured aggregations. Accordingly, relatively larger fish had the ability of leading others as well as directing them to food. They actively change their shoal structure whenever they encounter food. Regardless of that, there was a significant variability in terms of feeding habits which is absolutely based on individual fish size and their aggressiveness. As much as the activity of each angelfish is concerned, large angelfish end up consuming a large amount of food which in return increases their activity or metabolism. On the other hand, the distribution of each fish in the aquarium is dictated by their size, shape, and aggressiveness towards food. Smaller angelfish ultimately benefit through following larger ones. Although angelfish are apex predators, juvenile cods prefer different swimming and feeding grounds (Lass, 2012). This implies that angelfish are carnivorous hence consuming a lot of food so enable them remain healthy and reach optimum size.

             As much as defense mechanisms are concerned, the angelfish move in shoals so as to protect the young ones from predators. Maintaining balance and shielding each other assist in supporting each one of them from danger. Likewise, their sleep patterns keeps on varying taking into account the condition or the danger they are subjected to. Ideally, it was noted that they only sleep when the light is turned off. In the process of disturbing them, it is evident that juvenile angelfish are extremely fearful and end up hiding in any of the habitat present in groups (Sexton, 2009).

            In the aquarium containing 5 tetra fish, it was found out that all of them remained to be more active at daytime as compared to nighttime. Daytime feeding is one of the factors that improve the activity of the tetra fish. As a result of daytime competition, they equally feed at night as a way of obtaining extra nutrients. Likewise, within the plant habitat, it was a clear indication that tetra fish is an omnivore fish pronominally feeding on aquatic plants and planktons. Tetra fish always feeds on shallow waters to avoid harmful gases and temperature fluctuations. It is this strategy that has the potential of maintaining the physiology of the fish hence maintaining their activity (Hargrove & Hargrove, 2011). 

            Tetra fish establish social chain of command in which larger ones, especially male have a more precedence for food. In order to protect the young ones, large takes the responsibility of protecting them. The majority of them live like a family consisting of one male and female in each colony or habitat. This is a clear indication of the fact that tetra fish have to leave in groups to avoid them from being stressed up if left alone (Hargrove & Hargrove, 2011). For both of these fish species, the decrease in water temperature was noted to have the ability of decreasing their body activity.









Hargrove, M., & Hargrove, M. (2011). Freshwater Aquariums For Dummies. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

In Iwaya-Inoue, M., In Sakurai, M., & In Uemura, M. (2018). Survival strategies in extreme cold and desiccation: Adaptation mechanisms and their applications.

Lass, D. A. (2012). Angelfish: Understanding and Keeping Angelfish. Irvine: I5 Publishing.

Planas, J. V., Palstra, A. P., & Magnoni, L. J. (2017). Physiological Adaptations to Swimming in Fish. Place of publication not identified: Frontiers Media SA.

Sexton, C. A. (2009). Angelfish. Minneapolis, MN: Bellwether Media.

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                                    Question 1: water and the cell membrane

            The cell membrane is perceived to be one of the extremely pliable structures that ultimately consist of the back-to—to back phospholipids or a bilayer. Within it, cholesterol is another component that is ultimately present to aid in fluidizing the membrane. On the other hand there are various proteins that are embedded within it that aid in enhancing its functioning. One of them is the single phospholipid molecule that has a phosphate molecule on both sides that is in return termed as being the main fatty acid that aid in building the lipid tails.  Due to the fact that the phosphate groups are ultimately negatively charged, they end up making the head polar as well as the hydrophilic molecule to remain being water loving (Reece et al., 2015).

            On the other hand, the extent of the hydrophilic molecule, or typically the region of the molecule concentration is perceived to the main region that is always concentrated to water.  As much as that region is water concentrated, the fact that it makes the phosphate heads to end up getting attracted to both intracellular and extracellular environments. On the other hand, what has been realized is the fact that the lips tails has the ability of becoming no-polar, uncharged, or being hydrophobic. As a result of that, the hydrophobic nature of the membrane is the one that has been perceived to have the ability of repelling as well as repelling the entrance of water. On the same case, what has been realized is the idea that the majority of the lipids mainly comprises of multiple fatty acids that are saturated as well as other unsaturated fatty acid components (Pearson Education, Inc., 2008). It is this combination that has the ability of adding to the fluidity of the tails as well as enhancing constant movement of molecules within this structure. This is what makes the phospholipids to be considered as being amphipathic molecules. According to biological research, an amphipathic molecule always consists of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions. This is one of the reason that indicates the reason as to why soap molecules always works better on grease and oil just because of the amphipathic properties. Ideally, it is evident that the hydrophilic portion has the potential of dissolving in water hence enabling the hydrophobic portion to have the potential of trapping the grease molecules that can be easily washed away (Stanley et al., 2005).

            Nonetheless, the cell recognition proteins have been realized as being one of the important proteins that enhances the functioning of the cell membrane. They are used as the mechanism for indentifying the cell membrane as well as other cell organelles. Within the cell membrane, receptors are used as the structure that enhances the identification of the cells as well as assisting in the selective binding of the molecules that are contained outside the cell membrane. The reason as to why this activity is important is because they assist in fostering selective chemical reactions just within the cell membrane. In addition to that, the cell membrane has a ligand that used for the purpose of binding as well as activating the receptors. The other integral proteins are ultimately used as ion channel and receptors (Pearson Education, Inc., 2008). This is also associated with the responsibility of binding neurotransmitters, particularly the dopamine.

                                    Question 2: Cell structure and function

            According to research, all living things have cells with other cell organelles that aid in carrying out different functions. As a result of that, it is the old cells that are used for the purpose of creating new cells through cell division. This is what makes cells to be the main building blocks of life. This then implies that the activity of each living thing mainly relies on the activity or activities that are carried out by each cell organelle. The general distribution of energy within each cell is what assists in breaking down of carbohydrates through a mechanism a process termed as respiration. The development of new cells equally relies on the hereditary information contained in the cells (Judy, 2005). The functions of each cell structure is described below

            The nucleus is the genetic material that contains the genetic material termed as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). It also acts as the main site for transcription and replication of DNA as well as RNA processing. The RNA transcription and procession becomes possible becomes the nucleolus always resides within the nucleus. The mitochondria aid in enhancing cell metabolism. It assists in the synthesis of energy through a protein termed as adenosine triophosphate (ATP).  Likewise, the lysosomes assist in hosting the digestive enzymes that are responsible for the breakdown of nucleic acids, lipids, polysaccharides, proteins, as well as other worn out cell organelles before recycling them. The endoplasmic reticulum is basically a series of membranous tubules that are interconnected that are used for the purpose of modifying proteins as well as synthesizing lipids.  This structure consists of both the smooth and the rough endoplasmic reticulum (Reinhold, 2012). The golgi apparatus assist in sorting, packaging, as well as distributing proteins and lipids. The microvilli are regarded as being hair-like extensions that are used for the purpose of moving substances alongside the outer surface of the cell. On the other hand, the centrosome is one of the microtubules nucleating organelles that are used for the purpose of enhancing the orientation of the mitotic spindle as well as the genome stability. The actin filament aid in creating a three-dimensional gel, a two-dimensional network, linear bundles, as well as other binding proteins that in return assist in influencing certain structure the filament will be forming (Schaechter, 2012). 

            On the other hand, despite of the above functions, one of the things that make animal and plant cells to be similar is the fact that they are both have eukaryotic cells. Each organelle within the plant or animal always has different functions. For instance, although plant cells do no t contain lysosomes, the animal cells contain lysosomes that aid in digesting cellular molecules. As much as size is concerned, animal cells are relatively smaller as compared to plant cells. Although the animal cells are of different sizes, they have an irregular or round shape. Contrary to that, plants have cells that are typically cube shaped or rectangular in shape and are similar in size. Plant cells are used for the purpose of storing energy in form of starch. Although animal cells are able to increase in size through differentiation, typically through absorbing and storing more water in the central vacuole. Animal cells increase size through the increase of their cell membranes. Animals contain cilia in their cells to aid in cellular locomotion but plant cells do not have them (Yablonski, 2005).










Judy, Y. (2005). Plant and Animal Cells: Understanding the Differences Between Plant and Animal Cells. The Rosen Publishing Group

Pearson Education, Inc. (2008). Biology, 8th Ed, Campbell-Reece, 2008: Biologi Science: Volume 1 of Biology, 8th Ed, Campbell-Reece. Bukupedia Press

Reece, J. B., Meyers, N., & Urry, L. A. (2015). Campbell Biology Australian and New Zealand Edition. Pearson Australia Pty Ltd.

Reinhold, G. H. 2012). Cell Organelles: Plant Gene Research. Springer Science & Business Media

Schaechter, M. (2012). Eukaryotic microbes. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press.

Stanley, R, Arthur, B. R, Vikki, H, Bozena, B. M, Antonio, V, & Alfred N. A.. (2005). Biomedical Engineering Principles. CRC Press

Yablonski, J. (2005). Plant and animal cells: Understanding the differences between plant and animal cells. New York: Rosen Pub. Group.








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             Topic A: Cell Cycle

1) What regulates the expression of these proteins?

            The expression of these proteins, especially cyclins and kinases are regulated by cell cycle checkpoints. Ideally, these checkpoints are used for the purpose of preventing cell cycle progression at certain points, permitting verification of processes that takes in each phase as well as the repairing of damaged DNA (Lieberman 3).

2) Since several hundreds of proteins are involved and exact ″formula″ of how much expression of each should be present is necessary at different stages, how does the cell recognize the protein expression levels necessary to either continue through the cell cycle or terminate/apoptize?

            In order to recognize the protein expression levels necessary to either continue through the cell cycle or terminate/ apoptize it, it ensures that the checkpoint requirements have been met before proceeding to the next phase. These checkpoints include the G1/S, the G2/M, and the mitotic (metaphase) checkpoints. The G1/S checkpoint is used to confirm whether it contains sufficient raw materials for complete DNA replication. The G2/M checkpoint takes the responsibility of ensuring that it contains sufficient phospholipids and cytoplasm materials for the two daughter cells as well as confirming whether it is the right time for replication. The mitotic (metaphase) checkpoint is used to confirm whether the spindle has been formed. Likewise, before anaphase begins, this checkpoint is used to validate whether the chromosomes have been line up at the spindle equator (Thiriet 114).

Topic B: Apoptosis

1) How does the body know where to resorb these structures and how far back to apoptize the cells that make them up?

            During apoptosis, the small chunks that are produced are tidily enclosed or wrap up in a membrane. In order for the body to know where to resorb them, it depends on signals, either from outside or inside the cell, that aid in attracting phagocytic or debris-eating immune cells, for instance, macrophages. The body also depends on instructions and instruments that aid in dictating how far back to apoptize the cells that make those structures (Preedy et al 1302).

2) How does the body know when to turn this apoptotic signaling on during development so these events don′t happen too soon or too late?

            The body depends on the inactive proenzyme called procaspase, which later becomes peroteolytic caspases after activation. To ensure that these events do not happen too soon or too late, they ensure that the cellular components are destroyed in an organized manner. This, in return, assists in ensuring that surrounding tissues has not been affected after apoptotic signaling (Garland Science 1119).







                                                            Work cited

Garland Science.Molecular Biology of the Cell, 5th Ed, 2008: Cell: Volume 1 of Molecular Biology of the Cell. Bukupedia , 2008. Print

Lieberman, Howard B. Cell Cycle Checkpoint Control Protocols. Totowa, N.J: Humana Press, 2004. Print.

Preedy, Victor R, and Ronald R. Watson. Olives and Olive Oil in Health and Disease Prevention. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2010. Internet resource.

Thiriet, Marc. Control of Cell Fate in the Circulatory and Ventilatory Systems. New York: Springer, 2011. Internet resource.






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 Neurobiology Paper



Neurobiology is the study of cells that make up the nervous system and organizing those cells into a functional circuit that is responsible for processing information and mediating behavior. Neurobiology is a subdiscipline of biology and neuroscience. Neurobiology plays an important role when it comes to creating and sustaining addiction. There are controversies on whether addiction is a result of pathological neurobiological disorder or a brain dynamic that manifests itself in an addicted behavior. In both addictions has been with changes taking place in the brain. Understanding the role neurobiology plays in creating and sustaining addiction is important because it helps in developing new strategies for behavioral and pharmacological treatments, it helps reduce the stigma, shame, guilt and anger experienced by patients and families, lastly it helps shed light on the big question, what is addiction? This document pertains information on how the brain influences one to use substances and later resulting to substance disorder and addictions.

Addiction is a primary neurologic disorder, both addiction and Parkinson’s are diseases of dopamine deficiency. It is termed as a primary neurologic disorder since it is not as a result of something else such as depression, anxiety or a bipolar disorder. It is always difficult to differentiate between primary vs substance abused disorder which is secondary and can be regarded as a psychiatric disorder.  A survey done in the US has revealed that 85-90% of the adult population uses alcohol or any other substance that can alter their mood at any given time and 10-12% of these people have a substance abuse disorder.  Children born of alcoholics have a high chance of becoming alcoholics regardless of who parents them. Bad parenting does not make children addicts and being good parents cannot fix an addiction.  Genetics account for 50-60% vulnerability for addiction (Abuse, S., US, M. H. S. A., & Office of the Surgeon General US, 2016). Neurological and biological factors of an individual has something to do with genetics.

Drugs share the same brain reward pathway with food, water, sex and children rearing. When there is repeated exposure to drug abuse the results are a blunted response to the everyday activities and the normal drives of hierarchy is disrupted and replaced with new priorities and the concerns of obtaining and using drugs. When one abuses a drug there are two permanent changes that occur. These changes are called neuroadaptation. As discussed, earlier addiction is as a result of dopamine deficiency, low levels of dopamine bring about an unpleasant feeling, depression and lack of motivation which leads to the urge of taking a drug in order to feel better.  The more the reward circuit is exposed to the substance the more it becomes blunted and the more the person loses the ability to control the need they have for that drug, the memory of the pleasure brought about by the drug becomes more powerful than the drug itself and then frontal brain region that is responsible for exerting inhibitory control over the desire and emotions is affected.  Persistent use of drugs can reshape neuropathways thus accounting for the formation and persistence of drugs stimulus association (Abuse, S., US, M. H. S. A., & Office of the Surgeon General US, 2016).

Addiction when scientifically analyzed it shows signs such as those of asthma, and diabetes. All are chronic and are subject to relapse at times they are controlled or influenced by genetics, social and environmental factors. Individual suffering from any of the three disorders often find it difficult to keep up with treatment. Substance abuse is characterized by impaired control over its use, users being preoccupied most of the time with its use despite the adverse consequences brought forth. Extensive research carried out has revealed that addiction is caused by changes taking place in the brains (Abuse, S., US, M. H. S. A., & Office of the Surgeon General US, 2016). The research carried out has lead to important discoveries of effective medication that can be used to treat substance abuse disorder.   

Research conducted has revealed that addiction as a process has three stages. The first stage is intoxication, the second stage is withdrawal and the third stage is anticipation. The more a person continues to abuse a substance the more the cycle continues to be severe thus resulting to dramatic changes in the brain functionality and hence reducing one’s ability to have control over the substance abuse (Abuse, S., US, M. H. S. A., & Office of the Surgeon General US, 2016). There are three areas of the brain that are affected and mostly during onset, development and maintenance of the substance abuse disorder. These three parts of the brain are basal ganglia, prefrontal cortex and extended amygdala.

Early life experience that took place in childhood or adolescence can be responsible in setting up a stage for future substance abuse leading to addiction. Stressors experienced during childhood include emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse and being raised up by parents who abused substance or parents that were in and out of rehab (Abuse, S., US, M. H. S. A., & Office of the Surgeon General US, 2016). This explains why these young adults are at as risk of increased addiction and when they experiment with substances that are likely to lead to addiction their brains undergo significant changes that leave it vulnerable to substance abuse disorder.

Neuroscience is an emerging force in counselling.  Neuroscience explores how the brain controls behavior and various answers and how the brain reacts to things such as mental illness, trauma and abuse of substance. Neurocounselling has now been integrated into counselling. It has been used for psychoeducation counseling which involves helping patients and their families understand how their brain and nervous system are affected by substance abuse. They help the patients come to an understanding of how their behavior is influenced by their brains (Busacca, Sikorski, & McHenry, 2015).


 Neurobiology plays an important role in creating and sustaining addiction. Addiction is a reoccurring brain disorder.  Science has been able to revolutionize people’s understanding concerning addiction. There are three areas of the brain that are affected during addiction. Early life experiences can be responsible for causing addiction, these experiences may be as a result of stressors that were experienced during that stage of life. Neurocounseling has enabled psychoeducation counseling which helps in explaining to patients and their families how the brain influences their behavior of substance abuse which resulted to addiction.












Abuse, S., US, M. H. S. A., & Office of the Surgeon General (US. (2016). The Neurobiology of   Substance Use, Misuse, and Addiction.

Busacca, L. A., Sikorski, A. M., & McHenry, B. (2015). Infusing neuroscience within counselor training: A rationale for an integrally-informed model. Journal of Counselor    Practice6(1), 39-55.



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Literature Review

 Nursing theory:  The Science of Unitary Human Beings (SUHB)

 In her theory, ‘the Science of Unitary Human Beings' Martha Rogers looks at the scientific nature and the humanitarian aspects of nursing. Rogers puts emphases on the need to consider the human being-environment relationship or rather the science of human being (Polit & Beck, 2008). In other words, Rogers departs the traditional thoughts of nursing and focuses on the modern science of nursing.  In the theory, Rogers employs concepts to explain her theory. They include energy fields-living and non-living substances, openness-she refer to openness as the flow of energy and that human beings and the environment exist in an open system (Polit & Beck, 2008).  Pan-dimensionality- it means that life has no temporal attributes. The last concept is patterns which helps identify the energy fields. This conceptualization helps the theorist argue that human beings and the environment are irreducible and since nursing is concerned with the well-being of the human beings, nurses should focus on a unitary human being or in other words they should consider the relationship between the human and environment (Polit & Beck, 2008).  They should also understand that the unitary human beings possess sensation, emotion, imagery, and change. Thus, a science of unitary human beings means that nurses should understand the interaction that exists between the environment and human beings and a result, they will ensure a maximum health potential. According to the theory, health and illness occur in the same continuum (Polit & Beck, 2008).  The main point in Rogers' theory is that in nursing practice, nurses should understand that nursing is not about doing but it is about knowing. In other words, nurses should focus on caring while considering the person-environment process.

The theory "The science of Unitary Human Beings" benefits the areas of patient care and evidence-based practice.  It is worth noting that "The science of Unitary Human Beings"   is a belief system and a principle in which clinical practices are based.  In the area of providing patient care, nurses benefit since they understand that human beings and the environment are irreducible (Taylor & Renpenning, 2011).  In addition, human beings have many systems and tissue among other things that cannot be understood unless one employs scientist knowledge.  Nurses also understand that in Roger's nursing model, the mind enables nurses to do good work. Thus, nurses consider nursing as a naturally scientific field and they employ a scientific thought which enables them to promote psychological and physical wellbeing to the patients (Taylor & Renpenning, 2011). When providing care, nurses benefit as they consider the human field and the environmental field. They define both as an energy field that is unitary and that flow together.  By understanding the theory, nursing is able to care for the vulnerable.  The theory also allows them to perceive nursing as an art and as a result, they employ scientific knowledge and provide safe practice (Taylor & Renpenning, 2011).  The important part of providing parents care is that nurses relate the human beings condition with his environment and as a result, they are able to share knowledge, empower the patient, and provide self-reflection.

 The theory also benefits the areas of evidence-based practice. This means that the theory enables the nursing professions to use the available evidence in nursing practices. Note that effective care is offered through the application of knowledge and skill which comes from research findings. Note that nurses are advised to make patient care decisions using research-evidence and in this case, nurses engage in the process of inquiry and the theory.  Thus, by using the theory, nurses can use the Rogers theory to improve practice and promote quality of the life of patients.  On evidence-based practice, nurses are able to build a culture of safety through sharing values and employing procedures that maximize patient safety.  Note that the theory motivates the nurses to connect patients with their environment and by perceiving the environment as a health determinant, they are able to provide advanced health services.

The science of Unitary Human Beings contributes to patient care and positive patient outcome. This is because, nurses view patients as unitary human beings, and as functional beings (Meleis, 2007). As a result, nurses protect human beings from physical forces, they develop scientific practices, and they focus on knowing, and focus on maximizing health and well-being through valuing the structural and functional wholeness.  In general, the theory contributes to patient care as nurses consider wholeness, openness, unidirectionality, pattern, and sentience and thought (Meleis, 2007).  The theory promotes quality care as nurses are able to help the patient meet the self-care needs, reduce patient isolation, minimize anxiety, and provide adequate knowledge.  The services are provided through assessing the human being and his environment and sharing knowledge based on life issues (Meleis, 2007). By using the theory, nurses perceive the illness using individual perspective- individual inner state and collective perceptive- individual physical appearance.  Using a different perspective, nurses are able to promote well-being.

Martha Rogers is a nurse theorist and she was born in 1914 in Dallas. She attended the Knoxville General Hospital School of Nursing and attained a nursing diploma in 1936. Later, she joined George Peabody College and attained a Public Healing Nursing degree in 1937.  In 1945, she attained a Master's degree from Columbia University. In 1954, she attained her Doctorate in Nursing from Johns Hopkins University. Martha wrote various publications including; Theoretical Basis of Nursing, Nursing: Science o Unitary, Irreducible, Human Beings Update, and others (De, 2005). In the latter publication, he considered patients as unitary human beings which means that the patient and the environment is a single entity.  In the theory, Rogers uses two dimensions which are the art of nursing-using the science of nursing, and the science of nursing- applying the knowledge of the scientific research to a specific field of nursing (De, 2005).  In studying the theory of unitary human beings, Rogers concludes that the major role of nurses is to serve patients and their interventions should coordinate the human being with his environment.  Nurses should focus on pain management and promote better health.


Rogers’ theory has a positive impact on the nursing care in that it guides the nursing practices and nurses are able to perceive the care for human as a whole.  With the theory, nurses are able to help patients be aware of their thoughts.  Health care professionals can apply the theory in all settings including family setting, community setting, pediatrics, neurology, post-operative unit, palliative care units, and other settings (Fawcett & Desanto-Madeya, 2013). Their affects the health care in a positive in that nurses consider the holistic nature of the patients and provide a relaxing environment to promote the wellbeing.  The theory will enable the nurses to connect the human with the environmental fields and more importantly employ scientific nursing knowledge (Fawcett & Desanto-Madeya, 2013).  They also perceive human beings as unique beings and as a result, they will focus on betterment and well-being.







Taylor, S. G., & Renpenning, K. M. L. (2011). Self-care science, nursing theory, and evidence-

based practice. New York: Springer Pub.


Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2008). Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for

nursing practice. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Meleis, A. I. (2007). Theoretical nursing: Development and progress. Philadelphia ; London:

Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


De, C. M. (2005). Caring for the vulnerable: Perspectives in nursing theory, practice, and

research. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.


Fawcett, J., & Desanto-Madeya, S. (2013). Contemporary nursing knowledge: Analysis and

evaluation of nursing models and theories. Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Co.



1267 Words  4 Pages


  1. Expression of integrin in isolated proteins

            During the experiment, the extraction of alpha 6 ( 6) protein was done on two cell lines marked A and B using western plotting. The use of the BCA essay was to assist in computing protein content of the two samples. 0.0mg/ml, 0.03mg/ml, 0.06mg/ml, 0.125mg/ml, 0.25mg/ml, 0.5mg/ml, 1.0mg/ml, and 2mg/ml are the main protein concentrations that were used during the experiment.

            So as to be in the position of constructing a standard curve, the average absorbance of the 8 BSA concentrations were plotted against their known concentrations using the excel program. In order to determine the unknown protein concentration, the standard curve equation was also used. 

Figure 1



            After computing the protein concentrations, the SDS PAGE gel was used to run the eight samples before transferring them to nitrocellulose membranes.  After that, specific antibodies were used to incubate them so as to obtain 6 proteins. During this study, Chemiluminasecence system was used taking into consideration the effect of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) on the substrates, which in return lead to the creation of light. The result obtained was compared with the expression of the -actin protein in the samples. Although it was found out that OSCC B cell line is that one that contained bands closer to the anticipated molecular weight of the IGB6 protein (95 KDa), the OSCC A cell did not express it. This then implies that it is only the OSCC B that was transfected with the IGB6.  So as to be able to confirm the results obtained, the OSCC A1, A1, A2, B1, and B2 cell lines were duplicated

            The result obtained indicates that the IGB6 expression in OSCC at protein level is associated with the literature findings that proves the fact that integrin 6 is linked with carcinogenesis. Therefore, the existing literature suggests that the expression of IGB6 occurs both in oral carcinomas and cervical carcinoma. Despite that, although the expression of integrin 6 occurs at varying levels, at a higher level, such an expression is linked with more migratory and more invasive phenotype. On the other hand, the up regulation of the IGB6 in the SCC proves the fact that such an integrin plays a crucial role when it comes to tumor progression.

  1. The expression of IGB6 at gene level

            During the experiment, real time quantitative PCR was used for the purpose of evaluating the transfection effectiveness of the gene expression using the integrin 6. Ideally, this was to assist in the identification and quantification specific RNA sequence. In order to determine that, one of the OSC cell lines was used to assess the integrin 6 expression level. After isolating RNA from the cell lines, duplication of the test was done using A1, A2, B1, and B2.

            Nevertheless, TAE Agarose electrophoresis was used to conduct RNA analysis, with the SDS PAGE gel demonstrating ribosomal RNA bands. The reason for that is because it is the one that was in return to aid in indicating the high quality of RNA. The purity and the concentration of the RNA were done using the Nanodrop. The concentration results obtained is shown on table 1 below.



            To study the quality of RNA, Agarose gel was used. Before using the G-box to visualize it, TAE Agarose Gel Electrophoresis was used to load the RNA with markers. The reason for that was to ensure that RNA with high quality has been separated and shown as ribosomal RNA bands. After preparing the cDNA, at the mRNA level, real-time-qPCR was used to show the expression of IGB6.  The results obtained were to be compared that concerning the expressions of the unireverse-transcriptase control from the same sample.

Protein concentrations

Table 1

Concentration in mg/ml

OSCC cell lines samples















Expression of IGB6

Figure 2







            So as to be in the position of assessing the expression of integrin 6 in the OSCC cell lines, RT-PCR was used to aid in synthesizing cDNA from extracted RNA. Next, qPCR maintained at 6U was used to aid in the amplification of mRNA together with the housekeeping gene that was expressed as x-folds. Although the data collected showed significant expression on the cell lines of sample OSCC A, there was minimal expression on the cell lines of sample OSCC B (mean ). Likewise, the negative RT control did not show the same expression.

            In order to be in the position of assessing the IGB6 expression at mRNA, it was importat to prepare cDNA. On the same samples, the real-time qPCR was used to determine its expression level before comparing the results obtained with un-reverse or negative transcriptase control expression. The up-regulation of the integrin 6 was done on OSCC A cell lines and not in the OSCC B cell lines. In these lines, it was found out that 16-folds were induced at the 6 mRNA level as compared to the 28-fold up-regulated in the OSCC A1 cell lines as shown in figure 4 below. On the gene level, the results of this study suggest that IGB6 was transfected with the OSCC A cell lines. Furthermore, these findings also aid in conforming the results obtained at the protein level.

            The results of this study shows huge variations taking into account the amount of IGB6 expression amongst the OSCC B cell lines. Although significant differences were found between the OSCC A cell lines and OSCC B cell lines, it was found out that there were no significant differences in the expression levels of mRNA   among the OSCC B1 cell lines and OSCC B2 cell lines. On the hand, the differences obtained means that sample B2 had a high integrity and quality as compared to sample B2. This was also contributed by its high concentration efficiency. The absence of the IGB6 gene expression is as a result of the negative reverse transcriptase control of the mRNA.

            According to the present studies, at mRNA level, the IGB6 expression was not ultimately is limited to carcinomas, for instance, cervical cancer, liver cancer, and colon cancer. Despite that, the findings of this study indicate that, at mRNA level, the IGB6 expression was not ultimately limited to oral squamous cell carcinoma.  From the vitro research that was initially done, it was found out the general IGB6 expression is extremely associated with aggressive colon carcinoma (Wang eta al., 2008. On the same note, the inhibition of the ECM degradation is contributed by the suppression of the IGB6 expression. The up-regualtion of the integrin in cervical squamous cell carcinoma is linked with fabronectin rich stroma. It is these effects that have the likelihood of facilitating the invasion of cancerous cells.

Discussion and conclusion

            The results of this study suggest assists in showing the fact that the expression of integrin 6 in the OSCC cell lines with respect to its protein level results in the production of bands of about 95 KD together with IGB6 maintained at the same range. In the OSCC, the up-regulation of the mRNA of the integrin  the number of folds produced was found to increase in association to the housekeeping gene (Scully & Bagan, 2009). The result obtained corresponds with the data obtained from the existing literature. The same results demonstrate the fact that although integrin  cannot be expresses using epithelial cells, the same expression can be experienced in different carcinomas (Agada et al., 2009). 

            According to research, the increase in IGB6 expression in carcinomas is brought about as a result of poor prognosis which in return decreases their survival rates. This is to imply that higher IGB6 expression have the potential of mediating nodal metastases as well as deeper invasion. Despite that, the real biological role of the integrin alpha ( ) have not been discovered hence the need of ensuring that the manner in which they mediate cancer progression in human have been addressed (Thomas et al., 2006). The reason for that is because other studies suggests that before invasion in connective tissues, integrin 6 expressions in dysplastic lesions have also be realized to one of the factors that proven to initiate cancer development (Ramos et al., 200).

            The findings of this research prove the fact that IGB6 plays a crucial role in promoting as well as progressing OSCC. In addition to that, inhibiting or tampering with these receptors has been noted to have the ability of preventing the degradation of extracellular matrix as well as cell invasion. Therefore, in order to fight oral squamous cell carnoma, it is important to target the expressions of integrin alpha 6 ( 6) (Hazelbag et al., 2007).

















Agada, F.O, Patmore, H., Alhamarneh, O., Stafford, N.D, & Greenman J. (2009).  Genetic profile of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: clinical implications. J Laryngol Otol 2009; 123:266- 272.

Hazelbag, S., Kenter, G.G., Gorter, A., Dreef, E.J., Koopman, L.A., Violette, S.M., Weinreb, P.H., & Fleuren,G.J. (2007). Overexpression of the alpha v beta 6 integrin in cervical squamous cell carcinoma is a prognostic factor for decreased survival. The Journal of Pathology 212, 316 -324.

Ramos, D.M., But, M., Regezi, J., Schmidt, B.L., Atakilit, A., Dang, D., Ellis, D., & Jordan ,R, L. (2002). Expression of integrin beta 6 enhances invasive behavior in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Matrix Biol. 2002 Apr;21(3):297-307.

Scully, C & Bagan, J. (2009). Oral squamous cell carcinoma overview. Oral Oncol. 45:301–308. 2009. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

Thomas, G. J., Nystrom, M. L., & Marshall, J.F. (2006).  αvβ6 integrin in wound healing and cancer of the oral cavity. Journal oral pathology 35, 1-10.

Wang, J., Zhang, Z., Xu, K., Yang, G., Niu, E., Peng, C., Lin, P., Chen, R., Agrez, M., & Niu, J. (2008). Supression of integrin avβ6 by RNA interference in colon cancer cell inhibits extracellular matrix degradation through the MAPK pathway. International Journal of Cancer 123, 1311-1317


1658 Words  6 Pages


Genetically modified food


Genetically modified food are foods that have their DNA altered or modified through genetic engineering. Genetic engineering has given humans the ability to manipulate plants by introducing new genes, it has offered a time saving method to produce high quality and quantity crops with minimum time. Continuous use of genetic engineering poses the risk of completely changing the genetic makeup of an organism which could lead to an extinction of some organisms. Genetic engineering replaced the traditional selective breeding of plants and animals. Genetic engineering and selective breeding have the same goal which is to create plants and animals with certain desired characteristics. The issue of producing genetically modified food has been supported by many but still there are those who refuse to accept it for various reasons. It is a new technology and it is proving vital in the advancement of food production worldwide.

The use of genetically modified food has provided a solution to the hunger arising worldwide. It has also produced a solution on how to increases man’s health. Some critics have considered genetically modified food harmful, these critics warn that people are not aware of the long term potential danger it poses to them and the eco-system. Since, little is known about genetic modification of organisms. They see genetic modification of plants genes as harmful to the environment since it combines plant and animal genes from species with a wide difference, something that has never happened in nature. Although these critics acknowledge the fact that the benefits ripped from genetic modification of crops outweigh the potential risk they pose (Miller 291). Critics call for long term testing of these crops so that the risk they pose can be understood.

Genetically modified foods are ranging from cereals such as maize which is grown worldwide, oil seeds such as soya beans and canola which are a major source of oil for both humans and animals and fruits and vegetables such as papaya and plums, but only the Hawaiian papaya is approved and available for customers. It has been genetically modified to be resistant to the ringspot virus. Those cultivating these crops in various countries have been approved by the regulatory authorities responsible for regulating genetically modified foods in those countries (Blair 201). Genetically modified animals have been developed, but none has been approved for human consumption. The Aqua Bounty salmon of the Atlantic is likely to be the first genetically modified animal to be approved for consumption worldwide (Blair 202). The approval of these salmons as safe for human consumption will be another accomplishment in the history of genetic engineering of crops and animals.

The safety of genetically modified foods has been ensured. Before these foods are grown for consumption and introduced to the market, they are approved by regulatory authorities. Most of these foods are not consumed by humans but by animals, only a small portion is consumed by humans. Scientists also make sure that the foods consumed by these animals do not harm humans when they consume meat from these animals. Also oil that is extracted from canola have been purified and do not contain any transgenic DNA (Blair 208). These measures are taken to ensure that any food that has its genetic makeup altered and is consumed by humans is safe.


Genetically modification of foods has produced a solution on how to produce high quality and quantity crops worldwide. Despite the few critics who are against it many countries have embraced it since it will help in maximizing the crops output of the countries, thus many countries will be able to feed its large population, genetic engineering has also found a way to help increase man’s health. It has also helped in the production of pest and drought resistant crops. Genetic engineering is for the full benefit and advancement of the society since no potential risk has been identified.



Work cited

Blair, Robert, and J M. Regenstein. Genetic Modification and Food Quality: A Down to Earth Analysis. , 2015. Internet resource.

Miller, George T, and Scott Spoolman. Living in the Environment: Principles, Connections, and Solutions. , 2009. Print.



686 Words  2 Pages

 Describe the layers of the skin and the function of each layer. Which specific function of the skin benefits the skeletal system?

            The skin has various functions, for instance providing the human body against microbes as well as other elements regulating body temperatures, and permitting the feeling of cold, touch, and heat. The epidermis, the dermis, and the subcutaneous tissues are its main layers. The main functions of the epidermis entail providing a waterproof barrier, protecting it from ultraviolet radiations, pathogens, detrimental chemicals, and creating the tone of our skin (Hurst, 2010).

            The main functions of the dermis layer entail regulating sweat production and body temperature, the growth of hair, oil production, maintaining the structure of the skin, as well as protecting the rest of the body.  The primary functions of the hypodermis or the subcutaneous tissues involve stabilizing body temperature, acting as the passageway for blood vessel and nerves. The wrapping of the skin around the human skeletal system have been regarded as being the main function that aid in protecting the skeletal system (MacDonald, 2009).

Why are melanin and keratin important?

            According to medical research, the melanin pigment of the skin is the one that gives the skin its color. Keratin also assists in producing nails and hair (Hurst, 2010). 

Why is it important to know the names of bones, their location, and their surface features?

            Bones are biologically regarded as being one of the firm structures in the human body that is mainly made up of phosphorous and calcium salts. In association with cartilage, the bones have the ability of forming the human skeletal structure. Since the human body has 206 skeletal bones with various functions, it is important to ensure that the client has understood the significance of each. For example, the main functions of the sternum involve protecting the lungs, the heart, and blood vessels. Also, the primary functions of femur entail permitting motion of the leg as well as supporting the entire weight of the body (Caroline, 2017).

How could you incorporate this information to educate and potentially improve the health of a female client in your care?

            In order to successfully incorporate this information to the client it is important to let her understand how the skeletal system, ligaments, cartilages, other connective tissues work together in supporting the entire weight of the body.  Other than maintaining the body position as well as producing precise and controlled movements, it is also important to let her understand that without protecting bones from damages, and maintaining its health, it will be impossible for us to run, walk, stand, or sit (MacDonald, 2009).












Caroline, A. (2017). Your Skeletal System: Searchlight Books TM — How Does Your Body Work? Lerner Publications

Hurst, J. (2010). Anatomy & Physiology in a Flash!: An Interactive, Flash-Card Approach. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company.

MacDonald, M. (2009). Your body: The missing manual. Sebastopol, Calif: O'Reilly.



483 Words  1 Pages


The future generation DNA sequencing developments, for instance the 1000 Genome schemes are already changing the face of DNA testing and collection of information relating to DNA testing. However, gigantic data groups created by both the government and the private sector need proper management and storage (McKenna et al, 104). A part from huge projects, genome sequencing at a particular research laboratory centers are also creating numerous sequencing data from various types of organisms especially human beings. The main objective of this essay is isolating the best social approach for the sake of balancing disadvantages and advantages of big data on DNA generated from the testing kits meant for genome testing, advantages of personal testing among other related issues.

Benefits of Personal Genome Testing

Genetic testing has prospective advantages, whether the outcomes are negative or positive. Test outcomes gives people a sense of reprieve from doubt and assist individuals make well-versed choices on the management of their personal well-being and upkeep. For instance, a negative test result may eliminate unnecessary hospital visits to the hospital for screening examinations (Gostin 111). On the other hand, a positive outcome implies one can go further and get medical attention on how to manage, monitor the medical progress, prevention, mechanisms, and treatment opportunities and some outcomes assist  people make choices on whether they should have children or not.

Who Controls Large Databases Of Genetic Information?

 Once a person gives his or her DNA information, other factors such as health and family health derives from the information. Due to technological advances, DNA sequencing and understanding became cheap (Bycroft, 280). Whether the utilization of the genetic information is for scientific study, medical or other utilities, one thing should remain constant: a person’s privacy. There are numerous regulations and policies that aid in the protection of each person’s genetic information. There is an ongoing debate on whether more measures should be put in place in order to reinforce the already existing laws and policies.

 While carrying out genomic studies, two aspects of scientific inquire need balancing sharing information widely for the sake of maximizing the ongoing research and at the same time the necessity to safeguard participants’ information from leaking out into the wrong hands. Attaining the right balance especially when it comes to genomic information gathered. Institutions such as National Health Institutes take manage genomic information generated from personal genetic testing (Bycroft, 94). Therefore, an institution such as National Health Institutes controls accessibility to genetic information.

Social Approach

 The best social approach when it comes to handling the ups and downs of genomic data is enactment of human rights regulations in all policies pertaining DNA testing. In addition, human rights encompass ethical issues, such as the right to control information. Each person has the right to remain anonymous and self-determine the use of DNA information (Ritchie 278). Human rights dictate the morality, decisions, and mechanisms applied while handling peoples’ DNA information. Government all around the world need to consider the privacy and the right to securing information of its citizens. Aside from ethical issues, human rights encompass legal issues, which functions as policies and regulations meant to safeguard handling of DNA information.

In summary, due to the numerous people generating DNA information from DNA tool, there is a possibility of mishandling information hence the need to take human’s right approach since it contains numerous mechanism, which will in turn stop information mishandling.

















Works cited

Bycroft, Clare, et al. "Genome-wide genetic data on~ 500,000 UK Biobank participants." BioRxiv (2017): 166298.

Gostin, Lawrence O. "Genetic privacy." Genetics and Gene Therapy. Routledge, 2017. 241-251.

McKenna, Aaron, et al. "The Genome Analysis Toolkit: a MapReduce framework for analyzing next-generation DNA sequencing data." Genome research 20.9 (2010): 1297-1303.

Ritchie, Marylyn D., et al. "Methods of integrating data to uncover genotype–phenotype interactions." Nature Reviews Genetics 16.2 (2015): 85.



650 Words  2 Pages


Fundamental concepts of psychology reveal confessions, as a sort of incrimination may affect other forms of evidence, thus, generating appearance of validation. To ensure credibility of evidence tabled in front of court staff, laboratory based methodologies support high stake cases in the world hence the need to analyze DNA exoneration elements closely. Researches unveil that confessions may have errors or falsified information compared to DNA exoneration and eyewitnesses cases. To emphasize further, emerging evidence shows an alarming increase in the number of wrong convictions and unlawful sentences. There are numerous underlying factors for wrong sentences. For example, mistaken identity but later the evidence can become irrelevant after DNA testing. This essay will define DNA exoneration, its advantages and disadvantages, its history and specific case studies that show the gap its feels.

History of DNA Exoneration

Since the discovery and advancement of DNA testing in 1985, Biological material proved to be more dependable and consistent tangible proof at crime scenes, especially among sexual violation law breaking (Kassin, Bogart, & Kerner, 2012). Deoxyribonucleic acid encompasses genetics concepts, which varies from one person to another. Simply put, a person’s DNA is unique to them alone.

DNA testing came into the criminal system in 1980s, elementary in its utilization during its early days. Juries did not completely trust findings from DNA, given the lack of knowledge and insight on the matters surrounding the topic (Kassin, Bogart, & Kerner, 2012). Throughout the years, DNA rose in popularity and relevance and became more accessible and cheap due to its accurate nature.

 In the year, 1987, a rapist in the outskirts of Florida became the first ever person imprisoned based on evidence derived from DNA testing. More over after two years elapsed DNA proof exonerated a person from Illinois, known as Gary Dotson who was innocent of rape charges pressed against him (Kassin, Bogart, & Kerner, 2012). Even though Gary’s release was not met with celebrations, it marked the commencement of DNA age of clarity and full proof evidence in unveiling and demonstrating that evidence presented in law courts can be false.

 Most studies show that DNA is just a tiny piece of the puzzle. DNA evidence commonly characterized with minute, yet powerful proofs covers only a paltry five to ten percent of the criminal cases. Similarly, DNA exonerations encompass a minor percentage of the sum of all the exonerations (Chang, 2008). Publicized exonerations create awareness and people question past and present convictions. Then, scrutiny makes the judiciary reinforce and introduce best practices within federal institutions.

The Meaning and Relevance of DNA Exoneration

In March 1988, a New Jersey resident named Byron Halsey sentenced for cruel rape and killing of a young boy and girl, both aged eight years old. The material utilized to incriminate Halsey was his own admission, which he provided after an estimated 30 hours of questioning coupled slumber deficiency (Chang, 2008).. In fact, Halsey came up with various versions of the same story before he finally revealed how the actual ordeal took place. However, law enforcers only recorded his accurate statement and left out the guesses he gave them. Consequently, the jury used the statement to sentence him. Halsey served 19 good years in prison after which DNA findings verified his innocence and pointed out the real killer.

In America, eight states lack laws that permit convicts accessibility to DNA data or proof. They are the only states within the whole of America that do not allow exoneration through DNA testing (Chang, 2008). By denying inmates DNA test, the states impose sovereign rights rather than constitutional rights to its locals. All in all, it is not reasonable keeping innocent people in prison.

 Innocent people may end up behind bars for crimes they did not commit. Various explanations go deep into such matters. For example, mistaken identity is responsible for an estimated 81% convictions. Eyes witness may present inaccurate information due to impaired vision, a forgetful memory, or poor account of the events of that particular day. In addition, a witness point of view can change or be subject to manipulation due to certain law procedures and paper work (Chang, 2008).. Despite the above challenges pertaining to eyewitnesses’ statements, jurors trust eyewitness no matter the underlying consequences and probability of inaccuracy. On the other hand, the low amount of money paid to defense lawyers representing individuals leads to lack of resources needed to pursue a case thus the person loses ends up in prison. Sometimes witnesses give false statements due to confusion.

 It is vital to note that convicting an innocent person amounts to tragedy of unknown magnitude (Chang, 2008). Flawed convictions have widespread ripple effect to the victim and his or her family. More so, the witnesses, judges and other parties may feel the effect. Hence, it is only necessary for people to gain insight on the underlying causes of the problem.

Advantages and Disadvantages of DNA Exoneration

Obviously, proving the innocence of a person is a fulfilling and integral thing to do. In a criminal system, a confession is normally so strong that once a person testifies, other factors are swept under the carpet. DNA    evidence plays a major role in revealing falsified information (Shay, 2008). An estimated 25% out of the total exoneration display mistakes and inconsistency.

 With DNA technology, comes ability to obtain fingerprints from any place but wearing gloves may prevent a perpetrator from leaving fingerprints at a crime scene. On the positive side, obtaining DNA proof from a crime scene is easy as anything from hair strands to saliva can reveal information and facilitate capturing the perpetrator of the crime (Shay, 2008). For example, when one sneezes at a crime scene, saliva and body liquids possess DNA information hence tracing the assailant becomes attainable. Secondly, DNA testing gives watertight evidence. No one has the same DNA as the other, hence analyses exposes many facets and narrows down to the perpetrator easily.

14th Amendment

 In summary, Failing to give post-sentencing inmates DNA exoneration is in contradiction of the principles of the constitution because it goes against the due procedural section or article found in the 14th amendment. The 14th amendment ascertains that no state has the right to deny a person freedom or liberty (Shay, 2008). The Supreme Court strictly supports the due procedural article, which guarantees an inmate access to DNA evidence. Simply put, any defendant can access DNA evidence. In the ‘Brady verses Maryland’ Brady, got first-degree murder even though he argued that he was innocent. Only after sentencing did he notice the faulty confession was withdrawn from him. Brady applied for a motion based on the withheld confession. After careful scrutiny of the evidence via DNA mechanisms and procedures, he won the case.



Kassin, S. M., Bogart, D., & Kerner, J. (2012). Confessions that corrupt: Evidence from the DNA exoneration case files. Psychological science, 23(1), 41-45.

Chang, S. S. (2008). Protecting the innocent: Post-conviction dna exoneration. Hastings Const. LQ, 36, 285.

Shay, G. (2008). What We Can Learn About Appeals from Mr. Tillman's Case: More Lessons from Another DNA Exoneration. U. Cin. L. Rev., 77, 1499.






1182 Words  4 Pages


Genetically speaking, humans are 97% similar to chimpanzees. The genetic makeup explains the reason why chimpanzees commonly associated with humans in terms of evolution dimensions. The division between the two species happened gradually, over 12 million years ago. Even though the genetic composition is almost a match, physically, the two species are very different from each other. This begs the underlying reason why the sharp contrast. Past researchers suggested that there might be a contrast in the interaction of genes. Some scientists state that the manner in which human genes works widely varies from the chimpanzee relatives. Furthermore, the common genes between the two species such as the brain, where genes interlock and operate in dependence to one another, in chimpanzees the brains cells are uncoordinated. However, this paper will compare and contrast the varying physical, emotional, and even emotional differences between chimpanzees and humans.

Physical differences

Chimpanzees without a doubt demonstrate and form ideas correlating with statistical uniformities in behavior. However, the status of their mind seems more human than that of an ordinary monkey (Jurmain, 2017). Thus, there are only two possibilities; the mind of a chimpanzee reveals numerous phenomena about them, which then reflects on the condition of the human mind. First of all, the mind of a chimpanzee seems similar to human mind, either because it is or just a biological assumption superimposed due to other resemblances. Some Anthropologists claim that humans and chimpanzees came from the same ancestors an estimated six million years ago. Consequently awaking a series of assumptions and biological meanness. Besides, the two species are dissimilar from each other but this fact does not dispute their common ancestral background. Secondly, the human mind evolved in a unique way, giving rise to a complex mental system. Hence, human gained an advantage over the chimpanzees in terms of cognitive ability, creating a society and increasing their survival chances via reproduction.

It is vital to take note of the human lineages, over the years experienced drastic evolution since diverting from their parent ancestry (Jurmain, 2017). From the head to the toes, the human physical form is full of evolutionary evidence of the alterations that took place during the evolutionary processes. For examples dwarf modifications occurred along both chimpanzee and human lineages. Humans beings have a re-sculptured the pelvis bone to accommodate two way motions and induce other muscles for movement. In the process of forming a grip, humans lost one finger. The human mind is three times the size of a chimpanzee hence explaining the ability to send complex messages via communication.

To gain insight and appreciate the role evolution played in differentiating chimpanzees and human features, behavior is an essential element (Jurmain, 2017). To begin with, chimpanzees like their counter part humans generate behavior from observations of other chimpanzees. For example, when a chimpanzee rubs their limps together or bristle their hair, the interpretation of the actions varies from one chimp to another. Therefore, if one can isolate and  find the meaning of underlying reasons for the behaviors, they will unveil how the chimpanzee brain work and the manner in which it differs from that of a human being.

 It is an indisputable fact that humans evolved over time and acquired specified abilities and social understanding, in the process, facilitating cultural astuteness. As stated earlier, the human brain is three times larger than that of a chimpanzee indicating a higher intellectual ability and complex reasoning (Jurmain, 2017). From an evolutionary approach, past researches revealed the need to analyze the ability of humans to execute complex reasoning using their neurons located in the brain. Furthermore, under the general intelligence hypothesis, a large brain facilitates carrying out various types of tasks due to rational operations. The humans do not just perform these tasks, but they execute them, perfectly unlike chimpanzees. Enhanced memory, faster acquisition of information, a higher rate of information interpretation and strong coordination and control of their bodies are some of the characteristic features of a human species. With that said and done, cognitive abilities evolve over time in relation to the surrounding environment in which a person lives. In context of the glaring differences between chimpanzees and humans, some anthropologists revealed that distinctive elements among chimpanzee cognition developed or evolved in reaction to the challenging strains of hunting for seasonal foods and other limited valuable resources (Boesch, 2012). On the other hand, other researchers argue along the lines of a challenging communal life characterized by cut throating competition and coordination with other chimpanzees from other ecosystems facilitated development of their brain. Simply put, chimpanzees’ evolution did not simulate or invoke the cognitive part of the brain. On the other hand, humans’ evolution did not just center on survival and social functions alone but rather on ultra-social complexities stimulating the cognitive part into full functionality. Social interactions and cooperation to achieve a greater deal of cognitive capabilities as opposed to the chimpanzees make the human stand taller than other primates inclusive of chimpanzees.

Averaging all the physical observations made throughout history, there is a 68% chance that a chimpanzee can perform a meaningful activity assigned to a human being. From a statistic point of view, humans and chimpanzees rarely differ from each other. But human are more skillful in the manner in which they execute their duties. In the social sector, human child and chimpanzee can outcompete each other in various tasks. For example, children can outperform chimpanzees in spatial activities whereas chimpanzees do much better in transfer position activities (Boesch, 2012). To emphasize further, in terms of quantity activities, both human and chimpanzees can identify or differentiate a large bag from a small one. In fact, chimpanzees can correctly evaluate a larger item from a small one and even combine two quantities in order to recognize the weightier quantity. In context of causality activities, a human child performs better than a chimpanzee. A causality exercise requires settling on a decision before a judgement.

Culture in Chimpanzees in comparison to Human beings

There are three basic classes under cultural categories and each embedded in a sequel of other social factors. The first is alteration in traditions that occurred over time. Culture is a pivotal tool in the assessment of theories in the community level, shared between two or more people. The characteristics, behavior traditions associated with the chimpanzees are almost uniform to humans. In living organisms considered nonhuman, only orangutan apes come close to Human culture after Chimpanzees. From modes of communication to behavior variety, orangutans are clever beings. (Just passionately curious, 2017). In short, chimpanzees have rich traditions traced to their evolutionary process that facilitated attaining complex thinking capacity.

Chimpanzees do not just exhibit a variety of customs, but each chimpanzee community is distinct in terms of culture set up by a guideline of traditions. Therefore, one can categorize chimpanzees based on their behavior and culture. Wherever chimpanzee cultures arise, each has differing features from the other (Just passionately curious, 2017). More so, a chimpanzee culture initiated by traditions gives a learner or observer, the ability to know their social skills. Importantly, when two chimpanzees from various community meet, another culture emerges from the social interaction. Thus, chimpanzees have the ability to communicate with each other and present new phenomena among themselves, which indicates their brilliant cognitive ability.

Chimpanzees can easily adopt to other chimpanzees’ culture niches at faster rates than other primates can. Therefore, social interaction among chimpanzees gives people an opportunity to examine their behavior in relation to human beings (Tomasello, 2009). It is vital to note that formation of culture is a feature unique to humans alone but chimpanzees proved to show al the characteristics associated with human beings and that is diverse behavior and creation of various cultures. Humans, chimpanzees, and other animals obtain their behavior from daily encounters, personal training, imitation, and genetics. As a source and conveyer of information, genetic programming enables transfer of behavior from one chimpanzee to another whenever reproduction occurs.

Differences In Terms Of Stance

Human structure is bipedal; most of the apes stand and walk upright. Huge apes walk on all fours. It is an obvious observation. Anthropologists suggest that human parents stood upright to reach fruits on trees. When Africa started drying, over 6.5million years ago, human ancestors occupied the eastern part of Africa, today’s Sahara desert (Tomasello, 2009). Thus, human ancestors learnt how to stand up while chimpanzees living in forests did not acquire the skill. Charles Darwin was the first man to note the importance of standing upright as a vital component differentiating man from ape. Once man gained an upright posture, the hands were free to carry equipment. Utilization of hands occurred an estimated 1.5 million years ago after the human became bipedal. Furthermore, bipedal gave human an advantage over the rest of the primates. Humans could easily hunt food and device ways of surviving harsh environment. Over the years human concurred their environment and learnt how make homes, farming and interpreting immediate contexts. In summary, bipedal gave humans the ability to hunt food effectively, increasing their survival chances, which in turn helped in the learning skills such as construction, shaping stones, and eating in an upright posture.

Strengths between Humans and Chimpanzees

From the neck down ward, a chimpanzee looks like a human being. This because the musculature of the two are almost the same if not similar. However, the chimpanzees are stronger than humans are. Even if humans exercised 12 hours a day like the chimpanzees, they would not outdo the chimpanzees (Tomasello, 2009). Hence, the strength component gives the two species a definite in-depth look of the surroundings inhabited over the years. For example, a chimpanzee can easily break a strong branch from a tree without any effort. A human will need both hands to break a branch of the same chunkiness. There is little to no research that shows the source of chimpanzees’ strength. Nevertheless, their muscles have unique arrangement that permit muscle strength of huge magnitudes. In addition, their muscles composition is denser assisting in physiochemical processes, which release immense energy once they perform an activity. Hence, a chimpanzee can easily fights off an adult man.

Theory of Mind in Determining Similarities and Differences between Chimpanzees and Human Beings

The theory of mind focuses on the manner in which beliefs, wants, or needs, underlying motives influence behavior of individuals. In addition, theory of mind can predict behavior in the near future (Tomasello, 2009). Simply put, the concepts behind the theory helps one gain insight into another individual’s values, knowledge, and motives. Then, one can apply the principle and motives of people into social circumstances enabling the interpretation of behaviors.

Humans are not unique but differ from chimpanzees to some extent. Humans are primates. Both chimpanzees and humans are mammals with sophisticated social interactions. They are capable of using tools to complete tasks and construct shelters to protect them from harm. Scientific evidence reveals that evolutionary process under the genus Homo changed thinking capacity increasing the control of both the chimpanzees and human over their own surrounding leading to the creation of a human niche. (Tomasello, 2009). A niche is a biome of a living creature, which helps, an organism forage resources, reproduce and survive from the ever-changing environment. Processes associated with niche are fire for keeping the niche warm, methods of acquiring information and rearing new offspring. In the end, niches stabilize the surrounding atmosphere, giving the inhabitants a greater chance of survival.

 Besides logical or rational thinking, humans can easily assimilate spatially, isolate information from each other. In nonhuman creatures such as chimpanzees, mental researches reveal that they can only process basic characteristics. In addition, such animals ignore very basic shapes under scrutiny, which makes their mental capabilities appear weaker. Human bodies are hairless and their brains work in quick successions. Beyond the physically and observable differences between chimpanzees and human beings, researchers cannot ignore the human like characteristics shared (Tomasello, 2009). For instance, at the Leipzig zoo, a chimp could shakes its head from side to side, as an indicator of refusal and nodding the head up and down showing a yes. While researchers cannot say with certainty that the movement of the head is sufficient enough to ascertain the gesture implies no, it is good enough to reveal the similarities they have with human beings. In short, chimpanzees’ mode of communication is uniform to that of humans. For example, they plead for food with an exposed hand raised in the air just like street beggars. They have an aggressive nature not different from human hostility. Chimpanzees, hug, cry, and laugh together. These activities appear human when observed from a far.

An investigation conducted in 2007, aimed at assessing chimpanzees via a specimen known as bonobos. Bonobos unveiled the adaptability and flexibility between hand and feet gestures. However, when it came to facial expressions chimpanzees are slow and rarely use their facial features to display any gestures (Tomasello, 2009). A chimpanzee in the 2007 study demonstrated the capability to wave hands coupled with clenching of teeth but the face remained emotionless, all in an effort to get food. The research later published in national science archives claimed that human beings depended on sign language before fully undergoing all the evolutionary phases into intelligent beings. More so, it makes sense when chimpanzees exhibit similar gestures as human beings.

The most common characteristic of a human is a hearty laughter. Chimpanzees can laugh when delighted. The laughter has a low volume unlike human laughter. However, the giggles, shifting of body language and sounds produced are similar to humans. People familiar with vocalization that accompany a hearty laughter can even join in and share the moment with chimpanzees. (Perry, 2008). On the contrast side, humans can honk and scream during a laugh session although chimpanzees can also scream while laughing; they can exhale rapidly, uncommon in human laughter. In the year 2007, researchers evaluated and documented sounds of a chimpanzee and compared the laughers to human beings. They also assessed the manner in which the laughers fit into the evolutionary processes of other beings in terms of genetics. In the end, chimpanzees had a similar fit with human being. The perfect match came about due to the evolutionary processes and similar ancestral parents consequently laying a foundation for similar characteristics and laughter.

A group of scientists revealed that the ability of chimpanzees to rotate facial features, that is the mouth and ears at a 180 degrees Celsius is subtle and unique to them alone. A human being is able to notice such features due to their high rate of processing of information. When a chimpanzee inverts itself, it is not easy interpreting the facial expressions of the primate; they seem lost to the human ear (Perry, 2008). On the other hand, paying close attention to right side of the face revealed a more detailed nature of chimpanzees because the right side has all features. The chimpanzees’ genome differs from the human genome. It seems as if the human lineage underwent some mutations leading to the variance in the genome make up. To further illustrate the difference, the genome of the chimpanzee is 1.23% shorter than the human one in terms of nucleotide length.

Emotional differences and similarities between a chimpanzee and a human being

The state of the mind of a chimpanzee is intelligent and complex just like the human brain. In the world of a chimpanzee, their brain is useful and helpful in carrying out tasks around their small world. For example, chimpanzees can imitate the young children, pointing to their ability to adopt to new environments, survive, and reproduce (Perry, 2008). There might be differences in cognitive capabilities but emotionally, they can learn to control and reflect emotions just like any human being on earth. In other words, a chimpanzee has the ability to form thoughts and act on them via its emotions and desires. Then, it is an independent being able to shape its own future and control the immediate environment.

The acquisition of information reveals a grip or the mental power of a chimpanzee. Just like any other human being who can do anything to survive a harsh and unforgiving environment, a chimpanzee can solve problems in their daily lives for the sake of survival.

In summary, humans and chimpanzees have similar and different characteristics. Human are bipedal organisms and have free hands, which can handle tools. Chimpanzees can as well use tools and communicate via simple gesturers and sounds. Tool making is an imitated skill and chimpanzees utilize tools distinctly from each other proving that the behavior relies on learning from other members of the society. Humans have total control over the surrounding while chimpanzees have cultures that differ from one another.















Boesch, C. (2012). Wild cultures: a comparison between chimpanzee and human cultures. Cambridge University Press.

Jurmain, R., Kilgore, L., Trevathan, W., Bartelink, E., & Ciochon, R. L. (2017). Introduction to physical anthropology. Nelson Education.

Just passionately Curious. (2017). Miss Goodall and the Wild Chimpanzees (1965) - Wildlife Documentary - A National Geographic Film.  Retrieved from

Perry, G. H., Yang, F., Marques-Bonet, T., Murphy, C., Fitzgerald, T., Lee, A. S., ... & Eichler, E. E. (2008). Copy number variation and evolution in humans and chimpanzees. Genome research.

Tomasello, M. (2009). The cultural origins of human cognition. Harvard university press.







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