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Spontaneous generation is a theory that tends to explain much phenomenon that is observed when raw or boiled meet is left for some time as it gets spoilt. It is common to observe maggots on spoiling meet which is just an example of the numerous microscopic animals which grow and suitably survive in the environment of spoilt meet. This can be supported by the fact that most microorganisms have different abilities to survive in differing pH. Microorganisms such as fungi endure acidic while cyanobacteria thrive in basic conditions.

The Spontaneous generation theory provides a glimpse of where emerging diseases come from. In the first place, emerging diseases are those that have been diagnosed in a given population for the first time. They include Nipah encephalitis and mosquito-bone chikungunya. Vibrio vulnificus is another bacterium that survives in acidic conditions of the stomach. People who consume raw tainted oysters are likely to be affected by Vibrio vulnificus. Taking antacids may also welcome the risks of Vibrio vulnificus infections. From the table of researchers, antacids provide a stimulated gastric environment that favors the survival of the Vibrio vulnificus. This is from the fact that this pathogen survives slightly in acidic conditions. When an antacid gets into the stomach, it raises the pH by neutralization (Pommerville 180). The previous acidic conditions would slightly support their survival but when the pH is raised, the pathogen multiplies more.

Vibrio vulnificus infection has been rated as the leading cause of deaths because of consuming seafood. Apart from refraining from antacids, people can reduce the risk of Vibrio vulnificus infections by avoiding the consumption of raw oysters. They can also protect any wound from warm sea water as well as raw sea food and its juice. In addition, people should take immediate actions such as washing the wounds and cuts, visiting a medical provider as soon as one has come into contact with sea water or seafood juices.

Biofilms are organized and layered system of bacteria which stands out to be a critical area of study. They usually communicate through electrical and chemical signals while structuring their layers of three dimensions. Biofilms have accounted 2/3 of the total bacterial infections such as lung infections in humans. In most cases, the biofilms bacteria survive in a region that has low concentration of oxygen mainly in industries and workshops. Among the various examples of biofilms bacteria is streptococcus. It is a serotype of Gram-positive bacteria which Carlos in the case study was diagnosed with. It leads to necrotizing fasciitis which is an infection that breaks through the skin and erodes the protective covering muscles. It leads to various symptoms including fever, weakness yuckiness, low blood pressure as well as nausea among others. This is a reemerging disease which has come from a different direction of the S. pyogenes. In order to take care of an infected person, the infected tissues have to be cut away. Applying antimicrobial drugs could help also to destroy the bacterium so that further damage is controlled.

The Gram staining procedure provides a platform from which bacterium can retain its original color based on the physical and chemical properties of the cell wall. S. pyogenes is Gram-positive bacteria which turns dark purple after the procedure. This retention is based on the fact that the primary dye on the cell wall is Crystal Violet (Pommerville 50).

Work cited:

Pommerville, Jeffrey C. Alcamo's Laboratory Fundamentals of Microbiology. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Learning, 2010. Print.


578 Words  2 Pages

Concepts in Nursing/Discussion Posts

The essential patterns of knowing

Empirics which is the Science of Knowing

On this concept, knowledge is planned into the normal forms and the theories so as to define, explain and forecast portents of the special focus based on nursing.  This essential pattern of knowing is aimed in developing the theoretical explanations.  This science of nursing presently shows the features of the normal accounts of review and the inferential expressed theory stage. Ii also show the current literature based on nursing which explains and invents nations to the histories of the empirical facts.  The essential element in it is that it is the most important pattern and it is experiential, truthful and purposed in growing intellectual and theoretical descriptions (Andrist, 2006). 

Ethics which is the main concept

Most people are not aware of the fact that the features of knowing in nursing are not the results of any empirical assessment.  So as to make the clear and visual pattern of nurse knowing is only to connect the art with the normal model of the technical skills that are engaged in the nursing practices.  The essential element of the pattern of knowing is that it focuses on issues that ought what to be done.  It has the power of knowing the generals or the ethical disciplinary codes (Andrist, 2006). 

Individual knowing  

This pattern focuses on the facing and the realizing of the existing person’s self. A person is not aware of their self and this pattern is essential in that it stands in the connection with other individuals as self.  This approach is revealed when the nurse gets to the patient as not an object of sickness but the nurse realizes the personal connection between them.  The essential element of the pattern is that it comes through the concentration of self and how it is expressed to the other individuals (Andrist, 2006).    

Esthetics which is the art of nursing

The pattern is connected to nursing as it tries to be scientific and exercises the image of the type nursing in education.  It is mainly used by many nurse writers as it is the awareness of the nurses in the needs of the patients.  The essential element in the pattern is that through the process of implementing knowledge by nurses, the patients are well taken care of.  As the nurses practice their caring process, they add their knowledge in nursing (Andrist, 2006). 











Andrist, L. C. (2006). A history of nursing ideas. Sudbury, Mass. [u.a.: Jones and Bartlett.     

422 Words  1 Pages


            The most interesting topic in the module to me is the life molecules particularly inorganic and the organic compounds.  This topic is interesting because of the carbon composition.  The major difference between the two is that the organic elements are characterized by carbon atoms which are particularly the atoms of hydrogen which are utilized in the formation of hydrocarbons (Simon , Dickey & Reece, 94) On the other hand organic elements do no hold either of the prior mentioned atoms. This implies that most of the inorganic elements have no carbon atoms although a few of them do hold the atoms.  The difference of atoms composition between the inorganic and organic elements makes the topic interesting.

            Genetic Carrier

Proteins that are found in the chromosomes are the main ground for genetic details which are passed from a generation to the next.  DNA is termed as a simple molecule in terms of carrying the complex details of genetics.  However, this has been argued lately by scientists who are attempting to prove that DNA is fully responsible for genetic details and not Protein.   This topic is thus important to me in understating genetic information.  This is relevant in my life because it forms the basis of understanding life origin. It is, therefore, essential to understanding as well as gaining knowledge about the structure and the components of proteins (Schaffner, 53).

Genetic information is essential to me because it helps in understanding individual’s personality as well as traits.  Learning of the family history helps one in living a more healthy life by making the right choices based on the genetic details of the family.  Genetic information can additionally help in identification of involved risks that are gained through genes sharing (Schaffner, 53).

Work Cited

Schaffner, Kenneth F. Behaving: What's Genetic, What's Not, and Why Should We Care, 2016. Print.

Simon J. Eric, Jean L. Dickey & Reece B. Jane. Campbell Essential Biology plus Mastering Biology, 2009.Perason, 4th edition.

326 Words  1 Pages

Project Management

Executive Summary

            The present report is aimed at presenting a summary of organic foods allocation budget for capital resources for the year 1993 to the current and then to the shareholders of the corporation.  The director’s board has thus provided a presentation of several projects which provides distinct opportunities and needs in order to develop the corporation. The report will therefore provide an analysis of the presented case issues as well as recommend appropriate solutions on the issue with detailed projects analysis.

            Organic foods are faced with distinct issues which require proper addressing. The corporation’s sales rate is still very flat which has resulted in decreased profits generation.  This has thus ben caused by their operational inefficiency, lowered organic growth as well as poor marketing approaches the proposed projects are purposed to solve the growing issues and they are grounded of different business aspects which includes market expansion, distribution and production, acquisitions as well as product expansion.

            The remedy for the presented issue can be solved through ensuring that organic foods leverage the existing share in the market.  This is mainly because the financial circumstance at the corporation is caused by war of prices which assisted in developing the given market share.  The corporation is necessitated to make the market share to work. Investment in fresh product improvement will help by providing the corporation with the needed opportunity of leveraging fresh gained markets shares.  In order for the corporation to win the customers in the market share the proposed projects must hold the capability of gaining additional opportunities.  This will help in ensuring that the expectations of the shareholders are met adequately and that the opportunities of getting the new consumers are achieved.

Organic foods are not recommended to decrease the shareholder’s dividends in order to be able to devalue the corporation’s stock. However the corporation should decrease the amount of spending based on the decision made by the director’s board. The corporation is thus recommended to adopt strategies that hold the capability of increasing the price of the stock because pushing the prices downwards will discourage the rate of buying out stocks.  In order for the organic foods to escape hostile overtaking they should be able to keep all their stakeholders completely satisfied (Meredith, & Mantel, 2012).  This can thus be achieved through, meeting all the expectations of the stakeholders.  The corporation is therefore necessitate to prove adequately that it holds the capability of remaining competitive and can thus be able to meet both long and short term expectations of their customers  via  improvement of efficiency, product extension and market expansion.  This will ensure that all the shareholders are able to retain all their shares which will help the corporation in maintaining them.  Per share earning can be described as the corporation’s profit that is allocated to every share that is outstanding of mutual serves and market. The per share earnings is thus bound top become very essential in 1993.  On the other hand dividends can be termed as the profit of the corporation that is passed on the periodic grounds of the shareholders.  When the corporation’s market confidence is high the stock prices remain strong and high and therefore the probability of exterior investment for  hostile probable take over is reduced.  Therefore beyond all the financial considerations the corporation is required to develop strategic decisions.

Although corporation ranking process for project that is based on NPV and IRR alone are purposed for short run development a strategy that is purposed for future development is necessary.  The corporation is therefore required to choose on whether it needs to access strong market prices via continuous volume and low prices. This will help in indicating whether the company will work well under diversity of the divided markets.  In order for the future growth to be well developed and set the corporation is required to understand the general strategy that it is required to use.  This will help in avoiding risks that may be developed in launching projects sets which are set for monetary development.

As the bank gave the suggestion that the corporation is required to decrease their rate of debt to higher rate debt in order to achieve an equality ratio. This is the debts that are incurred during the process of wars pricing and utilizes their market that is competitive in attaining everything. The corporation must work to ensure that the cost of production is reduced. This will assist in offsetting losses gotten   through the market price wars.  Since the operation of the company mainly relied on huge debts the corporation should capitalize more on market sections through cutting the costs to become modest as well as developing their marketing strategies. The corporation’s future requires to be led by a good leader with management and marketing experience as this are the major issues that the corporation is facing.

Question 2

            So that the projects can be ranked grounded on the calculations of NPV, the ideal metric will thus be NPV at ROR minimum. The calculations will thus involve the utilization of scale sliding of IRR which is capable of recognizing the dissimilarities in the associated risk with ranges of project kinds.  Therefore when making projects calculations in this form, the ideal ranking is approach acquisition, snack foods, inventory system control, snack foods, fresh plants, eastward expansion, automation and expanded fleet.  The emission project can be examined by making comparison the cost of the project versus the project completion when the conversion is immediate and mandatory.  While the treatment of the program is affluent does not have any formal NPV this can thus be considered as a general investment which will help the corporation in saving the costs in the future.

            The best option that the corporation can utilize is annuity, this is because of the project duration and additionally because the strategy is capable of correcting project’s discrepancies based on the duration of the project. This is contrarily to NPV strategy which may not accomplish both tasks at the same time.  With the use of the presented project analysis the most preferred project for the firm would thus be strategic acquisition.  This would wolf to ensure that product development is accomplished and the expectations of the shareholders and the consumers are achieved fully.  This strategy would additionally work to ensure that market share development becomes effective. Efficiency can only be achieved through developed inventory control and increased market share.  Technological application is additionally required to ensure that the wars that are developed by pricing are avoided. This will help in developing the market strategy to ensure that the project’s efficiency is achieved.

            Question 3

            There are several aspects in which the ranking invalidation may be made. The project’s validation can thus be made based on the following aspects. The features include political considerations, risk issues, regulatory problems such as environmental, health and safety issues, resource adequacy and corporate strategy incapability.  These issues can thus be solved by ensuring that all the regulatory and operational measures are observed.

There are several techniques for the analysis process as well as different assumptions techniques that can be utilized in order to make correction for the different characteristics which affect the organization’s projects in distinct ways (Lowe, & Wiley, 2006). This is for example the value ability of time which can thus be measured by utilization of discounting techniques like NPV or IRR.  On the other hand the issues of risks can be handled through hurdle rate increase and the issues of unequal times of all the projects can be solved by the utilization of annuities that are equivalent. Distinct sizes of projects can be evaluated through NPV multiplication through projects sizes ratio or through the utilization of the ratios that are based on profitability.

            Question 4



Project Name




Product expansion

Main departures



Fresh plant

Main departures



Plant expansion





Long run R&D



Conveyor and automation








Effluent treatment




Expansion of the east

Main departures



Expansion of the south

Main departures



Food snacks

Main departures



Strategic acquisition




Inventory control



Question 5

            The project that should be recommended to the  organization directors  board include, inventory control, snack foods, southward expansion,  the expansion of the eastwards as well as  affluent treatment.  The corporation should utilize projects that are characterized with reduced technological development like product expansion. This is mainly because such projects are associated with lower risks levels. Developing the technology level like automation or the introduction of sweeteners that are artificial to their products with increase the rate of the risks generated during implementation.  Therefore product expansion and development should be done based on low technological development to ensure that less issues and developed.  The attempt of increasing the corporation market share by the utilization of new products is a great risk.  This is because the fresh product may not yield profits directly because brand relation with the consumers is not yet developed.  The targeted consumers may therefore opt to ignore purchasing the products because of uncertainty. Other potential risks may be generated by the size of the project,   period of return length as well as the complexity of the project (Hess, & Liedtka, 2012). The corporation should consider those projects that require less time to develop and those that are additionally simple. The corporation should not therefore develop decisions based on the value that is being generated presently but with considerations of the future.

In conclusion, since the corporation is faced with inventory control issues, marketing as well as project development issues, I would therefore recommend that the corporation makes an immediate inventory control implementation in order to develop the efficiency of the operations.  This project would work in ensuring that the efficiency of the inventory control is achieved, decreased outages, create transparency, improve the relationship between the corporation and the customers as well as develop the orders fulfillment processes.  The increased capacity will help the firm in developing its capability to handle increased expectations as well as demands from the shareholders. This will thus work to ensure that customer satisfaction is achieved fully.








            Hess, E. D., & Liedtka, J. (2012). The physics of business growth: Mindsets, system, and processes.

            Lowe, D., Leiringer, R., & Wiley InterScience (Online service). (2006). Commercial management of projects: Defining the discipline. Oxford: Blackwell Pub.

            Meredith, J. R., & Mantel, S. J. (2012). Project management: A managerial approach. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

1756 Words  6 Pages

Bulldog Breeds


A bulldog is a middling sized dog breed mostly referred as the British or English bulldog.  Bulldog breeds can be described as a collective term that is used in reference to various dog breeds of a specific kind which is also additionally known as bull breeds (Harris, 73).  Bulldog breeds exist in different forms which are English bulldog, American bulldog, old English, Boston bulldog, French and German bulldog.


Bullenbeisser was a dog bred which was commonly known based on its agility and strength.  The dog bred was a kind of Molosser dog that was a German native as well as the Low Countries. The breeds were conducted for different reasons and the Bullenbeissser particularized in boar hunting and bull baiting (Harris, 86).

Old English bulldog

Old English bulldog is an American bulldog was created recently.  A true lineage of breeding was created in the 1970’s by Leavitt David in the recreation of a healthier bulldog (Zwettler, 14).  This was thus conducted by the utilization of a cross between an American bulldog and English bulldogs.

Toy bulldogs

Toy bulldog is one of the extinct bulldog breeds which existed in the 18th century and in the 19th century in England.   The breading was based on two distinct directions.  Downsizing the bred was one of the directions which did not achieve its success to breeding complications (Zwettler, 8).

American bulldog

            An American bull dog is a utility dog from the breed which is a giant that is gentle and completely fits with different families. An American bull dog can thus be described as a strong looking, well built, muscular and a well-built dog with a large head which is smooth and generally short (Harris, 84).

            English bulldog

            This is a brawny powerhouse that is little and whose features a waddle crablike which holds great stability, strength as well as much vigor.  The dog has a large head, heavy wrinkles and a thick head (Zwettler, 8).

            French bulldog

This is a small breed which exists with the breeding o domestic dogs.  The franchise was generated in early 1800 after a cross between ancestor’s bulldogs which were imported from England as well as Paris local ratters (Zwettler, 12).


            American bulldogs can be termed as typically social, confident and very active dogs which relate easily with their families.  The dogs, therefore, requires the high rate of attention based on their emotional personality that is high.  Bulldogs get attached to families and homes and they are well established for getting along with pets, other dogs as well as children.  I learned that bulldogs require some extent of attention based on their calm nature which allows them to be the suitable option for homesteads.  Bulldogs originated from the cross breed of pug and mastiff while others originated from the mastiff parent.



            Work Cited

Harris, David. Bully Breeds. Freehold, NJ: Kennel Club Books, 2008. Internet resource.

            Zwettler, Marlene. The Great Book of Bulldogs, Bull Terrier and Molosser: Part I Bulldogs & Bull Terrier. Berlin: epubli GmbH, 2013. Internet resource.

505 Words  1 Pages

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