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Water and the cell membrane


                                    Question 1: water and the cell membrane

            The cell membrane is perceived to be one of the extremely pliable structures that ultimately consist of the back-to—to back phospholipids or a bilayer. Within it, cholesterol is another component that is ultimately present to aid in fluidizing the membrane. On the other hand there are various proteins that are embedded within it that aid in enhancing its functioning. One of them is the single phospholipid molecule that has a phosphate molecule on both sides that is in return termed as being the main fatty acid that aid in building the lipid tails.  Due to the fact that the phosphate groups are ultimately negatively charged, they end up making the head polar as well as the hydrophilic molecule to remain being water loving (Reece et al., 2015).

            On the other hand, the extent of the hydrophilic molecule, or typically the region of the molecule concentration is perceived to the main region that is always concentrated to water.  As much as that region is water concentrated, the fact that it makes the phosphate heads to end up getting attracted to both intracellular and extracellular environments. On the other hand, what has been realized is the fact that the lips tails has the ability of becoming no-polar, uncharged, or being hydrophobic. As a result of that, the hydrophobic nature of the membrane is the one that has been perceived to have the ability of repelling as well as repelling the entrance of water. On the same case, what has been realized is the idea that the majority of the lipids mainly comprises of multiple fatty acids that are saturated as well as other unsaturated fatty acid components (Pearson Education, Inc., 2008). It is this combination that has the ability of adding to the fluidity of the tails as well as enhancing constant movement of molecules within this structure. This is what makes the phospholipids to be considered as being amphipathic molecules. According to biological research, an amphipathic molecule always consists of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions. This is one of the reason that indicates the reason as to why soap molecules always works better on grease and oil just because of the amphipathic properties. Ideally, it is evident that the hydrophilic portion has the potential of dissolving in water hence enabling the hydrophobic portion to have the potential of trapping the grease molecules that can be easily washed away (Stanley et al., 2005).

            Nonetheless, the cell recognition proteins have been realized as being one of the important proteins that enhances the functioning of the cell membrane. They are used as the mechanism for indentifying the cell membrane as well as other cell organelles. Within the cell membrane, receptors are used as the structure that enhances the identification of the cells as well as assisting in the selective binding of the molecules that are contained outside the cell membrane. The reason as to why this activity is important is because they assist in fostering selective chemical reactions just within the cell membrane. In addition to that, the cell membrane has a ligand that used for the purpose of binding as well as activating the receptors. The other integral proteins are ultimately used as ion channel and receptors (Pearson Education, Inc., 2008). This is also associated with the responsibility of binding neurotransmitters, particularly the dopamine.

                                    Question 2: Cell structure and function

            According to research, all living things have cells with other cell organelles that aid in carrying out different functions. As a result of that, it is the old cells that are used for the purpose of creating new cells through cell division. This is what makes cells to be the main building blocks of life. This then implies that the activity of each living thing mainly relies on the activity or activities that are carried out by each cell organelle. The general distribution of energy within each cell is what assists in breaking down of carbohydrates through a mechanism a process termed as respiration. The development of new cells equally relies on the hereditary information contained in the cells (Judy, 2005). The functions of each cell structure is described below

            The nucleus is the genetic material that contains the genetic material termed as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). It also acts as the main site for transcription and replication of DNA as well as RNA processing. The RNA transcription and procession becomes possible becomes the nucleolus always resides within the nucleus. The mitochondria aid in enhancing cell metabolism. It assists in the synthesis of energy through a protein termed as adenosine triophosphate (ATP).  Likewise, the lysosomes assist in hosting the digestive enzymes that are responsible for the breakdown of nucleic acids, lipids, polysaccharides, proteins, as well as other worn out cell organelles before recycling them. The endoplasmic reticulum is basically a series of membranous tubules that are interconnected that are used for the purpose of modifying proteins as well as synthesizing lipids.  This structure consists of both the smooth and the rough endoplasmic reticulum (Reinhold, 2012). The golgi apparatus assist in sorting, packaging, as well as distributing proteins and lipids. The microvilli are regarded as being hair-like extensions that are used for the purpose of moving substances alongside the outer surface of the cell. On the other hand, the centrosome is one of the microtubules nucleating organelles that are used for the purpose of enhancing the orientation of the mitotic spindle as well as the genome stability. The actin filament aid in creating a three-dimensional gel, a two-dimensional network, linear bundles, as well as other binding proteins that in return assist in influencing certain structure the filament will be forming (Schaechter, 2012). 

            On the other hand, despite of the above functions, one of the things that make animal and plant cells to be similar is the fact that they are both have eukaryotic cells. Each organelle within the plant or animal always has different functions. For instance, although plant cells do no t contain lysosomes, the animal cells contain lysosomes that aid in digesting cellular molecules. As much as size is concerned, animal cells are relatively smaller as compared to plant cells. Although the animal cells are of different sizes, they have an irregular or round shape. Contrary to that, plants have cells that are typically cube shaped or rectangular in shape and are similar in size. Plant cells are used for the purpose of storing energy in form of starch. Although animal cells are able to increase in size through differentiation, typically through absorbing and storing more water in the central vacuole. Animal cells increase size through the increase of their cell membranes. Animals contain cilia in their cells to aid in cellular locomotion but plant cells do not have them (Yablonski, 2005).










Judy, Y. (2005). Plant and Animal Cells: Understanding the Differences Between Plant and Animal Cells. The Rosen Publishing Group

Pearson Education, Inc. (2008). Biology, 8th Ed, Campbell-Reece, 2008: Biologi Science: Volume 1 of Biology, 8th Ed, Campbell-Reece. Bukupedia Press

Reece, J. B., Meyers, N., & Urry, L. A. (2015). Campbell Biology Australian and New Zealand Edition. Pearson Australia Pty Ltd.

Reinhold, G. H. 2012). Cell Organelles: Plant Gene Research. Springer Science & Business Media

Schaechter, M. (2012). Eukaryotic microbes. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press.

Stanley, R, Arthur, B. R, Vikki, H, Bozena, B. M, Antonio, V, & Alfred N. A.. (2005). Biomedical Engineering Principles. CRC Press

Yablonski, J. (2005). Plant and animal cells: Understanding the differences between plant and animal cells. New York: Rosen Pub. Group.








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