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Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

Efficiency and Adaptation
All organisms within an ecosystem participate in relationships with other organisms. Some relationships benefit the organisms and are essential for both species to survive. Others are detrimental (negative) to one organism, but critical for the other organism. Symbiosis and mutualism are not the same thing! Symbiosis is defined as any long-term relationship between two or more species. Mutualism is a type of symbiosis. Two other types of symbiosis found in ecosystems are commensalism and parasitism. Commensalism is when one organism benefits from the relationship, while the other one is neither helped nor harmed. An example of commensalism is a barnacle on a whale. The barnacle gets protection and transportation to different food sources while the whale is neither helped nor harmed by the presence of the barnacle. Parasitism is when one organism benefits, but harms the other member in the relationship.
For this SLP assignment, you will research three examples of symbiosis and develop a PowerPoint presentation that includes the following:
Slide 1: Title Slide
Title Slide with Name, Course, and Date
Slide 2: Introduction
Topics to be covered in outline form
Slide 3: Mutualism
Find an example of mutualism and describe the relationship between the two organisms. Give three examples (three points that cover the benefits and at least one drawback) to describe the benefits and potential limitations of the relationship (remember from your Case assignment, even mutually beneficial relationships can have drawbacks as noted with the monkeys and wolves). Show an image to illustrate the relationship.
Slide 4: Commensalism
Find an example of commensalism and describe the relationship between the two organisms. Give three examples to describe the benefits and limitations of the relationship. Show an image to illustrate the relationship.
Slide 5: Parasitism
Find an example of parasitism and describe the relationship between the two organisms. Give three examples to describe the benefits and limitations of the relationship. Show an image to illustrate the relationship.
Slides 6-8: Exploring Ecosystems
Watch the following video: 
Exploring Ecosystems: Coral Reef Symbiosis | California Academy of Sciences
Describe two examples of mutualistic relationships found on the coral reef in the video. Be sure to describe how each organism benefits in the relationship. Provide images illustrating the relationships. How do these interactions influence patterns of distribution and abundance within this ecosystem as a whole?
Slide 9: Conclusion
Summarize your project findings.
Slide 10: References
APA Format
SLP Assignment Expectations
For this SLP assignment, you will develop a PowerPoint presentation that is 1-10 slides in length and addresses the requirements outlined above. Place the text containing the answers to the questions above in the slide area, summarizing each topic using bullet points (in your own words, expand in more detail using the notes area).
Be sure to include citations referencing your sources on each slide (use either the slide or notes area). Include a descriptive title for each slide that describes the topic being discussed. Be sure to include a title slide with your name, assignment type (e.g., SLP Module 3) and course title. Include an introduction slide with the subjects you will cover in outline form. Include a slide summarizing your project findings (Conclusion slide). Your final slide should contain a list of references cited in APA format.

554 Words  2 Pages

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

I selected this topic from this website:

It is number six on the list.

This is a prompt from the professor:

Select one event that has occurred in the last 100 years that influenced the current state of our CJ system. You MUST submit the topic you will be writing on by Tuesday, March 10th at 4:45 pm via the location designated for this on BlackBoard. This will factor into your essay grade, and lateness will matter. This submission does not need to be more than a sentence.
Most of you did this, though I few did not. Remember, you event CANNOT be switched from the one you selected when you submitted this topic on 3/10.

Provide what events preceded this Provide details on the event itself - including who played the biggest roles and when it was. Provide information about what events followed this. Why is this event more important than any other? How far-reaching are the impacts? Why did you pick this event? Name 4 other events you would include if you were making a "top 5" list.
When writing the essay, be sure to hit each of these questions above, as each will be an element of the essay you are graded on. I will not be reading drafts or versions other than your final version submitted, and I will not be answering content questions, only format and form.

The expectation is that you should type no less than 2 full single-spaced pages to complete this assignment. Times New Roman font sized 12, 1" margins all around.
You must use proper APA citations for any information that did not come from your own brain.
Also, PLEASE plan for this from the beginning of the semester.
Your name, the title, references, and other non-narrative parts of this paper do not count toward your 2 pages, and I will consider page length when assigning your grade.
Some additional notes:

1.      Do not write much more than the 2 pages required. Overdoing it does not help your grade – if you answer the questions you are asked concisely you should not need much more than the required page length to do so. Just write to the assigned questions and topic and you will have done your assignment.

2.      Proper APA citations means you need to go to the format required for the American Psychology Association and use the form they require for both your in-text citations and your reference page. APA does not allow footnotes, so don’t use them. Other than that, the APA format is not necessary – they require an abstract, cover page, running headers, etc., this is NOT required. If you use any information that you did not think up on your own, you should give credit to the source of that information – and I really really really hope you will do your best to avoid sources like Huffpost, Time Magazine, CNN, or Fox.

3.      Some writing guidance, as you will be graded on grammar and content:

a.      Never write a college essay or paper using first person unless you are asked to do so. If you are convinced the topic you selected is important, then convince me using facts and information, not “I feel” or “in my opinion,” as that is not the point.

b.      Do not write using the following in any college paper: questions, contractions, or slang.

c.      Do not use quotes unless you absolutely have to. A quote does not tell me you understand the information and can summarize it, it only shows you can type. If you are using more than one quote per page, then you have used too many – I’d prefer none at all.

631 Words  2 Pages

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

For this discussion, take on the role of one of the pathogens we learned about. Give us a narrative about what you are doing in the body from the pathogen's point of view. How did you get into the body? In other words, how did the body inherit you? How do you move through the body? What path of destruction are you on? How will you wage battle against the body? How do you plan to win that battle? What will the body try to do to stop you? How will you fight back? Who wins?
list of pathogens you can use: Toxoplasmosis, candidiasis, Streptococcus bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus,
Minimum of 2 sources cited (assigned readings/online lessons and an outside source)

131 Words  1 Pages


The lymphatic system

 The lymphatic system is a framework of tissues and organs which assist the body excrete toxins, waste and other useless content from the body. Its main functionality is lymph transportation- lymph is a liquid rich in infection-combat white blood cells, all over the body. The lymphatic system is made up of lymph vessels which resemble vein and capillaries. The lymph vessels connect to lymph nodes hence providing a suitable location for filtering the lymph. Common example of lymph system is the adenoid and the tonsils.

The lymphatic system plays a role in the management of tissue pressure, immune sustenance and the intake of dietary fat within the intestines .Vast body of scientific information reveals that the lymphatic system participates in the manifestation of various illnesses such as lymphedema and metastasis among other inflammatory illness. The utilization of molecular markers enabled scientists to differentiate between blood and lymphatic vessels which further facilitated isolation the distinctive lymphatic system functions and structure. It is vital to note that the lymphatic system is the second vascular system found among higher vertebrate members. The lymphatic capillaries begin at the tissues where they form lymph from a blood vessels. The lymphatic system are covered with a distinctive coating of overlying endothelial cells and do not have a constant basement tissue. Therefore, tissue fluid goes in the lymphatic system through lymphatic vessels located between irregular cellular intersections and this helps in circulation.

 The lymphatic system is made up of thousands of lymph nodes, all located within the human body. They are situated deep within the human body, for instance near the lung and heart area. Besides, they can also be found near the surface, for example around the arm or groin. From the head area to the knee section. Meanwhile, the spleen can be found above the kidney and it is known as the largest lymphatic organ. According to medical research the spleen filters blood, regulates the amount and storage of red blood cells and also assists in the fight against infections. In case the spleen perceives or spots potential harmful microorganisms in the blood, it generates white blood cells known as lymphocytes. The lymphocytes safeguard against foreign harmful material. The lymphocytes produce antibodies which eliminate harmful materials hence stopping further infection. No human can survive without a spleen and this explains the reason why people without a spleen are disposed to infections.


 Functions of the lymphatic system

 The organization of the lymph vessels resemble those of blood vessels. Endothelium, connective tissues and well-developed components can be found on lymphatic system walls. This helps in the permeability functions of the lymphatic system.  More so, the vessel permeability relies on the structure. Some sections of the lymphatic system have blood vessel permeability which gives small particles the chance to easily pass through enclosed walls and junctions. While in conjunction with blood vessels, the lymphatic system maintains tissue homeostasis and this prevent diseases associated with the lymphatic system. The widespread system enables the balance between blood fluids and also safeguards against infections. The lymphoid structures and ducts move material all over the human body and in the process helps in the elimination of toxic material. One of the most visible lymphatic system’s function is the elimination of excessive fluids from body tissues. This mechanism is vital due to the simple fact that liquid, protein and supplementary materials are unceasingly leaking out of small blood vessels into neighboring cells. If the lymphatic systems failed to eradicate excessive tissue fluids, the lymph system would be overwhelmed hence impeding other important functionalities. Apart from removal of excessive fluids, the system absorbs fatty acid consequently transporting fat to the cardiovascular system. Additionally, blood movement via the arteries and veins causes filtering into tissues. Filtering causes fluid loss, the lymphatic system collects this fluid and ensures that it is returned into the cardiovascular system. The return of filtered fluid back into the circulatory system results into an equilibrium between protein and fluid.

As stated earlier, the lymphatic system is integral in retaining body immunity. The systematic vessels and nodes move and sieve lymph liquid which contains antibodies and lymphocytes. The body’s first line of defense is the lymphatics. The lymphatics signals the entire lymphatic system to initiate the infection-fighting mechanism to prevent sickness causing microorganisms from infiltrating the body. The spleen is full of lymphocytes and other types of white blood cells known as macrophages. Macrophages kill harmful bacteria and eliminate dead tissue or other foreign material from the body.

 In line with lymphatic system defense mechanism, phagocytes use a process known as phagocytosis to eradicate harmful microorganism, damaged tissues and other foreign materials in order to safeguard the body from harm. To emphasize further, phagocytes drag harmful pathogens into a phagosome which in turn neutralizes their harmful impact. There are three different types of phagocytes- macrophage, granulocyte and dendritic cell. Each type of phagocyte has a specific function to play. The monocytes are located within the blood. They move from one place to another and whenever they encounter an infection or inflammation, they enter into the affected tissue. While in the tissue, they turn into macrophages. Macrophages are found within regular tissues. This way, monocytes can change based on the need present. It is vital to note that monocytes can also change into dendritic cells. The ability of the monocytes to differentiate according to arising needs makes them essential for insulating the body against any harm that might come along the way.

 The composition and function of lymph

 In order to put things in the proper context, the lymph is an alkaline liquid formed from interstitial liquid. Consequently, interstitial space is simply a void between tissue constructions. The interstitial fluid moves in between tissues and organs. The spaces can be compared to sponge holes. The lymphatic vessel gather the lymph which is then carried from the tissues and reunited with the bloodstream. The lymph comprises of proteins, salts, liquid etc. it is vital to note that the lymph lacks red blood cells. The lymph origin determines its composition. For illustration, arm or leg lymphatic vessels are colorless and translucent and the lymph biochemical composition resembles that of a blood plasma. Nevertheless, lymph has more plasma than proteins. The intestinal lymph is cloudy due to fatty acid. The combination of fats and lymph is known as chyle. Lymph near the intestines are known as lacteals. As the lymph moves within the lymphatic vessels, it also comes into contact with the lymph nodes. The lymph nodes are bean-shaped and are around 600 in number. Lymph node are evenly spread across the human body and offers active site for the filtration of harmful foreign material and other dangerous agents.

 The thoracic duct is one of the main lymphatic vessels. It begins at the lower spine and makes its way through the pelvis, belly and lower torso. The thoracic duct is highly concentrated along the chest and its concentrates fades gradually near huge neck veins. After the thoracic duct, the lymphatic duct is another crucial lymphatic vessel and garners lymph fluid found on the right neck section, torso and arms and empties it into on a huge neck vein. Other additional lymphatic system composition are tonsils and adenoids. For instance, tonsils contain intense concentrations of lymphatic cells hence forming the body’s first defensive mechanism against infections.  The presence of the white blood cells and nutrients helps in production and maintenance of some of the most importance aspects of the body. The entire lymphatic system depends on the conjunctions and connections created all over the body. The equilibrium created all over the body sometimes hinder the active participation of the antibodies produced all over the body hence the need to keep up with the production in various parts of the body and filtering some crucial parts of the body so that the infections cannot spread further.

 The liquid state of the lymph enables it to carry both soluble and insoluble substances. The insoluble substances can be filtered out of the body based on the weight and shape. On the other hand the soluble material can be absorbed in different parts of the body based on the need. For example, sugar is well catered for as it can be absorbed near the abdomen regions hence the need to always consider the separation of the soluble and the insoluble. Sometimes functions might overlap hence leading to an extreme case on either end. Due to the constant circulation of the lymph fluid and the vessels are entrusted with influencing other parts of the body. Time and chance to rectify some of the mistakes taking place within the lymphatic systems are rarely noticed and this is the main reason why the lymphatic system is valued as it is one of the system which ensures that the body functions at its maximum. In other words, the lymphatic system carries out its work in a self-reliant manner and in case of a break down no other section of the body can directly or indirectly affect hence the need for safeguarding it optimally.


Lymphatic capillaries

These are minute, thin-walled vessels, situated amidst cells cavities. They are found in all parts of the body. The lymphatic capillaries have intensive oncotic pressure compared to other capillaries. Whenever interstitial liquid pressure is higher than the lymphatic pressure, cells isolate from each other allowing lymph fluid to flow into the lymphatic capillaries. Higher pressure within the lymphatic capillaries increases adhesion between the cells hence retaining lymph fluid within the lymphatic capillaries. This pressure regulates the retention ability of the lymphatic capillaries hence impeding excessive loss or even irregular decrease of lymphatic fluid in various parts of the body parts.

Under usual settings, lymph capillaries stop the buildup of edema within the muscles or organs. Nevertheless, edema may occur especially during sharp inflammation or illness in which the lymphatic organs are blocked. During inflammation, liquid drips into tissues faster than usual thus preventing lymph capillaries from removing the excess liquid. Whenever there is a lymphatic vessel impediment, lymph capillaries cannot function as normal via the entire lymphatic system and this increases pressure within the lymph capillaries leading to backflow. Moreover, the lymphatic capillaries join the lymphatic system to the lymphatic vessels. The lymphatic capillaries have characteristic valves to regulate pressure and move the lymph fluid onto larger lymphatic vessels it is vital to note that lymphatic capillaries have closed ends and minivalves positioned at each interval to stop backflow into the neighboring organs and this enables the lymphatic capillaries to withstand pressure from different sections thus pushing the lymph fluid. The capillaries ensure reliable and abundant circulation to other parts of the body due their extensive areas and narrow shapes which allow the fluid to move upward towards the neck. These vessels have to keep up and safeguard the body from any poisons liquids that try to infiltrate some parts of the body. Thus at the end of it all, the basis of the foundation of the lymphatic capillaries ensures that the functionality does not alter the content of the material being transported.

Lymphatic vessels

These vessels are thin-walled micro channels. They complement the circulatory systems in terms of structure and design. Endothelial cells cover lymphatic vessel’s walls. The primary function of lymphatic vessels is maintaining homeostasis fluid. This homeostasis function is enabled through transportation of lymph fluid into other sections of the body. The lymphatic vessel walls are fitted with valves which enable transportation of lymph fluid to different parts of the body. The lymphatic vessels bind onto the neighboring tissues through the endothelial smooth tissues. The outermost layer consists of adventitia hence giving the lymphatic vessels its anchorage properties within the body and in terms of additionally facilities.

 The lymphatic vessel characteristics are designed to absorb and transport lymphatic fluid from nearby tissues. The endothelium refers to the innermost layers of the lymphatic vessels. This way, the walls are flattened due to the single epithelial cells. The epithelial and endothelium cells lining the lymphatic vessel facilitated the transportation of fluid. It is vital to note that the lymphatic vessels are found on extensively absorptive basement membranes produced from extracellular matrix which distinguishes the endothelium from the rest of the sections. The endothelium has junctions within its cells which permits the lymphatic fluid to enter into the lumen whenever pressure is extremely higher than the rest of the lymphatic systems.

Lymphatic ducts

This is a significant lymphatic vessel which moves lymph fluid into the subclavian veins. There are two types of lymph ducts- right and left lymphatic duct. The right lymphatic duct empties into the higher appendage, thorax, neck and head sections. In simpler terms, the lymphatic ducts   result from the collection of various lymphatic vessels. The lymphatic duct is large and empties lymph collected from other parts of the body into the circulatory system. Finally, both the right and left lymphatic duct transport lymph fluid into the venous circulation. This helps in the circulation of lymph and maintaining the correct pressure and output. the second section of the lymphatic vessel are the smooth muscles which are organized to form a circular shape near the endothelium hence changing the lumen pressure within the lymphatic vessels through contraction and expansion. The smooth muscles actions permute the lymph vessels to steadily pump lymph liquid into other parts without utilizing the pumping force generated via the heart. 

 The immune system flow via the lymphatic system. Besides, the big molecular materials such as fat, are first entered into the lymphatic system and further transported into other systems.  The lymphatic system is vital as it used for the drainage purposes and the movement of lymph to different parts of the body. The lymphatic ducts develops from anterior and aorta vessels.  The ability of the lymphatic duct to connect lymphatic nodes is one of the most important function of the lymphatic duct as it enable constant flow of lymphatic fluid all over the human body.

 Lymph nodes

 This refers to numerous bean-shaped structures found along the lymphatic system. At the lymph nodes, filtration and formation of lymphocytes takes place. The integral functionality of lymph nodes is lymph filtration, isolation and defining harmful foreign material. As stated earlier, the lymph nodes are rich in lymphocytes and B and T cells. The B cells generate antibodies which reinforce the fight of dangerous pathogens. Antibodies are designed to deter and kills specific germs. If one type of antibody finds a specific germ, it binds on it hence preventing it from spread to the rest of the body. For example, B cells are introduced into the bloodstream from the lymph nodes consequently enabling the protection of the body from harmful bacteria.

 The fact that lymph nodes are regionalized and each one of their categories links a specified body section and in case of a challenge the lymph nodes imitate the irregularities within that particular region hence making it easier or early detection and medication of that particular region. The lymph nodes are found within distinct areas such as behind the ears, neck region and the chin areas. Whenever someone feels sick, medics check this areas and take note of any swelling. Most sickness result from bulging of the lymph nodes, for instance tonsils and other ear illness. Therefore swellings or even inflammation around the lymph nodes indicate the increase of an infectious disease. However, not all the swelling are signs of illness around the lymph nodes. The lymph nodes thus are good indicators of managing the health of a human being.

 Lymphatic tissues

This forms part of the immune system hence assists in the protection of the body against harmful microorganisms. The lymphatic tissue contains high concentrations of lymphocytes and corresponding cells such as reticular microcells. The spleen is an example of a lymphatic tissue. It is found near the kidney and it is considered the largest lymphatic organ. More so, the spleen filters blood, regulates red blood cell content and stores blood in various body parts. The functions of the spleen helps to fight against infections. Apart from the spleen, the thymus is situated near the chest cavity and its main function is the storage of immature lymphocytes. Immature lymphocytes develop into active T cells which assist in the destruction of cancerous cells. Last but not least, the tonsils form a strong line of defensive against harmful foreign material. Tonsils strategically placed at the throat and palate in order to prevent harmful bacteria from gaining access into the human body via nose or mouth opening. Tonsils have high concentrations of white blood cells whose main role is killing germs. The ability of the lymph tissues to kill germs also give it the quality and efficiency to restore damaged cells. Whenever the some cells are damaged beyond repair some lymphatic tissues have to sometimes perform more than functional duty do that it can keep other on the a similar level.


 This is a lymph vessel’s practical component. It is sandwiched between semilunar faucets. The lymphangion has similar features to ventricles and arteries. Their primary function is pumping lymph against a certain pressure deficit. Additionally, the organs can act as passageways whenever they are transporting lymph against a certain pressure gradient. As a matter of importance, the semilunar valves direct the lymph flow and open up to release the lymph fluid whenever necessary. Under stable conditions, lymph pressures influence intake and absorption of ions and rich minerals. The lymphatic system uses lymph pumps to generate the necessary energy needed to push against steep pressure gradients. The muscle contractions assists in the movement of the lymph fluid from one section to another. The valves found at various intervals help prevent the fluid from moving backwards hence the motion is always on directional. The ability of any human to having a health lymphatic system helps the body fight against numerous diseases hence also protects other functioning parts of the body. One of the most notable features of the lymphangion is the heterogeneity of the systems found within organized framework. The active heterogeneity relies on the localized variances or combinations of the lymph flow on the basis of nutrients and the ability to collect and then insist on numerous transportation routes. The essence of transportation within the body is to ensure that different parts of the body get different nutrients and in the process eliminate the unwanted content from the blood. The lymphangion have a role to play in ensuring that the lymph fluid is retaining in the right amounts and cater to various parts of the body so that in the long run every section may get a chance to be free from any infection. This role makes the lymphangion a significant part of the body.


As mentioned earlier, this is one of the largest lymphatic organ and is charged with the generation and eradication of dead cells from the body hence playing a central in safeguarding the body against diseases. It is vital to note that the spleen is very busy organ due to its protection functionality. The primary function of the spleen in relation to the entire lymphatic system is filtering of blood. It identifies and eliminates worn out cells, deformed or injured red blood cells. When the blood enters into the spleen, the spleen participates in determining its quality. The blood, which is usually rich in red blood cells is passed through an intensive maze made up of numerous narrow canals. Fit blood cells have to pass through the maze successfully while unhealthy ones are eradicated. This process ensures that the blood circulating within the body only consists of healthy blood cells. In addition, the spleen separates the healthy from the unhealthy red blood cells. Important blood elements such as iron are retained in the blood while damage cells are eradicated. This process ensures that the bone marrow and other important things are safeguarded from extensive damage. An additional helpful role the spleen plays is the storage of blood. The spleen’s blood vessels can either contract or expand based on one’s situation and needs. Expansion of the blood vessels increases space thus leading to more storage while contraction reduces space leading to less accommodation space. For example stress may cause spleen contraction.

 The circulatory pathway of the lymph

 The lymph is transported all over the body along the lymphatic vessels. The movement is a one way circulation from the interstitial voids to the subclavian veins near the neck region. Even though the lymphatic system does not rely on the pumping action of the heart but its own mounting motions generated by the muscles and dual pumps. As the lymph fluid flows upwards within the human body, the lymph goes through the lymph nodes hence filtering occurs to eradicate wastes and toxic material.  The filtered lymph fluid continues its journey and until it reaches the neck. Once it reaches the neck it empties into the subclavian veins located on the right and left side of the right side of the neck. The lymph comes from Plasma- this is the liquid part of blood. The arterial blood which passes through the heart and into the capillary region. The slowed movement around the capillary section permits leakage to leave the capillaries and enter the tissue to form tissue fluid or the extracellular liquid. These fluid then moves from one cell to another but it does not enter the cells. This fluid is rich in nutrients, oxygen and even hormonal content and this enables it to supply the cells with the nutrients they need to function optimally. As the liquid leaves the cellular sections, it carries way wasteful items and dead cells hence clearing the surrounding cellular environment and this impedes sickness and cancerous cells from occurring.  An estimated 90% of the lymph liquid enters minor veins. Once is enters the veins, the venous circulation continues as plasma and it is the circulatory system take it from there. Before leaving the tissues, the lymph fluid has to go through the lymphatic system via the capillaries. An estimated 70% of the lymph capillaries are found under the skin. The remainder 30% are lie deep within the lymphatic capillaries. The lymphatic capillaries resemble closed channel pathways and are made up of thin cells hence they are very thin It is vital to note that the lymphatic system is the second vascular system found among higher vertebrate members. The lymphatic capillaries begin at the tissues where they form lymph from a blood vessels. The lymphatic system are covered with a distinctive coating of overlying endothelial cells and do not have a constant basement tissue. Therefore, tissue fluid goes in the lymphatic system through lymphatic vessels located between irregular cellular intersections and this helps in circulation. The cells overlap to facilitate the continuous flow of fluid from part of the body to another. The only way this system can work if the fluid moves continuously through the body without any delay. The functions of the lymphatic system are synonymous to the immune system. The lymphatic system is made up of various lymphatic vessels which carry the lymph from one area to the next.

3854 Words  14 Pages

Step One

The Cortex

 Also known as the cerebral cortex, this part of the brain is located in the outer layers of the human brain. It is characterized by wrinkled features. The central areas of the cerebral cortex are subdivided into sections with specified functionalities such as vision, hearing, smelling, and feeling. More so, this particular part of the brain regulates sophisticated functions such as making a speech, thought processing, and memory. The entire brain is made up of two even cerebral hemispheres connected via the callus. Also, the outer part of the cortex is wrinkled and differentiated by its furrow-like features. Even though the two cortex hemispheres are similar, they have different functionalities (Hagmann et al., 2008). Each cortex hemisphere control one side of the human body. For instance, the right hemisphere regulates the left body and the left hemisphere is in charge of regulating the right body. The left hemisphere enables functions such as speaking, scripting, composing music or sentences, and finding solutions to challenges. The other half of the left cortex hemisphere is facilitating the analytic thinking process. The right cortex hemisphere enables synthetic thinking. At the central part of the cortex, the hemisphere is the basal ganglia which start and control motion. Experts claim that the reason the cortex is wrinkled is due to the limited skull space. Hence the wrinkles allow it to fit into the skull and at the same time retain its volume. From a general perspective, the cortex covers the inner parts of the brain and it is 1.5mm to 5mm thick. Physically it is grey and experts refer to it as the grey matter (Jones, 2015). The cortex is grey because of its isolation and uninsulated nerves hence making it grey unlike the other insulated parts of the brain which are white due to their white linings the cortex covers the lining. It is vital to note that the cortex covers the cerebellum section of the brain and makes up most of the brain total mass.

Step 2




The shown above the cortex is the outer layer of the brain and its covering protects the innermost sophisticated or delicate subsections of the brain. The fold or wrinkles within the cortex are usually referred to as minges.  The motor cortex is located in the middle of the brain where the primary motor cortex produces neural impulses that initiate motion. The premotor cortex is found next to the primary motor and contributes to movement regulation. The supplementary motor section enables the formulation and production of motions, organizes motion sequences, and directs both sides of the body (Hagmann et al., 2008). It can be found within the midline layer near the anterior hemisphere. Most of the neurons within the motor cortex indicate and communicate with the spinal code synapse hence allowing the entire section to function as a whole. The incorporation of muscles and joints sometimes overlap and significantly help the cortex at an optimal range. Before evaluating any brain activity, neuroscientists have to isolate and examine the cortex as a separate entity and then confirm that it functions clearly and accurately.  The cortex part of the brain influences moods, feelings, taste, and how humans learn (Serre et al., 2007). Well, known mechanisms somehow such as the electroencephalography can record neuron impulses within the brain and signal on a computer which parts of the cortex are not functioning properly.
















Hagmann, P., Cammoun, L., Gigandet, X., Meuli, R., Honey, C. J., Wedeen, V. J., & Sporns, O. (2008). Mapping the structural core of human cerebral cortex. PLoS Biol, 6(7), e159.

Jones, I. C. (2015). The adrenal cortex. Cambridge University Press.

Serre, T., Wolf, L., Bileschi, S., Riesenhuber, M., & Poggio, T. (2007). Robust object recognition with cortex-like mechanisms. IEEE transactions on pattern analysis and machine intelligence, 29(3), 411-426.

636 Words  2 Pages


 Description of a “new” species



            Beetles are a group of insects that belong to the order Coleoptera. Although beetles are considered to be found at least in every habitat, they have the potential of interacting with every habitat in several ways. The majority of these beetles feed on fungi and plants, break down plant and animal debris, and prey on invertebrates (Löbl & Löbl, 2017). Some of them are destructive to agricultural products especially grains. Beetles belonging to the genus Carabus have a hard exoskeleton. Some of them have softer elytra while other has hardened elytra. The anatomy of beetles is typical and uniform in all insects.

            Some beetles, especially water beetles are able to trap use their elytra to trap air bubbles for use while they are diving. Due to the fact that they are endopterygotes, they have the potential of undergoing complete metamorphosis. Changes in metamorphosis enable them to encounter abrupt changes in their body structure particularly between the hatching periods (Ōsawa eta l., 2004). As they continue to mature, the body structural changes are the one that makes them to be immobile during the pupal stage.  Some beetles have sexual dimorphism thus making males to have enlarged mandibles. Since they are aposematic, they have the propensity of warming their toxicity. Beetles that reside in sandy regions have excellent camouflage


                                    Classification of the beetles belong to the genus carabus

Kingdom: Animalia

Plylum: Arthropoda

Subphylum: Hexapoda

Class: Insecta

Order: Coleoptra

Suborder: Adephaga

Family: Crabidae

Subfamily: Carabidae

Tribe: Carabini

Genus: Carabus


                                    Description of the beetles belong to the genus carabus

            Ground beetles have been scientifically recognized to be one of the largest multinational families of beetles. The beetles representing the Carabidae family have more than 40,000 species worldwide.  The beetles of the Carabidae family also have been considered to be highly diverse in subgenera and in more than 1000 scientifically recognized species (Ashton, 2013). As a result of that, it makes them to be the largest genus in the Carabidae subfamily. Despite that, the coloring and the shape of their body keep on varying.



            The vast majorities of the beetles represented in the Carabidae are metallic or shinny with ridged wing covers. In some beetle species, the wing covers or the elytra are fused. In larger groups of the ground Carabidae family, the development of large elytra is what makes them to unable to fly. All the ground and water beetles represented in the Carabidae have foreleg tibiae that they use for antennae cleaning.

                                                            Defense mechanisms

            The beetles of the genus Carabus have developed paired pygidial glands especially in the lowest part of their abdomen. For the ground beetles, the pygidial glands enable them to generate caustic or noxious secretions to deter their main predators. In some bombardier beetles, the secretions of the noxious or caustic chemical contain volatile compounds that produce loud popping sound and acrid gas which has the potential of injuring small mammals (Desender et al., 2013). The secretion of that chemical has the likelihood of killing other invertebrate predators.


            In humans, the secretion of the noxious chemical makes is an unpleasant experience. Such ability has evolved in ground beetles for years and is part of the defense mechanisms that are used by the modern lineage of the beetles represented in the genus Carabus. The Anthiini have the potential of squirting their defensive secretions with a degree of accuracy.  At a casual glance, juvenile beetles of the genus name Carabus move in a manner that makes them to look astonishingly similar.


             Burrowing sands, on the edges of rivers and ponds, under cracks of locks, logs, and barks of trees are their main habits. The vast majority of the Carabus species have been realized to be carnivorous. As a result of that invertebrates that they have the ability to overpower are their common prey.   For instance, tiger beetles have the ability to run swiftly so as to ambush and catch their prey. Considering the length of their body, research indicates that they are one of the fasted ground animals (Desender et al., 2013). Although the majority of the beetles represented in the family Carabidae are nocturnal, beetles such as the tiger beetles are diurnal hunters. They are brightly colored with large eyes that enable them to easily detect their prey. Furthermore, ground beetles have been noted to be specialized predators of cyanide millipedes (Desender et al., 2013). The production of hydrogen cyanide by the cyanide millipedes does not deter them from killing and consuming them.


            Seasonal changes, distribution, and reproductive mechanisms of the beetles that belong to the genus Carabus are the ones that have been realized to affect their reproduction activities. The leaner models regarding their transition are based on the impacts that quality as well as the seasonality changes of their habitat. On the other hand, within their habitat, changes in light intensity have the propensity of altering the activities of this species (Desender et al., 2013). Ideally, in open oak forested areas, their reproduction activity is relatively higher as compared to other regions that they occupy. Such a scenario suggests the reason as to why they prefer forested areas as unlike other regions.


             Although the mandible wear cannot be used as the ultimate means for estimating their reproduction age, their reproduction status is the one that impacts their global distribution. The life history and seasonal activities remain to be relatively similar in both sexes. Regardless of the differences that exist in both sexes, age-composition, and is what affects their reproduction characteristics coupled with seasonal changes (Ashton, 2013). Research indicates that a large parentage of the beetles belonging to the genus Carabus mainly reproduces once particularly in forested habitats.  The lifespan of adult beetles is one year.          


                                                            Relationship with humans

            Due to the fact that beetles are the main predators of invertebrates, ground colored beetles has been realized to be beneficial organisms. The vast majority of them have been reduced as a result of caterpillar hunters that devour their habitat. The presence of urticating hairs is what makes them to be avoided by a number of insectivores. A large number of them have been realized to damage grain crops. During indoor activities, such beetles have been realized to be more destructive to crops. The reason for that is because they have the potential of avoiding the secretion of defensive mechanisms (Desender et al., 2013). Whenever they are threatened, they quickly hide.   Due to the fact that ground beetles of belonging to the genus Carabus are unable to fly and are generally reluctant, they are able to block their probable routes of entry so easily. The use of insecticides such as Carabidae on the beetles is the one that makes them secrete repugnatorial chemical.












Ashton, A (2013). Issues in Biological, Biochemical, and Evolutionary Sciences Research: 2013 Edition. Scholary edition.

Desender, K., Dufrene, M, Loreau, M, Luff, M.L, & Maelfait, J.P. (2013). Carabid Beetles: Ecology and Evolution. Springer Science & Business Media

Desender, K., Dufrêne, M., Loreau, M., Luff, M. L., & Maelfait, J.-P. (2013). Carabid Beetles: Ecology and Evolution. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Löbl, I., & Löbl, D. (2017). Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera: Volume 1. Leiden: Brill

Ōsawa, S., Su, Z.-H., & Inmura, Y. (2004). Molecular phylogeny and evolution of carabid ground beetles. Tokyo: Springer.




1216 Words  4 Pages

HOUSE FLY (Musca domestica) TRAPPER





Musca Domestica is a common house fly and a well-known cosmopolitan that is found on both homes and farms.  This paper reviews substantial and extensive literature available on the Musca Domestica and other pathogen house flies. Its origin can be traced back to the steppes of central Asia.  This fly can be found in urban and rural areas and can be associated with animal feces and decaying organic materials.  Pest control is needed to ensure that these flies do not pose a health risk to human beings.  To control the infestation of these flies in the house it is advisable to use traps to include, “House Fly Trap”.  It is not advisable to use pesticides to control these flies since they move fast and do not stay at one spot for a long time.  The purpose of this study is to shed light on eco-friendly ways that can be used to kill flies as well as determining the scent that flies are most are attracted to via creating a house fly trapper whose efficiency will be measured using the number of Musca Domestica flies it will trap.




The house fly, Musca Domestica, is a well-known cosmopolitan pest of both farm and home. This species is always found in association with humans or the activities of humans. It is the most common species found on farms, market places and restaurants and not to mention our home. Not only are house flies a nuisance, but they can also transport disease-causing organisms. Excessive fly populations are not only an irritant to farm workers but, when there are nearby human habitations, a public health problem could occur. People have the privilege to have a home since it is a basic need for humans like us. A home is where we feel safe and feel comfortable. However, house flies disrupt the peace at the same time in places where we eat and produce food like farms, carinderias, and restaurants.

This common fly originated on the steppes of central Asia but now occurs on all inhabited continents, in all climates from tropical to temperate, and in a variety of environments ranging from rural to urban. It is commonly associated with animal feces but has adapted well to feeding on garbage, so it is abundant almost anywhere people live. Although they seem like a minor irritation, infestations can increase in a short time. They enter the home when they locate an indoor source of decaying, organic material, or trash for them to lay their eggs. In 24 hours, eggs hatch into maggots which are characterized by small and white larva. Maggots feed on the same decaying and organic matter they were born in. The larval housefly’s purpose is to store nutrients for the preparation of the pupal stage of its life. After approximately four days, the larva will start to form hard, brown pupal cases that could usually be found in dry, dark locations. Adult flies are fast-moving and pupae are almost hard to locate. (Orkin, 2019).

The need for pest control is more critical since house flies are dangerous. Pest control helps keep them in check and will benefit your health. The researchers are conducting this research to help fight pest infestations. The researchers are working on a fly trap that can be very helpful to the problem and at the same time be eco-friendly means that do not require an external source of energy. (Karen and Orkin, 2019).

The researchers believe that the “House Fly Trap” is essential and helpful in eradicating these pests. Bug zappers are common nowadays, but they use electricity thus needing an external source of energy. The same results can be taken but without the use of an external source of energy using the House Fly Trap. House flies are a serious problem when not controlled and eradicated. Pesticides are not that effective as it is to other insects because flies move fast when disturbed, thus making it difficult to use insecticides. Good sanitation is the basic step in any fly management program. Food and materials on which the flies can lay eggs must be removed, destroyed as a breeding medium, or isolated from the egg-laying adult. Since the house fly can complete its life cycle in as little as seven days, the researchers want to create an effective house fly trapper. With the increasing incidence of insecticide-resistant house fly populations, rising costs of insecticides, and a growing public concern about actual or potential problems associated with insecticides, interest in alternative house fly control strategies has increased. So as researchers, we want to create a House Flytrap that will eliminate these pests without constantly buying an insecticide that is harmful to the environment and costly too.

            There are said to be at least 100 different pathogens house flies carry like viruses, bacteria, and parasite eggs. The bigger concern comes from fly vomit when these flies land on your meal, they puke digestive fluid onto the food to break it down so they can drink it because their mouthparts are different from other flies (Daniels, 2019). A house fly’s life cycle only lasts approximately 30 days, however, in their short lifetime, house flies can lay up to 500 eggs in their lifetime which are usually in batches of around 75 to 150. These eggs are deposited on decayed and fermenting rotting organic materials that are either from animals or from vegetables.  Heaps of animal dung provide the most suitable breeding sites for house flies (Hussein, et al., 2017). Also, fish meal provides a suitable breeding site.

            Flies are attracted to heat and unpleasant odors (Callahan, 2018).  On the other hand, houseflies are an important component of nutrient recycling in the environment. Housefly larvae can be used to bio grade manure which is an opportunity to reduce waste disposal. The biodegraded waste can be used to manufacture protein rich animal feeds (Hussein, et al., 2017). Housefly larvae is a source of nutritional value for daily cattle.

            Understanding the ecology of the Musca Domestica is important in understanding the health effects and effective control measures that can be implemented. Adult flies are more active during the day compared to night time. However, in some cases they adopt to artificial light and can be active during the night. During the day they are actively feeding on surfaces to include floors, walls, fences, garbage and on grasses. They are most inactive during the night and their most favorite resting place is the celling and various structures and when the temperatures are high indoors, they rest on leaves and fences (World Health Organization, n.d). The number of flies in a place is determined by the availability of breeding locations. Breeding locations are determined by the amount of sunshine, temperature and humidity. According to substantial research the densities of a fly are highest at mean temperature of 22-250 C, and decrease at temperatures that are below 220C(World Health Organization, n.d). At extremely low temperature the Musca Domestica can stay alive but in a dormant state provided it is either in the pupal or adult stage.

            Since they are most active during the day, they are mainly found gathered around feeding and breeding places, their behavior is extensively influenced by factors to include light, temperature, humidity, surface, color and texture (World Health Organization, n.d). All activities to include mating, flying and feeding stop at 150C. At low humidity they are very active. To effectively control flies, it essential to conduct extensive research into the resting places of flies. Measures that have been used before to control flies include the use of insecticides, the use of traps to include sticky tapes and electric grids. In addition, the implementation of environmental sanitation and hygienic practices has helped to control flies.



Conceptual Framework





 1x1x7 inch Wooden Frame



Firm wire

¼ Illustration Board

Duct Tape


  1. Create a schematic diagram.
  2. Gather materials listed in the schematic diagram.
  3. Recreate the schematic diagram as a prototype.
  4. Test for results.
  5. Correct the errors if needed.

HOUSE FLY (Musca domestica ) TRAPPER



Concepts and terms to be defined study; Trapper, prototype, Lures, Control Group and eco-friendly.


The Significance of the Study

            The people suffer from a fly which they would call a tiny annoyance but they are more dangerous as they seem. The need for eliminating these pests is critical and that’s what this study is concentrated on. The study is focused on apprehending them and eventually killing them in an eco-friendly way. The benefits of using an eco-friendly method to control flies will help in reducing the amount of carbon in the atmosphere.  The excessive emission of carbon has increased global warming and influenced climatic changes that adversely affect the world (Hussein, et al., 2017). The trapper will be more effective and environmentally friendly.  On a local scale the development of an eco-friendly way of controlling flies will help in the reduction of flies at a cheaper cost compared to the cost of using insecticides.  Also, the control of Musca Domestica will reduce the occurrence of diseases caused by this pathogen to include, typhoid fever, diarrhea, anthrax and dysentery in Baguio City, Cordillera Administrative region. 


Objectives of the Study

This study aims to create a house fly trapper that will test the following:

  • Compare the efficiency of House Fly (Musca Domestica) Trapper in terms of how many house flies were trapped.
  • To determine which scent flies are attracted to during a specific timeline.




Study Design

            This study was a qualitative one because we were testing the efficiency of House Fly (Musca Domestica) Trapper in attracting the said insect. The trapper used a wide variety of lures to lure the flies into the trap. The lure used had a strong smell that flies were highly attracted to, and for them to go closer, they eventually need to go inside and were trapped as they didn’t know the way out, since they don’t know the concept of the hole as an exit. The depended variable of the study was the lure, since different lures were used. The independent variable of the study was the trapper.



The materials are as follows; 1x1x7 inches of wood used as a frame, wire mesh used for the outer covering, stapler used to attach the wire mesh to the wood, nails to put together the frame, door hinge for the opening of the prototype, funnel as the passageway of the flies, old cardboard for the top and bottom covering.



After planning with the schematic diagram, the researchers will assemble the prototype using the said materials. Following that, the researchers will test the prototype. Then, they will record and take note of the errors in the prototype. And this will repeat until the researchers acquired good enough results.


Testing Procedure

- Find a place where flies are commonly spotted.

- The researchers will use 3 different lures which are Fish, Corn, and Banana.

- Test the effectiveness of the lure and the prototype itself.

- Record the pros and cons of the lure and the prototype.


Treatment of Data


            The trapper’s performance will be dependent on how strong the smell of the lure and its effectiveness. The efficacy and duration are affected by the type of lure used. One of its limitations is the area it can cover and the weather it can be used in. Besides these limitations, the house fly trapper will still deliver its purpose, which is to attract the House Fly and trap them when they are inside the prototype. The researchers will conduct procedures to the trapper if it can meet the objectives of the study.

Ethical Considerations


The researchers will deal with the lab work of the study with proper safety procedures. The researchers should use safety equipment such as rubber gloves to protect their hands and face masks so that they can only smell a limited amount of scent. The researchers should aim to achieve our objectives in the research to accomplish the necessary things. Their data should not be harmed to keep it legitimate and avoid it being false. The research must also undergo proper disposal. The researchers should include putting the trash in the assigned laboratory waste bins such as hazardous waste.


Results and Discussions


The researchers texted the lures with and without the prototype, here are the results.

Without Prototype:



Control Group


Amount Lured

Raw Fish        

House Fly       

60 minutes      


Cooked Corn

House Fly       

60 minutes      



House Fly       

60 minutes      


With Prototype:




Control Group


Amount Lured

Raw Fish

House Fly       

60 minutes


Cooked Corn

House Fly       

60 minutes



House Fly       

60 minutes



The foul smell of raw fish that was left out to rot attracted and lured over fifty houseflies in one hour, the foul smell of cooked rotten corn attracted and lured 45 houseflies in an hour and rotten banana smell attracted 22 houseflies in a span of one hour. Form the above result it can be concluded that the houseflies were more attracted to the foul smell of fish more than other smells. Without the prototype no flies were lured.

Some flies were attracted to the leftover banana, some were attracted to the juice found in the leftover corn and most flies were attracted to the raw fish due to it having a stronger rotting factor, which can be proven by just how strong the smell is. Since the wire mesh made the lure too exposed to the outside, it makes the scent strong enough to satisfy the flies just by staying by the frame which isn’t intended by the researchers for it should bring the flies inside to be trapped. They weren’t going to the funnel entrance and were just surrounding the prototype from the outside.




The results formed a conclusion to the researchers that the prototype didn’t quite achieve the requirements of objective 1. The fish, corn, and banana were very effective in luring the flies to the prototype however, the flies are hindered by the prototype to go in the interior of it due to it having more options for the flies to do with it, in other words, they were just staying outside the prototype than the intention of the researchers to bring them inside for them to be trapped. The prototype should be more straight-forward to limit its options and force the flies into the interior of the prototype. The prototype should be able to apprehend the house flies efficiently, as the researchers have hypothesized, but due to errors, the researchers have decided to redesign the prototype to fix the errors. However, in objective 2, it was a success. Although the prototype wasn’t a complete success, the researchers proved that house flies are highly attractive to fish. It was recorded as a great attraction to house flies without the prototype, but they were also effective with the prototype but didn’t trap any flies due to the structure of the prototype Finding a scent that lures the files to the trap was effective, however, developing a prototype that traps the files was not a success. Also, there was no plan on how the flies would be killed once they are in the trap or long it would take the flies to die.



The prototype is recommended to be revised due to errors in the design. The researchers recommend using a plastic cover for the outer covering, acetate or uPVC can be used instead of the firm wire. For easier disposal, they also recommend making the base of the prototype a sliding type of door so that when there is a need to change the lure or to dispose of the body of

the dead flies, they can easily fall through the sliding door.

 The researchers suggest using raw fish for the lure since they are very attractive to the flies and are apparent even in the marketplace. For best results, it should be at its rotten state for at least 3 days. Although using other lures e.g. leftovers can be used if raw fish is not available. For maximum usage, the disposable lures should be placed in the soil for it to act as fertilizer considering it is biodegradable.  It is can be recommended that future development of the prototype ensures that there is a way to let in flies in the trap without letting them out.  Also, it is recommended that future research seek to ensure that the foul smell doesn’t affect the human sense of smell since it will be used in open spaces.














































Callahan. (2018, March 30). Large Flies and Odors: Understanding the link. Retrieved from;         

Hussein, M., Pillai, V. V., Goddard, J. M., Park, H. G., Kothapalli, K. S., Ross, D. A., ... &           Johnson, P. A. (2017). Sustainable production of housefly (Musca domestica) larvae as a         protein-rich feed ingredient by utilizing cattle manure. PLoS One, 12(2), e0171708.      

Karen. (2019, May 9). Are Bug Zappers Effective.

Laliberte, M. (2017, September 16). The Gross Truth About What Happens When Flies Land in Your Food.

Orkin (2019). House Flies. Retrieved from;      

Rentokil Pest Control Ireland. (2018, April 9). 10 interesting facts about house flies you never     knew. Retrieved from;

Types of House Fly Problems & Solutions. (2019). Retrieved from;  

University of Florida (2017). Featured Creatures. Retrieved from;   

What Attracts Flies: How to Attract & Get Rid of Flies. (2019). Retrieved from;    

World Health Organization (n.d).  Houseflies. Retrieved from;   





























Cost Analysis






1x1x7 inch Wooden Frame









Firm Wire



Illustration Board



Duct Tape


































2975 Words  10 Pages

Evolution of the circulatory system


            The circulatory system is one of the many biological systems in the body.  This paper will focus on the circulatory system- a system that transports blood to the body. There are various parts that work together to ensure a smooth flow of blood, oxygen, nutrients, and other important substances. It is important to note that unicellular organisms use diffusion to transport water, nutrients, and gases.  However, in a multicellular organism such as human beings, animals, and plants, there is a need of a rapid and efficient system that can move blood to the body cells. In a multicellular organism, there must be a bulk flow of the blood and this made it easier through the blood pump. For the blood to flow from the heart, it is important to note that the pulmonary circuit and the systemic circuit play major roles. The pulmonary circuit carries the blood with more carbon dioxide and less oxygen. It then transports the blood to the lungs where it is treated by unloading carbon dioxide and adding oxygen. The systemic circuit carries the oxygenated blood and transports it to the body.  In both circuits, the vessels and capillaries play an important role in carrying blood from and back to the heart, and also to deliver nutrients and other essential materials.

 The evolution of the circulatory system

            Fisher & Berggren (2007) talks about the evolution of the circulatory system and asserts that the supply of oxygen to the multicellular organism evolved several million years ago.   Energy from the sun converted water and carbon dioxide to create sugar molecules, and oxygen provided chemical energy to break the glucose. The oxygen in the earth's atmosphere was high and this resulted to an oxygen crisis. The high concentration of oxygen or oxygen intolerance killed anaerobes organisms (Fisher & Burggren, 2007).  However, some organisms prevented themselves from oxidative stress. The high accumulation of oxygen created a toxic environment but despite the oxygen deprivation or changes in oxygen availability, multicellular organisms used the gene-based system to maintain the supply of oxygen. Hypoxia-inducible transcription factor was used to regulate oxygen in mammalian cells (Fisher & Burggren, 2007).  It is important to note that the Hypoxia-inducible transcriptions factor was a cell-autonomous system and this means that large and complex animals experienced herniation due to reduced energy supplies.  Since the multicellular organism could not survive with simple diffusion, new methods of oxygen delivery were developed. Since the multicellular organisms increased oxygen demand, a high-pressure system was required to supply the oxygen. Rather than relying on environment changes, the multicellular organism had a big body size that affected the metabolic rate (Fisher & Burggren, 2007). These animals also had large organs such as the heart and brain that required an effective system. The circulatory system evolved and it was realized that in vertebrates, the blood circulated in the body through the arterial vascular network.  During the circulatory process, the oxygen-in form of a protein known as hemoglobin is carried into the respiratory cells (Fisher & Burggren, 2007).   The blood that has less oxygen moves from the lungs to the heart for cleaning and further transportation.


Structure and functions of the circulatory system


  Two great arteries proceed from the right ventricles and left ventricle. The Pulmonary artery proceeds from the right ventricle and then forms other branches-right pulmonary arteries and left pulmonary arteries (Marshall, 2010).  The left pulmonary artery splits into other several branches. The function of the arteries is to ensure that all cells of the body have received blood from the heart. The largest arteries are known as the aorta splits into other arteries which transports blood to different body organs.



            Capillaries are thin walls where the exchange of substances such as gas, nutrients, hormones, and more occur (Marshall, 2010). It is important to note that capillaries are found in tissues and this is where the exchange of materials takes place.


  It is important to note that the products in the capillaries that are oxidized and which are waste go into the veins.  Therefore, veins split from the capillary network and their role is to absorb products and returns them to their respective places (Marshall, 2010). In general, veins prevent blood flow back to the capillaries and ensures an effective flow of blood to the heart.

 Lymphatic system

 The lymphatic system also plays a role in the circulatory system as they transport a clear fluid to the heart.  The system assist the circulatory system by maintaining blood and tissue volume, it helps in the absorption of dietary lipids, and also in immune cell trafficking (Santambrogio, 2013). The lymphatic system has vessels that regulated immune response by allowing the passage of extravagated leukocytes. The system also contains lymphatic capillaries to allow the flow of interstitial fluid. Impairment can occur in the lymphatic system due to genetic mutations, or other conditions such as chylothorax, autoimmune diseases, filariasis, and more (Santambrogio, 2013). In general, as part of the circulatory system, the lymphatic system acts as a defense mechanism, ensures the transportation of molecular compounds to the bloodstreams, the transportation of digested fats to the bloodstreams, and the transports of tissue fluids into the blood system.


 Heart evolution in vertebrates

 The heart is an important part that ensures a smooth flow of blood during the circulatory process. The heart evolved 500 million years ago and since it ovulation, many changes, and adaptations have occurred (Stephenson, et al. 2017). Multicellular life appeared about 750 million years ago and later Phylum Porifera evolved. The ancient multicellular organisms had asymmetric shape. For example, the sponge is a multicellular organism that has only two germ layers. They do not have the circulatory system and they use the motions of water currents for oxygen and nutrients supply (Stephenson, et al. 2017).  However, 700-600 million years ago, bilateral symmetry evolved in about 1.5 million species.  The bilateralisms contained the third germ layer known as mesoderm.  It was found that the heart developed in the mesoderm.  Besides, the bilaterians have primordial gene patterns (Stephenson, et al. 2017). The first circulatory primordial occurred in the bilaterian.  They had a single-layered tube with an open circulatory system. However, an open circulatory system lacked heart chambers and therefore there was no proper one-way flow of blood or in other words, only a little blood traveled to the body organs. Later, all chordates including the vertebrates had a multicellular chambered heart and a circulatory system. This led to the anatomy and physiology of the heart in vertebrates (Stephenson, et al. 2017).  The study of the heart was done using primitive vertebrates such as hagfish, agnathans, and others.  The anatomical studies found that the vertebrates have a circulatory system after finding evidence of the movement of oxygen in the circulatory system.  This marked the vertebrate's evolutional history.



Chambers of the heart


  The right atrium and left atrium- the intertribal septum divides the atriums and makes the right atrium lie in front of the left atrium.  However, the two chambers are separated by an intertribal septum (Lippincott et al. 2007).  Both left and right atrium play a similar role in holding the blood which is then transported to the ventricles. However, the right atrium holds the blood with more carbon dioxide while the upper chamber on the left side holds the blood with less carbon dioxide

Right Ventricle and left ventricles- both ventricles serves a similar role of pumping blood. However, the blood with much carbon dioxide and which is transported by the right atrium is received by the right ventricle and pumped into the pulmonary arteries (Lippincott et al. 2007). On the other hand, the blood with rich in oxygen and less in carbon dioxide and which is transported by the left atrium is received by the left ventricle where it pumped into the systematic circulation.  Both ventricles are separated by the interventricular septum.





  Multicellular organism benefits from the circulatory system. First, all processes in the circulatory system ensure effective exchange and transportation of nutrients and oxygen. Also, the process ensures healthy cells. For example, the heart is an amazing organ that pumps blood when one as asleep and while working. Having understood how the heart works and the benefits of the circulatory system, it is important to protect our hearts from illness. Human beings can avoid risk factors such as poor diet stress, high cholesterol level, and smoking among other factors. It is also important to ensure regular physical activity to prevent illnesses such as heart attack, high blood pressure, and others.










Fisher, S. A., & Burggren, W. W. (2007). Role of hypoxia in the evolution and development of

the cardiovascular system. Antioxidants & redox signaling9(9), 1339-1352.


Marshall, J., (2010). A description of the human body: Its structure & functions. the Bavarian

State Library


Santambrogio, L. (2013). Immunology of the lymphatic system. L. Santambrogio (Ed.). New

York: Springer.


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins., & Ovid Technologies, Inc. (2007). ECG strip ease.

Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Stephenson, A., Adams, J. W., & Vaccarezza, M. (2017). The vertebrate heart: an evolutionary

perspective. Journal of anatomy231(6), 787-797.




1521 Words  5 Pages

                   Comparing Biology and International Relations Disciplines

Biology and International Relations are two different disciplines, Biology discipline falls under the category of natural sciences while International Relations can be categorized under the social sciences. The research sources in the two disciplines differ greatly beginning with the definitions of primary and secondary sources in both disciplines. In Biology, primary resources are preferred as compared to the secondary sources because they include original research experiments and findings. The primary sources are referred to be the documents that are written by researchers and they must include details of the methodology, data, the results and the conclusions (Sudhakar, 2015). The secondary resources in Biology are referred to be those documents that compare, summarize and this mainly include literature reviews and they are mainly used when one is trying to find background information on a topic.

Secondary sources are the most preferred in International Relations discipline, because the scholars are forced to rely on historical documentaries fond in archives (Guillaume, 2017). International Relations is explored through paradigms that help to give theories a reference point in a wider conceptual framework. International Relations is explored through positivism and post-positivism paradigms and they help to inform on the kind of methodology to be used (Guillaume, 2017).

When it comes to research methods, International Relations uses qualitative research methods, though there are times when mixed methods are followed. Biology discipline on the other hand follows the quantitative research method and other times may follow the mixed method. Hypotheses in Biology disciplines are adjusted based on the experiments conducted, an element that does not happen in the International Relation discipline where the hypotheses is either supported or not supported after the data analysis (Sudhakar, 2015). Both disciplines utilize experimental research methodology, though it is much more common with the biological disciplines. The experimental research has two phases, the first phase is known as the exploratory phase and it is where the researcher decides on the research questions and the second phase is the evaluation phase and it is where the research questions are answered (Sudhakar, 2015).

The arguments that are made in International Relations are based on historical concepts and not much explanations or interpretations are required. Most of the concepts are explained using plain language that is easy for everyone to understand. On the other hand, Biology disciplines use analytical data that needs to be interpreted to make it easily understandable. Most of the scientific data uses formulas that are not familiar to every individual that is reading the articles, therefore an explanation need to be made in order for everyone to understand the research.

The analysis process used in International Relations is subjective in nature, in that the data is based on personal opinions and the point of view of the researchers. The fact that secondary resources are used means that the scholars have to rely on the point of view of the historical documents, they do not have a chance to conduct their own research and make their own observations (Sudhakar, 2015). On the other hand the analysis process used in Biology disciplines is objective in nature meaning that it is based on facts. The data that is acquired through observations is what helps to come up with the final verdict of a research (Sudhakar, 2015). A biology researcher needs to give clear facts derived from the study to prove his or her point in order for it to be valid.






Guillaume, X. (2017). Routledge handbook of International political sociology. London:


Sudhakar, Goparaju. (2015). Scientific Research Methodology Vs. Social Science Research

            Methodology. MTC Global Journal of Management and Entrepreneurship. 3. 36-40.


606 Words  2 Pages



            The sense of smell mainly depends on the olfactory cells that are contained in the nose. The nose is a protuberance that is situated between the mouth and the eyes. It makes part of the respiratory system that allow a person to breath in (inhalation) and out (exhalation). Other than breathing, the presence of the olfactory receptor or cells makes it possible for a person to feel, perceive, or differentiate different odors.  As much as sense of smell is concerned, olfaction is the main strategy that is used for the purpose of enhancing or forming sense and smell. The reason for that is because research indicates that olfaction has various factions including detecting food, pheromones, and environmental hazards (Brewster, 2012). In the process of integrating with other senses it becomes possible to develop the sense of flavor. On the other hand, what this indicates is the fact that human sense of smell takes into account the functionalities of the olfactory receptors that are located just within the nasal cavity (Brewster, 2012).

            Within the nasal cavity, the presence of glomeruli is the one that aid in receiving signals from the olfactory cells before transmitting them to the olfactory bulb. The triggering of the sensory input is what enables the interactions of section of the detection sections of the brain to enhance smell identification, memory, or arousal of emotions.  Regardless of that, it should be understood that each organism, especially land and water animals has different smell detection mechanisms (Carey, 2010).

            Accordingly, once a person detects a certain smell using the olfactory neurons that are located in the upper section of the nose, they end up generating an impulse that is transmitted to the brain. Using the olfactory bulb, there is the transmission of the smell signals to other associated regions that are collectively termed as the limbic system. Despite that, research indicates that animals that animals possessing olfactory cells have the potential of thinking smells which in return enables them to them to evoke certain memories (Carey, 2010). Although such a scenario can occur spontaneously, smell detection has the potential of recalling past forgotten experience or events.

            In connection with that, although the sense of smell is something that is closely associated with memory, it is a phenomenon that is highly emotive. For instance, smell is something that has been realized to have the capability of displaying the attractions that exists between people. Ideally, the odor that is produced by the human body is a chemical that is the genes that are contained in an individual’s immune system. What this implies is the fact that an emotional response is something that is ultimately governed by association. The reason as to why the sense of smell is important is because it an adaptive trait that is associated with survival, especially fear and disgust. For instance, the perception of bad smell has the potential of triggering avoidance behaviors (Carey, 2010).  Therefore, the sensitivity towards certain smell is associated with particular stimuli which in return have a direct link to memory. Moreover, there are various disorders that impact human sense of smell, for example, insomnia, parosmia, hypersmia, and so on. A person continues to develop a sense of smell as he or she grows but later becomes impaired due to injury and other associated illness.







Brewster, J. (2012). Investigate your sense of smell. Pelham, NY: Benchmark Education.

Carey, M. (2010). Sense of Smell. ABDO Press


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 Stem Cell Research

            Stem cells are cells with the capability to grow into practical ones that can execute many functions of the body. Although most of the body cells are only capable of serving specific tasks in a definite organ, stem cells have never undergone differentiation. This means that they have the capacity to split and make as many replicas of themselves as possible. Various researches that have been carried out indicate the possibilities that pluripotent cells have in conquering the previously incurable diseases and condition (Cafasso, 2017). However, fear and worries have risen due to the potential misuse of the technology, which might then result in the destruction of both social/personal well-being of individuals (Railton, 2019). This paper will discuss the issues surrounding the development, usage, and damage of the human embryos.

            The promise that the stem cell has on the treatment of different kinds of conditions is what has created the need to research on it. The cells have the capacity to become some or, all 206 types of cells that are present in the body. Due to this, there are suggestions that it can even develop and form a whole-body organ, which can then contribute to transplantation. However, critical ethical concerns are challenging the practice of destroying human embryos for the purpose of stem cell derivation (Railton, 2019). This is based on the claims that the embryo is human life that has moral values that warrant protection; thus, it is unethical.

            Stem cell research is something that is continuing in many institutions of higher education, research organizations, and medical facilities all over the globe. Additionally, several explorations have been done to determine the way the cells are capable of forming tissues and organs, how aging influences their functions and the function that they play in various disorders (Bose & Mattrey, 2019). Besides, tissues development in the stem cells has been used to help in the discovery of new medication that can aid in altering the progress of multiple diseases.

However, the primary attention on stem cells research currently is the issue of findings methods to control the process and how they differentiate. Over the years, scientists have tried to develop techniques to influence the stem cell course in order to generate a precise cell type, what is known as direct differentiation which has not been successful (Bose & Mattrey, 2019). If researchers can find a consistent approach to control the differentiation of the embryonic stem cells, they may be capable of using the cells to effectually treat certain types of sicknesses like cancer, stroke and many other chronic disorders.

            For decades, various legislations have been developed regarding stem cells research. There had been an evolvement of the policies from banning federal funding for studies that engaged in the destruction of human embryos, to restriction of the number of human embryonic stem cell lines that were likely to be used in researches that were funded by the federal government to 21 viable lines (Kington, 2019). The ban of using federal fund was then overturned by the Obama executive order, which gave way as long as the ethical policies presented by the National Institute of Health are met. Some of the policies indicate that the human embryonic stem cells that are obtained from humans must be; those grown through in vitro fertilization for reproduction which was no longer needed, those donated by persons seeking reproductive treatment and who provided a written consent for the human embryos to be used for research purposes (Kington, 2019). The policies also indicate that there must be assurance with documentation such as written policies, consent form, and other documents with no payment of any kind offered for the donated embryos.

            Stem cell research has the enormous potential of causing a substantial influence on the health of individuals. Therefore, the disagreement involving the use and damage of the human embryo is something that must be dealt with fast to facilitate its development (Railton, 2019). For example, the concerns can be eased by scientists using the newly found method of turning adult and umbilical cord blood stem cells because they have been considered to be free from any ethical issues. Furthermore, the embryonic stem cells can also be extracted from aborted IVF cases which have not been actively/intrusively obtained directly from living embryos. This can help in addressing the challenges experienced by the scientist concerning the acquisition of the stem cells from the embryos and getting enough financial resources to promote the project.

            Conclusively, stem cell research is an essential element that can bring a positive change in the health sector when the necessary expertise and improvement in technology is applied. Moreover, with the potential that pluripotent stem cells have in dealing with initially incurable diseases, and other conditions, the steps regarding the collection process for example in human embryos need to be stopped and other alternatives used.














Bose, R. J. C., & Mattrey, R. F. (2019). Accomplishments and challenges in stem cell

imaging in vivo. Drug Discovery Today, 24(2), 492–504.

Cafasso, J. (2017, July 8). Stem Cell Research: Uses, Types & Examples. Retrieved from:   

Kington, R. (2019). National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research. Retrieved 16 September 2019, from

Railton, D. (2019, February 18). Stem cells: Therapy, controversy, and research. Retrieved










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All living things are made up of cells which make up the basic structure of life.  Since the cells also reproduce, those that exist in the body at any given time are as a result of the previous cells in the body.  In the case of plants, animals and most, if not all living things, the cells are responsible for the development of different parts of the body in the case of animals and parts that make up other living things.  Cells in both plants and animals can be divided into eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.  The eukaryotic cells are classified as either plant cells or animal cells and they are distinguished from prokaryotic cells because their cytoplasm contains membranous organelles.  They also have chromosomal proteins and a nuclear membrane.  Most of the genetic material in a cell is found in the nucleus of the eukaryotic cells and it is responsible for controlling all the activities that occur in the cell as it serves as the cell's analogous blueprint. 

The nucleus is also responsible for transcription of cells and replication of DNA.  While in the ribosomes, translation of mRNA occurs triggering the protein synthesis for the cells.  The ribosomes are important especially because they facilitate protein assembly which also includes enzymes that are responsible for various cellular functions within the cells (Robeneck & Severs,  2007).  When it comes to synthesizing lipids and detoxing the body off drugs or other metabolic processes, the responsibility falls to endoplasmic, which is divided into smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum.  The rough endoplasmic reticulum carries out protein synthesis and this is made possible by the ribosomes present.  In the case for plants, the cells contain cell membranes and cell walls that regulate the entry and exit of substances in and out of the cell and through this process, the cells are able to maintain its internal balance. 

Plant cells tend to differ from those for animals as they possess a Golgi apparatus that moves vesicles from the smooth endoplasmic reticulum to other parts of the cell.  The plant cells also have chloroplast which is involved in the photosynthesis process which allows plants to convert light from the sun into energy (Hayat,  2012)The process involves the absorption of carbon dioxide, sunlight and water which is then converted into glucose which is used up by plant cells. Plants also go through cellular respiration like animals and this occurs in the mitochondria where energy is created in the form of ATP and is absorbed by the cells. Photosynthesis can therefore only occur if there is light energy from the sun which is then converted into a chemical energy in the form of glucose.

The survival of cells is greatly dependent on their ability to isolate itself from the environment it exists in and this is made possible by a plasma membrane and also the energy the cell gets through cellular respiration as well as ATP. The cell membrane that isolates the cell from its environment comprises of a phospholipid bilayer that further has proteins attached to it and they serve as the transport mechanism which maintains homeostasis in the cell (Hayat,  2012). The membrane further acts as the receptor sites for the cell and also in the immune system that allows cells performing related functions to recognize each other. Transport in the cell occurs through either passive or active transport. The cells also undergo cellular respiration which is responsible for producing ATP and since it is the cell’s source of energy, it facilitates the occurrence of various cellular processes among which is the transportation of protein. The process occurs in two main phases, one of which is glycolysis. Glycolysis is the process in which glucose is broken down into pyruvic acid. The pyruvic acid is then oxidized into carbon dioxide and finally to water. The process takes place in the eukaryotes where glycolysis takes place in the cytosol while the rest of the process moves to the mitochondria.

Another important process for cells is cellular reproduction and it is the process in which new cells are formed. The reproduction occurs either through Mitosis or Meiosis. While mitosis occurs for all cells, meiosis only occurs for sex cell or gamete cells. When the cellular reproduction is taking place, the cells make copies of their content and then transfer them to their daughter cells. And it facilitates daily activities as well as promoting growth (Howell, 2000).  Other than producing two daughter cells that are identical, mitosis is also responsible for the production of non sex or somatic cells and asexual reproduction.  Meiosis on the other hand produces four daughter cells that have different genetic makeup and are responsible for the production of sex cells or germ cells. It is therefore responsible for the genetic diversity achieved through crossing over allowing living things like human beings to reproduce.

Traits from the cells can also be transferred from one generation to the next through Mendelian inheritance. According to Mendel’s law, the dominant traits are inherited from parents and the process is made possible by chromosomes that transport the genetic material. Since different offspring generations have different genotypes, the cells are able to produce different physical traits or phenotypes as a result of the different gene combinations (Hasan, 2005)The process involves the condensation of DNA into chromosomes and chromatin which in turn allows the DNA to be transferred to the offspring. When mutation occurs however, various complications may come about one of which is cancer. In a case where cell reproduction is uncontrollable, tumors are formed and in the case of cancer, the cells also have mutations which result in uncontrollable division of the cells (Hasan, 2005). The process often occurs at a genetic level and the cancer spreads when it leaves the cell of origin and affects major organs of the body such as the brain. To try and remedy the effects, gene therapy or gene control is carried out where the mutations in the cancer cells are targeted by the gene therapy. If possible, gene therapy would present a faster and more effective way to treat cancer. While there are other methods in use such as chemotherapy, a better solution would give a major boost in the fight against cancer. This is especially because the use of chemotherapy involves a chemical process whose side effects poses great risks to other organs in the body that may not necessarily be affected by the cancer.


















Hasan, H. (2005). Mendel and the laws of genetics. New York: Rosen Pub. Group.

Hayat, M. A. (2012). Stem cells and cancer stem cells: Volume 5. Dordrecht: Springer.

Howell, S. H. (2000). Molecular genetics of plant development. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Robeneck H and Severs J,  (2007) "Cell interactions in atherosclerosis" CRC Press



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            The circulatory or the cardiovascular system takes the responsibility of supplying the human body with blood. Mainly, it comprises of capillaries, veins, arteries, and the heart. Despite that cardiovascular disorders have been realized to be some of the main causes of deaths globally. According to modern medical research, there are various means that can be used for the means of reducing the chances of developing such conditions (Ashley & Niebauer, 2004). That takes into consideration some of the therapeutic options that can be recommended by the doctors depending on the CVD of a person. The reason for that is because the symptoms and the prevention mechanisms of each patient always overlap. In this case, coronary artery disease will be analyzed taking into consideration the means to use in managing it.

Explain how the factor you selected might influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in the patient from the case study you were assigned.

            As much as coronary artery disease is concerned, it is important for a person to seek the prevailing medical attentions that has the potential of improving the perceived pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes. Although it is vital for a person with severe coronary artery disease to be subjected to surgical procedures, cardiac rehabilitation is also vital for the purpose of improving therapy as well as speeding recovery (Willis et al., 2014). Ideally, the cardiac rehabilitation recommended in this case will have to take account things like monitoring personal daily exercises, emotional support, nutritional counseling, and so on so as to minimize risks of heart problems. As a result of that, it is important for the patient to seek regular medical check-up so as to be in the position of determining the progress of this disorder (Marmot & Elliott, 2005). 

Describe how changes in the processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy. Be specific and provide examples.

            As much as the use of drugs can be recommended as one of the options for elevating that condition, it is important for a person to follow some of the recommended therapeutic rules. This will have to take into account things like maintaining regular exercises, improving diet, as well as other healthcare habits that have the potential of alleviating coronary artery disease symptoms. As a result of that, it will be possible for the patient to have the potential of slowing down the progress of the disease as well as improving his or her everyday life. The reason for that is because the modern therapeutic research indicates that the majority of people suffering from mild to moderate coronary artery disease have the ability of living normal live (Crea et al., 2014). 

            In accordance with that, it is evident that the treatment of heart disease always varies depending on the immunity of a person. For example, some patients can be given antibiotics to heal their heart infections. Despite that, it is evident that the treatment of heart infections will have to take into account various procedures. The first one is lifestyle changes which will have to take into account the importance of moderating one’s normal exercises, consuming low-sodium, and low-fat diet, limiting alcohol intake, and quitting smoking. Another process that can impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy is the type of medication being subjected to (Esselstyn, 2007). The reason for that is because the type of medication that the patient will end up receiving will ultimately depend on the prescribed treatment. Basically, in case lifestyle changes that have been recommended for the patient might not be sufficient, it will be paramount for the doctor to consider the type of heart disease the patient is suffering from or the extent of damage it could have induced. On the other hand, in case the medications provided to the patient might not be enough, the best rationale entails recommending certain medical procedures or surgery. The same process will have to take into account personal lifestyle changes and the level of his or her coronary artery disease (Marmot & Elliott, 2005). 

Explain how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan and explain why you would make these recommended improvements.

            According to modern medical research, coronary artery disease is something that has been realized to evolve as a result of damaging the heart for long period of time. Although it can be treated, it is important to take into consideration the immunity of the patient before coming up with other strategies to improve the perceived symptoms. As a result of that, what this implies is the fact that its successful treatment will rely on personal willingness to be involved in the prevailing drug therapy plans. Ideally, it is vital for the family and other associated caregivers to play an active role in improving the perceived healthcare plans (Crea et al., 2014). 

            Nonetheless, regardless of the prevailing clinical trials, it is vital for the patient to ensure that he or she has followed all the recommended improvements. For instance, this will have to take into account things like changing diet, routinely exercises, and so on. The reason for that is because it has the ability of improving the quality of life of the patient suffering from such a condition. Ideally, it is also imperative for a person to continue seeking the modern medical trials to determine the best therapeutic attention to receive. The same procedure applies to the need of determining the side effects of the treatment being given (Esselstyn, 2007).





Ashley, E. A., & Niebauer, J. (2004). Cardiology explained. London: Remedica

Crea, F., Lanza, G. A., & Camici, P. G. (2014). Coronary microvascular dysfunction. Milan: Springer.

Esselstyn, C. B. (2007). Prevent and reverse heart disease: The revolutionary, scientifically proven, nutrition-based cure. New York: Avery.

In Willis, M. S., In Homeister, J. W., & In Stone, J. R. (2014). Cellular and Molecular Pathobiology of Cardiovascular Disease.

Marmot, M. G., & Elliott, P. (2005). Coronary heart disease epidemiology: From aetiology to public health



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