Philosophy

Q1

Pragmatism is a philosophical movement that rejects the function of thought and instead considers thought as an instrument for prediction action and problem-solving. It emphasizes the practical use of knowledge that can lead to success. This is done by the practical application of the ideas by a way of acting to them and actually tests them in human experiences. Pragmatism aims at changing the universe instead of unchanging the idealist, Thomists, and Realists (Moore, 1988). As an administrator, there are many problems that an organization faces in its operation. This implies that the administrated should be well equipped to solve the problems, especially in the changing world (Howell, 2012). Pragmatism enables the administrator to overcome the challenge the distinction of the tough and the tender-minded. This enables the manager to adhere epistemic standards of the tough-minded employees who are resistant to change (Moore, 1988).

Understanding the philosophy used by the administrator helps in analyzing the best strategy to use in the organization. This helps in preparation of the employees as they work in the real world. The goal set for the philosophy helps the administrator prepare the employees in the world of business in which they live in. the philosophy helps the administrator in solving the various problems in business which other employees can learn from and prepare them in the advanced stages of their career where they can apply the same technique (Howell, 2012).  An example of this philosophy is when the organization is facing a high number of staff turnovers who are lost to the organization competitors. As an administrator, the issue has to be solved with immediate effect in order to stop the menace. This includes listening to their views and acting upon it in the best way possible (Moore, 1988).

Q2

I used my personal inventory as an assessment tool for my career. The results for my inventory revealed the information about strengths, weakness, social trait, motivation, and attitude (Gailbraith, 1990). The results were not as expected as I had not considered some of my traits to be that important. In some cases I was accurate such as being able to express myself, trusted to keep other people secrets, being an optimistic person and not quitting before I finish a certain task. I was neutral on some cases as well as I did not exercise on regular places and that I did not have some special urge to do something until it was becoming a threat to me personal. I was inaccurate in some instant as I preferred to be alone in most cases rather than in a group of friends.

The implication of the personal inventory relieved that I had some areas that I should focus on in order to improve my personal inventory. This is because personal inventory plays a major role in career and job satisfaction. As the employers frequently use personal inventory as a tool that assists them in hiring decisions implies that I have to work hard in improving my traits so that I may have a higher score than I have (Gailbraith, 1990).  I can use my personal inventory to verify the career that I am considering. I can also use it in finding that occupation that I never thought of as it was able to shed some more light of who I am and never knew I was.

 

 

 

 

Reference

Dr, Howell, R. T. (2012). Journal of Industrial Teachers Education. Virginia Tech.

Gailbraith, M, W. (1990).Philosophy Of Adult Education Inventory. Kreiger Publishing Co., Malabar, FL.

Moore, G. E. (1988). A Philosophy Primer for Agricultural Educators. The Agricultural education magazine December, 1988; vol. 61: Num. 6

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Moral Philosophies and cognitive Moral Development Wk-4

Virtue ethic is a moral philosophy that I have witnessed that has influenced the outcome of an ethical dilemma. According to Statman (1997), virtue ethic focuses on the essential rightness without regards for its consequences. One example of the way virtue ethic influenced the outcomes of the ethical dilemma in a present organization is introducing of free religious implication. Virtue ethic offers an internalizing way and integrating regulations that are intrinsically motivating to the whole organization. Virtue ethic does not focus on religious terminology so as to make an agreement of enthusiasm but instead it supplies an internal in a better way in order to obtain the good outcome in an ethical dilemma.

Currently, my organization and co-workers are in stage four that is the authority and social-order-maintaining orientation of Kohlberg’s moral development. Law and order morality is an example of my current organization and co-worker that illustrates the stage four of Kohlberg’s moral development. Stage four of Kohlberg’s moral development its emphasis on how my co-workers and organization can work for instance by obeying rules, respecting one another and by helping one another in the organization so as to maintain the outcomes of the organization. Law and order morality help my co-workers to perform their duties efficiently while maintaining social order in the organization. In the organization, everybody has to obey the law and order because if anyone fails, everyone is there in an obligation of upholding the rules. By the law and order morality has made my co-worker to be more motivated hence working hard to the goal set by the organization (Kohlberg, 1981).

 

 

References

Kohlberg, L. (1981). The philosophy of moral development. San Francisco: Harper and

Row.

 

Statman, D. (1997) Virtue Ethics. Cambridge: Edinburgh University Press.

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            Motivational Theories

Theories of motivation are designed to handle the rationale behind the actions of every individual in an organization in the course of the activities while working. This additionally includes the tools that may be incorporated by the management to handle the employees (Editorial Board, 2015).  This paper will, therefore, present and discussion of two theories which are Maslow’s Hierarchy and Herzberg’s two-Factor Theory.

Maslow’s Hierarchy motivational theory is grounded on the idea of hierarchy needs which some categories of needs taking greater priority as compared to others based on their high standard of relevance to individuals (Editorial Board, 2015).  According to Maslow, there are five distinct individual needs that are in existence with safety, esteem, social, physiological and self-actualization requirements that constitutes that made up a model for their specific growth progress.  Immediately after satisfying the low-level requirement individuals starts to feel the necessity of satisfying those needs that are associated with a higher level that follows.   There is a great possibility of influencing individual behaviors through utilization of desires in satisfying the following need level (Editorial Board, 2015).

Maslow’s hierarchy motivation theory can be criticized   based on its methodological point of view.  This is because it is effective in influencing only the actions of desperate persons and the group to which they are linked to is not evaluated at all (Editorial Board, 2015).  This theory, therefore, does not have the interest of processing the sub-consciousness of individuals and it is based mainly on assumptions.  However, it is work noting that Maslow’s theory is based on self-esteem as the major motivation influencing factor.  The uniqueness of individual’s issues, therefore, helps to increase motivation in the modern and competitive business surrounding despite the fact that understanding the needs of each employee may be challenging (Editorial Board, 2015).

The second theory is the Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory is additionally referred as Herzberg’s theory of motivation which holds two subdivisions. These divisions are the hygiene   and the motivating factors. The factors of motivation according to the theory are achievement, responsibility, work value and recognition (Editorial Board, 2015).  On the other hand, the hygiene factors are made up of   the working environment, salary below the expectation of need, policies of the corporation and the management and supervision association.  The theory is essential because it can be utilized in different fields, therefore, making it diverse.  However the theory can be criticized in that it requires more effort from the employees but they do not receive extra work recognition or payment (Koontz, & Weihrich, 2007).

The application of Maslow’s Hierarchy and Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory to a highly technological, complex and creative employee requires taking consideration of particular aspects of the workforce motivation (Editorial Board, 2015).  The Maslow theory can be applied in the case of the web designer’s workforce by utilization of the esteem factor. This is mainly because the individuals normally strive for developed social status within the given corporation. This will require an understanding of every person’s needs, improve the working surrounding and provide education programs.  On the other hand, the Herzberg theory of motivation can be applied by adopting two different working processes, eliminating the factors that drive dissatisfaction in the corporation and develop situations for improved job satisfaction (Koontz, & Weihrich, 2007).

Several motivational techniques and tools can be utilized for all the employees in a corporation which includes team building activities, positive imagery, development and education programs, communication development, rewards as well as incentives.  This can be achieved through developing an effective system of communication, provision of effective guidance, developing fresh a compensation system and developing an expertise relation with the approaches and tools of motivation (Koontz, & Weihrich, 2007). 

In summary, the ground to motivation is developing the morals of employees and changing their perceptions of needs.  This helps in improving the general   performance of the management system and the organization in general.  The corporation’s energy is developed mainly by building a favorable working environment that favors all those that are incorporated.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reference

Editorial Board. (2015). Introduction to Management.  , Words of Wisdom, Second Edition.

            Koontz, H., & Weihrich, H. (2007). Essentials of management: An international perspective. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.

 

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Philosophy

Determinism is the policy to all events of human action that are determined by the external causes to the will. Determinism can be used to imply how the human beings are obstructed from free will and therefore they cannot be held accountable for their moral actions. The concept of determinism has a traditional view of that relies on very firm and strict notion (Schnauder, 2009). It is notable to say that the idea of free will is characterized with the illusion that arises from the claims made from determinism. Determinism affects the basis of ideas and future decisions as it is challenged under the normal will of an individual (CAVE, 2016). According to philosophers determinism may be mainly concerned with the human behavior but it is still based on nature and nurture as they are the factors that determine behavior as a result of interaction (Schnauder, 2009).

Free will refers to the ability to choose different courses of action whereby an individual can make a personal judgment and choices that have not being determined by any past event. Determinism implies that free will can only be possible on one course of an event as it considers it being inconsistent with the reality of free will (Lemos, 2013). According to philosophers, there are different views of free will where some argue that determinism does not hold free will, it might exist or determinism does actually hold free will and that free will do not exist at all.

Hard determinism is a theory that refers to human beings behavior and actions that are wholly determined by the external factors. This, therefore, the theory argues that there is no genuine free will to a human being and ethical accountability (Schnauder, 2009). The argument of hard determinism holds that determinism is true and therefore no free will exists. Hard determinism refers to nomological determinism in that a position may be taken up with respect to the other determinism as it obliges the future entirely. An overview of hard determinism shows that it is not fully considered to earth but in the reality, as it involves the light effects from the other galaxies for it considers the whole period and not just a deterministic period of time (CAVE, 2016).

The relation of hard determinism is bi-directional as it determines the future state which means that it is not possible to change an individual fact without changing them affecting their entire timeline. The hard determinist support that their eternalist view as they do not believe that they can be any genuine chance or a possibility but only that there are ideas of 100% likelihood of events (Schnauder, 2009). The argument of hard determinist can be compared to that of the law pluralists that there are no laws in physics. The feasibility of evaluating determinism is dared by what individuals know; think they can know ideas and the theory of everything. Hard determinist system exhibits behaviors that are hard to predict due to the variation of the starting condition (CAVE, 2016). The hard determinism system indicates the possibility for vastly differences results that are from a similar initial condition.

Hard determinists believe that there is no human action that is free (CAVE, 2016). There is a more rational perspective of human beings and their actions. The system of hard determinism is helpful in the judiciary system when it is most convincing (Schnauder, 2009). This is because individual actions can be explained as there was a result of an event that happened in the past that was beyond their control which makes free will and determinism incompatible. The approach of hard determinism focuses on the causes rather than the instant causes of an individual action.

Soft determinism views human being behavior and actions in a manner that they are determined by the casual events and that human free will do exist as it can be described from a capacity of acting accordingly to one's nature (Lemos, 2013). The behaviors are shaped by the external factors such as the society, heredity and the upbringing as opposed in hard determinism. Soft determinism acknowledges ethics while the hard determinists reject ethics and moral judgment. There is still a reason for hope as the important issue is not about personal responsibility as argued in hard determinism.

There are implications of hard determinists as they reject free will. Soft determinism argues against hard determinism as it views human beings as unique creatures as they possess free will (Lemos, 2013). As for hard determinism refutes the importance of free will which is crucial in identifying humans distinctly from other forms of animals (Schnauder, 2009). It argues that human beings are the same as robots as they are no freer. In addition to the approach, it is wrong to convict a criminal on the basis that they could not help it.  The approach of hard determinism cold led to an unstable society that could be filled with troubles and mayhems. According to soft determinism being free is a choice (Lemos, 2013).

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reference

CAVE, S. (2016). THERE'S NO SUCH THING AS FREE WILL. Atlantic, 317(5), 68-74.

Lemos, J. (2013). Freedom, responsibility, and determinism: A philosophical dialogue. Indianapolis, Ind: Hackett Pub. Co.

Schnauder, L. (2009). Free will and determinism in Joseph Conrad's major novels. Amsterdam: Rodopi.

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Moral theory of Immanuel Kant’s concept of goodness and goodwill

Biography

Immanuel Kant was born April 1724. He was a German philosopher who died on 12th February 1804 (Nuzzo,3). During his time he was considered as a modern figure of philosophy as he argued on the fundamental issues of the human mind and experience. He said it was a reason for the source of morality and the aesthetics that rose from the faculty of unbiased judgment.  He considered it essential to create time and space so that reasonable and sensible reforms could be made so that fair judgment could be realized (Nuzzo, 9). Kant achieved Copernican revolution by himself by a reversal of the old age belief that revolved around the people. He had a key influence on the contemporary philosophy particularly in areas of epistemology, ethics, aesthetics, political theory and metaphysics.

Kant’s major work involved establishing the relation between human and reason experience and the move beyond the failures of the traditional metaphysics and philosophy (Nuzzo, 8). He strived to put an end to the regime of a speculative and futile era of human theories of experience by a way of resisting skeptical thinking. He showed a way beyond the stalemate of the traditional philosophy to the modern philosophy that led to an empiricist and a rationalist by a way of widely synthesizing modern and the traditional one. The main personal mannerism of Kant refuted and explained the introduction of Goldthwait.

Despite his main work of philosophy of metaphysics and ethics he also made a major contribution to other disciplines such as the astronomical discovery of the earth’s rotation nature which made him win the prize of Berlin Academy in the year 1754 (Nuzzo, 4). It was noteworthy of Kant to pinpoint out a discovery that was not discovered by the physical astronomers or the mathematicians of the frictional resistance of the tidal currents against the earth surface that caused a decrease in the earth rotational speed. That was an immense discovery that he made towards the natural philosophy that attracted the huge attention of going unnoticed by the astronomers, naturalists or among the mathematicians. In the year 1840, the doctrine of energy began to take heart.

Kant also took part in geological speculation by writing a book about the history nature and the theory of celestial bodies upon the Newtonian principles. Kant also explained the solar system in which Isaac Newton had explained by trying to explain its order (Nuzzo, 5). He also correctly reasoned the huge disk of stars I the Milky Way in which he theorized it from the rotating cloud of gas. He had a great scientific work that left some logic behind it through the series of important work.

The deontological ethical theory was brought about by the thinker Kant (Nuzzo, 101). The theory is founded on the observation that the only basically goodness or a good thing is good will as a duty of moral law. He regarded all the acts of people regardless of their desires or interest in a formulated categorical way without any contradiction. In this theory, Kant argued that despite whether people achieve what they intended to do their actions are always beyond their control and so the morality actions of the people does not depend on their actions. What individuals are able to manage is the willpower behind the given an act (Kowalski, 130).

The principles of an act can, therefore, be reviewed in relation to the inspiration left after it. There must be a consideration of the moral grounds that people’s actions leave behind. “There is no possibility of thinking of anything at all in the world, or even out of it, which can be regarded as good without qualification, expect a good will”( Kowalski, 118). He further says that the only one thing that is good without any sort of qualification is goodwill. Health, wealth, and courage can be used for the ill purpose and therefore they are not intrinsically good. Happiness is also considered not to be intrinsically good because for one to be happy they must possess a good will. Goodwill is the only thing considered to be unconditionally good. An act of natural or impulse inclination cannot result into goodness even when impulse coincides with duty. Motivation is an act that may have positive results by making people happy but it is not the right type of motive as it cannot be unconditionally good, therefore the appreciation and recognition of any duty must drive our actions (Kowalski, 153).

Although there are critics of Kant’s concept of goodness and goodwill the theory is able to explain the logic behind motivation and how good will is the only thing. The theory is affirmative to the concept of moral ethics Immanuel Kant’s concept of goodness and goodwill such as a perfect duty that of not to lie and always hold the truth while it is an imperfect duty to give charity can be applied at a certain place and time hence it can be flexible differentiating between good will and a good thing.

The reason as to why I choose Kant is that he is a philosopher who is known of his great works that have had impacted the study of philosophy in a great manner. His work is based on facts that they can be proven. He also changed the traditional way of human ethic by developing a theory that did shed lit about the human actions and the moral ethics behind it. Kant work was also diverse as he also contributed immensely to other works rather than just in philosophy that mean a lot of his work can be considered due to the dynamic nature of his writing and discovery.

 

 

Work cited

Kowalski, Dean A. Steven Spielberg and Philosophy: We're Gonna Need a Bigger Book. Lexington, Ky: University Press of Kentucky, 2008. Print.

Nuzzo, Angelica. Kant and the Unity of Reason. Indiana, Ind: Purdue University Press, 2005. Print.

 

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The argument of Milton Friedman’s about the social responsibility that is within the corporate world has the perspective that greatly suggest that most businesses care more about profits and their growth rather than social safety and responsibility (Friedman, 1970). More of the organizations tend to carry out social responsibility with the sole purpose of increasing profits. The philosophy of Milton Friedman’s has played the main role in the management of the oil rigs explosion and the actions of the BP (Verschoor, 2010). The company has displayed several social responsibilities in order to come up with appropriate methods of determining the best way to allocate scarce resources that can be used for other projects (Halbert & Ingulli, 2008). The doctrine of social responsibility has also brought up the relief to the trade unions by a way of justifying the wage restraint due to the fact that the conflicts revolving around are resolved to a more general purpose (Lange & Washburn, 2012).

The oil spill is hazardous to the environment, therefore, the company had to come up with other ethical frameworks to the people so that the company could remain relevant and is able to maximize its profits and address the conflict between the people and the common good of justice (Micewski & Troy, 2007). Other than the free market the company established a long run interest of being the major employer in the community by a way of devoting resources that provide the community with the amenities that will improve the community welfare (Schaefer, 2008). It made it easier to attract desirable employees that reduced the overall wage bill and sabotage from the employees and saving of some amount that could have been paid as corporate taxes.

 

Reference

Friedman, M. (1970, Sept. 13) The Social Responsibly of Business it to Increase its Profits.  New York Times Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html

Halbert, T., & Ingulli, E. (2008). Law & ethics in the business environment. (6th ed ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western Pub. Chapter One.

Lange, D., & Washburn, N. T. (2012). Understanding Attributions Of Corporate Social Irresponsibility. Academy Of Management Review, 37(2), 300-326. doi:10.5465/amr.2010.0522. Available in University library. Also via the course eReserve at http://apus.libguides.com/index.php.

Micewski, E. R., & Troy, C. (2007). Business ethics - deontologically revisited. Journal of Business Ethics, 72(1), 17-25. doi:10.1007/s10551-006-9152-z.  Available in University library. Also via the course eReserve at http://apus.libguides.com/index.php.

Schaefer, B. P. (2008). Shareholders and social responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 81(2), 297-312. doi:10.1007/s10551-007-9495-0. Available in University library. Also via the course eReserve at http://apus.libguides.com/index.php.

Verschoor, C. C. (2010). BP Still Hasn't Learned Ethical Lessons. Strategic Finance, 92(2), 13-15. Available in University Library. Also via the course eReserve at http://apus.libguides.com/index.php.

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Law & Philosophy

    According to Taylor, he states that the politics of equal rights can be defined in two ways wherein one of the definitions it means that the equal recognition is guaranteed by an identical basket of both the rights and immunities for everybody. This is determined by the universal conduct and the blindness to the variations which has been used as the source of discrimination. While on the other view he states that politics of equal recognition needs special rights and entitlements for groups of people who have been deemed and whose values are at stake (Gutmann & Taylor 1992). Therefore, the political difference and the variation in blindness is equivalent to the neglect and the ridicule of different people which according to Taylor have their cause in equal dignity.

    According to Nitya Iyer, Symes case is a clear demonstration of the insufficiency of a grounds or the categorical approach in the case as it cannot address the differences among the members of a certain group of people who share a common manifestation of one social conduct. The court is in a dilemma since its decisions will either help in shaping the society and in responding to the inequalities that are faced by women and other groups which oppress or it will destroy the shaping of the society. This is genuine as it is the role of the Supreme Court to ensure that they have a ground and a categorical approach in any case that will enable them to respond to inequality cases among the oppressed groups with similar conduct. The court should, therefore, build equality jurisprudence that will enable them to solve the cases of inequality by the women and oppressed groups.

 

 

References

IYER N (1993–4). “Categorical Denials: Equality Rights and the Shaping of Social Identity”

 TAYLOR C. (1992). Multiculturalism and the Politics of Recognition

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Case Study: Last Chance, Inc

Consequentialism:

In this case study, Pat Stevens should solve this big issue by using ethical decision. Pat Stevens should do what is ethically right in order to produce better results.  In addition, he should take time and find out the consequences of the actions and this will finally help him to make moral choices (Jeurissen & Rijst, 2007). In Consequentialism, he should ask himself “what will happen after allowing the import of cargo without domestic documentation and after paying the “late filing fee” without record”.  The important thing in this scenario is to consider what will happen afterwards and so Pat Steven should care more about consequences of whatever action he will take.  Under the Consequentialism theory, utilitarianism will work best and Pat Steve will make wise decision   considering that the consequences of the actions he will take whether (good or bad) will affect the entire company(Jeurissen & Rijst, 2007).  Now, he is supposed to weigh the amount of good and bad outcomes which will be contributed by the action and then after that he can move forward.  In this case, he should consider that failure to follow the import rules and regulations so that he can avoid the import and excise duty may cause civil penalties to the company.  He should comply with regulations based on packing, documentation, insurance requirements among other import rules.  With respect to Consequentialism, failure to follow ethical concern will cause harm simply because in this case the outcome is valued more than the action. Therefore, Pat Steven should consider the outcome of failing to comply with rules.

Deontology: 

With respect to deontology theory, Pat Stevens should understand his moral duty as a vice president so that he can make moral choices. He should also apply the rules which govern his duties and follow the universal law. In this case, he should be guided by morality and be committed to do his duty without social rules (Weiss, 2009).  First of all, it is his role as a Procurement manager to find profitable suppliers and discuss wisely with external vendors and come up with advantageous terms.  In this case, the important role he should play is to foresee critical events and   report the emerging functional metrics in order to improve effectiveness. In addition, he must put concern in risk management based on supply contracts.  According to deontology, Pat Stevens should do his duty and follow the set of rules in order to achieve the desirable outcome.  In this case, if Pat Stevens acts out of his duty and   respect the universal law, definitely he will bring the success of a business.  In addition, through social contract ethics,   he should   show justice and be guided by his basic principles and take a solid standpoint (Weiss, 2009).

Virtue Ethics

To solve the case problem, the role of character or ideal character trait is needed.  Pat Stevens will have to reason and focus on both virtue and rightness.  He should take responsibility as well as the suitability to promote better results (Ferrell, Fraedrich,  & Ferrell, 2010).  He should not agree with the unwritten requirement of ‘late filing fee’ in order to create good behavior which other members will copy and at this point he should show wisdom, courage and justice.  In this case, he should go beyond the thought of a business and consider the lives of the suppliers in order to build a good society with them.  In this case, he should not use laws to prevent bad results but he should set characters which everyone should posses (Ferrell, Fraedrich, & Ferrell, 2010). As we relate this case study with virtue ethics, Pat Stevens should follow some basic rules which will   form character traits to the members involved in the scenario. He should know that virtue ethics is based on personal character and capability approach.  The guidelines are manifested to fundamental character, codes-of-ethics and motivation.  In this case, Pat Stevens should make a moral judgments guided by temperance, integrity and virtues (Ferrell, Fraedrich, & Ferrell, 2010).  He should not step outside of his profession role instead he should apply virtue ethics in this situation with profession character.  For him to find out whether allowing the import of cargo without domestic documentation and paying  the “late filing fee” without record is unethical,  he should take individual steps  and ask himself “ does this act infringe the  importing rights”?. This will help him to pursue moral excellence through fundamental motivation and create a sound judgment (Ferrell, Fraedrich, & Ferrell, 2010).

Conclusion

In addressing critical issues, it is important to apply ethics in order to make moral judgment.  It is important to demonstrate morality and reliability in order to succeed in our lives and businesses create a better society and lessen immoral decisions.  In this case, I believe that Pat Steven Pat Steven should apply the moral norm and use deontological ethics in addressing the issue.  This is because, he will use independent moral which will guide him in making moral choices.  By making moral choices, he will understand his moral duties and avoid immoral behaviors. I think before following the law, one should be guided by moral rule and take into consideration what the action will bring. For example, forming an agreement with Harbor Master and Abdul Perkasa would bring benefits to him as he would acquire the cargo but it is immoral because the regulation law would be omitted and afterwards the company will be penalized.

 

 

Reference

Jeurissen, R., & Rijst, M. W. (2007). Ethics in business. Assen, The Netherlands: Van Gorcum.

Weiss, J. W. (2009). Business ethics: A stakeholders and issues management approach. Australia: South-

Western Cengage Learning.

Ferrell, O. C., Fraedrich, J., & Ferrell, L. (2010). Business ethics: Ethical decision making and cases : 2009

update. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.

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            How might a liberal philosopher argue for the view that it was right to grant an exemption in this case? How might a liberal philosopher argue against this view? Which side has the stronger argument?

            Goldman V. Weinberger was a 1986 United States superlative court case where a Jewish officer from the air force was completely deprived of the privilege of wearing yarmulke while in military uniforms. The denial was based on the fact that the right to free clause exercise was less applied in military as compared to the ordinary United States citizens (RITTER, & HOFFMAN, 141, 2010).

            In the view of the case in question my opinion is that a liberal philosopher may disagree in support of the Jewish officer by the name Goldman by utilization of unequal effects argument.  A liberal philosopher may argue in favor of Goldman based on both political and religious center which has been developed around the issue (RITTER, & HOFFMAN, 141, 2010).  The ground can thus be divided into two distinct sections which include particular protection of the nation from religion and special protection of the general religion by the nation.  The general agreement exist which holds that religious freedom should be granted to all the liberal democracies. This is mainly because if the states nations d not have the freedom to live based on their religious beliefs then doubts would thus be developed that the state is unable to pay respect t the liberal democracies standards.  All the individual citizens are entitled to holding religious beliefs of their choices in a liberal state. This therefore provides them with the rights and freedom of practicing whatever they believe is fine (RITTER, & HOFFMAN, 141, 2010). However it is not established whether religion should be uniquely protected by the nation based on religious qua.

            A political liberal may therefore debate in favor of the case by focusing on religious justification as well as religious freedom.  Liberalism is crucial in justifying religious freedom the protection is thus not justified specifically. This is mainly because the justification lies under several subcategory of freedom like the conscience freedom, expression freedom as well as the freedom of association (Pike, 113, 2011).   The political liberal may thus argue that the client is justified to exercise his religion beliefs through the freedom of expression.  He may hold that Goldman as a liberal military is for protection of his religious freedom.  This is because as a liberal citizen of the United States he holds the significance to live his life based on the dictates of his religious conscience on the expression of his individual opinions and beliefs. A unique justification in favor of the case would be that religion is linked with particular goods which cannot be utilized and revealed beyond the given religion like wearing yarmulke. In this case exemption should be granted to the client based on the religious dimensions of the clashing on the conviction of the generalized laws (Pike, 114, 2011).  The case can thus be given an exemption based on non discrimination and equality.

            On the other hand a philosopher may argue against the case by the utilization of cultural materials argument.  This argument is thus based on the view that individuals can only be real if they become a full part of a thriving group.  Goldman as a military individual argues out that he has the right to exercise clause freedom.   Providing him with the freedom will thus exempt him from the rest of the military group by making him special. This would thus be argued that by separating Goldman from the rest of the military individuals will be denying him the resources which he requires in order to be recognized as a part of the military community.  A liberal philosopher may additionally argue against the case by holding that exempting Goldman will be differing with the constitutional belief which holds that all individuals should be treated equally regardless of their religious and cultural differences (Pike, 92, 2011). The liberal philosopher may thus argue all humans require rules to provide guidance in balancing both their impulses and their intellectual sides and this does not permit them to be exempted from the rules.   By exempting Goldman this may raise issues with the military groups as all religions holds several beliefs which individuals would wish that they are also exempted (RITTER, & HOFFMAN, 141, 2010).   The philosopher may therefore debate that the set restrictions of dress code is based on its suitability as a military as compared to the ordinary citizens (Pike, 111, 2011).  This may be debated that if Goldman objects to the military materials understanding where the objection was raised may thus be challenging.

            In my opinion I believe that the liberal philosopher argument against the present case would prove to be stronger that the argument in favor.  This is because exempting Goldman to maintain his yarmulke would raise questions based on several individuals’ religious beliefs. Being a military additionally requires fitness and originality. This means that the military rules may not be adjusted based on several beliefs as this would affect its efficiency and effectiveness. Additionally the court denied the officer the right to wear yarmulke while still in military uniforms which support may opinion that the argument against the case would be stronger.  I believe that the best way of treating individuals equally in all the institutions is ensuring that they are guided by the same rules as well as laws.  The exemption of this cause would raise conflict among the military individuals since the military is made up of distinct religions.

 

 

 

            References

PIKE, J.  (2011). Cultural Exemptions, Milton Keynes, Open University Press.

            RITTER, L. A., & HOFFMAN, N. A. (2010). Multicultural health. Sudbury, Mass, Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

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Philosophy of Feminism, The second Sex

Philosophy of Feminism because of the reflection of women as the second sex is an article that is written by Simone de Beauvoir. The article discusses in details about women their state and treatment, their roles as women it all cases in and outside family chores. The article recognizes the fact that females exist in the world and are about one half of the humanity. However, it is said that feminineness is in vulnerability out of being pushed to be women, stay women and develop females. This is where it all begins by first understanding who a woman is where it is noted some women are not women though they are equipped with organs like other women. In this case to be considered a woman has to come out and share in that furtive and vulnerable reality recognized as femaleness.

Beauvoir contrasts two groups of people where one groups includes of people who accept their roles as the other while the other group does not. There is one key idea that the writer drives which is that either man or woman all should be regarded as human beings.  However when women begin to take chunk in the matters of the ecosphere which is still recognized as a sphere of the males they are said to have taken their role as of the other. Contrary to those who decline to take the role of the other are those who evade taking any responsibility in the affairs which are said to be for the world of men.

Women in some cases accept the role of the other when they feel that the men are now making rules without even consulting them. Similarly they go ahead taking the role of the other to prove that they are not inferior or a weaker sex. In this case there are men who still believe that women are going to remain inferior and have not given up on the battle. However, there are still some men who dread the feminine competition which is a mark of strength encouraging women to take the role of the other.

This statement has been used to mean that every person ethically feels the urge of being personal devoid of depending on anyone. With this mind the individual might decline his or her state of being free in the society and become objective. Although this is true practically it is very dangerous to do practically.

According to Beauvoir there is still a reason why women shouldn’t accept the role of the other. The writer argues that women mostly engage in works that are for the good of the public or the general interest of people. This kind of work is quite different from what men do and therefore she assume that for women to fit they strain themselves much.

Basing on the article of Beauvoir I would not support that women shouldn’t take the role of the other. By that it would mean supporting women to take the roles and stand to be counted, women that are also working are happy. Approaching any human problem free from biasness is quite hard and hence women sitting back in the name avoiding taking men’s duty will suffer the biasness of men. When women dread from taking the role of the other show men that they are a weaker gender as men want to hear it though it isn’t true. It should be noted that the notion that happiness lies in rest is rejected. Every individual fretful to justify his or her existence feel that it should happen by getting the chance to involve in projects that are freely chosen.

When women decide to take the role of the other they are always at not the easy way but it is the way that keeps them strong. When they freely engage in their projects of choice it might not be so easy for them but it is exactly what they feel subjective and at liberty with. This way cannot be generalized as easy cause some engage in very difficult projects that call for their minds in full and even some physical energy.

Work cited

Beauvoir, S,. (1949) The Second Sex. Philosophy of Feminism.

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Ethical questions

Part 1: Should abortions be permitted in specific cases, such as when the mother’s existence is at danger or when a pregnancy is the outcome of rape or incest?

Part 2: Introduction

            A woman who may become pregnant if there is an action of rape or incest becomes the victim of a fierce and an ethical disgraceful crime.  Some communities allow abortion in these cases while others ban it permanently.  These communities focus on a certain age in which the fetus should not be terminated regardless of these incidences.  At certain events certain factors may lead to abortion in some societies such as abortion that is based on the mom’s wellbeing status such as psychological fitness, a termination may be conducted if the pregnancy is a result of misconduct such as rape, incest or exploitation, if the fetus is viewed to have an improper life quality such as would be physically handicapped, have genetic problems or mental disorders. 

            There may also terminations that are based on social reasons such as poverty, if the mother is unable to handle the child due to her other children or if the mother is too young to raise the child.  Abortion can be also due to the matter of government authority in such that it is trying to reduce the population or a way of refining the population. In the case here, abortion should only be allowed in case of the mother’s health that if there is an actual risk of any serious damage to the mother.  Thus abortion that is based on social reasons is least satisfactory to challengers.

Part 3: Position Statement   

            My position in the question on when abortion is legal is that it should only be allowed when the mother’s fitness is not satisfactory. Many people believe that an abortion will help the rape victim put the assault aside and move on with her life, this is not real as the public is espousing a way that is impractical approach of abortion.  Abortion is not a magical operation that will make a woman un- pregnant but is a life condition that will make the woman more stressful and traumatic.  Once the public considers that abortion is an action with complications on a woman’s life, we must also consider at the special happenings of the pregnancy out of rape.  The question is if the termination will truly console her, no, it will only cause injury to her already ruined inner self (Panicola, 2007).

Part 4:  Supporting Reason

            If I consider my argument on the approach that only the mother’s health status should lead to abortion, I can argue that the fetus is an innocent being in the mother’s womb, thus is morally wrong to end the life of an innocent person as the fetus.  The question on whether the fetus is a person or not has been considered and it is true that it is a person.  If it is considered a person, then it has the right to life which is the right that is given to other persons.  The approach of personhood is the link that connects the fetus with the right to life (Frey & Wellman, 2007).   

Part 5: Opposing Reason

            One consideration that would challenge my approach is that it is argued that in cases of the tragic incidences and the mother’s health, it is true that abortions help in eliminating unwanted children.  People have the notion that these unwanted children are indirectly accountable for many family problems such as child abuse.  The verifications of the mothers who have their children born out of these incidences such as sexual assault leave it as a public debate (Frey & Wellman, 2007).    

           

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reference

Frey, R. G., & Wellman, C. H. (2007). A Companion to Applied Ethics. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.

Panicola, M. R. (2007). An introduction to health care ethics: Theological foundations, contemporary issues, and controversial cases. Winona, MN: Saint Mary's Press.

 

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Mill

The Utilitarian theory basic principle is that an action can be regarded as right up to the point where maximization of general utility is achieved, and Mill identifies it with happiness (Michael et. al 2014). Utilitarianism was devised to serve as a plan for acting politically. This theory tells someone what they should do and it should be about what brings about greatest pleasure for everyone. Since it is impossible for us to predict the future, it does not requires certain knowledge. In fact, such knowledge is not possible since the consequences are normally in the unseen future. Instead of having knowledge, we need to only make our best estimates of any consequences. If the results of a decision made are unclear, it make sense when one follows a rule that is ethical and which has led to the most utility in the past. The actions should be aimed at achieving the overall happiness of individuals, but since the future is unknown and unpredictable, a certain knowledge would not be necessary in identifying actions that would result to happiness for everyone. This is because people may react differently towards different actions. Also people may try to seek their interests and find themselves into situations where the consequences of their actions are completely unclear (Sandel, 2011).

Mill’s basic principle is that actions are always right as long as they their intention is to provide happiness for all human. Thus utilitarianism focuses on the consequences of various actions but not on someone’s rights nor ethical attitudes. Actions are thus regarded as right if they result in the happiness of all humans but wrong if they lead to the reverse of this happiness. Mill outlines that it would be right to remove men whose actions lead to no good for anyone , or subject them to cruel, moral suffering and whose influence lead to increased suffering or unhappiness. So if a man who causes happiness was to be enslaved, the resulting consequences would be in favour of this act. But this does not mean that a person should be enslaved in order for others to achieve happiness. Rather the consequences of enslaving a small group that causes unhappiness to a mass would justify the action, even though it would be painful for the small group. This is seen in Mills difference from other theorists and does not appeal for abstract right so that to give justification for harm principle. For such a group to enjoy freedom, they must ensure that they cause little to harm to the community and this would promote utility on the basis of permanent interest of human beings progression (Sandel, 2011). Thus Utilitarianism does not actually advocate for the enslavement per se, but the consequences that would arise from that would result from the action. Thus, enslavement is immoral to the extent that the concerned group does not at all cause unhappiness to the larger group of people. The morality of any action is dependent on the consequences of that result from the action. The enslaving the small group would result to a larger group experiencing happiness, so the utilitarian theory cannot fully reject enslavement as being immoral. If the utilitarian calculus were to be adhered to strictly, the resulting suffering, whether intense or not, of the small group would be overshadowed by the happiness achieved by the larger group (Michael et. al 2014). At this point, utilitarianism seems to be endorsing slavery when it leads to the lot of happiness for the majority of people.  

In practice people normally do not have an assessment of the results of every act they undertake since they do not have much time or have a lot to do. If each person was to endorse the consequentialism act, it may lead to negative results for the general society since it would not be easy to predict what decisions other people would make. Since predicting other peoples’ moral decisions is difficult, it would also be difficult to foresee what their behaviour will be. To a great extent the problem of knowing about the future makes it hard to rely on utilitarian as a satisfactory ethical theory. Moreover, it would result to a lot of mistrust in the society since there exist the fear of bias and prejudice towards once family or close groups would have a strong effect on the moral decisions (Deigh, 2010). The best that can be done is to use the past act to predict the possibility of specific consequences. The problem of justifying slavery seems not compatible with justice since it implies that in some situations, people can be treated unfairly while violating their moral rights. Oppression and slavery are obviously very wrong regardless of how much pleasure the oppressing class may derive from such vices. Indeed when someone happiness is dependent on the on the sufferings of someone else, this becomes even more detestable (Michael et. al 2014). This means that Utilitarian cannot be relied upon to act as an ethical theory that is satisfactory.

 

References

Michael C. Braswell, Belinda R. McCarthy, Bernard J. McCarthy (2014). Justice, Crime, and Ethics. Routledge.20-21

Deigh, J. (2010). An introduction to ethics. New York: Cambridge University Press.112-113

Sandel, M. (2011).J.S. Mill, Utilitarianism (1863). Harvard University’s Justice. Retrieved from: http://www.justiceharvard.org/resources/j-s-mill-utilitarianism-1863/

 

 

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PHILOSOPHY QUESTIONS

  1. A) Identify the most prominent fallacy
    My chance of being born on December 25 was the same as yours.  So, the chances we were both born on December 25 have to be twice as great.

            = Composition   (Gwartney et al 15)

2.    “Aw c’mon Jake, let’s go hang out at Dave’s.  Don’t worry about your parents; they’ll get over it.  You know the one thing I really like about you is that you don’t let your parents tell you what to do.”

            = denying the antecedent (Morrow et al 242)

3.    The paint store is the best place to work on your diet.  After all, you can get thinner there.

            = Square of opposition

4.    All the members of this club have strong views, and all the men in this community have strong views.  So all the men in this community are members of this club

            = Bivalent Logic   (Castillo 129)

5.    I believe that Tim is telling the truth about his brother because he just would not lie about such a thing.

            = equivocation   (Al-Aabedi 59)

B) Supply a claim to turn the following into valid arguments
1.    Jesse Ventura, the former Governor of Minnesota, was a professional wrestler.  He couldn’t have been a very effective governor

            X = Jesse Ventura, the former Governor of Minnesota

            Y= professional wrestler

            Z= Not effective governor

                         Then if X, the Y

                                   If Y, then Z

                        Therefore all X are Z

2.    Half the people in the front row believe in God.  Therefore, half the class believes in God.
            X = Half the people in the front row

            Y= believe in God

            Z= half the class believes in God

                         Then if X, the Y

                                     Z is Y

                        Therefore Z is X  (Kapsner 2)

C) Put into standard form.

1.    Plato was a philosopher

            =All philosophers are like Plato
2. Assuming "All woodpeckers sing really well," is false, put this claim into standard write the corresponding AEIO claims (whatever this isn't), and where possible determine the truth values of these claims.

Standard form

            = Woodpeckers really sing well

AEOI claim

 A claim = All woodpeckers really sing well

            Asserts that every member of the set woodpeckers is also a member who really sings well

E claim = No woodpeckers really sing well

            Denies that no woodpecker can sing well

I claim = some woodpeckers really sing well

            Asserts that at least there is one woodpecker that can sing well

O claim = some woodpeckers are not birds that can really sing well

            Asserts that there is at least one woodpecker that in this bird category that doesn’t sing well

  1. Do the same for "No Norwegians are Slavs" (assume true)

Standard form

            = Norwegians are not slaves

 AEOI claim

 A claim = All Norwegians are not slaves

            Asserts that every member of the Norwegian is not a slave

E claim = Norwegian are slaves

            Denies that there is no Norwegian who is not a slave

I claim = some Norwegians are slaves

            Asserts that at least there is at least one Norwegian who is a slave

O claim = some Norwegians were not slaves

            Asserts that there is at least one Norwegian who is not a slave
D) Use Venn diagrams to determine whether this is valid.  Please show your work

  Only systems with removable disks can give you unlimited storage capacity of a practical sort.  Standard hard drives never have removable disks, so they can’t give you practical, unlimited storage capacity.
                                                B= the wanted region

 
   

 

 

 

 

 

(Hurley 281)

  1. E) Construct Truth Tables (short or long) to determine which of the following are valid
    Pv(Q->R)        2. Lv~J
    Q&~R                R->J
    ---                ----
    ~P                L->~R

1)

P

R

P & R

T

F

T

T

T

F

F

F

T

F

T

F

 

2)

L

J

L & J

T

F

T

T

T

T

F

F

T

F

T

F

 

(Fisher 181)
F) Derive one of the following (5 pts).  Extra Credit, derive both

Q->L        (P&S)v(T->R)
P->M        ~(S&P)
RvP            -----~M->R
R->(Q&S)        T->R
-----  ~(S&R)              ~M->L

 

 

 

Work cited

Gwartney, James D, Richard Stroup, Russell S. Sobel, and David A. Macpherson. Macroeconomics: Private and Public Choice. , 2015. Print.

Morrow, David R, Anthony Weston, and Anthony Weston. A Workbook for Arguments: A Complete Course in Critical Thinking. Indianapolis: Hackett Pub. Co, 2011. Print.

Al-Aabedi, Haidar K. Equivocation in the Theatre of the Absurd: Discourse Analysis. Berlin: Logos Berlin, 2015. Print.

Kapsner, Andreas. Logics and Falsifications: A New Perspective on Constructivist Semantics. , 2014. Internet resource.

Castillo, Oscar. Theoretical Advances and Applications of Fuzzy Logic and Soft Computing. Berlin: Springer, 2007. Internet resource.

Hurley, Patrick J. A Concise Introduction to Logic. , 2014. Print.

Fisher, Alec. The Logic of Real Arguments. Cambridge [u.a.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2004. Print.

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