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Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

Juveniles in the Legal System
Prompt: Some believe that juveniles should not be tried as adults, while others feel that they are responsible for the crimes that they commit and should be tried for violent offenses. For this discussion, create a written speech that you could present to your community at a local gathering. In the speech, address the following questions.

Why do you think there are more juveniles in the legal system?

Do you know someone who have been arrested?

Why did they or others pursue a life of crime?

Should juveniles be tried as adults?

What suggestions can you offer in eliminating or reducing juvenile delinquency?

You will be presenting this speech to the class either in audio or video format, upon submission.

To help you prepare for this assignment, review the supplemental materials below

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Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

Discuss your opinion of the Zimbardo experiment. Why do you believe that the men who took the role as prison guards became overtly authoritarian? Why do you believe the men who took the role of prisoners became emotionally imbalanced?

Students will create a weekly reflection paper.  The paper must be 500-750 words (one to two pages in length) and follow APA format. You are free to state a well-informed personal opinion if based on the readings, personal knowledge, training, or experience. Objectively justify or defend any statements made that are not expressly supported by the text and cite any other resources using the APA style. You must incorporate related information from cited Scholarly Journals or Referenced Articles in your Reflection Paper, in addition to the course text. The textbook may not be the sole reference for the assignment. The Saint Leo Online Library is an excellent resource for scholarly journals or referenced articles.

164 Words  1 Pages

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

First, you must choose a unique case study or special population as a whole. Some examples are listed below:

    Selecting a case from the headlines such as a recent high profile criminal case that has a clear intersection with mental health.

    Making up a case example based on your interests, prior case examples you have read, or a mixture of all of the above.

    Selecting a population as a whole that we may or may not have touched on in class including, but not limited to:

        sex offenders
        violent offenders
        military offenders
        women offenders
        juvenile offenders
        offenders with substance use issues
        offenders with life sentences
        high profile offenders
        prior law enforcement who are incarcerated

After you have selected a case study, describe the particular characteristics of the individual’s population and what particular issues they may deal with in a correctional setting. Be sure to address the following:

    Relationships with other offenders and staff

    Possible issues with authority

    Treatment-related concerns

    Relevant research on this population and its interaction with the correctional system

Next, you will discuss different aspects of correctional settings and how you could influence this individual or population as a forensic psychologist. Be sure to include the following:

    Treatment options available for your particular individual or group’s needs.

        Include treatment options while in jail, prison, or community corrections.
        Discuss the availability and flow of treatment as the individual or population moves from the correctional environment to the community.
        Be sure to discuss the efficacy of treatment options available.

    Other ways you may affect this individual as a mental health practitioner, administrator, or forensic psychology researcher.

        This may include ideas for new initiatives, research, or systematic change
        In discussing this you should identify areas where change is needed, what the issues are, and potential steps for the future

Additionally, discuss your overall impression of the mental health services available in different correctional settings, and then evaluate the degree to which your population’s needs are met.

Finally, be sure to include how the treatment program relates to overall rehabilitation and recidivism in the community once released.

356 Words  1 Pages

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

The Houston Police Department has a crime laboratory whereby rulings in cases still working their way through the courts suggest that the death sentences of at least three Texas inmates could have been based on faulty work by HPD’s ballistics division in the fall of 2005.129 The latest decision granted a new trial for one inmate citing “serious questions” about the accuracy of HPD analysts’ work. Other judicial rulings also have prompted concerns about other cases. The police department is expected to hire a special investigator to review the work of all divisions of its crime lab. However, one Houston lawyer representing inmates says ballistics cases should also receive special scrutiny—like the DNA lab, where the discovery of poor working conditions and shoddy science forced the retesting of evidence in almost 400 cases. What would you do to aid the officers who processed the investigations of these cases and made the arrests? 
Provide an assessment using as a minimum, two crisis intervention strategies

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Fair or Foul Police Authority Limited with Juveniles


 The juvenile justice institution is similar to the adult criminal justice system due to its three aspects: law enforcers, courts, and corrections. Often, a juvenile enters into the juvenile system after an encounter with the police officers. Therefore, law enforcers serve a similar purpose in both justice systems. Therefore, majority of the cases which reach the juvenile system are a result of police interactions with the juvenile. However, it is evident that police authority with the juvenile is fair and warranted.

Role of Police in the Juvenile System

 The police role in the juvenile system varies greatly depending on the situations law enforcers find themselves in. A police officer’s duty in the juvenile system is normally challenging because federal laws safeguards juvenile individuals who perpetrate grave crimes (Elrod, & Ryder, 2020). More so, the federal laws releases young offenders back into the community. Law enforcers often find themselves at crossroads whenever a juvenile commits a serious crime but the punishment does not match the crime committed.

Law enforcers normally record personal details such as fingerprints and photos. During an arrest, police officers have to make a referral- either to the juvenile court or justice system. Thus law enforcers are accountable for most juvenile court referrals. According to USA statistics, police offers made 83% of the juvenile referrals in 2009 (Brogan et al., 2015). Parents, academic institutions and victims made the remainder referrals. Additionally, law enforcers are obligated to take care of noncriminal mannerisms among young offenders. For example absenteeism from schools, breaking the rules and other offences a young offender might subject themselves to. Also, law enforcers mediate or are called upon whenever an under 18 individuals is reported missing or is abused. The police officer’s role is to scrutinize these cases by interviewing suspected victims, their guardians or college staff members. Therefore, police department normally designate some divisions to juvenile cases so most of the cases ca be given enough attention.

Police Duty

Police have a duty to protect communities from crime and other forms of violence. In this particular context, juveniles are separated from the rest of the community and kept in juvenile homes where they can cause no harm. Law enforcers are supposed to serve and protect others from juvenile related crime rate in neighborhood communities. In some areas, police patrol schools especially whenever there is an increase in the rate of juvenile crimes in academic institutions (Campbell et al., 2018). These patrols normally deter crime from recurring in most communities negatively impacted by juvenile crime. In terms of juvenile justice, police has to ensure young offenders are corrected and then release back into the community. The inhibition of juvenile crime and the development of juvenile correctional facilities is important to the communities where juvenile crime is high. Moreover, a stable community is dependent upon law rates of crime among the youth. The juvenile laws aims to put in place methods for personality improvement and contextual adjustment and also stipulate mechanisms for juvenile court cases. Most of the agencies that deal with juvenile cases, address have to extensively discuss in detail the actions that are to be taken whenever a young person commits a crime. Police departments actively promote extensive actions to prevent juvenile crimes and to enhance proper character development (Branson et al., 2017). A law enforcer interact with numerous youths hence have an obligation to protect the society from the crimes that the community might face. For example, while investigating juvenile cases police officers have to follow the law from the start to the finish. Police cases are conducted in a straightforward manner that obeys the law. Under the criminal procedural regulations and the juvenile law, police are to follow the outlined policies if they are to investigate juvenile cases appropriately. For example, the juvenile is supposed to be referred to the correct correctional facility before a court hearing. The right referral increases the chance of giving the juvenile offender a right to stand trial but the due procedure has to be followed to the latter. Once a person comes into contact with a juvenile, the right referral is to be used on the juvenile offender. Since a juvenile investigation leads to fosterage or protection mechanisms. However, compulsory measures unless the court gives a specification or a court order for the police department to do so. In terms of investigating juvenile, the juveniles system states that the police officers have to only gather facts that are connected to case. In challenging situations, the timing and methodology have to be considered to retain the innocence or the youthful offender.

In summary a police officer in the juvenile justice offer referrals to under 18 lawbreakers. The characteristics and details of the juvenile offenders are recorded and later passed into the juvenile justice system. Through law enforcement, the juvenile stands trial and is sentenced according to the evidence presented in the court room. The police department designate divisions which only deal with juvenile cases. An officer is not required treat a juvenile like an adult, thus forcing officers to document juvenile information.




Elrod, P., & Ryder, R. S. (2020). Juvenile justice: A social, historical, and legal perspective. Jones & Decker, S. H., & Marteache, N. (Eds.). (2017). International handbook of juvenile justice. Springer International Publishing.Bartlett Publishers.

Brogan, L., Haney-Caron, E., NeMoyer, A., & DeMatteo, D. (2015). Applying the risk-needs-responsivity (RNR) model to juvenile justice. Criminal Justice Review, 40(3), 277-302.

Campbell, C., Papp, J., Barnes, A., Onifade, E., & Anderson, V. (2018). Risk assessment and juvenile justice: An interaction between risk, race, and gender. Criminology & Public Policy, 17(3), 525-545.

Branson, C. E., Baetz, C. L., Horwitz, S. M., & Hoagwood, K. E. (2017). Trauma-informed juvenile justice systems: A systematic review of definitions and core components. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 9(6), 635.



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Police Community Relations in Minority Communities




Police abuse of minorities has been a common practice in America. This research has presented various scholars' views on police and community relations, especially the minority groups, to discover the effects of police relation in the minority group in the society, providing remedies to the issue. Some five scholarly articles have been reviewed which address the following areas: 1) global police relations, 2) police legitimacy on disengaged minorities 3) police relations and liberalism limits, 4) police corporation and gun violence, and 5) changing policies in the police departments. The quantitative research was done on the literature on the issues affecting police relation on the minority community where the result indicates that the police mishandle the minority community.

This is mainly through law enforcement officers being involved in the discrimination of the minority community to the extent of mishandling, which is done by the people who should maintain law and order in the community. The altitude of the white towards the black also has led to the mistreatment of the minority group in the community. All these articles discuss how the relations between the minority communities and the police can be built and strengthened. In conclusion, the development of policies that can help enhance the relationship between the policer and community among creates awareness toward all people as the same despite the differences in races among them. The increased discrimination that has been witnessed in the current days in the united states acting as an example of the effects of racism and its impact on the community.

Keywords: police, community, minorities




The police play a significant role in our communities a role that cannot be taken for granted. Primarily, their role is to serve and protect the community, to maintain law and order. However, there are some occasions, which have left the locals and the whole world worried about whether this is part of the police obligation. The worry gets to higher heights following how the police force, interacts with the minority group. The latter group consists of African Americans, non-Hispanic Whites, Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and American Indians, who have been witnessed to face torture and discrimination at the hands of the white police officers. This treatment ruins the community relations between minority groups and the police, in the local and global contest. Commonly, the primary cause of the bad police interactions with this cohort is based on ethnic and racial issues, which are worth discussing to seek a solution to the differences. In this essay, we would present background information on scholarly articles that have attempted to present the relation between the police and the minority groups.

Literature Review

Global Police Community Relations

Primarily, this article addresses police relationships in the global context. According to Albert (2019), the role of the police in the community is to address crime and control disorders. He presented and examinations on public perception of the police, and found that the attitudes and police performance could be used to develop the agency policies.  He states that the government should incorporate the community policies related to security issues. Additionally, he addressed the building process of confidence and trust between the minorities and the whites that assures them protection despite the disparities in the race or social-economic status. In the global view Albert highlights that people have much confidence in their local police officers and thus extension on democratic practice. The role of the police is, therefore, affects public confidence and trust both in micro-and macro-levels.

Police Legitimacy on Disengaged Minorities

According to Madon and colleagues (2017), procedural justice is critical in enhancing police legitimacy. These scholars highlight that the stated procedural justice depends on the individual's case as each has a different feel the procedures effective while others feel that they are less effective.  They carried out a study aimed at examining the contingency of the procedural justice effect on certain individuals using the disengagement concept. In the research, they hired a group of 1480 participants belonging to distinct ethnic minority group members and examined whether disengagement would affect the police legitimacy. From the research, the results revealed that disengagement reduced the perception of legitimacy among the minority groups.


Police Relations and Liberalism Limits

According to Schneider et al. (2020), there are various scenarios of reported abuse of African Americans by the police. The abuse is attributed to the cause of urban instabilities in 1960, more so the police abuse led to the need for review by the civilian to examine the police actions as the central cause of the liberalism rights. They address the liberalism following the failure of the Philadelphia Police Advisory Board (PAB) in 1958, and the tensions prevailing between the police and the community. During the same time, these scholars state that the police were confronted with dirty works that needed to be checked. This review presented that the African Americans belonging to the working class were the most prone to police brutalities, thus the need for adjustment to overturn the racial hierarchy.

Police Corporation and Gun Violence

Brunson and Wade (2019) researched to investigate gun violence in the urban setting. The two carried out interviews on black men on individuals who had information on the illegal gun markets that led to bloodshed. Addressing a disadvantaged community of color, the finding was that distressed milieus reliability did not corporate as they feared retaliation and high rates of becoming victims. Also, they found that there were low clearance rates for the minority groups as they don’t care about keeping their neighbors safe. The policy should primarily focus on strategies that would help reduce gun violence by launching campaigns against the fight against the violence and thus improve the police-community relation with the minorities.

Changing Policies in the Police Departments

The police department needs to make racialized changes that would help in de-policing and making police officers active. Shjarback and colleagues (2017) conducted a study that was aimed at exploring the police departments that had been currently involved in withdrawing active policies from work. In this research, they decided to use 118 police department who were in service to examine the change in the quality and quantity of policing alongside the changes in crime rates. From the sample collected on the number of traffic stops, serving the African Americans. It was found that a negative attitude and increased strictness in the enforcement of law negatively impacted total violence and crime rates. The two argue that it is important to increase mutual trust between the police and the African American communities, which will result in morale and motivation in the policing field.



            Discussion of the literature

Having police brutality in minority communities is the crucial aspect of all the pieces of literature. This indicates the police’s failure to protect the community and maintain law and order, which is their duty to the community. Harmony and peace become the opposite in the community despite the promise from police-community news, where the force promises to protect the interest of the minority in ensuring their safety and security in the community (Matter, 2020). Cases of violence towards the rules and regulations become common due to the police's failure to treat all peoples as equals. The possession of weapons becomes a way for the citizens to acquire the sense of security that the police institution offers. Mishandling of the community by the police due to discrimination has negatively affected the people instead of peace as they lack faith in them, predominantly the minority.

Reported cases on the community lack of confidence in the policing community through gun violence and their discrimination among the minors. The organization's running is left to the citizens' hands as reporting crimes to the police may cause them to be the wrongdoers. The need for fear is justified by the increased number of minority community group death through police brutality as they are passive them as violent (Holmes, Painter, & Smith, 2019). The police are viewed as a source of danger rather than the actual source of security to them. This causes an increase in criminal cases as the community members cannot report to the police making the community unsafe. The favors ‘are done on racial bases where Asians and black Americans are viewed as hooligans.

Analysis and findings.

            The reported cases include cases where the system has been used to discriminate the minority community.  The police officers' increase in brutality towards the minority was high compared to their counterparts, who are treated as the majority. Theirs is an increased case of minority people, especially the blacks, reported to have been mishandled by the police, increasing these victims' number. These cases are common to the Asians and other minor groups where even homicide cases are reported, and the police are involved as the law enforces. The race aspect is the most used criteria by law enforcers were the most affected are the blacks and the Asians as they have a different race from the others.


 law enforcement officers are involved in the discrimination of the minority community to the extent of mishandling, which is done by the people who should maintain law and order in the community. The cases are made evident by the shooting of a black man age twenty-nine in the year 2011 by the officer making police brutality to the minority community a global case (Hong, 2017). The minority group is viewed as criminals due to their race without consideration of their character. This has been made possible by the lack of policies that support this minority group making them prone to exploitation from law enforces. Discrimination is also the primary source of minority inequality from the white officers. They do not consider the individual economic life but only care about their violence.

The leading cause of abuse of the minority is due to white officers’ attitude toward the blacks where they don’t value their life like other human beings. This leads to developing a community where people do not seek the law enforcers for help as the police misconduct is high (Torres, Reling, & Hawdon, 2018). The case can be reversed if officers’ misconduct is reduced and their attitude towards the minority communities.  The brutality is the leading cause of the development of a society where the citizens take the role of enforcing the raw themselves despite the officers' availability. The increased cases of death have led to high alert to the minority community towards police shooting

The lack of policy protecting the blacks from this kind of violence gives the officers the go-ahead of acting on their free will to kill whenever a black or Asian is involved. The availability of policies that allow lethal violence for black people creates a threat to their life when exposed to the officers (Gray, & Parker, 2020). the guidelines give the police the right to use their weapon on the blacks as the law covers them. The lack of a policy defending the blacks exposes them to death, thus increasing blacks' increased death in the united states influencing the police and minority community relation.


The police relation in minority communities can be improved only through the consideration of the minority as a human being so that they can be treated with respect. The development of policies is one of the main ways of solving the issue faster by first protecting them through the law. Creating self-awareness among themselves using the media can make a faster way of getting to them. Media gives exposure to all the people to this right, reducing the fear of being gunned down. The vice of discrimination, when eliminated, helps in the treatment of people with respect, thus respecting life. The media's awareness through the media is the best means to remind people that all are the same, therefore better relations between the police and minority community.





Albrecht, J. F. (2019). Evaluating Police-Community Relations Globally. In Policing and Minority Communities. Springer, Cham. (pp. 3-10).

Brunson, R. K., & Wade, B. A. (2019). “Oh hell no, we don't talk to police” Insights on the lack of cooperation in police investigations of urban gun violence. Criminology & Public Policy18(3), 623-648.

Madon, N. S., Murphy, K., & Sargeant, E. (2017). Promoting police legitimacy among disengaged minority groups: Does procedural justice matter more. Criminology & criminal justice, 17(5), 624-642.

Shjarback, J. A., Pyrooz, D. C., Wolfe, S. E., & Decker, S. H. (2017). De-policing and crime in the wake of Ferguson: Racialized changes in the quantity and quality of policing among Missouri police departments. Journal of criminal justice, 50, 42-52.

Schneider, E. C., Agee, C., & Chronopoulos, T. (2020). Dirty work: Police and community relations and the limits of liberalism in postwar Philadelphia. Journal of Urban History, 46(5), 961-979.

Holmes, M. D., Painter, M. A., & Smith, B. W. (2019). Race, place, and police-caused homicide in US municipalities. Justice Quarterly36(5), 751-786.

Hong, S. (2017). Does increasing ethnic representativeness reduce police misconduct?. Public Administration Review77(2), 195-205.

Matter, B. L. (2020). POLICE COMMUNITY.

Torres, J., Reling, T., & Hawdon, J. (2018). Role conflict and the psychological impacts of the Post-Ferguson period on law enforcement motivation, cynicism, and apprehensiveness. Journal of police and criminal psychology33(4), 358-374.

Gray, A. C., & Parker, K. F. (2020). Race and police killings: examining the links between racial threat and police shootings of Black Americans. Journal of Ethnici


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Emotional Intelligence and Police Community Relations Critique Paper


Police play an essential role in today’s world. It is the duty of the police officers to arrest criminals and hold them till the end of their trial. Primarily, they maintain peace and order in a state or country, preventing the occurrence of crime. However, many citizens have a negative perception of police and have developed negative attitudes towards them that have made them see police as enemies. The attitude develops as people encounter police, whether on the right path or the wrong path, and the kind of treatment they receive. Even though, this is not always the case; some officers reveal humanity in their daily job, giving citizens the best services. This is the group of police officers guided by emotional intelligence, a great intelligence quotient, and more so social intelligence when dealing with the community. This essay is a review of an article authored by Abiola and Salako, whose title is “Predicting the Effect of Emotional Intelligence, Self-Efficacy, Job Interest, Life Satisfaction and Pay Incentives as Correlates of Effective Community Policing in South-West, Nigeria (Abiola, & Salako, 2014).” In this discussion, we would critique the importance of emotional intelligence, intelligence quotient, and social intelligence to police-community relations.

In any research, paper authors play an essential role. Abiola and Salako (2014) authored this essay under review, who are Ph.D. and M.E.D holders respectively in the department of Educational Psychology Emmanuel Alayande College of Education. Although the author’s names do not determine much the quality of the paper, their professionalism and academic qualification is a source of conviction that the outcomes of the research would be valid and applicable in real-life situations. The authors conducted a study that aimed to predict “the effect of emotional intelligence, self-efficacy, job interest, life satisfaction and pay incentives as correlates of effective community policing in South West Nigeria (Abiola, & Salako, 2014).” The authors use an APA format of writing to present the literature about the topic of study in a sentimental tone and present the article in a standard formal research structure with a short abstract, introduction, literature review, methodology section, results, and a conclusion.

The researchers conducted quantitative research whose interpretation requires an analysis of data through various techniques. Now that the study incorporated a sample size of three hundred police officers (N=300) and a Multiple Regression and ANOVA test, we expect the use of specialized formulas, tools, and computations to perform these statistical tests. However, in the literature review section, the paper seems unsatisfying as it only presents various definitions on the terms that are listed in the topic and not giving an intense review of what various authors or backgrounds state about the paper (Suzuki, Pai, & Islam, 2018). We can, therefore, state that the definitions of the terms are accurate, but the essay is seemingly incomplete. Additionally, there is a problem with the paper, as the sections on research questions, the purpose of the study, and the significance of the study are presented below the literature review. In contrast, these sections are part of the introduction of any research paper. This makes the flow of the form inconsistent and contradicting to readers with little comprehension of research papers.

However, despite the few stated drawbacks, the paper was successful in addressing the discussion topic. This is evident in the content provided that addresses good morals that should be maintained between the police and the community, in terms of integrity, honesty, fairness, and other important human actions. The paper highlights how emotional intelligence and intelligence quotients shape the human character and how they help shape the interaction between the police and the community and, therefore, improve the quality of life (Daneshwari, & Sunanda, 2017). More importantly, the paper has been successful in expounding how community policing and public involvement would be essential in solving issues such as reducing crime rates, especially in Nigeria. A more profound discussion that makes a good sense of emotions is presented by Steiner (2001), by highlighting the importance of knowing what feeling we have and their strength and the reason for them, reasons for other people’s feelings, and why we need to develop love-centered ability. The latter capability is what helps us hold back or express the feelings we have on people in order to boost their lives as well as that of ours.

Throughout the paper, issues of gender, geographical locations, and racial, cultural, psychological, and religious aspects have not been addressed. Instead, the article focuses on how corporation between police and the public can be fostered for the common good. The latter can be achieved by appreciating the benefits of emotional intelligence, intelligence quotients, and social intelligence between the police and the community (Miao, Humphrey, & Qian, 2017). From the literature review, we can draw various conclusions, one being that the corporation and partnership between police and the community would improve the quality of life at the neighboring level. Secondly, we can also conclude that it is the emotional quotient that determines the human quality and, in turn, human success by impacting human performance. Lastly, all actions, whether bad or good, are incentives, and they all bear consequences that would either positively or adversely affect this relationship.




Abiola, D. O., & Salako, A. A. (2014). Predicting the effect of emotional intelligence, self-efficacy, job interest, life satisfaction and pay incentives as correlates of effective community policing in South-West, Nigeria. IFE PsychologIA: An International Journal22(1), 170-178.

Daneshwari, O., & Sunanda, I. (2017). Emotional intelligence of police. Asian Journal of Home Science12(1), 25-33.

Miao, C., Humphrey, R. H., & Qian, S. (2017). A meta-analysis of emotional intelligence effects on job satisfaction mediated by job resources, and a test of moderators. Personality and Individual Differences116, 281-288.

Suzuki, M., Pai, C. F., & Islam, M. J. (2018). Systematic quantitative literature review on criminological theories in Asia. Asian Journal of Criminology13(2), 129-151.

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Police Community Relations in Minority Communities


            The relations between the police and the community are constantly changing the police systems all over the world. Police-community relations are likened to diplomatic policing actions with the acceptable approach to controlling crime rates. The police capability to effectively carry out their function depend on public approval of policing systems, actions, and traits. Hence the police have to work hand in hand with the community. Also, communication mechanisms is a central concept in positioning and enhancing police-community relations. The creation of community immersion programs assists the communities to get acquainted with police reforms and roles within the communities. Variation of ideas and reintroducing policies that favor the community enables the community to form a partnership with policing systems which in turn improves the entire police-community relations.

Annotated Bibliography

Madon, N. S., Murphy, K., & Sargeant, E. (2017). Promoting police legitimacy among disengaged minority groups: Does procedural justice matter more?. Criminology & criminal justice, 17(5), 624-642.

 This journal highlights procedural justice and how it improves police legitimacy. This research then goes to show that the aim of police-community relations is enhancing engagement between the police systems and ethnic minorities. Ethnic minority groups tend to avoid interacting with police officers hence perceive police officers as illegitimate.  The underlying reason for the deteriorating relationship between the police and the minority ethnic group is the harassment ethnic minorities get from the neighborhood police department. Instead of police officers dispensing their duties fairly without discrimination, they tend to discriminate against minority groups hence causing minority groups to create a disconnection between them and the police. The research recommends enacting regulations which hold the police offers accountable for their actions or even wrong arrest. For the sake of coming to terms with the issues affecting the most vulnerable members of the community, the police's central role in containing violence and protecting all the members of the communities.

Albrecht, J. F. (2019). Evaluating Police-Community Relations Globally. In Policing and Minority Communities (pp. 3-10). Springer, Cham.

This article analyses police-community relations worldwide. According to its findings, police-community relations were established in the 1820s and its relevant role expanded in later years due to public security issues. Public perception establishes police legitimacy. Governments had to train police officers on how to deal with people and also establish a relationship between people and the police forces. Ethnic minorities have to know and confirm that police officers will protect them despite their skin color or economic status. Also, trust and confidence develop through active involvement in community problems. For instance, police officers have to live in the communities they serve and they have to know the immediate communities they serve. Therefore, the role of the police has to be intertwined with the community. The policing systems have to cooperate with the communities and vice versa is also true.

Schneider, E. C., Agee, C., & Chronopoulos, T. (2020). Dirty work: Police and community relations and the limits of liberalism in postwar Philadelphia. Journal of Urban History, 46(5), 961-979.

            The journal traces the police-community relations between black Americans and the people from Philadelphia. Scholars note that police abuse led to uprising and protests in the 1960s. Police actions became the center of rights civilizations. The failure to uphold police-community relations led to intensified tensions in Philadelphia hence putting a limitation on the residents. Some scholars claimed that police officers were responsible for maintaining institutionalized racism in America. One way the police managed to perpetuate racism in America is through police brutality and making frequent arrests. Also, the article recommends a forum where the police are vetted on how to handle members of the black community. Also, members of the public should be able to launch complaints against the police departments. The police have a duty to protect the community and anytime they break the law, the community should be able to restrain them and keep them in check. This ensures that all the people serving as police men and women adhere to the law.




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Community Juvenile Program



Juvenile Offender Intervention Network (J.O.I.N) is a community program that is located in Los Angeles. J.O.I.N offers an effective alternative to juvenile prosecution that protects the community and gives first-time offenders that are eligible for the program another chance. The program addresses the root cause of the delinquent behavior and works towards preventing criminal behavior in the future (Los Angeles County District Attorney’s Office 2016). The program is able to help juvenile offenders, their families, community, and victims by holding the juveniles accountable for their actions. The program imposes consequences and increases the impact on the minor and emphasizes the intensity of their delinquent behavior. The victims receive compensation and juveniles are required to offer an apology and compensate the victims for any damages or losses incurred. The program offers counseling services to juveniles and the parents get parent skills instruction. The services work towards addressing the root cause of the delinquent conduct.

The goal of the program is to offer an alternative to juvenile court for first-time non- violent offenders, to steer them back in the right direction. They are required to take full responsibility for their actions and perform community service. They should not be arrested again, should participate in counseling, and should attend school regularly. Juveniles who complete the program successfully do not appear on any record for the offense. This means that the juvenile can state that they have never been involved or charged for any crime and can get their normal lives back (Los Angeles County District Attorney’s Office 2016). Their future education and employment will not be affected if they do not re-offend. This makes the program partner with school districts, community organizations, and county agencies to ensure that counseling and other program services are always available.

The program is attended by juveniles who are between the age of 10 and 17 who have committed a non- violent delinquent conduct for the first time and are to be prosecuted in the juvenile court. However, juveniles who have been arrested for the sale of controlled substances, possessing or using a firearm, driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs, domestic theft, rape, felony incineration among any other serious offenses are not qualified for the program. For the hate crime offenders, a juvenile is eligible if they committed a nonviolent, low-level hate crime as his first offense, but in a modified version of the program (Los Angeles County District Attorney’s Office 2016). They must also take part in an educational program that promotes acceptance of diversity. The program is voluntary and parents of the juveniles have to agree to take part in the parenting skills classes and if they fail to agree to it the juvenile is prosecuted in the juvenile court. The participants are monitored closely by hearing officers make sure that they comply with the program’s rules.

The victims are just compensated for the damages and no follow-up is done on them. The victims go may have gone through mental torture caused by the juvenile offender. They may need to attend counseling sessions because they could still be undergoing trauma. Reimbursing for the loss incurred is not enough for the victim (Los Angeles County District Attorney’s Office 2016). The program should consider the victim and offer them counseling the parents get their parenting skills classes the victim who is also or more affected than the parent should also be included in the program.





Los Angeles County District Attorney’s Office (2016) J.O.I.N Juvenile Offender Intervention

Network. Retrieved from


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Female Juvenile Delinquents 

Female juveniles who committed violent crimes such as robbery came from family backgrounds and their early experiences with their parents and family. These were individuals who had faced rejection from their parents and had grown up in homes that had a considerable conflict. More to that they had been exposed to conflict and violence in their homes. Having criminal parents is also attributed to female juveniles (Hoyt & Scherer 1998). Female juveniles who committed this crime came from single-parent families and had a poor upbringing. Some of the female juveniles had been sexually and physically abused and neglected. Female juveniles who committed a violent crime were poorly nurtured and did not have the best parental supervision and monitoring. Females who came from a single mother home committed these crimes. Antisocial behaviors for the female delinquents was an attribute to committing crime Problematic family structures were the key effects of dysfunctional families that led to the female committing violent crimes.

For male juveniles who committed violent crimes faced emotional, physical abuse, and neglect from their families. The male juveniles had experienced their parent’s divorce or separation when they were young (Parks 2013). Those that had experienced the loss of a parent and more so the father committed violent crimes despite having an affectionate mother. Re-marrying that was as a result of divorce and being bought up by a step-parent was also an attribute among the male delinquents. Parent’s substance abuse was a prompt for the male delinquents. The male delinquents came from large family sizes because the amount of attention given to the children is minimal leading to conflicts and frustration. The male delinquents had a family background that involved having a convicted family member such as their parents, brothers, sisters, or any other relative.


Hoyt, S., & Scherer, D. G. (1998). Female juvenile delinquency: Misunderstood by the juvenile

justice system, neglected by social science. Law and Human behavior22(1), 81-107.

Parks, A. B (2013) "The Effects of Family Structure on Juvenile Delinquency" .Electronic

Theses and Dissertations. Paper 2279.


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Gun Violence Policy Brief


            In the wake of the extensiveness of gun violence and rising rates of mass shootings, government and other private entities had to explore the issue swiftly and revise the firearm policies. Nurses and other medical experts deal with the overwhelming number of gun violence casualties on a daily basis (Swanson et al., 2015). Based on medical reports, gun violence accounted for an estimated 36,252 USA deaths in 2015 and continuous to be the leading cause of death among young people aged 10-34 years old. Social work field has a duty to address important matters affecting communities across the globe including the outstanding issue of gun violence in USA. In 2017, 39,700 people succumbed to gun violence. Out of these number, 60% were fatally injured and 40% died. The persistent nature of gun violence forced government officials and other entities to try and find out the root cause of the violence.

Analysis of Gun Violence Alternatives

 Gun violence accounts for 27% mortality rate in the past decade and due to lack of a clear policy or national action, the states have tried to fight these predicament by adhering to effective policy making mechanisms (Jones, & Stone, 2015). Nevertheless, there is no noted progress in enacting meaningful laws that would reduce gun violence. In order to gain a deeper comprehension into recent policymaking progress, one needs to identity past gun violence trends. In simpler terms, gun violence is an urgent multifaceted issue and needs evidence-based answers.

 In the past, most recommended or enacted policies involved gun restrictions. For example, the policies controlled who owned guns. The number of bills and regulations passed increased in 2019 when Democrats took control of both houses. The increasing number of bills passed is an indication of the rising attention paid to gun violence by different sectors. In order to enact operative laws and policies, policymakers need to access evidence-reliant material and researches on gun violence (Malina et al., 2016). Analyzing gun violence evidence helps legislative departments tailor the policies according to interdisciplinary agenda.

 Apart from legislators, psychologists have made significant contributions to the policymaking process. In addition, psychologists wrote reports which convey reliable conclusions and commendations (Newman, & Hartman, 2019). These recommendations and conclusions usually pinpoint the loopholes in the legislation process and gives legislators the chance to cross reference with the reports. Thus, the psychologists also analyzed past work and suggestions before making conclusions.

            Gun violence issue culminates risks factors and protective elements which makes people more or less susceptible to gun use against other people or themselves. Due to this reason, no one can predict a perfect profile of a gun users (Hogan, & Rood, 2015). Instead, gun violence is closely connected to individual, family or sociocultural risks factors which combine over a certain period of time to influence gun use. One of the most persistent predictor of gun violence is a past of violence mannerisms. Preventing gun violence is guided by developmental risk studies. Developmental risks minimizes the introduction of guns in the community. Preventive efforts could also reduce the relative infrequent cases where mentally ill people participate in homicide or other illegal forms of gun use. Reducing gun violence incidences emerging from illegal misbehavior is a vital objective in the formulation of primary and secondary inhibition strategies. Consequently, readdressing developmental backgrounds and other social cultural mechanisms.

             While making policies, the policymakers have to ensure that the policy addresses both male and female offenders. Even though more men are involved in gun violence, the policy should account for everyone (Hogan, & Rood, 2015). Preliminary evidence claims that altering social norms among males will affect behavior and perceptions associated with masculinity hence reducing gun violence cases and its prevalence in the communities. Such interventions must be tried and tested in order to produce effective means of advocating for justice among gun violence victims.

Policy Options for Gun Violence

 One of most proposed policy is banning guns. This proposal is usually pushed forward due to mass shooting in public spaces such as night clubs and schools (Hogan, & Rood, 2015). Mass shooting claims the lives of many innocent people and policymakers insist on banning the use of guns within public spaces. Even though banning weapons is not a suitable option, some say it will reduce the number of fatalities and the number of gun violence incidences.

            An alternative option is keeping guns from children. Some of the noted gun violence incidences are attributed to children who were too young to know how to handle guns. Since 2009, men below the age of 21 years old have carried out mass shooting in public spaces (Swanson et al., 2015). Even though some of the perpetrators of these crimes use illegally acquired guns, keeping guns away from young children is an effective proposal that would reduce gun violence especially in school settings and malls. Also, increasing the current age limit to gun acquisition is an effective way of preventing homicide cases among young people. One research revealed that increasing gun acquisition age to 21 will reduce gun violence by 17%. It is obvious that preventing young people from acquiring guns may be difficult, but is a huge step in reducing gun violence.


 Generating a standardized checking systems for background evaluations. These standardized systems would point out an applicant past hence help one judge whether or not an applicant will be issued with a gun license (Swanson et al., 2015). Thus, all the gun applicants will be required to complete a background check. Secondly, reinforcing regulations in order to ensure that high-risk persons such as convicts or people with a past of violence are hindered from acquiring guns. Thirdly, the ban of imported, production or allocation of assault guns keeps people safe and prevent further misuse of guns.  In addition, making sure that health workers are well equipped to handle gun injuries will help to reduce the number of guns violence deaths. Medics can offer counselling to gun violence survivors and even make referrals to other medical institutions. Subsequently, training and equipping medical workers with the knowledge they need to prevent gun violence may help ensure lives are saved and people live according to safety measures. In the event that a mass shooting occurs all the buildings should have escaping points in order to save lives.

 In summary, Gun violence is an ever changing issue in USA. Policy makers have tried to come up with interventions that control how people acquire and use guns. Nevertheless, the policy making never amounted to anything hence forcing other stakeholders to look into the issue. Some groups of people and activists proposed banning gun use in public spaces while some were of the opinion that guns should only be issued after a thorough background check. In all, none of the interventions have prevented gun violence. Psychiatrists and other medical experts have exposed loopholes in the policy making procedures thus helping legislatures come up with more effective policies.



Hogan, J. M., & Rood, C. (2015). Rhetorical studies and the gun debate: A public policy perspective. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 18(2), 359-372.

Jones, M. A., & Stone, G. W. (2015). The US gun-control paradox: Gun buyer response to congressional gun-control initiatives. Journal of Business & Economics Research (JBER), 13(4), 167-174.

Malina, D., Morrissey, S., Campion, E. W., Hamel, M. B., & Drazen, J. M. (2016). Rooting out gun violence.

Newman, B. J., & Hartman, T. K. (2019). Mass shootings and public support for gun control. British Journal of Political Science, 49(4), 1527-1553.

Swanson, J. W., McGinty, E. E., Fazel, S., & Mays, V. M. (2015). Mental illness and reduction of gun violence and suicide: bringing epidemiologic research to policy. Annals of epidemiology, 25(5), 366-376.


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  Motivational and Transformational Perceptions of Women with Felony Histories Reentry after Incarceration


Section 5:  Methodology Details

5.1 Purpose of the Study

            The purpose of this generic qualitative study is to understand the experience of reintegration of women with felony histories after incarceration for drug related offenses. The research literature regarding women with felony histories indicates that women with felony histories experience difficulty accessing community resources to help them bridge the gap from incarceration to productive citizens and about two-thirds of them are rearrested within three years of their release (Cuellar & Cheema, 2012). Women with felony histories experience challenges associated with their criminal past instead of society embracing them as reformed colleagues (Baur et al. 2018). Woman with felony histories also have to indoor the social stigmas placed on them as they reintegrate into their perspective communities (Brand, 2016) as well as experience the negative attitudes of many in society (Rade, Desmarais, & Mitchell, 2016). The more grievous the crime the more difficult the integration will be (Jason, Olson & Harvey, 2015).The research literature is limited regarding internal experiences of women with felony histories. The literature does not address women with felony histories perceptions of what motivated them to change and key factors that played a role in their transformation for successful community reentry creating a gap in the literature and a need for this study. Van & Esther (2015) suggested that woman with felony histories who have a positive mindset upon release from prison will have a better opportunity to successfully reintegrate back into society.

            Exploring women with felony histories and how they perceive the motivational and transformational factors that helped them on the path to successful community reentry will provide a clear understanding of the issues and challenges woman with felony histories face and how they overcome these issues and challenges for a successful reentry. This study will also provide new knowledge for criminal justice administrators, policy makers, and stakeholders associated with the transition process of women with felony histories (Zakaras, 2012). This study will allow professional to fix, create, and implement new laws or strategies within the prison system, reentry programs, community and other supports networks to better assist woman with felony histories during their transition for prison to their community for a successful reentry. This study will also bring hope to other women with felony histories that maybe experiencing the same issues reintegrating after incarceration.

            Understanding the individual specific and setting explicit qualities, factors, and encounters that add to the fruitful reemergence of these women into the public, from their points of view, may help the improvement of projects or approaches for women, pertinent to the reintegration cycle (William, 2015). Since women with felony history are individuals from the population of interest, they have novel perceptions of knowledge in their encounters. They are best at clarifying how they explored those encounters and the elements that made them successful (Brand, 2016). While investigating women with felony history views, we will examine with them topics identified with inspirational components, defensive variables, and boundaries to progress (Battle, 2019). Even though convict criminology customarily alludes to scholastics' insightful work with individual narratives of imprisonment, it also speaks to a developing viewpoint in the field of adjustments and criminology that contends for the supremacy of ethnographic strategies. In this chapter, the paper examines the examination plan and rationale, the researcher's role, the study methodology, population and sample, sampling procedures, data collection procedures, interview questions and field testing, the trustworthiness of the study, and data collection analysis procedures.

5.2 Research Methodology

Selection rationality for participant

           Study members will be women with felony history and who are beyond 18 years old and have served at least nine months in a state or government jail or prison. They should not have any record of arrest for three years since the release, and who had not come back to jail or prison as the aftereffect of a technical violation during that time. Any women with felony history who served less than nine months will be ineligible for support. Members will be solicited to offer a clarification from detainment and detainment history to decide qualification. 

           Purposive sampling will be utilized in qualitative research to increase detailed data from a particular population (Percy & Kostere, 2015). Purposive sampling will be used to recognize women with felony history who will match for the examination dependent on gender, age, and imprisonment history. Members will be enrolled through two Community Supervision and Corrections Departments, and one church in North Texas (Battle, 2019). Flyers publicizing the examination will be posted in all areas. Interested women with felony history will be given chance to send messages or call the research group for enrolment purposes. A letter will be sent to the potential women with felony history clarifying the examination, which will incorporate clarification of measures. Members will return consent forms directly to the research group rather than replace them in churches or management administration offices. 

           The sample size will be controlled by how rapidly engagement will be reached during the information assortment measure. Engagement is where increasing more data does not yield new data (Richards & Hemphill, 2018). Scientists differ on the ideal example size in phenomenological studies (Jason, Olson & Harvey, 2015). For this investigation, the objective sample size will be 10, or until saturation is reached. 


           A semi-organized interview convention will be created depending on the two exploration inquiries in the research. Sub questions and follow-up questions will be remembered for the meeting guide to give guidance during interviews. Telephonic semi-organized meetings will be led to increase a total comprehension of the encounters of members. Research has demonstrated that members feel greater when giving a talk by telephone than face to face (William, 2015). The namelessness provided by not having the option to see the questioner may prompt more elevated solace levels with unveiling comparative data. All calls will be sound recorded so they can later be translated. Members will be educated that their meetings ought to be registered before they assented to partake. Interviews will last for 50 and 80 minutes to permit adequate time for panels to be finished and to guarantee that members completely comprehend the inquiries, just as to urge them to expound on answers that may be obscure or confounding. One meeting will be directed to every member. Following the record, the examination group will investigate and code the information to distinguish topics. 

            Different analysts have utilized semi-organized meetings and center gatherings to investigate subjects identified with the reemergence cycle (William, 2015). They directed semi-organized encounters with women to explore their impression of monetary boundaries to reemergence achievement. Larsen (2017) likewise utilized semi-organized meetings. However, they met the two people concerning their image of what makes wrongdoers fruitful after delivery and elements that may fill in as boundaries to progress after birth. William (2014) directed semi-organized meetings to investigate similarly develops yet utilized just women with felony history as members. Additionally, semi-organized sessions will be used in this research with only female members. Using this kind of instrumentation will take into account detailed clarification of women with felony history experiences and prompt a more profound comprehension of those encounters.

5.3 Population and Sample

            An essential initial phase in any study is recognizing and selecting the examination population (Taherdoost, 2016). In such a manner, Out-care's ability to coordinate and contribute will be essential to this research, particularly considering the trouble related to finding and selecting jail and the woman with felony history who has been released (Garland & Hass, 2015). Out-care's residency as one of American driving specialist corporation for detainees and delivered detainees will be the premise of choice to approach Out-care for the motivations behind exploration, perceiving the association's critical and long commitments to the help and backing of detainees. Contact will at first be made with Out-care, in regards to the possibility of detainee discharge research. Following a gathering with the administration, who maintained the significance of American based female-explicit examination in the territory of detainee discharge, the specialist will be allowed admittance to Out-care's Women's Program as a road for exploration and member enlistment. 

           With the administration uphold, the members' enrollment in this task will be assisted by the Women's Program case manager(s), who furnished a method for initial contact with customers and likely members (Garland & Hass, 2015). Help with this region will include different exercises that will be completed by the researcher, including verbally educating women with felony history regarding the exploration venture. The process will as well comprise of giving datasheets, supporting investment in 'follow up' interviews as a method for 'meet-and-welcome' to women with felony history who will be participating in the research. The process will include recognizing the individuals who communicated enthusiasm for taking part in the research and delivering contact subtleties to the specialist. With this help, the researchers will then be ready to contact women with felony history legitimately to officially welcome them to taking part in the research, both intentionally and secretly, and further, to make courses of action for a meeting, if they decide to be a piece of the exploration venture. 

           Altogether, eleven members will be selected during an extensive enlistment period. On occasion, the process of ensuring interview take place requires persistence, with various resulting rescheduling. On different occasions, members will be more unconstrained, offering their time from the start contact.

5.4 Sampling Procedures

           The research method will comprise ten women with felony history, enrolled basically from the Women's Program, with the leading standard for determination being founded on the person's ability to participate in the examination venture (Richards & Hemphill, 2018). Eight of the ten women with felony history will be enlisted in the program legitimately using the researcher’s presentation or referral, while two will be enrolled through the snowballing technique. The other three women will be selected for the participants with no history associated with the women’s group. Even though the example size might be seen as reasonably unassuming, it will be profound comprehension allowed by data-rich cases (Taherdoost, 2016). It will be of an incentive to the personal item, and besides, it is the sign of all qualitative requests (Dadashazar, 2017). Nearly, by engaging a small number of women with felony history to participate in the research will give a clear and quick understanding to their experience in the society after their release (Delice, 2010). Further, the quality of information to be obtained from the interview will assist in theoretical saturation while taking into account the itemized examination of the information requested in the study. 

           For the motivations behind building up a comprehension of specific example qualities, all the ten participants will be interviewed to gather demographic and background information that might help demonstrate the last analysis (William, 2015). Of the ten women with felony history, one will be Caucasian, five African-American, and four Hispanic. Ages ran from 26 years to 48 years with an average age of 37 years.  Even though questions concerning real offenses and additional charges will be excluded from the interview plan, these will be considered revealed by every one of the interviewees all through the meeting cycle. Among the ten women, offenses notwithstanding one driving without a permit, one ambush, one disturbed outfitted theft, five medication-related charges including selling and providing, and two taking and thievery charges. For six of the ten members, this will be their first contact with the criminal equity framework (Rade, Desmarais & Mitchell, 2016).

5.5 Data Collection Procedures

            The members will be selected and met for this investigation began not many months before the examination date (Englander, 2012). The flyer will be shown at three reemergence programs in Western State. The information assortment measure started in the wake of affirming the Letters of Cooperation from the three reemergence locales. From the start, with the primary contact of the women with felony history to be selected will concur and agree to meet in the interview day. The following day, at another reemergence program where flyers for the examination will be presented, people will concur to participate in an exploration study. Seven members will be screened in an individual who all met the rules, and each agreed to meet on the spot. At one reemergence program, it will take two days to talk with six members: the most recent information assortment day, three members who finished the information assortment measure to be met. 

           At all reemergence offices, up close and personal meetings will be led with ten women with felony history at three diverse reemergence programs in the city. Every woman with felony history will give a duplicate of the forms for taking place in the interview before the interview occurred (Chidlow et al., 2015). The process will assist in evaluating concentrate with every member to ensure that the individual comprehends the reason for the study and permit them to pose any inquiries before beginning the interview. Interview will take minimum time possible form one person to another it will take at least 15 to 30 minutes. A few members will be engaged in an interview in a more extended time than others. All women with felony history will be expected to finish the full session without pulling back or avoiding any inquiries questions. 

           Every woman with felony history will attend the interview once where a recording device will be utilized for each meeting to record the entire session, while answers shorthand will likewise be recorded. The reason to use this kind of criteria is to ensure that all non-verbal communication and physical articulations when posed specific inquiries were taken. At every reintegration office, the offices will be private. After each meeting, analyst will educate members after they deciphered the meetings where a duplicate of the interview will be sent to them. Each verbatim session will be interpreted manually written from the outset, at that point composed in Microsoft word archive and spared in information assortment organizer secret phrase ensured and streak drive as a reinforcement. 

           The information assortment measure, introduced will be a little extraordinary when gathering the information and doing the hands-on work (Rade, Desmarais & Mitchell, 2016). For example, at first, it will be expressed that five reemergence programs will be chosen. In any case, when it came to doing the exploration concentrate, just three reemergence programs will consent to take an interest in the investigation (Gilbert & Elley, 2015). Likewise, the first number of members will be extending from 6 to 10. Anyway, there will be a sum of ten members for the examination, which will be more than anticipated. Having more members enhances my test (Richards & Hemphill, 2018). Another will be the flyers posted at every reemergence program, which will uniquely take up for a couple of days and by returning individuals needed to be met that day. Subsequently, of those anxious to partake in the research study, scientists will be inquired about whether they could utilize one of their private rooms, office, or gathering space to begin setting up to direct the interview meetings where women with felony will meet that day. Every member will be informed that the interview will be recorded but one can stop it at any time. The meeting convention will comprise 12 inquiries posed by the members that every reaction (Kahlke, 2014). The meetings of the staff part's meeting convention will include five queries. 

5.6 Guiding Interview Questions and Field Testing

           The study and meeting guide will be changed rendition of the instruments utilized in William, (2015) investigation. Researchers will add few inquiries to give data on women' association in crime with companions or personal accomplices. Scientist likewise included inquiries regarding women with felony history earlier and current associations with their children and the effect women with felony history imprisonment had on their children. Before concluding the overview and meeting guide, specialist will be asked to pre-try the draft instrument with two of the past imprisoned women with felony history to watch the time it took to finish and to distinguish questions that they thought may cause inconvenience (Kahlke, 2014). Pre-testing the instrument end up being priceless in focusing on focal zones of the exploration that the women with felony history will distinguish as significant, which will be added to a more extensive comprehension of previous and current female guilty parties' general existence. 

Interview survey 

           Each interview meeting will start with the fulfillment of a broad study instrument. Researchers will read each question to the participating women with felony history and conclude their reactions. The agency will gather general segment and enlightening data, including the scope of inquiries concerning women with felony history physical and emotional well-being status, their exploitation accounts, their inclusion in wrongdoing, their substance addictions, just as treatment, private, and custodial encounters (Bansal, Smith & Vaara, 2018). Women with felony history will gave some information about their familial and friend connections, just as their association in crime. Analyst likewise will ask women with felony history on inquiries about their latest involvement in the criminal equity framework, the difficulties they looked upon reemergence to society, and the level of fulfillment they had with the advancement they made upon their last delivery from jail. In the study, analysts will concentrate on looking at the effect of pre-imprisonment, in-jail, and post-jail encounters on detained and paroled women. 

In-depth interview

           The survey will give pattern data to the information gathered in the in-depth interview. Researcher s will illustrate from women with felony history review reactions to manage the discussion during the in-depth interview meeting. The entirety of the sessions will be recorded utilizing an advanced voice recorder and will regularly be completed at the same time as the study (Johnson & Rowlands, 2012). These meetings will be the essential information analyst will illustrate from venture to pick up knowledge into women with felony history understandings of their encounters identifying with reemergence, recidivism, arranged in their records of the unique situation and conditions on with Kennedy (2016). Analyst objective in utilizing in-depth interview meeting methods to give the women wide scope in depicting their broad session of the difficulties they looked as they progressed from jail to the network, permitting women's comprehension of these issues to develop inductively. Furthermore, the utilization of stories gives a contextualized awareness also to pick up knowledge concerning recidivism explanations, just as the cycle used to stop from wrongdoing. 

Guiding interview questions 

           RQ1: What are the lived encounters of effective reintegration as a woman with felony        history, during, and after imprisonment that impacted triumphant reemergence into the      community? 

           RQ2: What methods for dealing with stress or characteristics do women with felony          history feel were critical to their effective reemergence to the public? 

           RQ3: What are the significance, importance, and valuation of the Women's Program to      the women with felony history? 

           RQ4: What sorts of post-discharge issues do women with felony history face following     delivery from jail? What types and blends of administration do they see as necessary or      of a specific value intending to these issues?

5.7 Other Data Collection Procedures

           From the above information, further collection methodology will be engaged in with the final goal of the investigation. The interview addressing women with lawful offense history will be to increase comprehension of their encounters with the reintegration cycle, how their interest with reemergence programs assists them with reintegrating again into society. Has reemergence upheld administrations help with their necessities and difficulties these people face (Englander, 2012). Women with felony history will be told to recount their story; every member will alright with the researcher and they will be ready to share their reemergence encounters (Kahlke, 2014). Then again, their conversation with staff individuals will be diverse, specifically getting some information about subsidizing, how they reach customers, the extent of fruitful results, and troubles. 

           The aftereffects of the information gathered will be important for the research as it will uncover in-depth details of women with felony reintegration cycle and their perspective (Brand, 2016). The meetings will be recorded after finishing the information assortment measure. This will make it simpler to follow along and composed. To delineate the interview,  meeting paper will contain the following details; woman with felony history first name and ID code with recorded number, implying that the principal recording with envelope document put away number after that follow the grouping all together. 

           During the record cycle to about fourteen days to interpret, the researcher will be engaged in listening each recorded meeting to record the same words said during the conference (Johnson & Rowlands, 2012). Tuning in to the member's voice, recognizing every member's face will be evident to the scientist, their non-verbal communication, and physical appearances interpreting their meetings (Richards & Hemphill, 2018). Explicit remarks will feature them and critical explanations applicable to the examination questions. Notwithstanding tuning in to the account, every member's feelings will be recognized as those who will be serious, who will give short reactions. Such reactions felt will be doing something to be thankful for being included and helping other people who may be after them. Examples and topics will be perceived while interpreting as well. The information immersion will be accomplished from the ten women with felony history with likenesses in their accomplishment in the reemergence cycle and backing administrations post-detainment.

5.8 Proposed Data Analysis

            Qualitative information may comprise of sound recordings, transcribed notes, or meeting outlines (Gilbert & Elley, 2015). The information gathered can be as perplexing as the lives of people from whom data will be collected. At the point when analysts code their examination, they are catching the quintessence of the information (Bansal, Smith & Vaara, 2018). Two rounds of coding will occur in the wake of finishing information assortment. In the first round, elucidating coding will permit the specialist, to sum up, the interview essential subjects. In the second round of coding, design coding will be done to search for the information designs. Classes will be distinguished by figuring out which coded things have a place together in families or gatherings (Kahlke, 2014). Now, topics will start to rise in the information. It will lay the foundation for cross-talk with the investigation. Information assortment and examination will stop after arriving at immersion (Gilbert & Elley, 2015). As per Gilbert & Elley (2015), immersion is the point reached while acquiring new information does not yield new data. 

           The information plan is to get inside and out data from reemergence program members and staff individuals to respond precisely to the exploration questions. The information investigation measure used subjective information examination programming to decipher interviews. Gathering, arranging and examining information utilizing a codebook made by the analyst will be used to assist in keeping information protected and secure (Baur et al., 2018). Nvivo programming will be used during the record cycle transferred information to create subjects and examples for coding ID developing outcomes and discoveries. Even though subjective programming enables code to compose and sort data, analysts will still have to enter research information line by line to produce data.

           Recorded meetings will be interpreted verbatim complete of all total record. All records will be transferred into programming for investigation; the information will then be examined utilizing applied topical examination coding cycles (Ndrecka, 2014). The analyst will apply essential coding, which will as well be used to recognize the inquiries questions and react to the answers. The inductive information will produce subjects and examples characterized as an expression or sentence that acknowledges what information implies (Ndrecka, 2014). The illustrative words and phrases will be featured running inquiry wizard distinguish rehashed designs through content pursuit, word recurrence, and coding correlation. It will allow the specialist to determine classifications to different topics developed, such as instruction-level, psychological treatment, occupations, vagrancy, probation officer, available help, compensation, reemergence, temperance, well-being net, and renewed opportunities attitude, condition, obligation, and responsibility. This topic speaks to the importance and accounts of a person's understanding. There will be no discrepant cases recognized. The distinguished coding references will be remarked with printed portrayals for 345 subjects (Kahlke, 2014). Just fourteen realized because of time narrowing, which brought about gathering reports for those joined fourteen topics. 

           The investigation will start with open coding, which will include scanning the information for rising ideas and rehashing thoughts (Charmaz, 2017). Steady with existing exploration once concepts will be distinguished, the data will be isolated into combined records that incorporates the accompanying: measures into medicating action, efforts into crime, detainment encounters, reemergence difficulties, and obstructions, factors are prompting reintegration achievement and disappointments, purposes behind recidivating, sparks for resistance, and strategies for removing pathways from wrongdoing. In each document, the story that will be identified with different classifications will be copied. To encourage a similar investigation, separate records for every sort will be made for both previous and current women with felony history. The specialist will assess each dataset for topical examples while taking note of likenesses and contrasts that will arise. Each record will be broken down seriously to look for new developing ideas and connections. For every principle classification, specialist will led research underlying examination of remanded women with felony history records independently. After that, deliberate reviews will be made to look for covering and certain subjects between the two examples of gatherings.

5.9 Role of the Researcher

           Yukhnenko, Blackwood & Fazel (2019) expressed that qualitative researchers focus on profundity instead of broadness, which deciphers additionally understanding exact circumstances and people in a specific population. Using a subjective ethnography approach works best because the scientist can do inside and out hands-on work to catch the reemergence program's general viability and scope of members' encounters and results (Garland & Hass, 2015). Garland & Hass (2015) indicated that personal exploration requires abilities, preparation, knowledge, and capacities. Nonetheless, the examination will utilize diagnostic insight and style considering that there are no relations with any of the women with felony history participant, which will stay proficient throughout the entire exploration measure. 

           The examination group will then be answerable for questioner and information authority. Utilizing a solitary questioner forestalls variety in talk with style and information assortment strategies (Simon, 2011). The researcher's job will be to create inquiries questions, meet every member, and test further into member answers to increase a full comprehension of members' discernments. Subsequent to finishing information assortment, the scientist's job will be to code and decipher the information. After reference, for example, affirmation predisposition and culture predisposition can possibly modify information during assortment and understanding (Gilbert & Elley, 2015). Information assorting will be utilized to abstain from affecting the members' clarifications of the marvels with my encounters. Organizing is finished prevent contemplations, impressions, and sentiments as notes while recording or dissecting information to perceive any close to home impacts of the analyst that may change information assortment or examination (Kristofferson, White & Peloza, 2014). Reflexivity is the consistent evaluation and consciousness of individual positions, convictions, and predispositions during the exploration cycle (Creswell, 2013). Reflexivity will be kept up all through the process, trying to guarantee the virtue of information gathered. Even though people who will be recently detained will be directed, any people who will be previous customers of the exploration will not be met to evade predisposition or any force awkwardness, though much as could be expected. 

           The researcher's job in this examination will be gathering information and investigating the discoveries from the information to be gathered. The specialist directs semi-organized meetings with the ten women with felony history participants at the reemergence programs that are selected for the study. Notwithstanding being a decent audience, analysts additionally will watch the women with felony history associations with staff individuals and one another. The analyst will be entitled to maintain a direct conversation with members during the meeting cycle. The inquiry questions will be open-finished so the members can offer a point by point response. The specialist will use a manual to follow in succession and to have follow-up questions when it appears to be that the interviewee needs to state more (Gilbert & Elley, 2015). The specialist needs to manufacture a bond with members to create trust. Subsequently, the specialist must be a specialist on the topic of reemergence projects and cycle. The analyst's experience, preparation, aptitudes, and credibility fortify their situation in the examination. 

           To guarantee legitimacy and validity, the scientist must ensure their members' investigation (Eriksson & Kovalainen, 2015). Assuring that the information and data gathered will be securely stored away, and just the scientist approached. The last job of the scientist in this investigation will be the remaining spotlight on the undertaking ahead. To foresee any difficulties that may show up during the exploration study, to have a strategy to address the problems because while managing human subjects, they are unusual. Researchers must be the comprehension of the member's circumstance and make sure to show restraint due to somethings possibly out of their control.

5.10 Credibility, Dependability, and Transferability


           In subjective examinations, credibility alludes to inside legitimacy. Credibility is generally associated with instrumentation and information in a personal report (Graneheim & Lundman, 2004). From the instrument utilized, it should be conceivable to attract significant data identified with the exploration addresses presented (Battle, 2019). For the reasons for this investigation, believability will be set up through immersion and part checking. Part checks will be utilized to guarantee the information recorded (Grafton, Lillis, Ihantola & Kihn, 2011). Members will be asked whether the analyst missed or confounded any data accumulated from their meetings before the information investigation started. Checking in with members will kill the chance of misjudging or forgetting about data that may apply to the examination. Immersion is arrived at when no new data is being found (Anney, 2014). Reflexivity will likewise be kept up all through the cycle to keep away from analyst predisposition. 


           Instituting dependability expects scientists to have a sensible clarification for the strategy for information assortment and that the information gathered is predictable with this clarification (Cope, 2014). The data assembled must answer the examination questions inquired. Having the option to review the examination cycle and the specialist's activities and impacts likewise assist with building up reliability in an investigation (Richards & Hemphill, 2018). Making the exploration cycle straightforward to different analysts considers deciding the dependability of techniques utilized and ends. A review trail of the means taken to direct this investigation will be kept up for this reason. 


           In subjective examinations, transferability alludes to outside legitimacy. Variety in member determination will guarantee that a decent cross-area of the population is informed (Anney, 2014). Members will be enrolled through remedial management workplaces in two districts situated in North Texas, and through a massive church in the zone. The central section will be a provincial region, comprised of a few unassuming communities. The next part will generally include thickly populated rural areas of Dallas, Texas, with a couple of rustic towns toward the north of the region. The congregation that will be utilized for member enlistment will be situated in North Texas and has a different assemblage (Cope, 2014). The thick depiction will be used to build the extravagance and unpredictability of the examination. Member reactions will be investigated and deciphered in a manner that didn't bypass the subject in a shallow manner yet will study profound into the significance of the experience itself.





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Criminal Justice

Question 1

Interactionist view

  Interactionist view state that individuals who hold social and political power play a significant role in the legal system.  For example, they can make moral judgments; that is, identify the honorable behaviors, and the wrong behaviors. Thus, since they have a law that identifies the right and wrong behavior, it means that the society does not have control of behaviors but rather the people in social and political power controls the behaviors by adhering to the criminal law (Siegel et al, 2011). In general, people in social and political power believe that crime is dishonoring the rules that are created by the state authority.

Consensus view

            According to the consensus view, criminal law identifies the norms and rules that society is expected to follow. When one commits a crime, it means that he or she violate the criminal law and the effects of crime are felt by the whole society (Siegel et al, 2011).In this case, people in social and political power do not control behavior but rather, criminal law has the power to ensure a peaceful society and protect the majority of citizens from destructive and dangerous behaviors.

Conflict view

 The conflict view states that criminal law has the power to control behaviors but it is influenced by the ruling class. This means that the ruling class or in other words the wealthy people enforce the criminal law on self-interest (Siegel et al, 2011). In other words, laws that define crime are made to protect wealth. To put it clearly, laws are created to prevent the lower classes from committing crimes such as burglary, robbery, and others that might threaten the life of wealthy people.

The best definition

 The definition that I think is the best is the consensus view of crime.  This is because the view is not self-interest but it is interested in the survival of society. Siegel (2011) states that citizens must come together and discuss on which behaviors should be considered legal and illegal. All people regardless of race, gender, and other characteristics are treated as equal members (Siegel et al, 2011).This means that the majority of citizens must come up with an agreement and express their values and beliefs. Another point about the consensus view is that the criminal law creates uniformity or it considers all people whether rich or poor. The law does not benefit the wealthiest but it focuses on protecting the members of the society (Siegel et al, 2011).  Siegel (2011) affirms that the consensus view uses the social harm approach in that it tries to prevent harmful behaviors that may harm society.



Question 2

Official data

  There are three methods of measuring crime and each method has strengths and weaknesses. The first method is official data. A point to note is that the researchers gather data on offenses and offenders and they derive the data from the Uniform Crime Report and the Juvenile Court Statistics.

The Uniform Crime Report has strengths in that researchers can derive nationwide data (Burfeind & Bartusch, 2010). This means that the official data is wide coverage and reliable. Another strength is that the researchers can derive information related to jurisdiction of the offense, violent crime, less serious crime, as well as age, gender, and other demographics (Burfeind & Bartusch, 2010).

 However, the Uniform Crime Report has weaknesses in that the data are police records. Note that police fail to record all crimes or what is known as inadequate recording (Burfeind & Bartusch, 2010).The unrecorded crime is known as 'dark figure’. This means that the unrecorded crime will not be included in the UCR data. Another weakness is that police use different policing strategies and methods (Burfeind & Bartusch, 2010).This means that some will report serious crime whereas others will less serious offenses. There will be controversy since police report inaccurate figures.

 Juvenile court statistics have strength in that researchers derive data that the State and county agencies have recorded. The data contain demographic such as age and gender, and other elements such as detention practices (Burfeind & Bartusch, 2010).The researchers also derive data on cases disposed. However, the juvenile court data has a primary weakness in that there is a discrepancy in the number of cases referred to court juvenile, and arrests. Thus, only a small number of juvenile offenses and arrests are recorded (Burfeind & Bartusch, 2010). Secondly, the juvenile court statistics have limited information and this indicates that the magnitude of crimes is omitted.


Self-Report Data

 This method of data collection has strength in that the researchers collect data from offenders who report both minor and serious offenses they have committed (Miller & Miller, 2012). Note that the offender will report all crimes hence the agency will gather a large amount of data. Secondly, government agencies use a questionnaire method to gather information about the cause of crime, and they also interact with the offenders and their families hence strengthening the parent-child attachment.

 However, the offender or the person reporting the crimes may forget critical information such as the date of crime, places, and other critical elements (Miller & Miller, 2012). On the same note, the respondents may over-report or underreport, hence omit serious crime or less serious crimes.  Secondly, researchers use a sample design that has flaws. For example, participants are students. This means that the sample does not contain youths and adults who might be delinquent and as a result, there is an underestimation of crime and delinquency (Miller & Miller, 2012). In general, this method of data collection has validity and reliability issues.

Victim data

  Victim data has strengths in that the researchers derive data from the victims and this means that the victim will reveal all information that they did not report to the police. In other words, the crimes that would go unreported are reported through interviewer-victim interaction (Burfeind & Bartusch, 2010). Secondly, researchers will also gather information related to the risks of victimization. Note that they will gather data related to social characteristics such as social class.

 However, the victim data has weaknesses in that the victim resists in reporting crime as they believe that reporting is not helpful or rather it will not change their lives. As a result, they only report simple assaults such as pocket-picking and omit serious assaults such as rape, drug use, and other Part 2 offenses (Burfeind & Bartusch, 2010). Secondly, the victim data is flawed in that victims less than 12 years do not report the assaults merely because the interviewer believes that the children will not report due to the relationship that exists between them and the offender (Burfeind & Bartusch, 2010).Therefore,  researchers only collect information provided by teenagers and adults.

The best method

 The method that I think is the best is the victim data. This is because the data is derived from the victims of offense and this means that the source provides the researchers with detailed information. For example, the National Crime Victimization Survey collects data from 135,000 individuals every 6 months (Cox, 2008). The data is based on the amount of crime, the characteristics of the victim, type of crime, among other elements. The information gathered does not only help evaluate the crime but it also helps in identifying the community needs and programs to address the needs (Cox, 2008). More importantly, the researcher identifies the risk that puts individuals into victimizations or the factors that contribute to being a victim.


Question 3

Two ways that I think can lessen the dark figure of crime is victim survey and better partnership with society. First, the criminal justice system should involve the victims in estimating and reporting the amount of crime and hence reduce the dark figure (Doorewaard, (2014). Note that many crimes go unreported or they remain invisible. When the researches face the victims directly, the victims will report the crime that the police did not notice. Thus, much attention should be a paid to the victims merely because victims are behind the dark figures, or in other words, they do not report to the police due to disbelief and other issues (Doorewaard, (2014). Secondly, the criminal justice system should co-operate with society or in other word there should be a better partnership. Note that the public or rather the society is better informed about the crimes happening within the society and therefore, they can be of great help in informing the criminal justice system about the crimes.


Question 4

 A methodology that I would propose for crime data collection in-person interviews. This method has a high level of reliability and validity (Piper, 1997). Note that the researchers will receive the best response. Cues such as body language will motivate the person to participate in the interview and the interviewer can take a longer time to gather information in a detailed manner.  









 Piper Lanny., Lucas Robert., Rohe Willima., & Shirey Jack. (1997). How to conduct

victimization surveys. Place of publication not identified: Diane Pub Co.


Doorewaard, C. (2014). The dark figure of crime and its impact on the criminal justice

system. Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology27(2), 1-13.


Cox, S. M. (2008). Juvenile justice: A guide to theory, policy, and practice. Los Angeles: Sage



Miller, W., & In Miller, W. R. (2012). The social history of crime and punishment in America:

An encyclopedia.


Burfeind James., & Bartusch J Dawn. (2010). Juvenile Delinquency: an Integrated Approach. 

Jones & Barlett Publishers.


Siegel, L. J. (2007). Criminology: Theories, patterns, and typologies. Belmont, CA:



Siegel, L. J., Brown, G. P., & Hoffman, R. (2011). Criminology: The core. Brantford, Ont: W.

Ross MacDonald School







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