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Institutional Review Boards in Conflict


            IRB is a committee type that is involved in the application of research integrities by evaluating the proposed strategies for research in ensuring that they are all principled (Cohen & Lynch, 2014). The purpose of this system is to assure that the most suitable approaches are utilized to guard the privileges and welfare of individuals that are to participate in the study investigation (Chin & Lee, 2008). In this case, it is recommended that the US IRB should approve the study since it is focused on creating clinical intervention solutions and also because the South African regulatory standards have been adhered and approved. The study is very helpful for the affected population and thus Tarry’s assistance is highly needed.

  1. What are the ethical issues and points of conflict in this case?

Based on the case scientific researchers based in South Africa which is one of the developing states have been involved in examining a hereditary illness that mainly affects the in inaccessible and indigenous populace existing in the jungle’s deepest parts. Their hope is that the gene that is associated with the disorder can be established in order to establish the contributing factors and determine the most suitable clinical interventions. So that this can be accomplished a collaboration with Dr. Herod Tarry a US-based qualified researcher is needed as he utilizes genomic technology which is rare particularly in the developing nations and is needed in studying microbiology.

The primary ethical dilemma is on whether IRB should approve the study even though the methods to be utilized are far below the American standards. The regulatory standards in South Africa have approved the study as it meets its requirements. It is acknowledged by Dr. Tarry that the consent documents that the researcher sent are not drafted in a similar way and standards with those of the united states and the reason to why this study should be approved is that he is not the one that is seeking consent regarding the study and he will not be directly involved in the investigation since they are no direct interactions with the researchers. His role is to test the blood samples sent to his laboratory by the researchers and send results based on the analysis. In addition, he highlights to the IRB members that the regulatory standards in SA have approved the study and hopes from the IRB approval on the consent as presented. This raises an ethical issue on whether IRB should approve the consent of the study even though it fails to meet the American based regulation principles. There is a severe conflicting interest in the case as the American standards and those of SA are not equal but the help of the Doctor is necessary.

  1. Who are the interested parties affected by the issues/conflicts and what are their reasonable expectations?

There are a number of parties that are affected by the conflicts and issues in the case. To begin with, the SA researchers are the ones that are affected most. This is because they are in search of the causative factors that are leading to the disorder among the indigenous and isolated populace but this cannot be achieved prior to establishing the responsible gene. In addition, the genomic technology is very rare based on its expenses and is even harder for developing state researchers to afford it. They, therefore need the assistance of the Dr. based on his qualifications and expertise in a biological examination. If the approval is denied by the IRB then their efforts would be useless and the research cannot be successful. Their expectations are that the consent will be approved in order for the examination of the blood samples can be conducted using the technology by Dr. Tarry who is also affected.

The other affected party is the indigenous and isolated populace that is affected by the disorder. If the approval is denied this implies that they will be forced to live with the disorder for generations which will affect their wellness and growth. Their expectations are that the researchers will be able to establish the causative factors as well as determine the appropriate medical interventions to end their suffering. IRB is also an affected party because given that it is required to approve the consent it is concerned that the standards fail to meet the American regulatory requirements which make the consent to be unreliable. They, therefore, expect that the documents can be modified to suit its standards.

  1. If the interested parties acting on their expectations what would be the probable consequences?

If all the interested parties acted based on their expectations then a conflict would arise. This is because for Dr. Tarry his expectations are that the IRB should approve the study because his contribution would positively affect the affected populace. If he, therefore, acts on assisting the researchers this would be against IRB’s expectations which are based on the modification of the documents so that they can fully suit the needs of the populace. In satisfied this quest there would be a conflict amid the act by the Dr. and the regulatory standards. This implies that the expectations of the researchers to be assisted in establishing the causative factors would be fulfilled and the affected populace would be satisfied.

However, For IRB it is apparent that their interests and expectations would be violated. The Dr. is expected to wait for the approval by the regulatory standards which seems that it might be denied. He hopes that they will consider the fact that his contributions are highly necessary and that he is not seeking the consent but it is the researchers who are doing so. If the expectation of IRB to await the modification of the consent is adhered to then the process of investigation and research would automatically fail. The health of the affected populace and the efforts of the general populace would also be affected in a negative way. However, they are obligated to ensure the wellness and the rights of those that are to participate in the research and this cannot be done without proper measures being considered.

  1. What are the obligations of the Amazing IRB?

Amazing IRB has the obligation of applying research ethics to evaluate the proposed research methods in ensuring that they are ethical (Chin & Lee, 2008). Its primary intention is to assure the utilization of the most appropriate strategies for protecting the rights and wellness of humans engaging in the research study (Chin & Lee, 2008). In this case, its obligation lies on ensuring that professional competence is applied in evaluating the specified study’s activities. The individual conducting the study should have adequate knowledge in regard to the subject that will contribute mainly in establishing the threats and benefits within and that consent information is provided to the participants to guard their confidentiality and responses. However, in this case, it is only IRB who is from the US while the researchers involved in the study are SA based.

Thus, the role of IRB is to ensure that the applied strategies in gaining insights about the disorder are ethical and that the participants are fully aware of their rights (Bankert & Amdur, 2006). This is not possible since Dr. Tarry will not be engaging directly with the researchers. However, it has to ensure that the approval meets the standards that seek to guard the rights of those that are engaged. It is expected to either approve or disapprove the study based on its review. In this case, it is recommended that the US IRB should approve the study since it is focused on creating clinical intervention solutions and also because the South African regulatory standards have been adhered and approved. Its main responsibility is to protect the welfare and privileges of all those that are involved in the investigation.













Bankert, E. A., & Amdur, R. J. (2006). Institutional review board: Management and function. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.

Chin, R. Y., & Lee, B. Y. (2008). Principles and practice of clinical trial medicine. London: Academic.

Cohen, I. G., & Lynch, H. F. (2014). Human subjects research regulation: Perspectives on the future. MIT Press

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Police ethics

            Police ethics is a pertinent part in criminal justice due to increased unethical issues among police officers that include deception, lying and omission of truth (Martinelli, 2014). Therefore, the law enforcement administrators should take actions to address ethical challenges among police officers.

            One of the ways is preventing crimes before they occur and this is through locating where and when crimes are more likely to occur. Despite the fact that crime is unpredictable, it is possible to identify corresponding times and locations where crimes are more likely to occur. Crimes will occur at certain areas at particular times due to a given condition and such places can be spotted earlier. Therefore, agencies can direct available patrol resources in such places hence preventing the occurrence of crimes (Rivero, 2010). The law enforcement should also formalize the proactive patrol tactics so as to increase effectiveness in crime prevention through scripting. Data is obtained earlier such that prior to any event that data is plotted on a patrol script by the crime prevention department. Here, the officers can be kept aware of the general operation of the patrol for instance how it is going to be conducted, the specific time and the officers in charge.      The officers should also understand the model of crime development. A crime should be regarded present when the offender and the victim are all present. Without one or either of them then there is no crime. Therefore, in the case one has appeared, no criminal action should be allowed. (Rivero, 2010). Therefore, all the three must be in place for crime action to be taken. These can modify ethics in police.

Martinelli, Thomas. (2014).Ethical Defensibility: Should an Officer’s ‘Willingness to Deceive’ Result in Automatic Certification Revocation?

Rivero, David, A. (2010).Proactive patrolling through the Use of Patrol Scripts

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The subjects of morality encompass significant forms of complexity in different healthcare settings. Physicians, for instance, deal with or in some situations are forced to make diverse forms of moral choices, which tend to vary depending on the type of medical complication despite of the treatment outlook. The diversity of the encompassed cases especially in the clinical industry requires vital principles to guide decision making for substantial conclusions. Therefore, clinicians oblige particular morally purposed guidelines, which are usually used to resolve with notions of uncertainty and conflict owing to the differences of reasoning. The commonly accepted aspect of the presumed guidelines’ highlights the need to facilitate compliance among the pious, nonreligious and other people characterizing differing ethics. As a result, the commonly acknowledged guidelines act as powerful tools of deterring misunderstandings and conflicts that accrue from the variables of medical issues and other ethical considerations in clinical fields. Significantly, Beauchamp and Childress introduced the philosophy of certain principles in relation to Medical Ethics, which are habitually used to control moral issues in clinical fields. Arguably, if well applied, the principles have the ability of validating the determination of a physician’s moral responsibility on the subject of clinical situations.

Question 2

The standards that work in association with medical ethics in the contemporary health care highlight the need for service providers to make use of the value of reasoning when on duty. The codes established by Beauchamp and Childress stand as the principles of Autonomy, Justice, Beneficence, and Non-maleficence.  Intuitively, each principle induces particular impacts on medical ethics in accordance with the nature of a clinical situation although the principles tend underline similar concerns regarding ethical issues in medicine. Significantly, the primary intent of applying the principles on all medical cases is to provide ensure that decision making exemplifies highest levels of medical benefits for patients. However, the principles may be applied in different scenarios to protect other people’s rights in the line of duty. For instance, they may be used to protect employees from actions that have a propensity of violating their rights.

The case at stake raises a variety of ethical issues including respect, confidentiality or privacy, care, consent, competency (the idea of work-related experience), and reconciliation which infer the essence brought up by the four general principles. However, responsibility can be critiqued as the pervasive ethical issues throughout the case. This implies that the codes on Respect for Autonomy, Justice, Beneficence, and Non-maleficence are well founded through the happening of the case. The case brings on table a situation whereby a nurse (Alex Wubbels) was arrested after she stopped a police officer from drawing blood out of a patient while in coma. Suddenly, the police officer (Jeff Payne) was fired off his duty as a consequence for the arrest of the nurse. Significantly, the issues raised in the case have an apparent association with the principles of Medical Ethics.

The principle of Autonomy

Respect for autonomy is a vital element of ethics that is commonly used in medical fields to resolve conflicts on moral considerations. It conceptualizes the need for treating patients as independent agents. More so, the principle expects medical practitioners to ensure that people with limited senses for self-sufficiency are protected against acts of defiance in accordance with the moral principles. Therefore, autonomy requires the answerable parties to ensure that people’s sovereignty is acknowledged in all circumstances whereas people with weakened autonomy are well protected. Esteem for independence elaborates the need to value one’s opinions and at the same time avoiding to not hindering the achievement of one’s interests. However, the principle considers the fact that not every individual has the capability for self-determination owing to a variety of reasons. For instance, incapability for autonomy may be a result of illness or mental disability. As a result, the liable bodies need to ensure that autonomy of the ill or mentally disabled is protected in ways that abide by moral expectations within that particular setting. The aspects of care and respect are significantly articulated in the case in regards to the principle of autonomy.  For instance, both the nurse and the police had the responsibility of making determinations, preferably, of care to propose the best interests for the patient who lacked the capability for self-determination. Also, the issues concur with the guidelines of autonomy considering that it underlines the need for protecting the independency of others through ways that value their status.  .


Under this principle, in association with medical ethics, the public should be treated ethically through ways that honor their moral considerations. Nevertheless, like in this case, the made decisions should have acted to protect patient personality from events that could impact their welfare negatively.  Moreover, the rule of beneficence calls for other complimentary and viable efforts of securing the wellbeing of those affected (the patients). It extensively brings to account the essence of compassion, which often exceeds the philosophy of strict obligation. The main idea behind the principle exemplifies the importance of curbing chances for events that may comprise harmful effects on others.  It as well encourages the development and application of competent determinations, which in one way or another may facilitate the likelihood of maximum patient benefits within a situation.  Without hesitation, the idea that tends to diminish chances for potential damage has been a vital rule of medical ethics in all healthcare scenarios. This implies that an individual has to gather the relevant information regarding harmful practices for patient protection although the process may pretense the involved party, for example, the physicians to momentous risks. However, physicians are required to uphold decisions that favor the interests of their patients regardless of the threats that might follow their stand towards a complication. On the other hand, competency stands out as a crucial element of ethical considerations that encounter a lot of complexity in various orientations. Significantly, the commonly accepted concept of beneficence illustrates that everyone ought to prioritize one’s occupational competency prior putting to effect actions of criticism. In reference the case at hand, the conflicting bodies had the liability to put into consideration the ethical guidelines within the respective occupations preceding their actions.

The principle of justice

Justice is the equal distribution of resources and services, which should also be included in the healthcare sector. Each individual in the society has got the right to better treatment in which it applies regardless of his or her bodily status in the society. The principle of justice is an important incentive towards the provision of better health care services so that the demands of individuals   are fairy met. For instance, it requires individuals in the health sector as well as the society in general to handle cases fairly through ways that deter instances of prejudice. However, even though people can be treated equally, they can also be treated unjustly. Treatment requires equal respect to individuals regardless the outlook of a situation. For example, the act of friendship, presentation of concern to the patient and good attitude should be upheld by each attendant. Medical practitioners, for instance, should guarantee that they put the medical needs of their patients into consideration whenever they are in the line of duty. Justice prevails when the laws embarking patient rights are not violated under any circumstances. The principle of justice, moreover, pretends that judgment of employee actions in any situation should follow the key ethical guidelines. Importantly, the perceptions behind the concept of informed consent in relation to justice communicate the ethical issues that revolve around the aspect of responsibility as stipulated by the case. It denotes that employers are ethically responsible for ensuring that their employees have the essential information, that is, the rules and regulations while on duty in pursuit for justice. However, the principle delivers that employees have the duty of ensuring that the value of consent is properly practiced to enhance chances for justice.


The principle of non– maleficence preface that the patient should be protected from any harm or injury while under treatment. Any doings that may oblige the patient to harm should be considered as a serious offence and thus the need for physicians to take indispensable action. The principle does not condone incompetence in the medical profession, rather it intends to evade or curtail the risk of harm to the patient. Conversely, medical mistakes may take place during the process of treatment, but the principle requires that there should be committed health care professionals who will ensure that the patient is protected from any harm. A person who violates the principle of non maleficence clearly shows that he or she is not morally upright and thus should not be part of health care sector. Non maleficence principle is the basic principle that shows the morality of an individual. It is clear that some situations may expose one to a complex circumstance considering that reluctant considerations may in due course harm the patient or rather deter the principle of non-maleficence among the involved teams. While in such circumstances, one is expected to make decisions that suggest positive impacts to the patient. The case develops that aspects of confidentiality and reconciliation should be instilled in medical situations to facilitate the protection of ethical standards. Considering that medical ethics stipulate that privacy should be a core theme within health care, care providers should embark the notion of protection when determining their stance on a situation. Like in this case, both parties had the mandate to impose their ethical basis regarding patient protection before exercising their obligations. Therefore, the standards of non maleficence exemplify that the nurse and the police officer were expected to fully exercise respective ethical jurisdictions to develop interests that propose chances for patient protection.   

Question 3

Suggestible, the adequacy of harmonizing intents should be put into consideration when offering judgment concerning the validity of determinations to a health situation. This rectifies that an opinion should be rested on a determination that supports different moral considerations for an ethical justification to be achieved. With reference to the outlook of the conflicting case between a nurse and a police officer, justification of ethical dilemmas in medicine need to be in line with the standards of the comprehensive structure of medical ethics. Evidently, the article admits that both parties, that is, the nurse and the police officer had substantial basis for their actions regarding the medical situation. However, Beauchamp and Childress’s opinions on the “Principles of Biomedical Ethics” exemplify that competing benefits should be used to validate judgments in every situation. The case thus presents a lot of confusion concerning the judgment on the ethical issues portrayed by the stand of the nurse and officer towards the patient.  Significantly, in this case, I contend that a judgment should be in favor of the determination that demonstrates adequate reasons regarding the values of medical ethics. Basing on the validity potentiality of the determinations between the nurse and the officer to patient interests; I argue that the nurse’s arrest was against the expectations of the general principles of Medical Ethics. Also, I contend the officer’s stand to arresting the nurse by arguing that the nurse was responding to her commitment in accordance with the codes of medical ethics.

Beauchamp and Childress impose that there exist other imperative rules that are aligned with the principles of medical ethics, which in due course exemplify the subject of responsibility. This means that activities that may facilitate disclosure of a patient’s privacy should not be allowed within the health care. Medical practitioners, for example, nurses have the mandate to deny access to any individual other than medical experts within the healthcare industry to conduct any sort of assessment on a patient. In response to the case, I aver that the nurse (Alex Wubbels) had the right of declaring her compliance to protecting medical ethics while maintaining the patient’s privacy. Respect for other people’s autonomy denotes the need for maintaining confidentiality in regards to aspects such as declaration of information on a patient’s medical status. This thus shows that the nurse’s decision was right considering that she was protecting the patient from harm. This position is convincing because the values of non-maleficence allows physicians to involve the aspects of competency when making clinical decisions. Additionally, it is commonly accepted that a lot of medical information can be disclosed through some examinations including blood examinations. As a result, I agree that physicians, like in this case, the nurse had the obligation to stop the police attempt to draw blood from the patient who lacked senses for self determining at the moment.

The code of beneficence tends to motivate professionals (medical practitioners) to perform their duties in ways that might better other people’s lives. This argument is morally acceptable since it unfolds the importance for clinicians to make decisions that are in line with the ethical aspirations of patients within the healthcare landscape. It further infers that clinicians should always abide by the medical ethics including rules and regulations while on duty for patient interests. Therefore, I aver that clinicians have the accountability to prevent and deter chances for harmful acts whilst promoting the likelihood for excellence regardless the appearance of a situation. I therefore contend that practitioners in a health care facility have the priority of putting into practice their judgments so long as the decisions underline the attribute of care for patients.

Also, I agree that the nurse’s arrest violated the vital considerations including the rule of justice in regards to medical ethics. I argue that Wubbels’s determination was intended to protect the rights of the patient from being violated. Wubbels upholds the rights of privacy of the patient from an unpredictable activity without his conscious. Additionally, the code of justice in the medical sector suggests that an employee in the sector has the right to function his or her stipulated work in accordance with the rules and regulations given. Wubbels clearly shows that she respected the hospital policy by standing firm on her grounds even after being threatened by the police officer. An employee should not be compromised or threatened to perform a specific task that is not included in the operational guidelines. For that reason, I challenge the officer’s action of arresting the nurse considering that by the code of justice, employees should be allowed to perform their duties without intimidation. Thus, it is the duty of employees to ensure that they are well informed on the rules and regulations guiding them, just like the way Wubbels was properly informed on the policies of the hospital.

Question 4


As specified in the case, both the nurse and the police defined valuable basis for their positions which complexes the validity of a particular moral judgment.

It is important to understand that Payne was a certified phlebotomists’ who wanted to draw blood from the patient in order to execute his investigation. It is clearly asserted  that the patient was a semi truck driver  who was crushed by a car fleeing the Uttah highway patrol, thus  Payne just wanted to clear him from any wrong doing in the hurtle. Alex Wubbel could not have resisted Payne from withdrawing blood since she simply understood that he was a police officer who was on his line of duty maintaining law and order. Moreover, it was not right to suspend Payne since he was not informed of the changed policies at the hospital at the moment, which barred him from withdrawing blood without the consent of the patient or without having a warrant. We clearly see that Payne was performing with the best interest of clearing the patient from any wrong doing, (the principle of beneficence) only to find himself at an awkward position of even being suspended from his job. It is crucial to note that both the police and the nurse work to save the lives of people, so the incident where Alex Wubbels deterred Payne from executing his work seemed as discomfiture to him. Payne had the right to justify his actions without being compromised by his authorities since his actions were not of any bad intentions, but it was for the well being of the patient. Therefore, there should have been a good moral judgment to show that really Payne was not right to arrest Alex Wubbels. It would have been a wise move if the  police department and the hospital management could come up with a concert where there shall be a better conformity between the physicians and the police officers since mostly their job tend to merge in most of the cases. The fact that Payne was suspended for arresting Alex, does not mean that he did a contrary moral action, since in his conscious mind he knew that what he was doing was right and lawful at the moment.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            


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International Business Issues and Ethics

Addressing differences in Laws and Ethics in dissimilar Countries

Laws and ethics in different countries differ, and this is majorly attributed to different cultural relations and traditions in different countries. As a business owner, one of the best things to do when starting a business in a different country other than the U.S., is to first and foremost understand the cultural dictates and traditions of the country (SCHAFFER, 2017). Secondly, you need to understand the social relations of the people in the country, hence complying with these regulations. In so doing, one can therefore start a business, and abiding by the dictates of the law in the country. In addition, when employing clients from the U.S. in a newly opened company in another country, it is better to brief them on the changes in the cultural dictates, thus allowing them to follow the law of the new country. Finally, the operations of the company must abide by the laws and ethics of the country, hence making it easier for the managing director to easily address the differences in laws and ethics in other countries to.

Significance of Understanding differences in Laws and Ethics in different Countries  

Understanding the laws and ethics of different countries makes it easier for a company to easily conduct business activities in different parts of the world at ease (SCHAFFER, 2017). When it comes to an individual, it allows him or her to be able to obey and work according to the dictates of the law in different countries, hence making the operations of a company to run smoothly. Moreover, understanding these differences allows most investors to work ease and to also understand the best countries to invest in.



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Quantitative Analysis II

An Unethical Behavior Related to Quantitative Research and Why It Might Occur and Prevented

One of the ethical behavior that might occur in quantitative research is dishonesty. Researchers are at all times expected to demonstrate ethical judgment by ensuring that research is conducted in a quality and demonstrable manner. In this context, they should apply their best in ensuring that the concerned goals are achieved over preconceived calculations as well as philosophies. Honesty in research is essential given that it means that one is sincere as well as fair which equates to dependable. This behavior in most cases noticeable in instances of plagiarism, information forging or denying acknowledgment for ideas that have been borrowed. This is usually a violation of other individual’s rights. In that plagiarism can be acquired by reproducing or utilizing others concepts or ideas without citing the sources as required. This issue normally rises in instances where the researcher is not willing to be credible and opt for other shorter options which necessitates fewer efforts in order to develop to the desired findings. This tendency results in the development of unreliable results given that the interests of the researcher are placed over the objected of the research (Bachman & Schutt, 2017). This can be prevented by ensuring that all the borrowed concepts are well referenced.

An Ethical Researcher

In my opinion being an ethical researcher means that one is completely honest and protective of academic integrity. All the research principles should be adhered to adequately in ensuring that the study is considered to be reliable as well as credible. An ethical examiner should conduct adequate research in the quest of fulfilling the study’s objectives rather than their own motives. Personal biased should not be included given that it leads to misguided conclusions.










Bachman, R., & Schutt, R. K. (2017). The Practice of Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice (6th Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications.


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Is it ethical to eat meat?

According to Haile (84), the ethics of eating meat is derived from theological perspective which defines the problem as unethical. It is argued that Christians should become vegetarians and this is one way of practicing stewardship. In this article, the author states that the questionable ethics is rooted from the slaughtering techniques where farm industries use atrocious processes to slaughter animals (Haile, 86).  The problem with this practice is that animals for slaughter are put in overcrowded confinements and animals are prevented from interacting with natural environment. People have shown an ethical concern due to healthy issues. For example, factory farms are contributing to mad cow disease among others. In addition, ethical concerns have been expressed due to environmental damage  since factory firms feed the animals with antibiotics which then overflows to the rivers (Haile, 86).  The article introduces the utilitarian argument offered by Peter Singer’s and affirms that people who eat vegetables maximize utility since they reduce death and animal suffering.  In addition, the author states that according to deontological theory, animals have the same rights as human beings such as not to suffer, quality care, humane treatment, providing mental needs and more (Haile, 90). Finally, the author argues by using virtue ethics which states that ethics should not be judged through action but people should deal with character which defines virtuous tendencies. The ethics focus on moral virtues which every human being achieve through positive acts toward human good and through human efforts to live a moral life and to avoid evil. The theological virtue asserts that human beings should practice charity which allows people to value the creation and to care for the creatures. Christians are called to have a sustainable future and protect the creation from predatory abuse (Haile, 90).


According to Henning (64), livestock production has led to a big concern to human and environment. Mass consumption is contributing to environmental pollution such global warming, deforestation and animal suffering. For example, 275million tons of meat were estimated to be the total meat production in 2007. People derive a high amount of daily protein from animal sources and 273 pounds of meat is consumed by one person annually in U.S (Henning, 65). The problem is that 80% of the livestock is produced in the industrial livestock where animals suffer due to lack of carefree life. Industrial livestock use intensive methods where animals are kept in confined spaces and provided with a high-protein diet. Given that animals are fed on antibiotics, they are contributing to infectious diseases. In addition, people are suffering from Illnesses such as obesity among other diseases in modern world. Health professionals state that high intake of protein from animal source leads to cancer, hypertension, and diabetes among other illnesses (Henning, 65). The article states that people have ignored the ethical significance and the ignorance has led to nutritious crisis.


Hiaso asserts that it is an immoral act to cause unjustified pain. Other ethical argument is that eating meat is unethical since meat should not the first choice for nourishment. The act of causing pain without a good reason is immoral or in other words, animals have their own rights (Hiaso, 278). In addition to the idea from other authors that meat causes illness, killing animal or inflicting pain to obtain food is not justifiable.  In defending the vegetarian’s argument, the article argues that animals are sentient beings and for this reason they have moral status (Hiaso, 278). People should show goodness to something which shows worthiness in ends or purpose. In other words, animals are entitled for welfare conditions and they should be cared.

Work cited

Henning, Brian. "Standing in Livestock's ''Long Shadow'': The Ethics of Eating Meat on a Small

Planet." Ethics & the Environment, vol. 16, no. 2, Fall2011, p. 63. EBSCOhost,



Hsiao, Timothy. “In defense of eating meat”. Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Ethics 28.2

(2015): 277-291.


HAILE, BETH K. "Virtuous Meat Consumption." Logos: A Journal of Catholic Thought & Culture, vol. 16,

  1. 1, Winter2013, pp. 83-100. EBSCOhost,
















































































































































































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Organizational culture is an important element in the process of decision making.  Note that organization comprises a group of people with different beliefs and where people interact in sharing assumptions and beliefs. Culture is valued in decision making in that the different norms   are applied in solving workplace problems. In times of crisis, organizational culture offers a common set of premises which guide lower-level and high-level personnel in making decision.  Culture and decision-making is strengthened by trust. The latter promotes integrity which allows organizational members follow norms and act ethically in achieving mission and mandates. The purpose of this paper is to examine how culture in government organization can influence the decision making and create both ethical and unethical policies.


The military commission is a government organization established by the Bush administration. The culture in this organization led to unethical practices through appointing a political appointee to serve in the Convening Authority (Kurtz, 2003). The organization created a culture of political influence which was reinforced by the Secretary of Defense.  The culture influenced unethical practices in that the political appointee   does not consider unbiased and apolitical issues as a military commander and he or she lacks military equivalent.  The politically organizational culture influence unethical practices by violating the codes of ethics which states that the military justice should not be connected with a politically organizational culture (Kurtz, 2003).

Organization culture is a collective phenomenon where members create mutual understanding through shared values and beliefs. The social interaction promotes a sense of identity and when making decision, members adhere to ethical behaviors and core values. Strong organization culture influences decision making in that culture comprises agreement among the members where they develops creative thinking in their roles and making policies (Cooper, 2012). An organization culture encourages the members to share assumptions while honoring the diverse cultures. However, an organization culture may promote unethical behaviors where members resist the authority. Upper management may be aware of the culture of defiance but they may encourage it for the purpose of achieving financial goals. In addition, culture may promote unethical behaviors when leaders ignore legal and ethical principles. Diligence leads to unethical practices since leaders are unable to communicate the ethical codes and address the ethical violations (Cooper, 2012).


Norms, customs and traditions could play an important role in making decision this is because, inputs and outputs from personnel could influence the decision, managers and organizational members could pay attention on the issues and come up an effective idea, managers could address critical incident in the right way and could use the right criteria for selection and promotion (Cooper, 2012).  In addition, management and leadership are key elements required in making decision in that leaders and managers could act as an example and address the events wisely for organizational members to see what is expected from them.  Other point to note is that organization culture play role in decision making in that the ethical beliefs and values are shared. The culture norms establish moral values which are use in making decision (Cooper, 2012).

The organization is faced with an ethical dilemma by shifting from a military culture to a political culture with political control. This practice creates a dilemma in that the new paradigm ignores the enemy prisoners and provisions (Kurtz, 2003).  This dilemma rooted from the leadership since majority of Bush administration were political appointees who acted differently from military members.  The selected apolitical appointee act differently with the limitary commander and end up developing diverse legal policies (Kurtz, 2003).  The military commission has a unique political dynamic which creates ethical obstacles. The professional disincentives and political manipulation contributes to bureaucratic and ethical pressures which hinders effective decision-making and professional responsibility (Kurtz, 2003).


According to Cooper (2012), public administrators can maintain a responsible conduct through creating an effective organization management.  In order to have a responsible conduct, managers should manage the organizational ethics through creating code of ethics.  In other words, managers should act like a designer in order to address ethics in the organization structure and culture. Acting like a designer will help the administrators examine the organization, understand constrains and think creatively in implementing change. Ethical management acts as internal control where managers are expected to show professional values and develop professional socialization in addressing ethics scandals. In addition, Cooper (2012) says that managers should not apply idiosyncratic fashion in dealing with organization conflict. Rather, they should set policies which align with public service values. In other words, administrators   can maintain a response conduct by establishing polices which adheres to the basic principles and avoid focusing on self-serving. In other words, managers should apply the eternal controls such as adopting new legislation, creating new rules and regulations, creating new monitoring and building a new organizational structure.

Cooper (2012) provides solution to ethical dilemmas and states that a public administrator should address ethical dilemma by focusing on the situational context. This means that before encouraging ethical behaviors, it is important to find the root cause of ethical dilemmas. In other words, managers should consider social, cultural and physical setting in making ethical decision. Having examined both organization and environmental setting, members will offer alternative courses in solving the dilemma. In encouraging positive human behaviors, situational variable is a path for moral behaviors which are reinforced by considering individual and organization setting (Cooper, 2012).  Generally, administrators should solve ethical dilemmas by ensuring they have a complete knowledge of the organization issues. This will help them define the issue, find alternative action, apply moral imagination in selecting a positive consequence and finally they will be able to implement moral rules and ethical principles.



 Organization culture is made up of diverse values and beliefs, and people shares their culture and uses rational analysis in making decision. Rational analysis is a process where decision makers use judgment and standards in order to avoid uncertainty. In making decision, organization culture develops a intuitive decisions which comprise unstable environment and disagreement. However, member forms a participatory decision making where they focus on goals and strategies, information enquiries, socialization and discussion. The research has shown that organization culture can lead to both ethical and unethical practices in organization.  However, administrators can maintain a responsible conduct and address the dilemmas by adhering to ethical principles.




Kurtz, R. S. (2003). Orgaizational Culture, Decision-Making, and Integrity. Public Integrity, 5(4), 305-317.


Cooper, T. L. (2012). The responsible administrator: An approach to ethics for the administrative role(6th

ed.). New York, NY: Jossey-Bass.

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Social Justice & Social Change

 In making ethical decision, a public administrator must act ethically in addressing ethical issues and promoting social change. Ethical decision making has a big impact on social change in that an administrator provides ethical guidance to employees and motivates them to act ethically. Note that ethical guidance involves ethical standards, potential problems, strategies to solve dilemmas and more (Yeager et al, 2007).  Ethical behaviors and practices increases competence and expertise, and more importantly employees are able to deal with ethics pressure from both internal and external environment. According to Yeager et al (2007), ethical decision making allows the administrator to provide discretion to employees in making decisions.  In other words, employees are engaged in a participatory decision making where they feel a sense of belonging and improves performance as well as problem solving skills. Ethical behaviors in decision making allow employees to use professional judgment thereby increases job attitudes, job satisfaction and positive behaviors. Generally, ethical decision making leads to positive social changes in that employees are motivated to act in an ethical manner in internal and external environment, in making decision and in job performance (Yeager et al, 2007).

 Example of ethical decisions include appreciating and respecting diverse cultures and having personal accountability in the workplace. The first ethical decision which is based on valuing diverse culture promotes social change in that employees from different cultures will interact and share opinions in solving ethical dilemmas and other organization problems. When people embrace culture diversity, employees in government and non-government organization will build creativity, innovation and professional growth (Cooper, 2012). The second decision which is based on being accountable will foster social change in that employees will avoid doing wrong actions and strive to promote trust, honesty, fairness and integrity in performing their duties.  Generally, embarking culture diversity and being accountable will help the administrator to not only adhere to rules and regulation but he or she will adhere to the set of responsibilities and obligation in organization performance (Cooper, 2012).

 However, these decisions may cause negative impacts on social changes in the organization. First, culture diversity will lead to discrimination where some employees face unfair treatment. Employees who are discriminated may suffer from dejection and as a result decrease performance, productivity and increase employee turnover (Cooper, 2012). In addition, accountability may also  lead to negative social change in that  when it comes to rewarding  performance, compensation plans reward  few people and this is an indication that majority will  end up decreasing  performance and productivity due to  poor management behaviors triggered by dysfunctional leadership (Cooper, 2012).












Yeager, S. J., Hildreth, W. B., Miller, G. J., & Rabin, J. (2007). The Relative Effects of a Supervisory

Emphasis on Ethical Behavior Versus Political Responsiveness. Public Integrity, 9(3), 265.



Cooper, T. L. (2012). The responsible administrator: An approach to ethics for the administrative role.

San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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Legal And Ethical Issues Surrounding Solyndra Institution



The collapse of an organization that has been fronted as having a good model often  raises a lot of questions. Solyndra is one  such organization that went down  in the years of the recent economic downturn, despite a lot of money having been pumped  into it by both the  government and  private investors. In this paper, we interrogate what might have gone wrong in the whole issue surround the fall of the organization, and more so some of the ethical and legal issues that might have been raised bas far as market analysis is concerned.



 At one time or the other in the process of business development, the organization is likely to face immense challenges that may shake up the way business is done and greatly affect its operations. This happened to  the renowned Californian manufacturer of cylindrical solar panels, Solyandra in September 2011.The company had cut a niche for itself as a provider for  high-tech solar panels that had been widely used  over several countries and were increasingly gaining popularity. In today’s challenging economic times, organizations are being affected by several internal and external factors that may sometimes be unseen until they strike hard on some operational system within the organization. Increasing commodity prices and fluctuating markets are some of the immediate factors that may contribute to the fall of an organization. The case of Solyndra is not far from these factors. However, there are deeper underlying ethical and legal issues that must be looked into in order to understand what exactly prompted this decision.


Dr. Christian Gronet founded Solyndra in 2005. Its offices came later In 2006  headquartered in Fremont, California. Actual production began in 2007 and there was a relatively speedy growth  given that by 2008 Solyndra  the company  set in Germany. This year also saw their first shipment of commercial solar panel It was a promising season for Solyndara and by 2009, the company hit the $100 million dollar revenue mark and hard  the largest single installation in the U.S. In this year still they received a $535 million stimulus package loan  from the Department of Energy  that was meant for continued construction. It was meant to boost its activities a great deal and it elicited  varied reactions even prompting  factory visits by top government officials. Unfortunately, this also marked the  beginning of  its overall problems.

Solyndra’s products were  manufactured  at a $733 million state-of-the-art plant in Fremont, California. This plant is the one for which the company had received a $535 million federal loan .At the same time, investment by private investors was estimated at $198.In addition, the company was expected to  have a  production capacity of 610 megawatts by 2013.  2008 expansion same the company stop using its older plant(known as Fab 1) while also  postponing  further  expansion of Fab 2 (David, 2008).).These developments were associated with  market conditions where  by low cost solar panels more so from China had seen the Solyndra’s sales start to plummet.. By August 2011, the company was filling filed for bankruptcy. This raised a lot of questions as to how a company that has acquired a  $539 million n stimulus loan can so rapidly fall into bankruptcy. The begging question was: What laws if any were broken and what exactly went wrong? These are some  of the issues we  may try to fathom in this discussion


One of the unique qualities that seem to have endeared the company to the general  public and to specific consumers is its hi-tech photovoltaic (PV) panels that could perform superbly by applying a few mounting techniques such as horizontal placement and packing them really close. This could ensure that most of the available roof –top could be covered significantly to enhance maximum production of electricity per roof top. Than a conventional roof top could  do (Baker, David 2011). Plainly put, the company intended to introduce and had actually introduced a product that was  like no other as afar as solar /green energy is concerned. Consider , for instance that their panels were made of cylindrical tubes while the conventional solar panels are flat. The effect of this cylindrical tube was that it could absorb energy fro any direction. Such a technology seemed to have been timely considering that  consumers are looking for simplified technology with optimum output. While Solyndra was able to offer this, perhaps it ay rightly be said that other market factors were not considered and the inconsistency in prices of production materials formed part of the problems of the company as later analysis revealed.

Ethical and Legal Issues

A number of issues come into perspective when looking at the whole  bankruptcy issue of the company. Perhaps the best  point  from which  this matter  may be approached is looking at its duration of  operation. It is agreeable that an undertaking so heavily invested in  by  both the government and the private sector  going down in a period of about six years raises  more questions than answers. The idea of the company is initially seen to have put every investor in high sprits. However, there seems to have been several aspects of the business that only became visible too late. International competition is undoubtedly one of these factors. The unforgiving question nonetheless is how the federal government could  have failed to foresee   the  dwindling nature of the company before issuing the loan to the company while  there  was enough evidence that the company was not doing very well in terms of profits. For instance, ale a 2010 report by Energy and Commerce Committee showed  that Solyndra had never reported a profit since its inception. It also reported that Solynda  was experiencing negative cash flows. The company had also reportedly cancelled a $300 million initial public stock offering. The ethical  questions that comes into focus is whether a responsible body failed to do a through research  as to the financial status of the company and its future(Washington Post, 2011). At this point, The, committee points out, the Department of Energy (DOE) is seen to have failed to  adequately monitor Solyndra’s financial condition. This could be termed as laxity by a government body to thoroughly execute its mandate. It has to be borne in mind that this was the department directly responsible for issuing the loan. When questions were raised about these issues particularly by the Republican members on the House Energy and Commerce Committee, Solyndra is said to have attempted to mislead the committee  by producing a document in July of 2011(Exceeding Expectations: Solyndra Today) that claimed the company’s financial condition was improving. These events points out to a possibility that a group of individuals within the organization and most likely even within the DOE were colluding for personal gain. This digs into the moral fabric of concerned persons since it is evident that there was essential information to diverge  that largely remained unearthed. Consider for instance the fact that in March 2009,an administration Office of Management and Budget (OMB) employee wrote in an email  that could have suggested it was not yet time to overestimate  Solyndar’s. Another email by an employee of the  DOE employee warned that Solyndra would be out of cash in September 2011.This seems to  have been a p prophetic revelation given that at exactly that month  the FBI sparkling a series of events whose climax was the closure of the company(Washington Post, 2011). These events  indicate that someone somewhere knew a number of facts about the actual financial standing of the company and the possibility of  its bankruptcy or eventual downfall. At this point the role of public officials to diverge important information especially without bias comes into sharp focus. It boils down to personal ethics, which greatly contributes to advancement or deterioration of organizational ethics.

Did Solyndra Break any Laws?: The Legal Issues

The question of the laws that Solyndra might have broken any laws may be looked at from various angles. The process that led to the awarding of the may in itself be seen from a suspicious angle. A break down of these events may give a clearer picture. The company was formed in 2005 ostensibly to provide competitive alternative to silicon based a solar panels noting that the there was an increasing shortage of silicon that had led to an a rise in the prices of  solar photovoltaic. In the same year, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 was passed creating the loan guarantee program

. In the following year, Solyndra applies a loan guarantee under the 1703 program which is granted in 2007.In the subsequent years, the price of silicon remains substantially high making Solyndra’s technology favorable and attractive to investors. In January 2009, a DOE review committee remands the loan  and Solyndra reapplies with strengthened conditions and a DOE’s Credit Review Board(CRB) approves the loan after issuing of conditional commitment setting out terms for a guarantee (Todd,2011).So far, the series of events seem to be so closely associated  especially in relation to creation of a loan guarantee act and creation of a company that applies for this loan almost immediately. Still in 2009 the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) also known as the Stimulus or The Recovery Act was enacted.

The purpose of this law was to  save and create jobs within the shortest time possible. It was also meant to provide temporary relief especially for those affected by the recession. It gave emphasis to  infrastructure, education, health, and 'green' energy. Solyndra falls in the category of companies that needed a boost after the recession. It also must be noted that president Obama had pointed out that it is companies such as this one that were responsible for “leading the way toward a brighter and more prosperous future,” thus portraying an interest in the overall business of  associated with the company. This close association of occurrences tends to lean towards a conspiracy especially considering the fact that the company was indeed declared bankrupt through a due legal process. These suspicions have nonetheless been put to rest by the governments response that claimed the loan and the acquisition processes were properly vetted and the collapse was an unfortunate failure in an otherwise successful program

This issue further raises eyebrows ethically when it is considered that George Kaiser, a key  financier of the Obama presidential campaign  was a major investor  of Solyndra. Consider too the fact that  the loans was abnormally fast-tracked  and one may read mischief in the campaign

The legal issue that raises queries  restructuring of the loan by DOE to a level where it is seen to have violated the Energy Policy Act  by  subordinating  the taxpayers’ interest to those of private investors (Trivedi, 2012). The statute found in the Energy Policy Act of 2005 states that obligations, or loan guarantees, shall not be subordinated to other financing. The DOE is seen to have contravened this law by guaranteeing the loan though it claims that this move was indeed meant to protect  the federal investment by giving the struggling company a chance to stay afloat thus giving taxpayers the best chance of being repaid.

There is also another issue in that there was need to understand whether the company and the management  misjudged or misrepresented the  actual state of the firm’s financial standing. That is the need to find out whether there were accounting malpractices  involved (Washington post 2011) .These form part of the issues raised by  House committee  who cited occurrences such as   Solyndra’s refusal to discuss customer contracts.  

Philosophy of Milton Friedman

One of the advocacy’s of Milton is that of free markets. He was a firm believer in the economic of  markets that are largely self controlled especially in terms of supply of goods and services. In addition, Friedman  supported  provision of some public goods by  the state especially those that  that  the privates sector is  considered unable  to provide. Nonetheless, he pointed out that  most of the services provided by government could be provided even better by the private sector. In that case, it may be said that if the government had left the energy firm to operate independently and leave the speculation to market experts, it is possible that the firm could have dwindled but not to a point of closure as it happened. In other words, Milton could have cited a situation in which the government was meddling in a private business that could have performed better if left on its own grounds(Global public square ,2011).


Whereas the ides that led to the conception of the company was valid and timely, several things went wrong somewhere in the whole process. One of the underlying observations  though is that several key issues were put at stake. For instance, there was a  high number of people whose jobs were put at stake following the closure of the company. This is made worse by the smell of political influence that could have contributed to the processing of the loan just as it might have contributed to the failure of the company. This puts the integrity of important persons to question  and one  wonders the extent to which such matters can influence the overall budget of the federal government and impacts of such occurrences to the economy.  











David B.  (7 October 2008). "Cylindrical Solar Cells Give a Whole New Meaning to Sunroof". Scientific American. Retrieved 13 June 2012. From

Baker, David R. (7 September 2011). "Solyndra files bankruptcy, employees sue". The San Francisco Chronicle p4

Washington Post, (7 October 2011) “Solyndra loan deal: Warning about legality came from within Obama administrationp18

Washington Post, (29 September 2011) Chu takes responsibility for a loan deal that put more taxpayer money at risk in Solyndra, p 3

Todd Woody (6 September 2011). "Solyndra: Pay Some Investors Before Taxpayers In Solar Flame Out".Retrieved 14 June 2012.from

Trivedi, Shamik (2012)SOLYNDRA BANKRUPTCY PLAN SERVES TO AVOID TAX, DOJ INSISTS.) Retrieved /11/10/ 2012)

United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware (2012) Bankruptcy Trustee Objects To Confirmation Of Solyndra BankruptcyPlan. (In re: Solyndra LLC et al.) (No. 11-12799) Retrieved 10 /10 2012

Global publicsquare (11 October 2011)Milton-Friedman magic” Retrieved 2011/10/

LA Times (Feb 23 2012) “Solyndra execs get bonus despite Solyndra filling for bankruptcyRetrieved 2012 Feb.  23 From 


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Ethics in the organization. Examining ethical issues in cases

 After September 11th attacks, a military tribunal system known as the Guantanamo Bay, Cuba was established for the purpose of prosecuting and punishing terrorists. However, there was a controversy since the military tribunal system did not offer quality services compared to U.S. criminal court system (McNeal, 2009). The controversy was that the tribunal system was designed for political expedience and this caused mass resignations. The military commission was involved in ethical scandal by creating a politically driven culture.

The ethical challenges in the commission system are that there is an undue political influence which influence subordinates in negative way. In addition, there is a unique structure with a Convening Authority where a civilian political appointee plays role without making unbiased and a political presumptions in the decision making (McNeal, 2009). The Convening Authority lacks civilian and military equivalent. Thus, the power with political appointee is derived from the military commanders but ignores the justification from attendant command.  The main problem with the military commissions is that there was structurally independence. This means that by ignoring the command pressure, the military commission system has dependent lawyers and their role is to defend state enemies. Generally, the military commission led to the creation of a political organizational culture which reinforced political influence. The military commission altered the military culture and created a new political culture which led to ethical challenges in decision making (McNeal, 2009).

            The organizational cultures play important role in addressing ethical issues contributed by the Convening authority. In making decision, various factors were applicable in the Bush administration. For example, organization culture was designed in a way that managers focus on measure and control, managers react to critical incidents, a culture which defines criteria for reward allocation, recruitment and promotion and a culture which defines organizational rites.  In addressing the ethical challenges, management and leadership were key elements in maintaining organization culture. Since there was difference opinion on legal policy, the military attorneys considered cultures and values on ethical obligations. Finally, there was a need to view the law as a path for exercising power and focus on a defined legal space to avoid personal moral codes.

            A public administrator can improve organization culture through establishing trust. This means that   it is important to ensure that culture change comes from the top management and the change should be communicated to the subordinates to promote trust. It is also important to be committed through producing competent performance and fulfilling the obligations (Cooper, 2012). Integrity, honesty and concern are key elements in maintaining a positive relationship.  Second, an organization culture can be maintained through establishing a participative decision making where all organizational members participate in making decision. They share ideas hence promotes organization performance (Cooper, 2012).












Western Reserve Journal Of International Law, 42(1/2), 125-149.


Cooper, T. L. (2012). The responsible administrator: An approach to ethics for the administrative role.

San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.






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Ethical decision making. Administrative responsibility, conflict & Ethical reflection

 In the case, the property appraiser led to an ethical scandal by deciding to sell 1.5 acre parcel of land to the county.  The ethical scandal is from land deal, deception and failure to adhere to ethical standards (Menzel, 2009). The deal violated the property rights and failed to hold a discussion on the matter of land purchase. This is a case which required an ethical reflection in order to avoid the ethical scandal which occurred. The appraiser, County Attorney and the administrator were involved in ethical scandal which caused long-lasting effects to the public.  In ethical reflection, the County Attorney and the administrator could adhere to the code of ethics and statement of ethics (Menzel, 2009). In this case, they could avoid improper influences and personal bias and this could prevent the problem. In addition, the codes of ethics could help the official avoid unethical behaviors.  Other point is that ethical reflection could promote decision-making transparency. This could act as a powerful tool for preventing unethical behaviors and foster a transparent environment (Menzel, 2009). Ethical reflection could also avoid the scandal in that public officials could blow the whistle after realizing that other country officials are involved in unethical conduct (DRYBURGH, 2009). With ethical reflection and codes of ethics, the official could provide a legal representation in the land deal, they could seek property authority and they could provide clear details on land transaction and purchase.

 The County Attorney

 The county attorney was involved in an ethical scandal in the following way. Note that the attorney and the appraiser had a long term friendship, and so the attorney addressed the case of land deal through a friendly way.  In other words, she failed to follow the legal system and decided to represent the appraiser in the land purchase in a private way and forced the chair to sign the conflict-of interest waiver (Menzel, 2009). The point is that the attorney had a misleading action and led other officials astray.

 The County attorney was involved in an ethical dilemma which was associated with conflict of interest because she failed to make a fair decision- since it could not favor the appraiser (Menzel, 2009). She did contrary to her professional obligation   for the purpose of fulfilling personal interests and goals. In the conflict of interest, she did not offer a legal representation but led to confusion and ambiguity (Menzel, 2009).









DRYBURGH, M. M. (2009). Personal and Policy Implications of Whistle-Blowing. Public Integrity, 11(2),



Menzel, D. C. (2009). I Didn't Do Anything Unethical, Illegal, or Immoral. Public Integrity, 11(4), 371-384.



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Ethics & Responsibility

 There is a strong bond that unites ethics and professional responsibilities since professionals are expected to show professional conducts and reflect a professional public image.  In professional responsibility, ethics is a fundamental element where behaviors are governed by moral principles in order to produce positive results. Professionals are expected to follow the principles of moral conduct for them to distinguish between the right and wrong actions (Cooper, 2012).  Other important point is that professionals have a moral obligation to adhere to the codes of ethics which comprise aspirational and mandatory standards. According to Cooper, in professional responsibility, administrators should be guided by their inner convictions and should follow objective and subjective accountability in serving and fulfilling the public interest (Cooper, 2012). In addition, administrators should have an ethical commitment and ensure integrity, competence, diligence, confidentiality and fairness. In professional and social responsibility, professionals are expected to show high moral standards, act in a moral way, demonstrate commitment and solve problems morally (Cooper, 2012).


  1. In objective responsibility, Ferguson adheres to legal demands. In this case, he realized that the ‘Buffalo 100’ established a 100-mile trail without seeking permission from the Forest Service. This act was associated with a huge damage such as destruction of fragile forest, destruction of wildlife habitat among other damages (O'Leary, 2009). In subjectivity responsibility, he is controlled by beliefs and personal experience.  In this case, he has uses cognitive and affective perceptions that as a forest supervisor, the act of marking a trail on the federal land would contribute to challenges which would cause destruction to the forest (O'Leary, 2009). In ethical responsibility, he feels that it is his role as the forest supervisor to protect the environment.  In addressing the matter, he shows commitment and concern and adds extraordinary efforts to protect and preserve the natural environment.


  1. From the Claude Ferguson’s story, I do not agree with objectivity views. First, Ferguson failed to follow the norms of the organization and as a public servant; he has an ethical obligation and was expected to follow moral standards. According to the culture of the organization, policy statement is made from daily decisions. The decision on prohibiting trail bikes is rooted from personal convictions and individual interest (O'Leary, 2009). His decision is contradictory to the formal policy and this action is unethical and unconscionable. The Guerrilla Government is associated with ethical issues which affect the public organization. The problem with his decision is that he failed to act as a governmental agency and consider taxpaying citizens but rather used personal conflicting opinions and created a conflict of interest. There is a public policy paradox which creates tensions and issues in organization structures (O'Leary, 2009).
  2. 4. I agree with Ferguson ethical responsibility in that he is a kind of person who shows a gentle spirit and personal love to the wellbeing of the people. In fact, he informed his agency that the act with Buffalo 100 is wrong and he has an obligation to protect the environment.  He showed a steadfast devotion and pays no attention to his personal and economic benefit for the wellbeing of the people.  Ferguson shows his professional view in maintaining a better environment (O'Leary, 2009).
  3. 5. I also agree with his subjectivity view in that he uses his personal sense to differentiate between the right and the wrong. In fact, subjectivity is rooted from obligation, personal opinion and desires. In other words, he is driven by parochial views and values, and does what is right and just (O'Leary, 2009).


  1. 6. According to Cooper (2012), the strategy which Ferguson could employ is associated with situational context. This means that in making ethical decisions. He could reflect on the situation of the ethical dilemma. This involves meeting the public agencies in order to produce alternative courses of action. In other words, Ferguson could take an alternative course of action in addressing responsibility and ethics. First, Ferguson could develop an organization culture where organization members would participate in dialogue and debate for the purpose of generating multiple options, innovation and creativity (Cooper, 2012).


  1. This alternative strategy could balance responsibility and ethics in that first, it would avoid the conflicts of responsibility through establishing policies regarding the dilemma. Ethical decision making requires situational variables where various agencies would be involved in role taking. Note that in ethical decision making, Ferguson would use formal and informal perception and these would help comply with informal and formal norms (Cooper, 2012). On the same note, Ferguson could respect the voice of the people, deal with the process affecting the people and avoid being too personal. He could value the dissenting opinions and allow the flow of ideas in solving the problem (O'Leary, 2009).




Cooper, T. L. (2012). The responsible administrator: An approach to ethics for the administrative role.

San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.


O'Leary, R. (2009). When a Career Public Servant Sues the Agency He Loves: Claude Ferguson, the Forest

Service, and  Off-Road Vehicles in the Hoosier National Forest. Public

Administration Review, 69(6), 1068-1076.




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Connections between Ethics & Morality

 In an ethical standpoint, poverty tourism is ethical and moral since it benefits the community by improving their living standards. Supporters of poverty tourism argue that tourists conduct first-order observations and through gathering information, they are able to foster the living conditions. Tourists mainly are driven by the need to provide development through a community-based approach (Sharpley & Stone, 2010). They are driven by authenticity and reality in researching the root cause of poverty in communities, for the purpose of alleviating inequality as well as social and economic disadvantages. Thus, through uniting with community members, local residents benefits socially and economically. Note that tourists use a right-based approach which allows the underprivileged people understand their human rights and dignity (Sharpley & Stone, 2010). The act of incorporating human right in offering community services is associated with ethical aspects. The importance of right-based approach in poverty tourism is that local resident starts social transformation through development projects (Sharpley & Stone, 2010).

In making regulatory policies and addressing morality associated with poverty tourism, a public policy maker should apply the following strategies. First, a policy maker should consider compensation justice. This means that tourists should have a moral principle and should express morality by offering financial or material compensation to the affected parties (Outterson, Selinger & Whyte 2012).Tourists should understand the community values in terms of personal preferences in offering help. Second, a policy maker should consider the participative justice-this means that tourists should receive consent from the underprivileged parties before conducting human transactions. Tourists should gain both express and tacit consent which will allow them follow the party’s objections or tourists will be able to understand the party’s objection through channels. Third, a policy maker should consider recognition justice- a policy maker should know that the affected parties will fee discriminated if some cultures are favored due to cultural terms (Outterson, Selinger & Whyte 2012).

 In addressing the issue of poverty tourism, libertarian policy makers and public administrators should unite in creating compensation standards which tourists should follow in serving the poor community. In other words, these governmental units should ensure consultation requirements and take remedial actions to those who violate rules and regulations (Outterson, Selinger & Whyte 2012).  In making policy, the public administration should make a tourism policy related with bringing economic development. In addition, the libertarian should focus on bringing human freedom and peace. In other words, the poverty tourism should have the goal of increasing prosperity in the poor communities. Thus, there should be equality in offering financial or material services to the poor (Outterson, Selinger & Whyte 2012).














Outterson K.,Selinger E & Whyte K. (2012). Poverty Tourism, Justice, and Policy. Can Ethical Ideals Form

the Basis of New Regulations? (14) 1 DOI 10.2753/PIN1099-9922140103

Retrieved from:

Sharpley Richard & Stone R. Philip. (2010). Tourist Experience: Contemporary Perspectives. Routledge




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