Edudorm Facebook


Business Ethics in Communication


Table of Contents

Business Ethics in Communication. 3

Introduction. 3

Reflection on World News. 3

Guidelines to Effective Ethical Communication. 4

Maintaining Ethical Decision Making. 5

Ethical Communication in Business. 6

Legal Issues of Unethical Business Communication. 8

Importance of Ethics in Communication. 8

References. 10





Business Ethics in Communication Introduction

The aspect of communication is essential for the success of businesses. Communication is the tool that helps in sharing decision-making information. However, the nature of information should be checked to ensure the messages sent to the public do not affect the business's reputation. Therefore before a message is conveyed to the public, there is a need to evaluate its impact. A message has a great implication on the receivers, who are potential customers or clients for the firms. As much as we would like to pass information to the audience, it is essential to ensure all ethical issues are considered. All over the media, there is a lot of fake news and propaganda that affects the business's image to the public. The importance of ethical communication in business practice is to build transparency in the business. Also, the people behind the business are assured of a thriving environment that is socially conscious and with ethical behaviors.

In the modern community, there are concerns about the information being shared across social media. The communicators need to make sure that the information they share with the public is highly cultivating and focus on building trust and integrity with the message they propagate to the public. This is achieved through frankly sending information to the audiences, which is socially conscious and inclusive of both communicators and target audience in the communication. In addition, successful ethical communication should consider the application of verbal and non –verbal communication such as written and online communications.

Reflection on World News

In the contemporary world, the news is all over, which is either genuine or fake. The online platform is one of the high rising and currently leading sources of news of all kinds. For this paper, I have a selected some global news that was aired about Michelle Agabobo Willford and Stacey Abrahms's win over Georgia’s democratic primary for governor. This news was communicated by Daily World Update and The New York Times. The Daily World Update is a fake news site that claimed that “Black Woman Who Won Georgia Primary Arrested for Election Fraud (Lott, J. R. (2020).” This site presents Michelle Agabobo Willford, a running mate for Georgia governance, who is said to have paid tens of thousands of votes by promising free welfare. This story runs simultaneously with another one by The New York Times, the true story. The story of Stacy Abrahms, who won the governor seat without paying for votes.

The Daily World Update is a satirical site, and in most instances, airs fake news. The information posted on social media platforms is exposed to a large audience, with captivating headlines. When people read the headlines alone, they jump to conclusions concerning the happenings in Georgia. People will feed their minds with fake news and share the information, widely ruining the image of Georgia in the global context. This is a violation of communication ethics, as it also does not meet business communication objectives.

Guidelines to Effective Ethical Communication

Effective communication needs to meet ethical standards of communication. When passing information to the audience, it is essential to make sure that they all understand the message. It is essential to focus on clarity, objectivity, conscience, completeness, relevancy, and understanding the audience's knowledge in business communication. When the communicators put into consideration these principles, the communication is deemed ethical.  Taking an example with a message crafted very concisely but not clear, for instance, using jargon and some tricky language that manipulates the audience's knowledge, is deemed unethical (Norazamina et al., 2018). Just as presented by the Daily World Update, lack of objectivity is an implication that the communication is based on personal opinions or those of others. Also, failure to disclose information incompleteness is a way of being unethical.

The present media is filled up with unethical communication. We call fake news, aired daily via the social media sites, such as Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter. All these platforms should ensure that the message they convey to the public meets all these principles of business communication. According to the International Association of Business Communicators, some critical ethical codes of conduct govern all business stakeholders. Common measures that need to be highlighted by the individuals include honesty, communication of accuracy in information, and correct any possible errors. Additionally, the code of conduct demands that the businessmen obey laws and public policies and protect confidential information. Business news and how they are presented need to consider the beliefs and cultures of the audience; this ensures avoidance of conflicts and feelings of violations from the audience.

Maintaining Ethical Decision Making

While working on ethical decision-making, various principles concern the wellness of the audience. Therefore, making these decisions needs legal and regulatory requirements; this includes making decisions on the set of news that would influence the audience's behavior. Additionally, news released to the public needs to be guided by long-term or self-interest, ensuring continued existence in the business world. Also, keep the standards of righteousness; this would be achieved through observing personal virtues. It is essential to ensure that the company never lies. Moreover, the business should be encouraged to chase big dreams and benefits, attracting the greatest pool of people, and after getting the numbers, ensure that their rights are observed. Freedom is achieved by observing all the regulatory, societal, and legal requirements and setting minds to think without punishments. Overly, this will help in achieving fairness in distributing justice with the outcomes.

There is a lot of content in the online media, which is not worth believing. In decision-making, there are fears in believing what the internet posts. Before making a site your source of information that can be used in making critical decisions, we need to follow the ethical considerations deployed before the posting was done. While posting, it is always encouraged that the sites avoid posting un-factual information and posting information with errors. Additionally, it is also essential to avoid all forms of controversial information to avoid building issues of untrustworthy. Therefore, for decision making, one should seek information from credential sources such as newspapers and news magazines; some of these sites in the United States include The Economist and The New York Times (Usher, 2017). The reason for making these sources the top sources is because, before they publish any of their information, it is first subjected to checks and verification for validation.

Ethical Communication in Business

So far, we appreciate that businesses, regardless of size, rely on communication to convey information to their stakeholders. Various forms of communication are common today used by managers, employees, and customers; some of these incuse print, digital, and in-person methods. These strategies aim to pass information to the clients so that they understand what is exactly needed and how it should be done to meet the needs of the organization. Besides, today, there have been messaging and creativity issues, which results in misleading information and sometimes incorrect (Sotirova, 2018). The rise of this unreliable information is attributed to unregulated corporate communications. Thus, working towards regulating this information, there has been the need for ethical implications that guide communication in business.

These are emphasis that has been put in place in the real world to guide the transaction or the interrelations between the business and the market. The goal has always been to build voices of transparency, honesty, and respect while dealing with the public. It is essential to ensure that the dealing of the business and the information they disseminate to the public are truthful to avoid misleading. Therefore, in communication, the business should seek to maintain honesty at first. This is the core of all the other qualities needed in communication stems (Barber III et al., 2020). Primarily it involves conveying a message to the audience which is clear and true, avoiding all sorts of doubts in information. The aspect of honesty should be supplemented by transparency, which involved telling the truth as a whole and avoidance of partial communication.

Additionally, it is critical to ensure professionalism as part of ethical communication. Businesses need to highlight their definition of their professional standards specific to the business. This is an effort towards the protection of the brand's image and workplace relationships. Moreover, companies need to embrace a consistent culture by presenting logical and compatible information to avoid all sorts of contradicting messages to the audience. Consistency is achieved by allocating responsibilities from the senders of the massages and considering the kind of target audience. Ethical communication is keen to ensure that all the information sent to the public is never ambiguous and overcomes all the roadblocks (Barber III et al., 2020). In addition, ethical communicators make efforts to avoid evasion, manipulation, and other language-related gymnastics. It is critical to maintaining fairness, passing neutral information without bias nor judgment.

Legal Issues of Unethical Business Communication

Diverging from ethical communication measures has far legal concerns. Some of the concerns emphasized by the law include the nature of the information convey to the public. There is strictness concerning spreading rumors or discussing customer’s personal or financial information, violating the ethical code of conduct, and human confidentiality rights. Some policies protect people's information, urging people that deal with private details are not disposed to the public (Nuseir & Ghandour, 2019). Violating any laws on individual privacy, such as what the Daily World Update did to Georgia State, is a punishable criminal offense. For uniformity purposes, implementation, and maintenance, most of the organizations in the US have well-structured and written confidentiality issues that regulate communication.

Importance of Ethics in Communication

Ethics are so essential in business communication. Daily, people must share information in all forms in the business, as they help in blinding wealth and achieve success.  Therefore, clearly articulated codes of conduct guide people’s daily activities and talks in a professional setting. Starting from the workplace, people need to prove good characteristics guided by the company's moral principles and culture. All organizations have been welcome and encouraged to engage in ethical communication, which is essential in attracting public views and getting trust from the audience (Kolić Stanić, 2019). Therefore, being true helps in building a good reputation for the public and trust from the public. More so, the audience gets satisfied with the services and products offered by the company; this helps the business grow.

We have all through stated the importance of maintaining honesty in business as the root to ethical implications. In the same way, we must appreciate the importance of giving true information to the audience. Reliability and validity of information are very important in getting and maintaining the customers. At the workplace, good communication help in building a healthy relationship (Kolić Stanić, 2019). A good relationship is critical for ensuring teamwork which promotes high productivity. An organization with these qualities is assured of high performance in its activities.



Barber III, D., Batchelor, J. H., Hatten, T., Gibson, S. G., & Rolínek, L. (2020). Czech Students’ Perceptions of Ethical Behavior in Business and Entrepreneurship.

Johnson, I. (2020). Principle.

Kolić Stanić, M. (2019). Transparency in public relations: Evidence from associations’ ethics codes. Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems: INDECS17(2-B), 417-429.

Lott, J. R. (2020). A Simple Test for the extent of Vote Fraud with Absentee Ballots in the 2020 Presidential Election: Georgia and Pennsylvania Data. Available at SSRN 3756988.

Norazamina, M., Azizah, A., Marha, Y. N., & Suraya, A. (2018). Attributes of Ethical Leadership and Ethical Guidelines in Malaysian Public Sector. International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences12(1), 155-159.

Nuseir, M. T., & Ghandour, A. (2019). Ethical issues in modern business management. International Journal of Procurement Management12(5), 592-605.

Place, K. R. (2018). Exploring ethics and client work in public relations education. Journalism & Mass Communication Educator73(4), 421-438.

Sotirova, D. (2018). Ethical leadership in cross-cultural business communication. Acta Prosperitatis, (9), 51-88.

Usher, N. (2017). Making business news: A production analysis of The New York Times. International Journal of Communication11, 20.

2042 Words  7 Pages


Ethics and Professional Practice


Professionals, in the line of duty, come across situations that demand high levels of competence. High levels of competence are useful in providing satisfying services to the clients. One of the areas that demand a high quality of service is when addressing personal life issues or health concerns. It is, therefore, advisable that medical staff and other clinical practitioners maintain high standards code of conduct. When dealing with clients with medical complications it is always ethical to keep these medical ethics to the letter. Each country or state has its set codes of ethics that regulate the medical sector, for instance, the American Medical Association since 1847 put in place nine codes of medical ethics that govern the association between the medical specialist and their clients. Among them code of conduct in chapter three should be highly honored and strictly adhered to, this is the “Ethics of Privacy, Confidentiality, and Medical Records.” Similarly, for counselors, it is essential to observe this code of ethics on confidentiality on client’s information, which is crucial in building trust with the clients and thus fostering thoughtful decision making and in turn achieve improve care. Acting in a manner that maintains the client’s information in confidentiality is an essential aspect that defines ethics and professionalism in practice and a true picture of competence in counseling.

In this context, we need to understand the present-day regulation that has been put in place by the Canadian drug legislation. This will enable counselors to understand how to address issues of drug abuse as competently presented to them. It is also essential to get well informed on the ethics of practice that have been formulated by the Canadian bodies and thus get better at addressing Tina’s case and achieve the best outcome at the end of the practice. Tina is a young adult who has turned 18 years the other day, but she has succumbed to a complicated situation that makes her life miserable. Since the departure of her parents due to a financial crisis at home, she has been living with her aunt whom she feels they do not relate well. After a while, she moves to the street, where she joins youth gangs who are involved in criminal behaviors. Although she has an interest in schooling she is troubled as conditions do not allow, because they sell and use illegal drugs with other street teens. This activity has made them arrested by the police and subjected them to a sentence. It is after the arrest that she is found pregnant, which she confesses not to understand the person responsible for the pregnancy as sometimes she has been exchanging sex for drugs.

This is the first time that Tina is arrested. The judge sentences her to severe 12-months probation, order to refrain from any use of a substance or any involvement in the crime. Further, the judge orders Tina to attend an intensive treatment service related to her substance abuse and lastly avoid contact with any youth she had been living with. This is the reason why she comes to me as a counselor to seek guidelines on the right path to follow and help her recover from the current situation. However, upon arrival, she seems shy and mostly stares at the floor offering little responses to the questions asked. However, after a while, following confirmation that nothing she shares will be passed without her consent and that the session is confidential she starts to speak up (Remley & Herlihy, 2014). In her statements, she confesses a daily poly on substance abuse for the past two months, with the intensity escalating so fast.

The escalation of the excessive consumption of substances leads to addiction. There is no single definition that can be used to describe addiction, however, based on biopsychosocial and trauma-informed addiction is described as a complex and multi-faceted phenomenon. This can be understood in terms of biological, psychological processes, sociocultural and spiritual influences. These influences are a result of substance use or misuse, which result in bad behaviors such as sex, eating, and gambling. Primarily, addiction is the overarching tendency towards compulsive behaviors, which results in social problems affecting individuals and society at large. Alternatively, the aspect of trauma-informed addiction focuses on understanding the trauma-related issues, when addressing addiction treatment for clients. This aspect focus on the Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) which provides the best services to clients in terms of interventions and treatment issues (VandeMark et al., 2004). The ultimate goal of this strategy is to provide primary care to clients and communities who have a history of trauma, act as service providers in the criminal justice, and those engaged in substance abuse just like the case of Tina.

Not forgetting that Tina is not willing to share her story with any outsider, we need to keep the highest degree of confidentiality on all the information she provides. As a counselor, it is key to ensure that all the clients’ information is maintained as a secret between you and them. Otherwise, sharing the information with other parties, even the family members without the client's consent is unethical. Throughout the entire process, it is important to ensure that the discussion on the substance use disorder, prevention, and treatment is maintained between the governing client and the counselor. This is following the principles and professional ethics that control the behavior of a person when acting towards other people. In this effort, Tina builds confidence and trust in the counselor, becomes more transparent giving light on how her condition can be handled correctly.

Counselors at times face perplexing situations. These situations or circumstances require decisions that are almost equally acceptable or demanding unfavorable choices. This situation is referred to as a dilemma, however, an ethical dilemma is a conflicting condition based on moral standards or imperatives. It is the duty of a counselor to ensure that the decision made aligns with the universal moral principles and that at the end of the process the clients get the necessary freedom to self-determining, zero harm to clients, and thus promote health and wellness of the clients (Banks, 2016). Additionally, clients demand justice in service, fidelity, and more essentially the truthfulness when interacting with clients. When these codes of conduct are well observed then the clients are promised and sure of no dilemma in the decision-making process.

A dilemma is presented by Tina when presenting her case to the counselor. Even though the counselor is willing to help her recover from this condition of addiction Tina, confirms that she experiences more positives from the use of Marijuana. Adding to the same she is pregnant and the use of drugs for pregnant women is illegal. She is still in the period of probation and takes all risks to get cannabis for herself. Keeping this for myself as a counselor might not help Tina fully, also telling the Probation Officer and the Support Worker, on her behavior might also fail.  First, she is so much concerned about her confidentiality, therefore passing any information without her consent is breaching the ethical code of conduct (Barnett, 2019). Therefore, to solve this dilemma it is essential to apply professional skills and knowledge and thus respond effectively to clients' concerns. In order to solve this dilemma, it would be wise if the counselor gets involved in supervision and peer consultation, as some of the key methods that are used by counselors in clarifying concerns on treatment questions.

There is a need to address Tina’s condition and achieve positive outcomes. Although she is resistant to change, some good procedures and protocols can be used to bring about good results. In order to achieve this fact, it is essential to first address the reasons that led to this behavior. Achieving positive results can be used as a measure of competence in practice. This practice should carefully consider some of the Canadian ethical considerations, they are determinants and show concern for human conduct and moral decision making, which encourages individuals to do only what is right (Cohen, 2016). Now that Tina portrays some unique characteristics of addiction, the best code of conduct should be maintained when handling her case. At all costs, the counselor should avoid all unethical counseling behaviors such as violation of confidentiality, negligence in practice, claim of expertise one does not possess, or sometimes imposing one’s values on a client. Additionally, it is always critical to ensure no sexual harassment with the clients or engage in conflicts with clients. Getting a robust understanding of these codes of conduct is the beginning step of solving the problem that is facing Tina.

After the year 2018, Canada resolved that cannabis should be legalized. This is a substance of use that was highly abused across the country. Possession of the drug was under high regulation by the Controlled Drugs and Substance Act (CDSA), with set penalties on individuals who were found possessing, distributing, and selling of the drug apart from other illicit substances. Individuals who possessed marijuana would be convicted and recorded as criminal offenders since marijuana was not an officially approved drug in Canada. Not until in 2018, when this drug was legalized in the country and the change in this legislation, making almost every individual show some concern about the decision achieved. Below are some of the pros and cons of legalizing marijuana (Mönckeberg, 2014).



The legalization was a boost to the economy, boosting the country’s gross domestic product (GDP)

Marijuana is found to be unsafe, despite the benign reputation. Its intake has been discovered to damage the developing brain, especially for young adults.

Regulation of this drug makes its usage safer, this is through the elimination of fear that could result in intake and intake of poisonous drugs.

Now, after legalization, there is increased usage among the teens, who are adversely affected.

The legalization of cannabis has led to a decline in the number of substance use crime cases. This process has generally resulted in the elimination of marijuana-related arrests. Also, the police get other jobs to seek more violent and dangerous criminals.

Cannabis use when driving has the potential to cause accidents, as drivers under this drug are just under influence in the same way as those under alcohol.






Banks, S. (2016). Everyday ethics in professional life: Social work as ethics work. Ethics and Social Welfare10(1), 35-52.

Barnett, J. E. (2019). The ethical practice of psychotherapy: Clearly within our reach. Psychotherapy56(4), 431.

Cohen, A. I. (2016). Ethics and professional practice. In Practicing Professional Ethics in Economics and Public Policy (pp. 237-244). Springer, Dordrecht.

Mönckeberg, B. F. (2014). Pros and cons of legalizing marijuana. Revista chilena de pediatria85(2), 229-237.

Remley, T. P., & Herlihy, B. (2014). Ethical, legal, and professional issues in counseling. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

VandeMark, N., Fallot, R., Brown, V., Cadiz, S., & Heckman, J. (2004). Enhancing substance abuse recovery through integrated trauma treatment.


1823 Words  6 Pages

Ethical Lens Inventory Findings

The overall ethical lens is the responsibility lens- mild in terms of rationality and autonomy. Personal reasoning skillsets are used to regulate one's daily principles through autonomy. The chief standards demonstrate that one prioritizes the indecision which exists between levelheadedness and sensibility together with autonomy and equality. In other, the primary values governing the day to day life are rationality and autonomy. For instance the prioritization of rationality values over sensibility. As an MR, the ability to commit to cautious thoughts is influenced by personal feelings as one finds the underlying truth of the matter. Thus, one might tend to frame the actual narrative of life-based on self-awareness and other accepted social norms (EthicsGame, 2021). In terms of autonomy, one mildly prioritizes respect for other people rather than finding grounds for creating equality. As MA, one wants to choose their path and other perspectives are externally influenced through the community of other people and life's sake. This is because from a communal perspective there are things that one needs not to do for the sake of keeping up with certain expectations which in the long run might affect their lives. More so, mild autonomy gives people the ability to choose their own life and make their own decisions for the sake of coming to terms with the outcome.

Ethical Theories Connected Associated With Mild Rationality and Mild Autonomy

 One of the ethical theories connected to mild rationality and mild autonomy are virtue and deontological ethics. Virtue ethics promotes autonomy as it considers people living with each other in conducive public relations areas (Frischhut, 2019). Virtue ethics is normative in more than one way of coming up with specific solutions to challenges. For the sake of keeping up with more than one form of solution, humans tend to be more logical and responsive to things that are made up of reasoning than sensational sequences. For this reason, virtue ethics composes autonomous decisions making process and ensures people have practical wisdom on how to handle issues. More so, virtue ethics ensures that one attends to others as he or she would like them to do the same for them. For example, a virtuous person is more likely to develop personal talents for the benefit of others and also himself. For most people, virtue ethics dictate the course of action one might take whenever faced with a difficult decision. Thus, the moral perspective of a person will guide him or her through the entire decision-making process and also enhance the logical ways of thinking or advancing their thoughts.

 Another theory connected to mild rationality and mild autonomy is the concept of deontological theory. Personal autonomy theory states that one has to have practical solutions to their challenges (Marković, & Bokan, 2017). Someone can only be deemed as autonomous if their decisions are respected. Whenever one meets a challenge, the decision made is considered the reflection of his personal life and state of his mind. The connection between deontology and autonomy is treating all the people with dignity and respect that they deserve no matter their viewpoint. Therefore, people define their responsibilities a then act on them through rationality.

Application of Mild Rationality and Mild Autonomy

Settling for the truth no matter the cost only makes it better whenever one encounters a dilemma between two opposing choices. An ethical position is meant to define principles that will then guide towards a specific action (Forcehimes, 2017). The primary focus is usually to build up towards truthful insights. First, in any situation, the heads give details which in turn are opened up for more evaluation. Ethical norms that one believes in are usually seen as the norm.

 Applying Mild Rationality and Mild Autonomy to Leadership and Solving Challenges

 Primary reasoning is used instead of emotions. Due to the logical steps required to reach a solution, the evaluation of information together with feelings ensures a logical and fairer way of arriving at a solution and leading other people. The reasoning combined with more than just one thought and action bring about informed. This often leads to self-management and could convince other people of one's leadership qualities (Marković, & Bokan, 2017). Even if one works with other people and comprehends their motives, a sense of duty always enables other people to follow through. This is because ethical boundaries dictate the direction one will take while dealing with most challenges. The underlying reasons for making a choice are vital for identifying principles and assessing intentions needed to determine agreed terms and conditions while keeping in place some of the most issues regarding authentic meaning.

 In summary, the best way of solving challenges is through the combination of rationality and autonomy. It expands one perspective and gives one the ability to come to terms with acceptable principles one needed to apply while dealing with other people. The balance between rationality and sensibility eases commitment to upbringing and essential ways of acting towards a common good a considering others' disposition towards their feelings. Therefore, the main aim of these ethical lens inventory findings.




EthicsGame (2021). Retrieved 13 February 2021, from

Forcehimes, A. (2017). Ethical Theories and Their Application. Exploring Moral Problems: An Introductory Anthology, 2-48.

Frischhut, M. (2019). The ethical spirit of EU Law (p. 157). Springer Nature.

Marković, M., & Bokan, B. (2017). Instrument for verification of ethical theories in physical culture. Physical education and sport through the centuries, 4(1), 71-91.

912 Words  3 Pages

Informed Consent


 Ethical issues occur whenever decisions need to be made. Concerns on nurses’ ethical capability is an emerging issue that needs to be discussed. The majority of the nurses claim that they work in challenging environments that compromise their capabilities to carry out duties ethically. Since numerous investigations center their subjects on situational challenges to ethical actions, little to no information can be found on the nurses' perspective. Thus, in the current world, one of the most ethical dilemma nurses faces regularly is informed consent. Most nurse's duties revolve around making a decision based on certain findings hence incorporating patient concerns in decision making is incredibly difficult.

Informed Consent

  Consent is thought to be a mechanism used to ensure the patient comprehends and agrees to a medical procedure before the nurse commences performing it. Informed consent ought to be a concerted effort between the nurse or caregiver and the patient. A nurse should retrieve consent before making the patient sign anything or agree to anything. Nurses can provide the patient with what is termed as patient teaching as he or she confirms whether the patient comprehends the situation he or she is getting himself into (Akyüz et al., 2019). If possible the nurse may be permitted to make use of teach-backs so that the patient can understand everything that the medics will do. In other words, the nurses should assess the levels of understanding the patient possesses of the situation. Most of the time, nurses understand more than the patient hence the nurse must make the patient comprehend the situation in a more professional way.

 The idea of informed consent is both ethical and legal due to patient participation. The patient has to be informed of all the elements of his or her treatment (Hammer, 2016). Consequently, after being informed, the patient has to make a well-informed decision that will help in his recuperation.  Informed consent is inescapable due to the central role it plays in the decision making process. Retrieving informed consent from a patient pertains to human rights and the condition the patient is under.

 The patient has to be competent enough to make sound decisions on the treatment. Implied in offering informed consent as an evaluation of patient comprehension gives the medic the right to make recommendations and document the entire medication. In short, informed consent is a way of safeguarding the medical procedure administered to the patient using the patient's rights. In any given situation, consent has to be voluntary. For consent to be voluntary, one has to offer it freely and without any coercion (Bautista et al., 2017). Informed consent takes into consideration the bond between the patient and the nurse and effective communication. The ever-changing relationship between a nurse and a patient forces the nurse to play more than one role. For instance, has to be a friend to the patient while ensuring that he plays the parental role. However, as the nurse has to ensure that has he derives informed consent from a patient, he does it in a professional way that does not depict him as being unprofessional (Parada, 2017). A nurse needs to ensure that the patient fairly understands the medication before anything goes on. One way of informing a patient is by describing the condition and the dangers that might arise from the medication. This way, the patient knows everything that is to be done to ensure the successful execution of the entire process.

Applying Ethical Principles to Informed Consent

 The primary obligation of a medic is making decisions on matters about patient care. Decision making occurs in various situations. These decisions comprise of choosing suitable medication or mitigation measures (Nusbaum et al., 2017). Ethics is characteristic and attached to the treatment because the medic has an ethical responsibility to a patient ad for the sake of averting damage to the patient. Also, ethical norms are followed because the nurse has to demonstrate that he respects the values and principles of the patient.

 In terms of beneficence, a nurse must act in a way that benefits the patient. This means that a nurse's action has to be aligned with moral regulations and patient values. The nurse aims to protect, prevent, and eradicate any situations that might hinder the patient from fully recovering (Doody, & Noonan, 2016). It is vital to take note of the fact that highlighting beneficence requires the nurse to protect the patient hence the patient needs to be informed on everything that the nurse does daily. On the other hand, nonmaleficence requires the nurse to follow every regulation to ensure that most of the medical procedures are safe and sound to the patient. Besides, the patient has to receive all information about his condition and act accordingly. In case, the patient goes against the nurse's advice, the nurse has the right to step in and inform him of the consequences of his or her actions. A nurse should correct the patient without being rude. Another actionable utilization of nonmaleficence is seen in comparing the advantages and disadvantages of medication. Therefore, a nurse has a right to present all the facts to the patient and then convince the patient to choose the right route.

The Solution to Informed Consent

 Documented consent is important because it proves that the patient was aware of the decision he was making. Even if a medication is holistic and beneficial to the healthcare of the patient, the nurse must inform the patient of the intervention taken. Once the nurse comes into contact with the patient, he has to start building a relationship that will enable him to come to terms with the condition. The bond formed between the nurse and patient should then be used as a gateway to informed consent (Paudel, & Shrestha, 2016). Informed consent should not come in the last phase just before the patient receives medication, it should be a continuous process that informs on the decision making process. The patient should be informed in advance of the decisions he will make or the situational position he might find himself in. In the meantime, the nurse has to ensure that the bond he forms with the patient is built on trust so that everything is done under informed consent.

 In summary, nurses have to inform patients on the type of medication they will receive and the eventual consequences of the medication. The patient has a right to be informed on the intervention or medical procedure chosen. Informed consent helps the patient make a suitable decision. Nurses should form relationships with the patient to help in ensuring trust is built for the sake of the decision-making process. Application of ethical principles proves that nurses are obligated to prevent patients from harming themselves. Also, the nurse is to rectify any mistakes made by the patient regarding medication.




Akyüz, E., Bulut, H., & Karadağ, M. (2019). Surgical nurses’ knowledge and practices about informed consent. Nursing ethics, 26(7-8), 2172-2184.

Bautista-Espinel, G. O., Ardila-Rincón, N. A., Castellanos-Peñaloza, J. C., & Gene-Parada, Y. (2017). Knowledge and importance nursing professionals have on informed consent applied to nursing care acts. Universidad y Salud, 19(2), 186-196.

Nusbaum, L., Douglas, B., Damus, K., Paasche-Orlow, M., & Estrella-Luna, N. (2017). Communicating risks and benefits in informed consent for research: A qualitative study. Global qualitative nursing research, 4, 2333393617732017.

Doody, O., & Noonan, M. (2016). Nursing research ethics, guidance and application in practice. British Journal of Nursing, 25(14), 803-807.

Paudel, B., & Shrestha, G. K. (2016). Perception on informed consent regarding nursing care practices in a tertiary care center. Kathmandu Univ Med J, 56(4), 328-31.

Hammer, M. J. (2016, September). Informed Consent in the Changing Landscape of Research. In Oncology nursing forum (Vol. 43, No. 5).

1288 Words  4 Pages

 Compare and Contrast Ethical Framework



Nurses constantly confront a range of ethical issues in their day to day clinical practice. The ability to confront complex situations resulting from ethical dilemmas results from the application of the Canadian nursing code of ethics, ethical principles, and values. Nursing is a profession that demands moral responsibility hence, nurses must carry out their role while respecting patients’ rights. The use of the Canadian nurses’ codes of ethics and ethical frameworks such as deontology helps in guiding nurses towards making ethical choices. The Canadian code of ethics and deontology ethical framework involve the active use of moral elements in making decisions in clinical practice such as autonomy and beneficence in resolving conflicts that are likely to affect patients’ health outcomes. Nursing has an obligation to maintain optimal health and quality of life for their patients. The commitment lies in providing care to the patients, along with their respective families and communities. This report encompasses an ethical dilemma of Jane, an 80-year-old African Canadian, who was recently diagnosed with bladder cancer stage 3A but her family decided not to inform her about the diagnosis. Thus, the objective of this report is to compare and contrast the nursing code of ethics and deontology ethical frameworks from a nursing practice perspective to determine their strengths and weaknesses in resolving the ethical dilemma.

Compare and Contrast the Code of Ethics and Deontology Ethical Frameworks

The code of ethics serves as the basis for nursing ethical practice. It provides guidance to nurses with respect to ethical relationships, behaviors, responsibilities, and decision making. The ethical clinical practice involves trying to address a wide range of social justice issues that are associated with the well-being and health of the patients. According to Kangasniemi, Pakkanen, & Korhonen (2015), nurses have a responsibility to build and maintain trustworthy relationships as a foundation of effective communication while recognizing that this requires making conscious efforts to understand the health needs and concerns held by people that they owe care. Therefore, from an ethical nursing practice perspective following the principle of beneficence nurses are required to question as well as intervene to resolve unsafe, incompetent, non-compassionate, and unethical conditions that affect their ability to provide ethical, safe, and competent care to their patients while providing them with the needed clinical support (Butts & Rich, 2019). Hence the code of ethics asserts the need for nurses to provide care that is mainly directed towards the well-being and health of the patients, family, or communities to whom they provide care services.

The ethical framework, therefore, emphasizes the need for nurses to collaborate with patients, other health care providers, family, and communities in maximizing positive health outcomes of the persons receiving care as well as those with care needs. In addition, they must respect the role of each party in the management and delivery of care. The objective is to ensure that they build positive relationships that allow effective, compassionate, and safe care delivery to their patients (Butts & Rich, 2019). Ethical practice requires that nurses to the highest possible degree should provide information to persons in their care that they need to make an informed decision that is related to their health and well-being. In this context, nurses should ensure that the health information is delivered to the persons, groups, families, communities, and populations in their care in an accurate, transparent, open, and reliable way.

Autonomy as a nursing principle holds that individuals have the right to making independent decisions about their life particularly when it comes to clinical decisions about treatment, health, and well-being without any form of interference from other parties.  Doody & Noonan (2016) posits that nurses should ensure that their patients have all the information that is needed to make decisions regarding their medical care and the details should be elaborated in a way that those under their care understand. For instance, the information should involve providing details about a diagnosis, potential health outcomes, available treatment options, and management. The nurse should not therefore influence the decisions of their patients rather allow them to make independent decisions (Burkhardt, Nathaniel & Walton, 2018). Also, responsibility involves respecting the decisions of competent or capable individuals to refuse to receive information about their health condition. Competent persons have the right to exercise individualism in decision making when it comes to their health and well-being.

Hence, based on the ethical principle of non-maleficence, nurses have a non-negotiable obligation to advocate for individuals in their care in the case that they believe that the health of these people is being interfered with by factors that they cannot control, such as decision making by their caregivers. However, while the principle gives nurses the responsibility to advocate for the rights of their patients, the main limitation is that it also requires them to respect the informed choices of competent persons such as treatment and lifestyle choices even though that is likely to jeopardize the health of those receiving care (Butts & Rich, 2019). While an illness and additional factors might diminish an individual’s ability to make decisions, it is the responsibility of nurses to assist and support the individuals in making decisions that are applicable to their health capacity. 

In clinical decision-making, nurses should work with those that are receiving care including families and communities by taking into account their customs, values, spiritual beliefs, and socio-economic situations (Doody & Noonan, 2016). The values that are reflected by these individuals are reflective of the unique beliefs acquired socially, culturally, and as a result of religion. Therefore, in all their professional capacities, nurses are required to acknowledge that these values influence the health and well-being decisions that they make. They should intervene as well as report instances in which others fail to be respectful of the dignity and welfare of the individual receiving care by recognizing that choosing to be silent and passive is the same as condoning the behaviour that violates the patients’ rights to safe and ethical care.

On the other hand, deontological ethics places specific focus on the link between obligation and standards of nursing practises. More so, deontological approach is a patient-centered ethical model hence enables the management of a nurse’s medical practises. According to Silva et al. (2018), deontological ethics mainly focused on the suitability or wrongness of actions rather than the rightfulness or wrongness of the consequences. In its nature, the relationship between nurses and patients is deontological given that clinical teaching practices emphasize the tradition of choosing moral actions and when deontological ethics are violated, these results in medical negligence. Therefore, deontological ideologists in a clinical setting including nurses, physicians, and other healthcare workers are normally guided by the need to make ethical decisions. Rather, than adopting the assumption that health resources should be used to achieve greater health outcomes, where minimal harm is accepted deontology rejects this notion in clinical practice (Dimitrios & Antigoni, 2018).  For example, nurse are supposed to be non judgemental while delivering their services to patients. Setting up a medical environment where nursing practise is guided through the application of moral virtues and medical outlines streamlines the medical outcome of the patients.

Deontological ethics provides nurses with a foundation for clinical conduct. Similar to the nursing code of ethics, the model requires nurses to treat others with respect despite the existing cultural, religious, or socio-economic differences. In simpler terms, the nurses are to act fairly and respectfully. The theory can be applied to individual’s thoughts as well, as one must act and conduct themselves in ways that are respectful and ethical. In clinical practice, deontology is advantageous since it creates and emphasizes the personal and professional responsibility of healthcare workers. Deontological ethics requires individuals to act as though they were the ones responsible for designing the standards and expectations that society follows (Silva et al., 2018). Thus, all the actions by the individual should result in harmonic outcomes without creating further conflicts to be considered as morally right.

 Deontological ethics defines wrong from right and gives nurses standardizing guidelines under which they can work on to produce quality medical outcomes. Nursing practises are informed on governmental and medical bodies. The nurse has to carry out his or her duties based on written guidelines. The outcome is tied to the underlying action (Silva et al., 2018). Therefore the nursing is holistic and has to capture every single need of the patients. One way of ensuring a holistic approach is through the application of deontological notions of medicine that considers the suitability of every action and defines each single step. This way, nurses remain relevant and accountable to each and every action they take. In the end the practise shapes the personality of the patient and the skilled nurse gets a platform to perform all the right procedures and certified medical practises.

However, the application of deontological ethics in clinical practice is characterized by several limitations. Deontological ethics creates inconsistency since there are times where the well-being of the general society is prohibited. In that, any individual cannot take action that promotes greater good for the society and at the same time failed to take action is considered unethical. Deontological ethics insists that one should always do the right thing regardless of the situation without providing any exception unlike the code of ethics (Dimitrios & Antigoni, 2018). In that, the code of ethics suggests that nurses should intervene in the case that the well-being of the patient is threatened. On the other hand, deontology asserts the morality of decisions without any deviation which might be impossible in the healthcare setting where ethical issues emerge on a daily basis. Also, contrary to clinical practice principles that assert the need to make decisions based on objective reasoning, deontological ethics encourages subjective opinions. Even the act which involves making a decision that promotes better health outcomes for a patient might be considered as morally wrong irrespective of the outcome simply because the action is one that is not presumed to be right.

Deontological ethics differs from the nursing code of ethics which asserts the greater good of care receivers including patients, their families, and respective communities. Following the deontological approach, it becomes rather challenging to focus on the health needs and well-being of the patients while at the same time accounting for the well-being of society (Silva et al., 2018). This is because such actions might create conflicts and cause harm to one party which cannot be accepted under the framework. Code of ethics as an ethical framework allows nurses and other healthcare workers to focus on the needs of every party by building a meaningful relationship where it does not create obsolete choices as each party is allowed to exercise autonomy in decision making. Deontological ethics is limited for use in clinical decision making as it creates inconsistency on clinicians’ responsibility in protecting the health and well-being of their patients.

Ethical Framework Best suited for Resolving the Ethical Dilemma

With respect to Jane’s ethical scenario, it is evident that the ethical framework that is best suited to resolving the dilemma is the Canadian nursing code of ethics. The ethical conflict from the case lies in the inability of the patient to exercise autonomy in making a decision about her health, treatment, and well-being due to her family’s beliefs to protect her from emotional adversities through non-disclosure of crucial medical information. Hence, this calls for an ethical action, which aligns with the ethical principle of non-maleficence as it guides nurses in their professional capacities to avoid causing harm and also exercise cultural sensitivity to respect the family’s beliefs (Chittem & Butow, 2015). While the patient’s health has been declining in the last six years after losing her husband of fifty years, from the interview it was determined that she is competent to understand the diagnosis and make an independent decision about her health and treatment. For instance, the fact that she inquired about the blood in her urine illustrates that she understands that something is wrong but her family believes that keeping the information away will protect her while denying her the opportunity to exercise autonomy.

From an ethical code perspective, therefore, it is my responsibility as a nurse to intervene given that the well-being of the patient is being threatened by the decisions made by her family. As a nurse, it is my responsibility to ensure that I provide adequate information to the patient about her diagnosis, treatment option, symptoms, and potential effects on her health. The information is needed to enable the patient to make informed decisions while collaborating with her family as the primary caregiver. There is a need to inform the family as to why their decision violates the rights and well-being of the patient. The intervention involves ensuring that the well-being of the patient is a priority while also building and maintaining meaningful relationships with the family as well.

The code of ethics is a more suited theory in resolving the conflict because it highlights the responsibility of a nurse in addressing the ethical dilemma. The ethical framework recognizes the responsibility and role of every party in promoting the well-being of those receiving care and the greater good for the respective communities (Doody & Noonan, 2016). The principles assert that a nurse should always act in a way that shows respect to the values and beliefs that are held by the patient and the families by recognizing that they stem from cultural, religious, and socio-economic factors that makes them unique but also acceptable. On the contrary, deontology asserts on making absolute decisions that should not change irrespective of the likely outcome which makes it effective in resolving the conflict which is complex as not considering the needs of one party might create further issues.


To sum up, nursing is a profession that demands the use of ethical principles and nursing values in making professional decisions while interacting with patients, families, communities, and other healthcare professionals. Nurses are expected to make a decision that promotes the well-being and health of those receiving care and therefore the outcomes of their decisions and actions matter. Hence, this makes the application of deontological ethics in clinical decision-making is less suitable compared to the code of ethics which emphasizes the responsibility of nurses in building and maintaining meaningful relationships with patients and their families as well as enhancing the health outcomes of the care receivers. Hence, from an ethical nursing practice perspective, the code of ethics is more effective in addressing the ethical dilemma in Jane’s case as it allows me as a nurse to intervene in ensuring that the patient is well informed of her diagnosis and existing medical options for decision making without interfering with the family’s beliefs and values.
















Burkhardt, M. A, Nathaniel, A. K, & Walton, N. (2018). Developing principled behaviour. Ethics and Issues in Contemporary Nursing (3rd ed., p. 90). Nelson Education.

Butts, J. B., & Rich, K. L. (2019). Nursing ethics. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Chittem, M. & Butow, P. (2015). Responding to family requests for nondisclosure: the impact on oncologists’ cultural background. Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics, 11(1), 174-180.

Dimitrios, T., & Antigoni, F. (2018). Ethics and deontology in nursing research: A discussion paper. International Journal of Caring Sciences, 11(3), 1982-1989.

Doody, O., & Noonan, M. (2016). Nursing research ethics, guidance and application in practice. British Journal of Nursing, 25(14), 803-807.

Kangasniemi, M., Pakkanen, P., & Korhonen, A. (2015). Professional ethics in nursing: an integrative review. Journal of advanced nursing, 71(8), 1744-1757.

Silva, T. N. D., Freire, M. E. M., Vasconcelos, M. F. D., Silva Junior, S. V. D., Silva, W. J. D. C., Araújo, P. D. S., & Eloy, A. V. A. (2018). Deontological aspects of the nursing profession: understanding the code of ethics. Revista brasileira de enfermagem, 71(1), 3-10.






2641 Words  9 Pages

Managing Ethics and Social Responsibility Challenges in Multinational Companies

Managers in both public and private departments may encounter intricate ethical and social problems as they try to make informed choices such as staffing, promotions and even compensations. Companies operating under diversified surroundings may encounter stiffer challenges and decisions as they have to apply various values and mechanisms. For example, people living in individualistic communities tend to place a higher priority on facts and truth while individuals in multifaceted societies are more collectivistic and prioritize loyalty than truth. Examining cultural diversity, ethical and social responsibilities is vital for the contemporary manages and workers (Kolk, and Van, 2010, p 119). Through the understanding of ethics and social obligations, administrators and personnel are better placed in handling sustainable competitive matters while averting illegal activities. In the near future, managers will be required to be more effective and productive in matters pertaining social and ethical responsibilities. Also, managers should act creatively and consistently in order to rectify mistakes emerging from multinational organization’s framework. Social responsibility assists a multinational organization focus on social aspects of entire company (Scherer et al., 2016, p273). Managers are expected to conduct themselves legally, economically and morally before they can be seen as socially responsible.

            Corporate ethics assumes various supplementary dimensions whenever organizations transforms into a multinational entity (Cullen, and Parboteeah, 2013, p486). Even though the guidelines for ethical mannerisms may vary from one region to another, organizations should consider the host nation’s values alongside the necessity to demonstrate open-mindedness and reception of foreign region customs. Most of the times, business owners fail to define company values hence are forced to adapt new practices which are universally accepted.

 Respecting local customs should be done according to the host’s perspectives and policies.  An organization conducting business in another country is not considered an invader but rather a guest and must adhere to the customs familiar to the locals. This might generate ethical dilemma. For instance, an American business ought to provide equal salaries to the locals regardless of gender or nationality (Cavusgil et al., 2014, p196). Thus, a multinational corporation’s ethical and social obligations reputation is a vital aspect in strategic administration. Ethical conduct normally goes beyond the lawful comportment and be highly influential to multinational corporations in various nations. Social responsibility conduct gives a company a brand meaning to the local people.  Various cultures interpret social and ethical obligations quiet differently. Moreover, a multinational’s social and cultural surroundings alter with time hence a multinational company should always change its approach from time to time in order to align its operational activities to the values of the host’s nation. Consequently, a multinational company needs to consider its stakeholder’s perspectives on local and foreign issues. There are three factors which make up a multinational company’s social and ethical surrounding- local, international and host nation (Luthans, and Doh, 2018, p241). The key ethical and social responsibility values and preferences might be of great concern for the top management team on an international scope. For foreign subsidiary, the objective should be customizing applicable and informed policies and operative procedures. Some of the ethical and socially inclined obligatory values and preferences might be similar across a global scale especially if the countries in question are regional neighbors. Even among traditionally close nations, the precise understandings, executions and urgencies of ethics and social obligations differ greatly. Ethical and socially responsible conducts are traditionally connected (Wang et al., 2016, p132). Even so, the globalizations mechanisms evidently relates nations based on related local matters hence making ethical issues more profound and uniform. Thus, this issues might be general- integrity or even honesty. Based on past researches, combining ethical and social managerial concepts helps in strategic management and decision making at top positions of companies (Harzing, and Pinnington, 2010, p111). There need to be operational and supportable social obligations frameworks to handle the various emerging challenges. Before an organization is considered ethical and socially responsible it should be able to attain high levels of performance in each and every level of the economy.

In the current world, there are various perspectives on social responsibility. Hence social responsibility is not well defined. On the other hand, ethics defines wrong from right. Most establishments can manage ethics by creating ethical management curriculums. Normally, ethics courses instill corporate values, frequently using programs and strategies to direct decisions and conduct, and could comprise of broad teaching and assessing, reliant on the needs of the multinational corporation (Lenssen et al., 2011, p227). They might offer guidance and dilemmas. It is hard to find two programs matching in terms of needs and conditions. Most multinational companies have ethical programs. An average ethical program comprises of value, guidelines, and actions which influence external and internal mannerisms of the organization.

 For further emphasis, multinational companies find it difficult comprehending and adhering to various regulations, managing workforce situated far from the head offices, serving clients and connecting suppliers and business partners’ prerogatives (Fernie et al., 2018, p143). Due to the mentioned challenges multinational companies have to come up with mutual corporate values in order to harmonize and embrace one culture. Multinational companies encounter various issues such as fostering a culture of ethical behavior in all host nations they operation in; and how to comply with various network of multifaceted legal and compliance regulations present in various locations. The solution to overcoming ethical and social obligations challenges lies in creating a systematic holistic strategy that will influence a broader region. International ethics and values exist in different procedures and certainties (Vaiman et al., 2012, p786). These ethics include fundamental human socializations such as respecting differences, trust and an honest way of doing business. The need for international ethics and specialized principles relies on self-comprehension, tolerance, appreciation for unique aspects of the host nation’s people. Most multinational companies are not coerced into taking ethical and social responsibilities, they just comply. For the sake of promoting an international multinational tradition, organization must generate a unified culture which complies with accepted corporate conduct in all international operations while regarding local personnel and their customs. Majority of the firms claim that integrating international principles based on acceptable business norms will allow local guidelines to integrate with local cultures. The advantage of using international principles to formulate local policies is that international standards are most likely to strengthen an organization’s values and endorse the company culture in order to instill international ideals of business mannerisms (Vaiman et al., 2012, p215). Thus, local frameworks prove that respecting local cultures helps in motivating the local workforce to work better. It is vital to note that business can advise their workers not to accept gifts which seem to influence the company against the local’s traditions. In some places gifting might be interpreted as bribery which in turn might lead to unlawful business practices. This is the main reason the managerial teams should always focus on the main issues and activities of the company.

Social Entrepreneurship

            Social entrepreneurship is quickly gaining traction due to the amount of skills, finances and attention. However, with the concept of social entrepreneurship comes the functionalities its core ideas. By definition, social entrepreneurship is an interesting construct because it centers on an individual. Thus social entrepreneurship is an individual who follows fresh applications which have the ability to unravel communal challenges. These people are determined to take risks and make an effort to produce desirable changes within the community through certain initiatives. The in-depth usage of ethical mechanisms such as impact investments, consumerism and commercial social obligations programs enable social entrepreneurs to thrive in various market environments (Fadun, 2014, p13).  It important to note that social entrepreneurs are interested putting up a business entity to serve the community rather than make profits for themselves. Social entrepreneurs might sought out the production of environmental friendly items which serve the community or initiate philanthropic undertakings. Social entrepreneurship is a rising trend and helps in the investment of different business ventures. Hence, social entrepreneurship is gradually gaining pace in the corporate world due to volunteerism and community obligation. It integrates a common cause with industrial ethics and social obligations. More so, the concepts of social entrepreneurship have enlightened on the need to cater to the welfare of different members of the community (Crane, Matten, and Spence, 2013, p15).  One of the most important role of business communities apart from fulfilling legal and technical obligations is protecting the community from adverse effects.  Traditional business frameworks are usually focused on making profits consequently concentrating their efforts on increasing efficiency and productiveness in order to meet the market demands on a timely basis. Nonetheless, the market size and resources are restricted and the competition is always on an upward trend. This forces business owners to not only focus on increasing their profits but also develop social aspects of the community (Visser et al., 2010, p219). With the increasing social challenges, new problems have forced commercial business to adapt business models which accommodate social aspects of the business. Thus corporate social responsibility has forced corporates to balance social pressures hence remaining afloat. Thus businesses are able to maximize on profits while focusing social value the business offers on the surrounding communities.

 Social entrepreneurs play a crucial role in the society as they upgrade systems, devise innovative practices, grasp chances others ignore and produce solutions which change the community forever (Aguinis, and Glavas, 2012,p932). Social entrepreneurs are different from the usual conventional business models. The first difference lies in strategy. In social entrepreneurship, business strategy applied is collaborative rather than competitive due to the objective of social entrepreneurs. Secondly, social entrepreneurship business are attained via ownership share issuance or short term loans. In terms of market, social entrepreneurs operate under marketing surroundings where the expenses are not completely included the income.

            Social entrepreneurship entails identifying social issues and then applying effective business ideologies, mechanisms and functionalities to bring about a solution. Thus, one has to isolate a certain community problem and then organize, generate and manage societal undertakings in order to achieve the desirable change (Kanji, and Chopra, 2010, p119). The change may not completely do away with the actual social challenge, but it may continually focus on upgrading solution so that it can at lease alleviate the present social challenges. Even though social entrepreneurship centers on producing social capital without considering the profit margins or the financial assets, social entrepreneurs are nonprofit entities by nature and help to come up with sustainable solutions to existing challenges. Apart from societal challenges, social entrepreneurs also concentrate on environmental challenges. For instance social entrepreneurship entities might focus on planting trees and empowering women (Renouard, 2011, p85). Thus, social entrepreneurship is associated with non-profit activities and public events. In the current society. In simpler terms, social entrepreneurs are interested in the welfare of the community and ensure that everything runs smoothly for the betterment of the community and other issues. In the long run everything in the community is under control and people can go about business as usual. Social entrepreneurship combines social issues with commercial principles.

Women International Management

 One of the most pervasive myths is that women cannot assume managerial positions. However, as time went by, women have broken the glass ceiling in the management positions. The increasing importance of intercontinental commercial operations is unavoidable to the present day economic trends (Du, and Vieira, 2012, p413). The percentage of international business is gradually rising in different parts of the entire world. The increasing importance of international commercial activities signals the growing urgency for managers who can handle the complex business activities. Conventionally, for a long time, men have occupied managerial positions. Even though in the last ten years, women have slowly taken up managerial positions, in the international domain women are very few. In the current situation, men outnumber women as men as international managers. An expatriate manager is a skilled worker sent to a foreign nation to fill in a managerial position. In the past most international managers were men but recently, women have slowly taken up the positions and have proven effective. Past researches have proven that most women are domestic managers. The increasing number of women in managerial positions is due to changes in social, economic, mechanical advancements and most notably the legal surrounding (Crane et al., 2019, p280). For instance, in America women are entitled to an equal pay due to the Equal Pay Act of 1963. Also companies are required to meet gender parity policies while staffing their workplaces.

 A lot has been said and done for women in international management.  Based on data from one survey, women are more likely to occupy international managerial position if they work under financially strong companies. This is because companies with more capital and widespread public acquaintance may be forced to comply with gender parity policies from the government hence consider creating more job opportunities for women. Moreover, organizations reluctantly send women to international assignments hence always micromanage women while in the foreign nation (Katamba et al., 2012, p396). For instance, women are more effective communicators than men hence are able to foster good relations whereas men are more dominant in their management style. These variances then impact gender relationships, managerial styles and usually lead to conflict as men and women are generally different from each other. Leadership research shows that men and women have different managerial styles.  Despite of the variances in leadership styles between women and men, the end outcome is the same. Thus men and women attain the same outcomes. Most of the times, women are seen as weak and most men stereotype then thus forcing executive board of directors to avoid on picking working women for top managerial positions (Abu, 2012,p475). Most of the times organizations are used to a dominant male manager who control everything from the top to the bottom. However, placing a woman at the helm of a company signals gender neutrality where everyone is recognized for their skills rather than their gender. Thus, the placement of women in international managerial positions signals the rewarding people for results and their work ethic. Additionally, women in the international managerial positions might vary depending on the organization and positions which in turn dictate the duties. In the current world, diversity management is key in the development of international companies. As part of strategy the growing demand for intercontinental delegates, has helped the number of women in international managerial positions to increase tremendously. In fact, the number of women in international managerial positions has led to a certain desired effect (Santos, 2012, p335). The participation of women in international operations under the administration of multifaceted set of traditional, societal, legal, financial and political within the innate surrounding of the host nation are influencing women.

Ambicultural Approach to Management

 An ambicultural environment helps in the fostering of good relations between different cultures. In the wake of economic crisis, experts and managers are looking for creative ways of ensuring that the market needs of the consumers are met and profit margins among the consumers are maintained through so that the company can remain afloat (Dacin et al., 2011, p1203).  The combination of western and eastern cultures assisted Chinese business thrive in western regions due to the integration of different cultures in management of business operations. Even though the Chinese and the western regions have been business partners for long, different communication styles have prevented them from effectively managing how their consumers view them. For instance, the Chinese prefer nonverbal forms of communication while western people prefer verbal forms of communication (Defourny, and Nyssens, 2010, p32). Communication and directing business decisions needs a concrete management systems that surpasses language barrier. The Chinese people focus on building relationships as the basis for conducting a business. On the other hand, Americans rely on quantitative sources such as profit margins and expenses and try to avoid uncertainties. Different kinds of thinking might hinder comprehension between the two regions. Ambicultures allows these group of people to coexist and understanding each other (Shortland, 2016, p665). Ambiculturism encourages openness and ability to overlook cultural differences for the greater good. In the end ambiculture promotes productivity and acceptance of various mechanisms as a means to an end. In the end, ambiculture bridges in two differing cultures.  However, ambicultural concepts are applicable to international business where a business relies on more than one culture to purchase its products.

The Ability of Japanese Firms to Globalize

            Just like any firm or business venture, Japanese firms can easily globalize their brands in order to capture a wider market and in the process increase profit margins. In this period of globalization, it is important for companies to look for other lucrative market spaces in other regions. In the current business environment businesses are shifting production to oversee sites where the raw material are cheaper and labor is affordable (McNulty, 2014,p124) One of the key ways through which Japanese firms can globalize their brand is through the removal of a barrier. Japanese people have a unique language which is only unique to them. Before initiating plans to globalize, the firms will have to label their merchandize using a universal language such as English. Removing a language barrier is one of the most effective way of penetrating global markets. Secondly, the ability to come up with effective mechanisms for marketing is important for the floating the business models and ensuring that all other aspects of the business work seamlessly (Matsa, and Miller, 2011, p635). Globalizing a company pertains surviving hard economic times hence the need of coming up with effective means of implementing the issues in a manner that affects the firm effectively and appropriately. More so, increasing production will help Japanese companies supply their items to other regions. Thirdly, changing the global mechanisms to fit international standards. Thus, the Japanese companies will have to change their workforce and include people from the host country.

Small and Medium Sized Companies’ Enterprises in International Management

 Study aspects upsetting the internalization of small and medium sized businesses is gaining the much needed attention. Nevertheless, only few researches center their empirical data on businesses. Communication is the first effective tool one needs to internationally manage small and medium sized businesses (Amatucci, and Crawley, 2011, p370). Hence, the managers need to communicate openly and often as possible without creating any bias. Managing workers situated in a foreign location requires good communication skills in order to build trust and attain certain objectives at the same time. The second step is closing the disparity emerging from technological advancement. An isolated business network is vital for the management of international teamwork and suitable technological mechanisms assists in international management. Sharing technological advancements, shared workspaces and cloud facilities helps to keep businesses afloat. Thus, the management of technological frameworks help in the management of international businesses (Harzing, and Pinnington, 2010, p345). The third aspect is embracing cultural variances so that consumers can feel appreciated and management can accurately cater to the needs of the consumers hence the need to come up with business plans that respect religion and other aspect of people’s lives and then the business should learn how to embrace various cultural perspectives.

Corporate Leadership

            The scarcity of highly skilled managers has impended the rate at which Asians companies can move into the international market (Cavusgil et al., 2014, p516). The development of information reliant societies together with penetrating emergent market places resulted in strategic corporate leadership. Human resource and skilled people are significant in business management and giving companies a competitive edge over other rivals. Corporate leaders had to narrow down the gap between multinational organizations and human resource teams. Corporate leadership has to consider the proper management of human resource by giving the staff the right jobs and also placing the right operational procedures within the company.

Internationalization of Emerging Market Companies

 The internalization of an emerging market easily helps the company interpret the needs of the consumers (Bower, and Paine, 2017, p165). With the increasing or taking away the need for the demand and supply, consumers have to shape the entire marketing needs. International activities within emerging markets tends to advance with each passing day. Experts confirmed that emerging markets are different from other developed economies. A common rationale behind the advancement of emerging markets is the internalization and contextualization of emerging markets helps in risk diversification hence ability to explore different experiences with intensified technology and social networking via cultural associations. Thus, an emerging market helps an organization spread its networking abilities and penetrate new markets. More so, aspects of an emerging market helps in the management of operational affairs and helps companies hence helps a company trace theoretical and practical aspects of the market space.









Kolk, A. and Van Tulder, R., 2010. International business, corporate social responsibility and sustainable development. International business review, 19(2), pp.119-125.

Scherer, A.G., Rasche, A., Palazzo, G. and Spicer, A., 2016. Managing for political corporate social responsibility: New challenges and directions for PCSR 2.0. Journal of Management Studies, 53(3), pp.273-298.

Cullen, J.B. and Parboteeah, K.P., 2013. Multinational management. Cengage Learning.

Cavusgil, S.T., Knight, G., Riesenberger, J.R., Rammal, H.G. and Rose, E.L., 2014. International business. Pearson Australia.

Luthans, F. and Doh, J.P., 2018. International management: Culture, strategy, and behavior. McGraw-Hill Education.

Wang, H., Tong, L., Takeuchi, R. and George, G., 2016. Corporate social responsibility: An overview and new research directions: Thematic issue on corporate social responsibility.

Harzing, A.W. and Pinnington, A. eds., 2010. International human resource management. Sage.

Lenssen, G., Blagov, Y., Bevan, D., Arevalo, J.A. and Aravind, D., 2011. Corporate social responsibility practices in India: approach, drivers, and barriers. Corporate Governance: The international journal of business in society.

Fernie, J., & Sparks, L. (Eds.). (2018). Logistics and retail management: emerging issues and new challenges in the retail supply chain. Kogan page publishers.

Vaiman, V., Scullion, H. and Collings, D., 2012. Talent management decision making. Management Decision.

Fadun, S.O., 2014. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices and stakeholders expectations: the Nigerian perspectives. Research in Business and Management, 1(2), pp.13-31.

Visser, W., Matten, D., Pohl, M. and Tolhurst, N., 2010. The A to Z of corporate social responsibility. John Wiley & Sons.

Crane, A., Matten, D. and Spence, L.J., 2013. Corporate social responsibility in a global context. Chapter in: Crane, A., Matten, D., and Spence, LJ,'Corporate Social Responsibility: Readings and Cases in a Global Context, 2, pp.3-26.

Aguinis, H. and Glavas, A., 2012. What we know and don’t know about corporate social responsibility: A review and research agenda. Journal of management, 38(4), pp.932-968.

Kanji, G.K. and Chopra, P.K., 2010. Corporate social responsibility in a global economy. Total Quality Management, 21(2), pp.119-143.

Renouard, C., 2011. Corporate social responsibility, utilitarianism, and the capabilities approach. Journal of business ethics, 98(1), pp.85-97.

Katamba, D., Kazooba, C.T., Mpisi, S.B., Nkiko, C.M., Nabatanzi‐Muyimba, A.K. and Kekaramu, J.H., 2012. Corporate social responsibility management in Uganda. International Journal of Social Economics.

Du, S. and Vieira, E.T., 2012. Striving for legitimacy through corporate social responsibility: Insights from oil companies. Journal of business ethics, 110(4), pp.413-427.

Crane, A., Matten, D., Glozer, S. and Spence, L., 2019. Business ethics: Managing corporate citizenship and sustainability in the age of globalization. Oxford University Press, USA.

Abu-Saifan, S., 2012. Social entrepreneurship: definition and boundaries. Technology innovation management review, 2(2).

Santos, F.M., 2012. A positive theory of social entrepreneurship. Journal of business ethics, 111(3), pp.335-351.

Dacin, M.T., Dacin, P.A. and Tracey, P., 2011. Social entrepreneurship: A critique and future directions. Organization science, 22(5), pp.1203-1213.

Defourny, J. and Nyssens, M., 2010. Conceptions of social enterprise and social entrepreneurship in Europe and the United States: Convergences and divergences. Journal of social entrepreneurship, 1(1), pp.32-53.

Shortland, S., 2016. The purpose of expatriation: why women undertake international assignments. Human Resource Management, 55(4), pp.655-678.

McNulty, Y., 2014. Women as female breadwinners in non-traditional expatriate families: Status-reversal marriages, single parents, split families, and lesbian partnerships. In Research handbook on women in international management. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Amatucci, F.M. and Crawley, D.C., 2011. Financial self‐efficacy among women entrepreneurs. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship.

Harzing, A.W. and Pinnington, A. eds., 2010. International human resource management. Sage.

Cavusgil, S.T., Knight, G., Riesenberger, J.R., Rammal, H.G. and Rose, E.L., 2014. International business. Pearson Australia.

Matsa, D.A. and Miller, A.R., 2011. Chipping away at the glass ceiling: Gender spillovers in corporate leadership. American Economic Review, 101(3), pp.635-39.

Bower, J.L. and Paine, L.S., 2017. The error at the heart of corporate leadership. HBR’S 10 MUST, 165.

4122 Words  14 Pages


Ethics Profession

Virtue ethics is an ethical approach that focuses on an individual's character. In distinguishing between right and wrong, virtue ethics states that the character traits of a person should be positive. To put it clearly, for a person to understand whether the action is right or wrong, he should have virtues.  For example, one needs courage, prudence, wisdom, temperance, and other qualities (Pastura & Land, 2016). One important lesson that I have learned is that laws or rules restrict people from doing the right thing. This is because some situations have complications and people lack effective formula to apply. In such cases, people need to apply virtues. In applying virtues, one will practice reasoning- go beyond the mechanical rule and apply practical skills to complexities (Pastura & Land, 2016). Secondly, one needs to think about virtuous activities that will bring pleasure to oneself and others. Third, one should live virtuously by willing to go beyond following rules. Finally, one needs rational thought- this will help in addressing ethical dilemmas in real-life and professional practices.

 For example, in solving problems and making decisions, philosophers such as Immanuel Kant focus on rules of action. The philosopher says that people should adhere to the universal law and individual actions should be based on whether the law was applied (Pastura & Land, 2016). However, from the perspective of virtue ethics, contemporary problems require rational decisions. Effective decisions do not come from adhering to the law but they are influenced by virtues such as wisdom and prudence. For example, in making medical decisions, the decision-maker should consider the specific case. This means that the decision-maker will not apply the rule but will make decisions that will maximize pleasure (Pastura & Land, 2016). Important elements that are needed in making decisions are;  evaluate the situation, evaluate which decision is best, and act in a virtue way. In general, virtue ethics is the solution to the dilemmas that professionals encounter every day.



Pastura, P. S. V. C., & Land, M. G. P. (2016). The perspective of Virtue Ethics regarding the

process of medical decision-making. Revista Bioética24(2), 243-249.

354 Words  1 Pages


 Earthfolio provides an understandable outline through which an outsider can analyze their ethical practices. Any discussion of sustainable corporate practices should adhere to certain business ethics. Sustainability at the administrative level exists due to the following reasons:  the top-management is committed to sustainable and ethical ways of conducting business and this commitment is then converted into the company mission, goals, and objectives. In this case, Earthfolio is an ethical company because it does not just focus on business transactions but also on its input or contribution in the foreseeable future (Earthfolio, 2020). In the early 2000s, the company focused on constructing a business entity that would be dedicated to sustainability. The underlying reason for this was to make the right decisions, achieve the impossible while at the same time, profit from the sustainable investment.

Earthportfolio’s Ethical Principles

 Additionally, ethics can be evidenced through the number of clients the company has attracted over the years. Earthfolio has been able to garner a client-based from all over the world due to its sustainable ideals (Earthfolio, 2020). From individual consumers to foundations, many clients have joined the course and this points to an ethical mannerism of conducting business. Taking a stand and then getting people to join you and invest in the company's narrative is an act of efficiency.  Moreover, the performance and productivity of the company only proved that investing in sustainability would easily motivate investors all over the world to become part and parcel of the objective.

Investing sustainably is more futuristic and significant than ever before. The company committed itself to ensure that it gains the confidence and trust of all is clients and by doing so, it caters to the business needs of its client base and ensures that its sustainable investment objectives are adhered to all through the years. At first, the public thought that it was a branding gimmick and that the company would easily reverse its mannerism. However, the firm proved its competitors wrong as sustainable investment resulted in sustainable economic growth and an upsurge in the company's profit margins (Siddy, 2009). Furthermore, sustainable investing facilitates investment resources to business enterprises whose main objective is fighting for proper use of natural resources, minimizing environmental obliteration, and raise awareness on corporate responsibility within its business boundaries. Earthfolio has been able to manage various funds and at the same time ensure that sustainable responsibility among its shared partners hence earning the trust and confidence of its partners.

 Due to the advancement in information technology systems, digitized investment consultative services or automated-robo- advisors have helped the company reach its optimal goal of sustainable investments. For the most part, sustainable businesses tend to reduce pollution, preserve natural resources, and reduce pressure on fossil fuel usage (Escrig et al., 2017). This way, the companies keep the human race safe from pollution and assure the public of their safety while consuming environmentally friendly products.

 Generally, ethics pertains to doing well and giving back to the community and even the human race. Placing sustainable investment as the top agenda brings out the ecological, social, and administration. Hence, the company directs funds for sustainable ways of doing business.  The sustainable investment demonstrates social responsibility as one main intention is not just making money but also safeguarding the welfare of the planet (Rohde, & Lützkendorf, 2009). This the underlying reason Earthfolio is an ethical company because of its operative sustainable investment business model which tailors business plans of any corporation and builds in sustainable mechanisms and this ensures that all companies can sustainably conduct their business. Consequently, the company can maintain a diversified clientele because every investor is different and the most important thing one can do is having the appropriate combination of sustainable factors. For instance, designing the performance to cater for persistent smart characteristics and the optimization of sustainable funds (Lean, & Nguyen, 2014). In the meantime, the funds have to ensure that each company has a strong managerial system, with fewer commissions and transactional charges. Once a business is in agreement with Earthfolio's sustainable principles, then the company manages all the funds that come under its watch. In other words, building a framework that allows other business ventures to change join the Earthfolio's mission has not only made it a household name but a reliable companion in terms of consultation services and policymaking. 

 Sustainable investment increases productivity due to the incorporation of advanced high-tech innovation. Promoting policies and regulations which motivate entrepreneurial activities is key in the reduction of the forced labor force, captivity, and even human trafficking. With these benefits considered, the main objective of sustainable investment is attaining productive employment for people from all walks of life for both women and men. Thus, sustainable investment impacts issues from a wider perspective as compared to other forms of business ventures.

 In summary, Earthfolio is an ethical company because it has chosen a rare business model- sustainable investment. Sustainability depends on the simple fact that the natural environment needs to be conserved at all times. As the human population grows so is the pressure exerted on resources. Earthfolio has created a business model which channels all of its funds towards the business which want sustainable investment. Similarly, sustainable investment is ethical as it not only safeguards the environment but it is also mindful of the coming future generation which will depend on the dwindling resources left on earth.



















Earthfolio (2020)

Escrig-Olmedo, E., Rivera-Lirio, J. M., Muñoz-Torres, M. J., & Fernández-Izquierdo, M. Á. (2017). Integrating multiple ESG investors' preferences into sustainable investment: A fuzzy multicriteria methodological approach. Journal of cleaner production, 162, 1334-1345.

Lean, H. H., & Nguyen, D. K. (2014). Policy uncertainty and performance characteristics of sustainable investments across regions around the global financial crisis. Applied Financial Economics, 24(21), 1367-1373.

Rohde, C., & Lützkendorf, T. (2009). Step-by-step to sustainable property investment products. Journal of Sustainable Real Estate, 1(1), 227-240.

Siddy, D. (2009). Exchanges and sustainable investment. Report prepared for the World Federation of Exchange, Delsus Limited.




999 Words  3 Pages

 Personal Ethics Statement


Each of us believes in what we do as a result of the influence that the environment we have been in. For instance, we believe it will be dark at night because it has always been dark at night. Fiedler and Bless (2000) express that beliefs are a function of cognition and emotion and are as a result of influences that exist in the environment or repetitive mental interpretation of situations (cognition). For instance, a child who is assaulted for trivial things believes that they will soon be assaulted. Beliefs are also as a result of appeal to emotions. When one is constantly pushed towards one belief, they tend to believe that that statement is true. This can be seen in religious beliefs.

When faced with an ethical dilemma, we choose to respond in a particular way out of various factors. One influence will be the beliefs we have about such a situation. An individual will gauge the situation with a belief of what is right and what is wrong and do the needful. If one believes that the only way out of a legal problem is to corrupting the legal system, then, they will make attempts to corrupt. The other factor is the expectations we have. An individual who is positive about a situation, is likely to respond in a positive way, while those who are negative, will further complicate their situation.

When confronted with an ethical dilemma, I will use two approaches. First, I will consider what is right and what is wrong. Second, I will consider the possible outcomes in all outcomes and weigh them. I will tend to go with what I believe to be right since I will exonerate my conscious and will be in a position to live with the decision I made.

My personal ethics statement of ‘do good and right’ is supported by the secular theory of Humanist Ethics. On this concept, the commonality of human nature is endorsed and extended to cover right and wrong as expressed by Thiele (2014). Decisions are judged on the basis of enhancing the well being of humans. My biblical theory is that which has to do with the virtues of prudence and justice. Actions are judged in accordance to their effect and how fair they are to other concerned parties as expressed by Gardner (2009).

            My sense of right and wrong was developed through my personal experience with the social world. The sense of doing what is right and wrong is about thinking, feeling, and acting. Moral principles show what is right, fair, or ethical in the behavior of people. Moral guidelines help people to be empathetic towards others. Moral rules help people living together in the same society to treat each other with respect because the way a person treats another determines how they interact or relate. The sense of right and wrong helps to maintain social regulation and enables individuals to reciprocate to the treatment they are given by others (Ellemers, Van der Toorn, Paunov & Van Leeuwen 2019). The social implications of what is right and wrong differ according to beliefs, attitudes, and judgment. Moral convictions are viewed as instructions that tell an individual what they ought to or not to do. This comes with significant social implications because people expect others to follow these instructions. When these instructions are not followed, the people with expectations get emotionally affected and lack tolerance which can resort to violence against those people that don’t support their views.

            Knowledge of moral behavior has made me understand how to deal with crises and issues. The sense of knowing what is good and what is bad and how I should handle the two has made me know how to respond to different issues. Moral behavior is one aspect that helps to maintain the social order. Moral reasoning has helped me know how to connect judgments about how I should react to issues and crises. According to Ellemers et al. (2019), moral reasoning can illuminate and shape moral instincts. Self- awareness has made me become more self-conscious and have moral self-views viewing and reacting to issues differently and putting more thoughts into it. This is because I understand more of my personality, my emotions, and also know what triggers me into a particular act and also understand what I should engage in and what I should avoid. Emotional experiences and behavioral realities are significant in understanding the way people contemplate on principles and moral character.

Moral guidelines enable me to think through issues because they help me make judgments on the action I should take. Morality involves rules, values, and standards that help to shape or distinguish between right or wrong. When thinking through issues, I always incorporate the morality elements so I can make the right decision. Ethical thinking raises the standards of thinking through issues Avci (2017). It enables one to think with a positive purpose summing the values and not the challenges. I have learned how to control my moral emotions so that I can think through issues with a clear mind. Emotions help in handling issues because by them people can consider if another person is worthy to be treated morally. Moral emotions help me make moral judgments and moral decisions through issues (Ellemers et al. 2019). Moral decisions are a result of real situations that are characterized by people’s encounters and the moral emotions they give rise to. When thinking through an issue, it is important to know that human morality consists of thoughts, principles, judgment, reasoning, behavior, and emotion and it is important to think through all these aspects to make the right decision.









Avci E. (2017). A normative analysis to determine the goals of ethics education through utilizing

three approaches: rational moral education, ethical acculturation, and learning throughout

life. International Journal of Ethics Education 2, 125–145

Ellemers, N., Van der Toorn, J., Paunov, Y., & van Leeuwen, T. (2019). The Psychology of

Morality: A Review and Analysis of Empirical Studies Published From 1940 Through

  1. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 23(4), 332–366.

Fiedler, K., & Bless, H. (2000). The formation of beliefs at the interface of affective and cognitive processes. In N. H. Frijda, A. S. R. Manstead, & S. Bem (Eds.), Studies in emotion and social interaction. Emotions and belief: How feelings influence thoughts (p. 144–170). Cambridge University Press.

Gardner, E. C. (2009). Justice and Christian ethics (Vol. 7). Cambridge University Press.

Thiele, K. (2014). Ethos of diffraction: New paradigms for a (post) humanist ethics. Parallax20(3), 202-216.

1102 Words  4 Pages

 Marketing ethics in the fitness industry


  The fitness industry is growing but fitness center professionals are experiencing ethical issues.  Focusing on corporate social responsibility, the fitness industry should understand its social responsibilities or it should understand their role in improving the environment, the society, as well as the economy. However, the fitness industry goes against the principles of the CRS, or in other words, they do not serve the sole purpose of improving the health and wellbeing. The industry measures its success in financial terms or other words it puts financial above the wellbeing of the customers. According to CSR, the fitness industry should ensure the social impact in terms of health and wellbeing improvement, and educational attainment.   Today, the fitness industry is associated with unethical issues. They provide false advertisement and fraudulent claims to gain the edge.  The industry should understand that the false promise results in mistrust and frustration. The fitness industry should embrace CSR; that is understand the values of the industry and put those values into the community and as a result,  the industry will gain trust since the customers will feel accepted and develop a sense of belonging. 


CSR and social purpose marketing


  Corporate social responsibility means that companies should understand the interest of different stakeholder groups including communities, environment, employees, customers, and more (Maignan & Ferrell, 2004). Companies are expected to create a strong relationship with customers to meet their social needs and increase business survival.  CSR influence companies in understanding social marketing. This means that the marketing mix supports the social responsibility of a company. In marketing, corporate social responsibility states that customers should understand the behavior of a company in other words they need information and knowledge so that they can be able to make their purchasing decision (Maignan & Ferrell, 2004).  Research and studies find that responsible companies create a positive image and customer interacts positively with the company. There, the CSR enables the organization to have a social purpose marketing or in other words, companies understand that customers are interested in companies that provide purpose-driven brand (Maignan & Ferrell, 2004). To achieve a special marketing purpose, companies must be socially responsible or they must promote social responsibility through providing socially conscious brands, promote ethically sourced products, and ensure that all company's operations align with corporate mission. Consumers look forward to becoming productive exercisers and therefore, they look for products that will enhance their performance (Balmer et al. 2011). Therefore, if customers want a good performance, the fitness industry is expected to focus on social purpose marketing. This means that the industry should not only focus on making money but it should also focus on benefiting society.  It should realize that its sole social responsibility is to attract customers by providing them with beneficial services and products.  Another important point to note is that consumers do not only look for brands and services that will offer functional benefits but they are aslo interested in the social purpose of that particular product or service.  This means that companies need to build a strategy known as the social purpose which entails fulfilling social and environmental needs.




Marketing ethics

  The fitness industry is involved in deceptive marketing.  The latter means that it provides misleading information or false facts to persuade customers to purchase the product or services. Their aim to make a profit and other expected outcome (Kotecki, 2011). The bad thing is that the industry targets a wider audience and this means that the information will reach many customers yet they will not benefit but rather, the industry doing the adverting will benefit in making a profit (Kotecki, 2011).  It is important to note that the misinformation is against professional ethics.  For example, the UKSARMS sells the androgen receptor to increase bone density and muscle mass. However, the drug has negative effects in that users can develop prostate cancer. This means that professionals give medical advice yet they are not permitted by the law. They recommend treatment without following the guidelines and regulations. There is also the issue of conflict of interest in the fitness industry where the professionals do not reach mutual satisfaction and agreement (Kotecki, 2011).  It is important to provide a general knowledge that is scientifically backed or they should adhere to the utilitarian principle in conducting the marketing.  For example, Myprotein which is an E-commerce company provides nutritional products that improve individuals' health and wellbeing.  The company uses marketing techniques that focus on creating a healthy lifestyle.  It is important to note that the company uses scientific research in providing high-quality products and this means that when promoting the products, it gives information that relevant and scientifically backed. 

  Sher, (2011) states that industries are involved in moral failures while marketing their products. They are using immoral manipulation or they influence customers to buy products yet they do not give them straightforward information. Therefore, customers are not given the opportunity or freedom to make rational choices. This means that their need and desires are not fulfilled simply because they are exposed to physical stimuli that hinder them from making rational and emotional decisions (Sher, 2011). Since industries are working under a competitive environment, companies are using the manipulative strategy to deceive consumers to hinder them from making normal decisions. Sher (2011) asserts that companies should understand that manipulative marketing is involved in moral issues since it targets to change the customer's desires and beliefs (Sher, 2011).  Manipulation is only necessary if the marketer focus on anti-intentional manipulation or in other words the actions do not focus on altering the goals of the customer. However, when the fitness industries are providing false information, it means that they are manipulation the customers to change their decisions. The author recommends that in using the manipulation strategy, it is important to use tactic methods that influence customer’s decision making or it provides the customer with helpful information. The point is that in manipulative marketing, the market should not focus on altering the decision-making of the customer but rather, he or she should have positive perception toward the customer (Sher, 2011).  Also, the market should focus on increasing sales but not subverting the customer's interests and preferences.

 Laczniak, 1983) asserts that ethics should be the number one priority in making marketing decisions. Note that the practice of marketing is also associated with ethical concerns and most writing suggests that for industries to improve ethics, they should adhere to the golden rule, the utilitarian principle, the categorical imperative, the professional ethic, and the TV test.  However, Laczniak asserts that these ethical frameworks are limited and the educators believe that the frameworks lack theoretical rigor. The author supports the ethical frameworks which are multidimensional and significant (Laczniak, 1983). For example, multidimensional means that the ethical framework is not simple but they address multidimensional factors in solving ethical dilemmas.  Non-utilitarianism in nature means that rather than using a utilitarian theory that is full of critics, markets should use positive actions to reach a positive outcome. The author argues that utilitarianism means that marketers should maximize benefits to many people (Laczniak, 1983). The theory does not consider the process of action but it is interested in the outcomes. Therefore, non-utilitarianism means that the actions that are intended to maximize benefits should be put into concern. 


Market and Consumer Data


 According to Gloria, the fitness industry should understand the consumer need social consciousness for them to make decisions concerning their consumption. In other words, greater social conscience impacts the decision-making process (Salazar, 2017).This is because, as the consumer gains information, knowledge, and becomes aware of the company's responsibility they gain a positive image that influences their purchasing behavior.  In specific,  fitness industry should solve the ethical issues by promoting individual factors such as provide information and knowledge towards the products, and the  'halo' effects which entail the industry should give positive attributes and this makes the customer believe that if one attribute is positive then the others are positive (Salazar, 2017). The author states that the fitness industry should apply theories such as the marketing mix in solving marketing issues. The following are the marketing mix conceits that the industry should apply;

  • Product

  The fitness industry should provide clear and straightforward information concerning the services.  Rather than providing false information to make profits, the industry should provide clarity so that the target audience that pays attention and improves their purchasing power (Salazar, 2017).  Professionals should provide the information since they are of the information that makes the customer get satisfied.

  • Price

 The fitness industry should concern price as part of the marketing concept. The price and value should go hand in hand and this means that each product or service should offer value concerning the price. 

  • Place

 The fitness industry should communicate clearly about physical location. It should also communicate about the online locations so that the target audiences can get to the location easily to view the product and services and make a decision.  

  • Promotion

 Finally, the fitness business should use effective communication to create a mutual relationship between the business and the customers (Salazar, 2017). The goal of the promotion should be to make a profit and to promote after-sale satisfaction.  Therefore, the business should inform the customer about the product and customer using the right message strategy. The information should be to bring desirable outcomes.


 The fitness industry should not only focus on making money but it should also focus on satisfying customers needed. The literature has suggested that customers need to meet their expectations, they need good products and services, and they need a fair price (De Lyon et al. 2017). Since the fitness industry is full of ethical issues, the first strategy to address the issues is to limit the profit motive. There is sufficient evidence that the business is involved in fraud to the rich themselves. Even if it is good to make a profit to progress the economy the business should focus on satisfying customer needs. It is important to note that the literature finds that most of the ethical issues arise from marketing (De Lyon et al. 2017).  When promoting the products, they provide the wrong message which can affect the health and wellbeing of the individual. Thus, it is important to provide a clear and accurate message so that customers have to make rational choices. Finally, fitness professionals play a significant role in providing health-related services. However, they lack adequate training. It is recommended that professionals should use evidence-based information in providing daily practices. 


 The literature has provided rich information concerning the fitness industry and how fitness professionals are involved in ethical issues. The analysis has found that the fitness industry should have strong societal expectations. The industry should not only focus on making profits but it should focus on improving health outcomes. The literature recommends that the fitness industry should recognize the corporate social responsibility. The recognition will provide the importance of social purpose marketing and bring a positive outcome on the ethical aspect and customers' willingness to purchase the products and services. Therefore, if the fitness business wants to achieve its targets, it should invest CSR in the business. This will result in competitive advantage, new business opportunities, business stability, improve business image and reputation, and more importantly, reduce ethical risks. Lastly, the fitness industry needs to restructure its performance and address the issue of misleading ads to prevent consumers from purchasing deceptive products. The recommendation to consumers is that they should develop intelligence consumer behaviors. This means that they should read the advertisement ads from reliable sources. For example, the FDA is considered with public health, and information from this source can be considered reliable.












Maignan, I., & Ferrell, O. C. (2004). Corporate social responsibility and marketing: An

integrative framework. Journal of the Academy of Marketing science32(1), 3-19.


Balmer, J. M., Powell, S. M., Hildebrand, D., Sen, S., & Bhattacharya, C. B. (2011). Corporate

social responsibility: a corporate marketing perspective. European Journal of Marketing.\


Kotecki, J. E. (2011). Physical Activity & Health: An Interactive Approach: An Interactive

Approach. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.


Laczniak, G. R. (1983). Framework for analyzing marketing ethics. Journal of

Macromarketing3(1), 7-18.


Sher, S. (2011). A framework for assessing immorally manipulative marketing tactics. Journal of

Business Ethics102(1), 97-118.


Salazar, G. L. L. (2017). The Corporate Social Responsibility and the Marketing Strategy:

Influence on the Customer’s Purchase Decision. International Journal of Business and

Social Science8(2).


De Lyon, A. T., Neville, R. D., & Armour, K. M. (2017). The role of fitness professionals in

public health: a review of the literature. Quest69(3), 313-330.


2107 Words  7 Pages


‘Robin Hood Test’ and Care Ethics


Care ethics is a normative social theory that asserts that moral action is concerned with interpersonal relationships and care. It explains the significance of caring motivation and the body in moral contemplation. The Robin Hood Test shows different ways in which the different characters showed the ethics of care according to the situation they found themselves in.

The order in which I believe the characters showed the most morality according to the care of ethics is Marion, Little John, Robin, and the Sherriff. Marion was ready to help little John and Robin because of the love she had for Robin. She begged the sheriff to release them and was ready to do anything that it took for them to be free. Marion agreed to spend the night with the sheriff and this led to the release of Robin and Little John. This showed how much she cared for them. When Robin asked Marion what she did for them to be released, she was honest with him.

When Robin told Marion that he never wants to see her again because she told him the truth, little John defended her and asked her to leave with him. This shows that little John was kind and understood Marion's situation and her actions made the sheriff release them. After Robin was told by Marion what she did, despite being honest with him, he did not think that Marion did it because she loved him. This shows that Robin did not consider or care about Marion’s love for him that pushed her to spend the night with the sheriff. The Sheriff took advantage of Marion’s love for Robin and manipulated her.


The ethics of care in the Robin Hood Test displays the different ways in which different people care for others. Marion loved and cared for Robin but on the other hand, Robin was negatively affected by the choices that Marion made. Little John understood Marion’s situation and defended her. The sheriff used Marion’s situation and took advantage of her.





343 Words  1 Pages


Reflective Journal 2

 This module has provided a unique experience since I have learned the role of ethics in business life and individual life.  It is important to understand the context of ethics and its importance in the modern business world. In modern economic times, businesses need to act morally to avoid corporate scandals. However, a lack of morality or failure of the business to behave legally will result to enormous effects on the business environment, individuals, and communities. Therefore, the main take away from this unit is that corporations need knowledge and experience to manage the business. However, knowledge and experiences cannot work without business ethics.  This indicates that corporations must apply moral code to help the members distinguish between right and wrong.  As the corporation practices business ethics, it improves business survival, creates a stable society, achieves business objectives, makes effective decisions, prevents business malpractices, and achieves business effectiveness.  The unit has provided a unique experience and I believe that as I enter into the business world, I will apply ethics and I am sure the knowledge will help in handling external pressures, I will make ethical decisions, and I will use solid ethical reasoning.

 The module gives valuable insight into the role of social contract theory. As a student who looks forward to entering the business world, the social contract theory has provided a satisfactory answer that individuals and society need rules and laws. Social contract means that individuals should have a collective understanding or each person should participate in enforcing rules (Donaldson & Dunfee, 1994).  From an economic perspective, business and society should form an agreement on moral obligations. This is because, business entities use society resources such as skilled labor, and land. Therefore, the society should communicate its interest and the business entity should strive to fulfill the interest (Donaldson & Dunfee, 1994). Note that the society is interested in social welfare and it only authorize the firm that maximized social welfare and minimizes harm.  In general, society wants business forms that are committed to bringing economic efficiency, stables levels of production, and liability resources.  I have learned that in social contract theory, businesses have a limited moral free space. This is because, business firms require consent through microsocial contracts, they must adhere to hypernorms, and they must adhere to rules and norms designed by communities (Donaldson & Dunfee, 1994).  As a result of the limited moral free space,   the rule-of-thumb principle has become meaningless. This is because, managers must follow rules, regulations, and laws.  In other words, individuals must join the context and the power placed by law may exceed the societal expectation.

  In this module, I have also learned about the importance of incorporating ethical considerations to influence consumer purchase decisions.  Note that consumers want ethical products. Corporations such as Body Shop have achieved commercial success through the strategy of ethical brandings. The major reason why I wanted to know much about ethical products is that I have noticed that business ethics do not focus on consumer's purchase decisions (Crane, 2001).  In this model, I have realized that considerable research has been done and found that consumers have ethical purchase behaviors.  This is a new concept that is not incorporated in the academic literature but popular and trade press have recognized that this is a concept that needs to be incorporated in business ethics.  Focusing on ethical products, my take on this concept is that corporations need to consider product safety, consumer privacy, fair pricing,  charitable donations, and other factors (Crane, 2001). These and other various issues need to be taken into consideration since these are the major factors that consumers look at while making purchase decisions.  I understand that marketing efforts may fail if the firms do not address ethical issues.

 The module has also enabled me to enjoy learning about a virtue-based approach. I have developed knowledge and understanding that ethics is all about virtue and character. As a student who look forward to participating in modern business, I have learned that I only need to develop ideal character traits to bring good consequences (Hartman, 2008).  Once I establish the traits, I need to nurture them. I rely on Aristotle's perspective that I do not need universal principles but what I need is to reason well, and promote justice and autonomy. I understand that rather than focusing on action, I should focus on my personal life in terms of character and behaviors (Hartman, 2008). This theory is useful in my life in that to become ethical does not mean identifying ethical principles but to become ethical needs good character. The latter is achieved by applying values, and virtues in decision making.

 Through class and group discussion, the ethics topic has influenced my life and wellbeing positively.  I have gathered enormous knowledge and information about ethics and now I have the confidence to go out and interact with people in the real world.  I have the confidence that I can relate well with clients, community, competitors, and more.  However, I have faced challenges in this module in trying to understand what I must do to be morally right.  In most cases, I make choices believing that the result will be right and according to ethical perspective,  I learned that choices need clarity ( provide an adequate explanation of making a particular choice) consistency ( applying principle behind the particular choice), and completeness ( put into account the effects of the choices).  Overall, I have benefited from this module in that even though ethical dilemmas are unavoidable, I now have the information and knowledge that I can apply and gain a conscious awareness and solve ethical issues.

 Finally, academic researchers should be aware that the business environment is changing and thus, they should provide comprehensive information about the topic so that corporations can gain knowledge on addressing potential dilemmas in the business environment.  Another recommendation is that the ethical teaching in the classroom is not adequate. This indicates that students should be allowed to go in the world and practice ethics to gain awareness and reasoning. To finish, graduate schools should offer professional development and in specific, ethical education should not be optional but it should be mandatory.  For example, I could not understand ethics and integrity but at the end of the module, I have gained personal and professional knowledge about ethics.  I have gained moral development and personal growth.  This module demonstrates important concepts such as ethical decisions and ethical awareness. It put emphasizes that every profession need these concepts for business and personal growth.  Business firms should also create realistic moral codes and managers should work toward achieving the reasonable goals so that other members can behave ethically.












Donaldson, T., & Dunfee, T. W. (1994). Toward a unified conception of business ethics:

Integrative social contracts theory. Academy of management review19(2), 252-284.


Crane, A. (2001). Unpacking the ethical product. Journal of Business Ethics30(4), 361-373.


Hartman, E. M. (2008). Socratic questions and Aristotelian answers: A virtue-based approach to

business ethics. In Leadership and business ethics (pp. 81-101). Springer, Dordrecht.



1180 Words  4 Pages

Daily Ethical Decisions

Looking for a job is not as easy as it seems, since one passes through a lot of challenges before landing the job. It is therefore significant for one to understand what job recruiters want to hear, and how being honest might affect your chances of getting the job (Berk, n.p). While looking for a job it is always significant to be honest in an interview, in order to avoid giving contradicting information. Nonetheless, being too honest in an interview might also not land you the job, hence it is necessary to critically think before giving an answer. For that reason, this paper will provide an argument against being honest in a job interview.

Honesty in an interview may either give a candidate positive or negative results, depending on the question being asked. Recruiters tend to ask simple questions which require you to give an honest answer, in such a situation giving honest answers cannot harm the candidate. Nonetheless, when asked a complex question it is necessary to think before giving an answer, as honesty might be the reason for not getting that job. It is important to note that recruiters tend to ask questions that will indeed forecast forthcoming success at the company (Job Search Q&A, n.p). This requires the candidate to give an answer which the recruiter wants to hear, as being honest might not be what the recruiter wants to hear. For instance, if an interviewer asks about the type of a manager you work well with, and you say onewho will trust you and allow you to carry out projects with less supervision. This might be an honest answer from the candidate, however, this may not be the answer the recruiter wants to hear. This is because the company’s director maybe so demanding and frequently supervises the employees, hence such a candidate may not be the best fit for the job.

As was the case with the writer, it was not significant for him to tell the company about what had transpired. This is so because, even though the company hired him, telling them he had been fired could have only aroused suspicion about the writer’s work ethic. In as much as the writer may be honest, the company may understand this differently. In so doing, the writer risks being the least trusted employee in the company. Similarly, telling the interviewer that in your initial job, your boss built up a case which saw you fired, makes the candidate look weak and full of excuses. Recruiters are looking for people who will fit in the required position and not a person who will come up with excuses in a situation where things go wrong. This consequently requires the candidate to answer questions smartly in order to avoid displaying weaknesses (Berk, n.p).

Finally, it is necessary to understand how to respond to questions asked by an interviewer. Moreover, it is not essential for a candidate to display weaknesses in an interview. It is only indispensable to tell the recruiter what is significant, but your weaknesses should not be disclosed. In the event that the candidate’s weaknesses are known by the recruiter and the candidatea is eventually hired, the candidate will be at risk of being laid off in the event that he or she makes a mistake. Hence it is not necessary to tell the company why your boss sacked you. To conclude, in a bid to pass an interview, it is significant to keep somethings to yourself and only answer the questions being asked (Isbister, n.p).

Work Cited

Berk, Beth A.  “How to Ace the Most Challenging Job Interview Questions.”, 1 Feb. 2016,


Isbister, Helen. “How Honest Should You Be at a Job Interview?”  Career FAQs,  2016, -a-job-interview.

“Job Search Q&A: Should You Be Honest in a Job Interview?”  The Prepary,com, 15 Dec. 2014,



661 Words  2 Pages
Get in Touch

If you have any questions or suggestions, please feel free to inform us and we will gladly take care of it.

Email us at Discounts

Busy loading action
  Working. Please Wait...