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Nicomachean Ethics

Book IV Summary

            Aristotle described the particular character’s virtues, their possibilities, deficiencies and excesses.  He accomplishes this through concentrating on the generosity virtue which is connected to valuable and money.  Aristotle states that generosity excesses are wasteful and the shortage can thus be regarded as un-generosity (Ross, 1999).

            According to Aristotle a generous character gives what he has the right person at the right period, in adequate and proper amount and accomplishes this with pleasure. Aristotle asserts that generosity is also characterized with taking and this therefore implies that a generous character does not acquire what to give from the wrong resources (Ross, 1999).   The generous character takes from his wealth or from right sources which permits him to give to others again. Aristotle adds that those raw materials that individuals give out cannot be termed as the source of his generosity. This is because according to Aristotle generosity is measured from the much that an individual can be able to give out. This therefore means that an individual who gives less can be regarded as a generous character when compared to another giver provided that what he has to give is less (Ross, 1999).

            Aristotle asserts that wasteful individuals acquires too much and give the much for the wrong aims (Ross, 1999). This is mainly because they cannot establish an endless money spending supply but the wasteful individuals are closer to generosity at that point when their money runs out.  Individuals who are characterized ungenerous find it difficult to give despite the fact that they are exposed to wealth. According to Aristotle all humans holds a higher capability of becoming ungenerous individuals (Ross, 1999).

            Aristotle claims that generosity is related to magnificence. This is an incorporation of money spending which are increased amounts (Ross, 1999). According to Aristotle magnificence means large public gifts. He stated that magnificence excesses are regarded as vulgarity and the shortage is termed as stinginess. The vulgar individuals are more involved in giving huge public gifts in order to display their wealth status which is the wrong purpose. A stingy individual on the other hand is bound to spend on the public gift but he attempts to spend less thus holding back the rest. Aristotle claims that continence can be termed as a virtue in its own nature (Ross, 1999).





Ross W.D. (1999).  Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics. Batoche Books, Kitchener.

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Nicomachean Ethics

            Evaluating the actions of an individual relies to some degree on whether the conduct of the particular individual is voluntary or not (Ross, 1999).  A voluntary action is that that is conducted with one’s consent and willingness while an involuntary is that conducted under certain pressure and causes pain.  However, if a person is under pressure and performs unfavorably this can be judged as voluntary.  If a person does something with knowledge and fails to suffer, this can be described as an involuntary conduct (Ross, 1999).

The best moral conduct measure is options because contrary to individual action options is made in a voluntary mode.  Individuals develop options in regard to what means they should utilize in achieving their desired aims (Ross, 1999).   This is referred to as deliberation because an individual makes consideration of their desires and then reason in the manner they should be achieved.  This, therefore, means that deliberation comes before the occurrence of options.  In short, an individual with a good character is bound to choose that strategy that is for the good. However, such an individual is capable of misunderstanding things because they are focused on achieving well at all times.  An individual with a bad character cannot state that the bad character influences their incapability to control themselves because they develop the decisions voluntarily (Ross, 1999).

Courage is the virtue that is required in making options. This is a difficult thing to achieve because it requires one to weigh the available options and opt for the best even if it risks their desires or priorities.  This is because courage is the confidence of facing fears in regard to developing options.  Individual actions and options can be utilized in judging their moral nature (Ross, 1999).


Ross W.D. (1999).  Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics. Batoche Books, Kitchener.

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The Nicomachean ethics is a research based on the nature of a better life for human beings. Human beings aim at certain good things in their lives regardless of the methods that they use in order to achieve those things (Aristotle, 1999). The good things that human aim for are categorized into four categories which are: complete, self-sufficient, final and continuous. Happiness is above all the best thing that all human beings aim for, even though it is sometimes hard for many to be happy.

The nature of human happiness depends on the goals that one has in his or her life. A person who is happy must have achieved his goals thus living peacefully without any worries at all. Human happiness is usually in one’s soul thus for one to be happy, his or her soul must be happy too (Aristotle, 1999). Different ethical virtues allow a person to be able to lead either a happy or sad life, simply because, virtues direct a person according to the way he or she is supposed to live.

Different virtues allow people to be able to achieve happiness which is mainly their main goal. Bravery, is a virtue which allows a person to do whatever he is supposed to do without, and to fear whatever it is that he or she is supposed to fear. Thus when is brave, he will be able to achieve happiness without any problems at all (Aristotle, 1999). On the other hand, temperance is a virtue which makes a person to have bodily pleasures. Thus when one is not able to achieve whatever his body wants, then he may not be happy. Hence virtues determine if one will be happy or not.


Aristotle, (1999). Nicomachean Ethics. Batoche Books.

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Ethical issue when housing price are increased to increase the tax

Tax is the source of income by the government to earn money from its citizens and organizations legally. It has the formula which has elements like rate structure and identifies the taxpayer, and this is what we call tax liability. A tax has the base of taxing, for example, we have taxation on employees’ salaries, income tax, value added tax, excise duty and much more. Rental income is one way where the government gets income by property owners paying a certain percentage of rental income to the government who they pass this tax liability to the people who living in this houses.

An ethical issue may be gotten from any problem or any situation which need someone to select between one or two situations which must be measured as right or wrong. It is either ethical or unethical, ethical issue is the right choice while the wrong choice is referred to us unethical (Tomasic, 1991).

Utilitarianism theory

According to the utilitarian theory, the place of location of whether something is right or wrong is determined by the outcome. The consequences associated with a specific action decided to be taken over another one will tell us whether an action is ethical or unethical. As we consider the interest of one party and disregard the interest of another party the decision may be forced to be unethical one.  We are going to evaluate whether ii it right or wrong to increase the rent in order to increase the tax. There only two approaches to ethics which are either utilitarian based or can be rights based (Hare, 1982).

Relativism theory

Relativism theory is a theory that explains about morality is relative to norms of a certain culture. For example, whether an action taken is right or wrong it will depend on those society norms. The action will be morally right in one area but be wrong in another one. In this case, the increase of a house price may be right in a given geographical area but wrong in another one depending on the economic structure (Positivism, 1996).

Virtue ethics theory

This will help us to determine the amount of a decision process to determine whether it is right in a given case and whether it would have been stated in non-virtuous terms for any citizen to understand the scope of increase the house prices to increase the tax (Thiroux, 1980).

Kantian theory

According to Kant to tell whether a person is good or bad it will depend on the motivation of actions they have but not consequences being good. He also argues that morals are determined if someone is motivated. The emotion of a person will Couse someone to do something. In this case, the government will consider the citizen views and feel in order to determine to impose an increase of a house price or not to in order to increase tax (Teson, 1992).  

Reasons why the housing price should keep increasing in order to increase the tax


Taxes and housing values are argued that local authority induces sorting through changes in house values and make this redistribution feasible. By doing this they assume that the houses are similar and the size where land is same and where the land is not the same the house rate will be fixed. The rent and housing prices will be increased so that rich people share the same level of utility and those who are poor should share one low utility level and location should be independent. We are supposed to come up with the approach of equilibrium even if the society is heterogeneous (Donaldson, 1983). Even if the resident is segregated they should live in the similar jurisdiction as same as the poor.

 The housing price should not keep increasing in order to increase the tax.

On the other hand in the most area of the world, taxes are most important as it’s a capture instrument of the government but we are not supposed to increase the house prices because they will rise much higher than the wages, hence the affordability of houses will be reduced. The increase in price will lead to an increase of the amount of money which the citizens spent on loans and mortgage repayment. All citizens with equal income in a given country or community they are supposed to enjoy same housing rates reason being it are not ethical to treat a different individual differently. Those in the different location the rate should be different; every person who is rich or poor should enjoy similar rights even if they don’t pay equal taxes (Donaldson, 1983).

Conclusion and recommendations

The study of changing the taxation should be taken keen because the principle may be misused to play unethical behaviors’ where the prices are abnormally increased. The price of houses should go hand in hand with the increase in the income of the taxpayer. The political and economic equilibrium should be able to reduce the gap between rich and poor where rich people go to high taxes and low returns whereas poor pay low taxes and vote high grants. The most models and theories have the similar approach of increasing income of everyone before affecting the tax policy the only difference is the time of making that decision (au/Australian, 2016)


au/Australian. (2016, june 8). Retrieved from -new-home-sales-surged:

Donaldson, T. W. (1983). Ethical issues in business. New Jersey, 153-165.

Hare, R. M. (1982). Ethical theory and utilitarianism.

Positivism, B. ( 1996). Relativism. Theory, Method, and Evidence.

Teson, F. R. (1992). The Kantian theory of international law. Columbia Law Review, 53-102.

Thiroux, J. P. (1980). K. W. Ethics: Theory and practice. Glencoe Publishing Company.

Tomasic, R. &. (1991). Casino capitalism?: insider trading in Australia. Australian Institute of Criminology.



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All Human beings aim at achieving something good in everything that they execute. When one achieves his or her own goals, then he or she becomes very happy because he has been able to accomplish whatever he wanted. Everything good that happens leads to happiness which is what each and every person is looking for in life (Aristotle, 1999). The main objective of ethics, is to determine how best one can be able to achieve happiness. In order for one to be happy, he or she needs to live in accordance with certain virtues, mainly because, virtues determine the end point of an event. Thus for a plan to be successful, certain virtues must be highly followed hence leading to a positive end which leads to happiness.

Different people have different virtues, and this consequently means that people with different virtues have dissimilar principles. A virtues person leads a very responsible type of life and is likely to achieve more goals in his life compared to one who is not virtues. On other hand, voluntary action also affects the decision that a person is likely to make, mainly because one may be faced by a threat and so decides to do an opposite thing from what is expected from him or her (Aristotle, 1999). Courage, as a virtue, allows one to be able to stick to his or her own goals regardless of the circumstances that he or she might be facing. This therefore makes a person to be determined in achieving his or her own goals without being hindered by anything whatsoever. Prudence also helps one in reasoning properly concerning intellectual matters, thus being able to make the right decisions in life.


Aristotle, (1999). Nicomachean Ethics: Batoche Books.

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Ethics of Health Care

Ethics of care in health care system is an important aspect since it ensures smooth operations and provision of quality care. Ethics are connected with morality and duties and responsibility are conducted with moral interest.  Care and concern and they key issue in ethic of health care and to ensure the issues are fulfilled there must be a morality of rules so that every person in health care can act and have moral response in every situation (Beauchamp et al, 2014).  In addition, ethics of health care are achieved from moral decision and personal interest to follow the principles of obligation in order to have the ethical standard. Thus, to keep the ethical standard, it is always advisable to keep away from unethical behaviors and have a moral reasoning.  Note that ethics is related with set of standards which helps in making ethical decisions and maintain the ethical standards (Beauchamp et al, 2014). Generally, it is important to apply ethical of care and have a moral reflection and implement universal moral rules as well as principles of obligation.  In examining ethics of care, Cochrane (2012) introduces the human right theory and asserts that this theory is an institutional framework in bioethics and it plays a major role of addressing the controversies which exists between health care and human rights.

In healthcare system, there is a need for new ethics framework to ensure that health care activities are done ethically and that every person has an access to quality care.  Ethical framework should be applied in health care activities to ensure the best practices and activities are provided with ethical imperative (Beauchamp et al, 2014). In addition, the goal of ethics in health care is to achieve a high quality and competent health care and to ensure that the care is offered from clinical evidence and with high patient safety.  Thus, moral obligation is an important aspect and different researches introduces different framework of ethics in health care. For example,   Faden et al (2013) asserts ethics should be applied in learning system to ensure that things are done ethically in modern world. In learning environment, both professionals and patients should have an affirmative obligation and should set a society goal through research and practice. 

Bioethics   has wide-ranging disciples such as medical law, medical sociology, health economies among many and moral principles should apply in all these areas to ensure ethics in health care.  Each discipline has moral problems and they can be rectified by understanding and valuing the human rights in a deeper way.  In human rights, there is a difference between law and morality and in medical practice professors should focus on morality rather than law.  The connection between human rights and morality introduces a clear ethical framework in health care in that morality is aligned with correlative duties and unusual moral strength. According to the research on bioethical approaches toward the provision of ethics of health care,   the researchers assert that it is important to focus on human rights as ethics of health care.  The reason as to why human right is a concern is because failure to consider human right is contributing to indeterminacy problems (Cochrane, 2012). According to the research, the approach of human rights is related with ethics of health care in that   it introduces the normative force which helps people to define what is right.  In addition, the approach is aligned with the best practices of human right and people use it as a solution to distributive problems faced in health care. In order to understand how human right approach should be applied in ethics of health care, it is important to put in mind that human rights are universal moral rights and every person should follow the moral rights without law enforcement (Cochrane, 2012) Thus, in health care system, professors must be concerned with offering protection as well as quality care to patient.  In modern public health, human right approach should be applied in that the approach is related with human rights and biomedicine and thus, the close relationship will allow human beings to have the right to quality healthcare.  Human rights also have universal standards which help in solving cross-cultural problems.  Human rights are applicable in ethics of health care since it acts as a universal moral framework   in global bioethics.

Gordon (2012) assert that the theory of human right should be applied in ethics of health care  since it carries the moral foundation  and helps people to understand the human dignity. The theory establishes the fundamental interest to   carry out activities and best practices with an aim of creating dignified human rights.  By following the human right, people always use the genuineness criteria and embraces the duties which fulfill and protect the human rights.  Human right theory in health care asserts that ethics should be applied with connection to demand-side conceptions (Gordon, 2012).  Professional must understand that human beings need a certain services in order to live and then he or she must apply the basic interest to fulfill the welfare rights. Understanding human right is best method of applying ethics in health care. Human rights are universal and every person should justify the moral demand.  It is therefore important to ensure that in health care, human beings are entitled to liberal rights, right to quality health care, access to goods and opportunities freedom and equal moral worth.  Human rights approach provides a valuable insight in that the theory offers solutions to concrete problems (Gordon, 2012).  Professions of health care understand the moral capacities in humanity. The theory helps them to view the human rights as rational rights and every person is entitled to basic rights.  In health care institution, professors must understand that human beings demands universal conception in social context and this will help to evaluate the best practices in order to achieve the human interest goals.  To ensure effective use of ethics in health care with relation to human rights, it is important to put concern on cost and benefits as well as values and priorities (Gordon, 2012).


Gordon, J. (2012). Human Rights in Bioethics-Theoretical and Applied. Ethical Theory & Moral Practice,

15(3), 283-294. doi:10.1007/s10677-012-9365-4


Cochrane, A. (2012). Evaluating 'Bioethical Approaches' to Human Rights. Ethical Theory & Moral

Practice, 15(3), 309-322. doi:10.1007/s10677-012-9345-8


Faden R. Ruth, Kass E.Nancy, Goodman. N Steven, Pronovost Peter, Tunis Sean & Beauchamp L. Tom

(2013). “An Ethics Framework for a Learning Health Care System: A Departure from Traditional

Research Ethics and Clinical Ethics,” Ethical Oversight of Learning Health Care Systems,

Hastings Center Report Special. Report 43, no. 1 (2013): S16-S27. DOI:



Beauchamp. L Tom, Walter LeRoy, Mastroianni.C Anna & Kahn P. Jeffrey  (2014). Contemporary issues in


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Lab Report

Ethical Issue #1

The major moral issue is whether Jacque should have reviewed the previous tests done by prior engineers?

According to the ethics code engineers in any working organization are necessitated to analyze and review the tasks of other engineers when their job requirements necessities them to acquire more information (NSPE, 2007).

Supporting Code


RP 7b – engineers are not allowed to injure another engineer’s reputation.


The best outcome may be achieved through accounting for the public interests and developing strategies to solve the radiation issues.

The worst impact may be generated through running the reputation of Ms. Noir and the prior engineers who were involved in the activities.

Ethical Issue  #2

Another moral issue is whether Jacque should forward the information that he believes that is an illegal practice to the suitable authority in the corporation for action.

Engineers are expected to provide advice to their employer when they believe that particular initiative is not effective.

Engineers are not supposed to sign documents which deal with matters that lacks, honesty and competence that are prepared under their supervision and control (NSPE, 2007).

Supporting Code

PO 1b- engineers are to be guided all activities by the highest integrity and honesty standards.

RP 2b-  services should be guided by competence

The best outcome would thus be generated through investigation of the issue in order to establish the reason behind the prior engineers and Ms. Noir conduct.

The worst effect would be generated via bad relationships due to lack of adequate investigation into the issue

Ethical Issue  #3

The other moral issue is on whether Jacque should have gained evidence through reviewing and conducting the tests on the devices before raising his doubts.

According to the code, engineers are reinvigorated to observe and work based on sustainable development principles in the aim of protecting the surrounding for the following generations (NSPE, 2007).

Supporting Code

PO 2d- engineers are expected to strive in serving the interest of the public at all times.

Favorable results can be achieved through proper examination of the issue without judgment or quick conclusions. 

The worst outcome may be developed trying to investigate personal errors of Ms. Noir as this would ruin work relationship thus resulting in reduced performance.






NSPE. (2007). Code of Ethics For Engineers. National Society of Professionals.  Pdf      

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Business Ethics: Contracts with foreign businesses

    There are so many guidelines that one can apply in the code of conduct of an international business. Some of these guidelines on the ethical and social responsibility that I may apply in my code of conduct may include: the stating of the corporation’s policies, principles as well as global work that the organization values so much. Another guideline involves the holding fast of the foreign dealings basing on the companies social conscientiousness and ethics. The creation of a committee that would sustain the ethical principles is another guideline that I would use in the company. Conducting the routine meeting is another guideline that is implemented so as to ensure that the corporation sticks to the policies on the code of conduct. Also creating a code that would assist in the creation of know-how to the entire community is another r guideline that can be implemented in the company.  Another essential guideline is on the development of the health principles while working in these foreign nations. The use of a clear language that can be understood by all the people is another guideline that can be implemented (Ferrell et al 2010).

    The framework to be implemented in the company involves the realization of the issues that face the company and the decisions to be made. Then one is required to think through the decision made before taking an action then one can take an action and later test the decision that has been one has made and finally one can continue with the implementation of the decision made (Ferrell et al 2010).

    At times the people in the organization may behave in a poor way and this calls for a cause of action to combat the conduct. In this case, I would suggest the redirecting of the bad behavior to improve performance. Where the employees will make changes to the way one wants them to behave and continuous follow-up on them will enable them to change.

    The main key issues while developing the international business will be on the issues to do with bribery and corruption which is a vice as many countries discourage it and it’s against the rule to have a code of conduct that enhances it.  






















Ferrell, O. C., Fraedrich, J., & Ferrell, L. (2010). Business ethics: Ethical decision making and     cases : 2009 update. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.

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            Ethical Dilemma

            In the presented case the ethical dilemmas are that the moral imperatives and values are involved in a conflict.  The ethical dilemma in this case study is that despite the fact that the child has been diagnosed with an existence threatening ailment which is meningitis it is only one of the parent that holds the primary custody of the child. Mainly, in this case, three individuals are fully involved, in the ethical dilemma the child and the mother and the major parties. However, the child is a minor who cannot make decisions on his own.  On the other hand, the religious beliefs of the mother oppose medical treatment for the child who requires urgent help.

            The case’s ethical dilemma happens because of the doctor’s duties contradictions.  Based on the conduct code the doctor is required to provide treated to the entire patient. The code holds that the role of the doctor is to provide medical care to individuals in order to save their lives. In this case, the doctor has the role of giving the child the care he deserves (Emmerich, 2013).  However according to the professional ethics code, the doctor is required to seek permission before treating a patient.  The doctor attempted to seek for treating permission from the patient’s mother but she denies him permission based on religious reasons and the fact that the biological father to the child is not present.  The doctor cannot, therefore, provide the main responsibility of providing treatment to the child without the necessary consent to do so.

            Ethical dilemmas are often in the clinical settings as this involves conflicting beliefs, norms as well as beliefs in regard to medical treatment (Rosenorn-Lanng, 2015).  Ethical theories are therefore developed in order to solve ethical dilemmas in clinical settings.  I choose to work with the decided model. In the thus model the health issue is clearly defined, a way for a particular measure of health care is developed and all the options under the issue are taken into account. Moreover, the model provides the most suitable options to solve the health issue effectively. This is aimed at providing a well-developed solution to the ethical dilemma.  Under the presented situation, the model provides proper execution activity plan to handle the situation. The second option of this model is grounded on conducting an evaluation as well as monitoring the health issue and the suitable solution under the options that have been developed.

            Decide model can be used in this situation because the child in the case has severe vomiting and convulsions symptoms.  The doctor has thus established that the child is suffering from meningitis ailment which requires health care attention immediately.  However, the situation only holds to solutions as the only options. This includes to either providing the child with the necessary medical treatment of to ignore the ailment and permit him to suffer for lack of options. The other way is to provide relief to the child by providing treatment to prevent him from suffering because medical treatment is the only solution that can end his suffering. This is so because the child is entitled to medical treatment despite the fact that he cannot make personalized decisions.  Medical treatment can, therefore, be providing to the child as the father’s appearance waits. Decide model implementation can help in resolving the moral dilemma of this circumstance because this involves saving an individual’s life (Gallagher, & Hodge, 2012). The doctor should try and make the parents understand that the conflict which is developed by the religious beliefs and principles that they both hold would damage their Childs future.  It is the duty of the doctor to ensure that favorable decisions are made in regard to the patient’s health.  This can thus involve evaluating the options and develop the best suitable decisions by utilization of the Decide model.  Making decisions is an essential element of healthcare as it mainly involves individuals’ wellbeing.  Therefore the use of Decide model would be helpful in ensuring that the most suitable solutions to the dilemma are developed (Gallagher, & Hodge, 2012).

            In my opinion, it is essential for the child’s mother to critical understand that the child is in a critical condition and that he requires immediate healthcare.  This would help in making proper decisions that would help in solving the issue.  The main duty of a doctor is ensuring that the patients are not subjected to suffering because the doctor is fully in control (Emmerich, 2013).  This, therefore, means that permitting the doctor to offer treatment to the child despite the religious beliefs of the mother is the best decision.  This is because the child’s ailment requires immediate care and it not treated on time this would make the condition worse. Lack of tenement will permit growth for the disease which will thus ensure that treatment in later period would be unreflective thus subjecting the child to more suffering and later death.   The mother is required to understand that the life of the child is at threat and since the child does not understand the religious beliefs he should be given proper treatment.          









            Emmerich, N. (2013). Medical ethics education: An interdisciplinary and social theoretical perspective.

Gallagher, A., & Hodge, S. (2012). Ethics, law and professional issues: A practice-based approach for health professionals. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Rosenorn-Lanng, D. (2015). Human factors in healthcare: Level two.

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            Ethical objectivism is described is the general view that the moral values, as well as values, exist as intrinsic and they are independent of everything. Based on ethical objectivism the laws of moral are external and they were not created because they are not subjected to any desire of being. Moral absolutism is a major form of ethical objectivism. On the other hand, moral skepticism is a collection of meth ethical concepts which holds that moral knowledge is not held by anyone. This concept additional emphasizes that moral knowledge does not live.

Ethical objectivism solves the issues of moral skepticism as it explains the general moral errors thus allowing every individual to develop moral imperfection. Ethical objectivism, therefore, helps individuals in developing moral decisions as moral mistakes are often committed without having the moral knowledge. Moral perfection is therefore achieved through ethical objectivism as it helps in developing moral standards that are genuine.   Ethical objectivism, therefore, does not state those things that are good and those that are evil or the views that are true but it provides specific answers that are generated by morals.  This, therefore, acts as moral doings guideline thus helping in reducing the occurrence of moral errors.

Ethical objectivism seems to be a false concept because of absolute ethical rules, as well as global ethical laws, are not present.  This is mainly because if the concept that ethical objectivism is real then moral laws must be absolute and ethical laws are universal and are shared among a set of individuals.

Moral disagreement is important because it helps in establishing of several concepts based on ethical laws.  This disagreement is additionally significant as it shows that if individuals hold different thoughts about the ethical objectivism theory then the theory are untrue it is a matter of opinions.

            In my opinion, moral disagreement is crucial because it helps in identifying the various conclusions that lie around the objectivist theory.  Objectivism acts as the direction of providing moral principles that show how individuals should act and why they should.







            Chapter 1: How Ethical Objectivism Solves the Problems of Moral Skepticism, Chapter 2: Universality, Objectivity, Absolutism, & Chapter 3: The (Un) Importance Of Moral Disagreement

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            Based on the beliefs held by most individuals moral rules must hold an authority that comes from God if they are objective.  This argument is held by those individuals who strongly believe in Gods authority. However, ethical objectivity should exist whether there is the presence of God or an absent.  This is mainly because individuals hold the power of deciding on the objectives merits.  Individuals mainly believe that objectivity only exists when God is present. This is mainly because people tend to work on the thought that all policies, rules, principles, as well as law, must exist after being developed fully by a lawmaker.

            Objectivity refers to the situation of being independent of any opinion that is developed by human beings.  Ethical objectivism can be termed as a thought and an idea that is consistent in nature because it does not necessitate ethical absolutism. However, despite the fact that objectivism does not require the presence of God if it is real this, therefore, implies that God lives.  Objectivity is described as the states were a judgment made by an individual lacks bias or even prejudice. Religious morality can be termed as objective because it is mainly based on faith.

Moral standards are naturally developed which can be argued to be the developer who is God. Ethical morality, however, does not require any development op policies because it is the state of being free from rules as well as laws and yet acting in ethical ways.  Moral laws are not in any way connected to scientific rules. Moral laws imply to the actions that an individual is fully obligated to perform or those things that one must refuse to perform based on ethics. Scientific laws predict and describe what is to perform but do not state things that ought to be performed. This, therefore, affirms that objectivism exists even without the presence of a law developer.

            In my opinion, I believe that ethical objectivism does not require the presence of lawmakers. This, therefore, implies that with or without the existence of God ethical objectivism should exist.  However, tend to argue that if morals were not developed by any individual this simply means that they are universal as well as external.  Since ethical objectivism stands to be in existence this means that God truly exists. Moral standards come from believing in something which is basically connected to religion with God being the creator.









Chapter 4: Does Ethical Objectivity Require God, &Chapter 5Where Do Moral Standards Come From?

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            Everything that is termed as good or evil is both values.  Value can be described as the general regard in which something is described to be desiring of worth.  This can additionally be described as the individual's behaviors as well as principles of the judgment of what is crucial in real life.  Objective reality is described as a class of things that individuals are certain about their existence independently of everyone’s opinions. Every individual is fully capable of verifying the objective reality features. This, therefore, implies that every aspect that cannot be fully justified cannot be a section of the objective reality.  Based on a claim from a moral skeptic the world is characterized by moral features and this can thus be established through careful examination of the surrounding.

Every occurrence or even in life holds a scientific examination which therefore shows that all the propositions are filled with doubts and cannot, therefore, be considered to be true. Moral facts cannot be utilized in explaining other moral or immoral facts because in getting guidelines of what individuals ought to do normative facts achieve this well.

Justified moral beliefs cannot be achieved according to a skeptic.  This is because in order to gain moral knowledge one is required to hold some beliefs about the concept which are real as well as justified. This cannot, therefore, be true because most of the b beliefs are never good enough. The beliefs may have been derived from sources that hold no reliability, guesses as well as evidence that is wrongly constructed.  Achieving moral knowledge is, therefore, a thing that cannot be attained.

            Knowledge basically necessitates certainty and based on ethics certainty is unattainable which makes is an impossible concept.  Moral knowledge cannot be achieved also because of the presence of inadequate evidence.  Adequate knowledge is crucial in justification of moral beliefs in order to make the knowledge objective.

According to the regress argument all the moral beliefs can be challenged. The argument starts with its apparent reality which is that for each moral beliefs credentials can always be required. However, this argument also requires justification of its belief. This, therefore, implies that everything in life requires real answers and questions must always arise.  Therefore the presence of a moral belief is essential in developing moral knowledge as justification is the major condition of attaining knowledge.  In summary, any policy of rule requires an explanation which justifies the rationale behind every belief being questioned.

An individual’s rationality is based on the objective of satisfying their individualized interests as well as desires.  Everyone has a reason for being moral .a moral is the manifestation of high guidelines for appropriate behavior.  Individuals will normally engage in something moral only if this action will yield benefits or satisfy their requirements.  This is a matter that is subjective in nature as moral conduct fully depends on personal options. This is not, therefore, compactible with moral objectivism. Being moral generally, means being virtuous which clarifies that there is always a reason for being ethical.

In my opinion, I believe that moral facts are mutual to a different type of normative facts which is the epistemic facts. These facts are essential in addressing what ought’s to be done and believed  provided that those beliefs are objected at the genuine truth. Moral knowledge cannot be achieved because of every moral belief held by a single individual there must be another individual who objects it.  Due to the existence of a rational individual justification for beliefs cannot be achieved thus making knowledge impossible. Everything that is in existence is, in turn, questionable.






            Chapter 6: Values In A Scientific World, Chapter 7: Moral Knowledge I: Four Skeptical Arguments, Chapter 8: Moral Knowledge Ii: The Regress Argument, & Chapter 9: Why Be Moral?


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            Corruption at City Hall Scenario

            The kind of political crime that the city hall manager is accused and has committed can be referred as political corruption crime.  This is supported by the fact that the manager is involved in stealing of profits from the kitty of the city hall. He is able to accomplish this task because he holds the power of influencing how activities can be done in the institution as the leader.  Political corruption crime is described as the utilization of authority by the government officials in order to get illegitimate personal gains. This involves the use of illegal act to attain the benefits by the government official to get what they what based on personal grounds and not for the well-being of the public (Ross, 2012).

            The city hall manager as a government office holder was involved in a political corruption crime because his act of stealing profit money was directly connected top his official duties. This can thus be referred as an act that was done under the law color which involved power trading in achieving what the manager needed.  This kind of corruption results in economic losses for the government as the power to develop is denied by the official involved in corruption (Ross, 2012).  The manager derived the city hall the opportunity to develop because he was taking the profits for himself instead of improving or providing resources which are required for the generation of more profit.

There are two major types of political crimes that are violent and nonviolent political crime.  The city hall case is a type of a nonviolent political crime because it is characterized by sabotage, disagree, agitation, rebellion, and intelligence (Ross, 2012). This kind of crime causes harm to the nation, the nation’s government or the government institution (Ross, 2012). The city hall manager fits in this typology because he caused harm to the government institution through the utilization of not- violent acts for personal gains.





Ross, J. I. (2012). An introduction to political crime. Bristol: Policy.

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