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Ethical quandaries

            Ethical and legal issues are all issues that surround our lives and especially in our work places. Ethics generally refers to the already set standards that govern a certain group of people or a person. I will have to make a complex decision that will ensure that I maintain my professional conduct as an engineer and that I make a decision that is ethical. In this case therefore, I will only grade the five students out of a class of twelve students as they are the ones who deserve to be credited in accordance to their contribution in the engineering training. The rest of the students will have to be discredited as they do not qualify to graduate since they are not qualified as per the training. So as to reach to this decision, I had to consider my obligation as an engineering profession and the various code of conduct as per the IEE and AEPP.

            In this case, as an engineer profession, I have an obligation to abide by the expected professional code of conduct. I have to ensure that I have a code that extends beyond any form of legal issues and to put across ethical standards such as telling the truth. Therefore I have to resist the temptation of telling a lie about these students by giving those marks that they do not deserve. This is unethical and it is not a standard as according to the code of conduct for engineers. Hence I have to go against the boss orders of generously rewarding the new graduate students. It would have been ethical to only reward those generously those students who did their work and to give credit to them as I penalized those who failed in this project.  These students needs to be punished and they should not be allowed to graduate as this will help to set an example unto other engineering students so as to uphold integrity and to produce highly competent engineers.

            According to the NSPE, as an engineer professional, one is not supposed to complete or either sign plans for those projects that are not in agreement with the applicable engineering principles. Hence, in this case, awarding these students grades for their project that is identical is not in compliance with the NSPE professional conduct (Illinois Institute of technology 2007). Hence so as to promote ethics in engineering practice as well as education, it is important to penalize the students and not to award marks to them since it is unprofessional. According to IEEE, an engineer expertise has to uphold and improve technological competence in engineering department and to offer honest claims of technical work so as to acknowledge and correct mistakes and thus provide proper credit to the contribution of others. Hence, I had an obligation to be honest of the claims as evidenced from the similarity of the project reports and in penalizing these students I was doing in accordance to the IEEE ethical expertise conduct as I will be correcting them not to repeat the same mistake of copying one another (IEEE n.y). In this case, I will be crediting them in accordance to what they deserve and I will have sustained and improved their technological competence thus qualifying them by training.









Illinois Institute of technology. (2007). Ethics Codes collection. Retrieved from:

IEEE. (n.y). Retrieved from:

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Chapter 1: Ethics and Ethical Reasoning

Ethics refers to the conception of right or wrong with a fundamental human relationship. The ethical standards act as a channel of the moral deeds. Business moral code refers to the purpose of the moral principles and ideas into business conduct. The moral behaviors are as a result of various reasons such as the history, the societal traditions, personal opinions and various circumstances that an individual may encounter in life (MacKinnon & Fiala, 2014). Ethics and ethical reasoning give an individual serious consideration of their personal and policy dilemma. It also helps in compelling of personal, prejudicial and arbitrary reasons. Ethics are also an important aspect of business as they play a critical path in business prosperity.

Ethical reasoning relates to the rights and the wrongs of human behavior as it relates to moral principles of the accepted standards of conducts. Individual standards are defined by their personal values. Ethical differences are as a result of different interpretations of subjects or events that may be either social or political. Ethical reasoning holds two major roles in life (MacKinnon & Fiala, 2014). One it enhances the well-being of the others as it is worthy of criticism when an act of harm is posed on others. Secondly, it emphasizes the acts that harm other people. Individual rights and ethical reasoning in a civilized society coincide with the rights of the society collectively. If a person is denied their personal rights for the good of the society they may feel rejected that may result into decision conflicts due to own ethical reasoning. An individual is able to develop core values and ethical reasoning in accordance with their integrity, honesty and the ability of self-justification and self-deception (MacKinnon & Fiala, 2014).

Chapter 2: Religion and Global Ethics

Religion and global ethics are committed to enhancing a global ethical responsibility through a deeper understanding. It deals with specific issues of human responsibilities and rights, race and gender, war and reconciliation, and global and economic injustice. However, religion can be considered to be destructive as well as positive depending on the impact it has. Mostly religion is credited to have a significant due to its great positive impact (MacKinnon & Fiala, 2014). Ethically religion has dealt with disagreement, hatred, and violence in a more noble way. This has encouraged harmony between persons as they have been able to respect each other. Religion has been able to promote peace, offer relief to those in need as well as advocate for their human rights. Religion has brought understanding and shaped the actions of various individuals (MacKinnon & Fiala, 2014).

As a result of globalization there rises the need to understand various religion convictions in order to enhance more positive than negative. The contribution of religion and the global ethics is important due to the scope of moral responsibility that includes both present and the future thus making it not to be limited to the specific relations or community religion (MacKinnon & Fiala, 2014). Religion and global ethics play a significant role in the interchange of ideas across different disciplinary and traditions. It also enhances cultural performances and various art installations as they are incorporated into other different groups facilitating great ideas as well as mutual understanding. The forum created by both religion and global ethics enhances the dissemination of information across all members (MacKinnon & Fiala, 2014).

Chapter 5: Utilitarianism and John Stuart Mill

Utilitarianism is a powerful and a persuasive approach to normative ethics. According to John Stuart Mill, the utilitarianism ethical theory regards the principle of whether an action is right in their proportion and whether they tend to uphold largely individual happiness.  Mill observes that most people have misunderstood utilitarianism as they interpret it with utility as a contrast to pleasure. The name utility itself suggests great happiness which holds the principle of action is right when it promotes happiness and wrong when it diminishes happiness (MacKinnon & Fiala, 2014). According to Mill the absence of pain in pleasure results to desirable things at the end. Mill states that the intellectual pleasures are better where he considered that it is better not to be a satisfied Socrates rather than a contented fool.

Mill criticism is the claim that is based on demeaning to reduce the sense of life to pleasure. Mill argues that human pleasure is considered to be more superior to that of animals because they are aware of high faculties which make them acknowledge that they will not be happy if they do not cultivate on them (MacKinnon & Fiala, 2014). It is true to say that when making moral judgment utilitarianism takes into consideration not only on the quantity but also the quality of happiness resulting from it.  There has been a misconception of utilitarianism of how it confuses contentment and happiness. This is because there is a deeper sense of the world inadequacies. This implies that people who are right to judge the quality of pleasure are the individuals who have experienced both the high and the low (MacKinnon & Fiala, 2014).

Chapter 7: Natural Law and Human Rights

Natural law theory refers to the moral laws that are found in nature and discernable as a result of the use of reason. The nature of law refers to natural sciences which are descriptive law in which it describes how nature behaves such as gas (MacKinnon & Fiala, 2014). Moral laws are considered to be prescriptive laws as they ought to tell individuals on how to behave. Civil law is an expression of moral law as it tells how people should behave observing both the high and the low laws without disobeying. According to Martin Luther King Junior, Henry David and Mohandas Gandhi people have made an appeal to the moral law due to the changes in the civil law. Human rights are basic principles of moral legislation due to the objectives and accessibility to the reason that are based on human nature (MacKinnon & Fiala, 2014).

The relationship between natural law and human rights is a belief of a doctrine of natural rights into moral realism that brings the view of the central core of the natural theories (MacKinnon & Fiala, 2014). Human rights are understood in a theoretical manner and it is able to raise some of the historical issues. The natural law traditions influence the emergence of the doctrine of the human rights due to important development that has been experienced over time such as welfare rights, right to food, shelter, clothing and generally basic security. As a declaration of independence, there has been a significant influence on human right writing by the various international organizations (MacKinnon & Fiala, 2014). The Unite Nations is a universal organization that has led to the revolution of human rights principles as a result of war containing natural rights traditions. The attempt by such organization is to specify the rights of all people by the virtue of being human regardless of race, origin or religion.






MacKinnon, B. & Fiala, A. (2014). Ethics: Theory and Contemporary Issues. Cengage Learning



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Social ethics


Social ethics are rules adopted and applied looking at the social perspective whereby they are created by other human beings so that they can ensure all people in the community or society live in harmony, peace and good communication. These ethics ensure that people in the community live in unity since people know what is expected of them. The ethics are followed by people and they depend on the culture and custom of a given community thus are applicable in areas with similar customs and cultures. Social ethics ensure that member of given communities live in harmony by obeying all the laid down rules and regulations. The ethics ensure that members of given communities come together and live peacefully following all the customs that have been given. The ethics apply globally since every community has its own social ethics which must be followed by all individuals. All areas have their own social ethics thus people are expected to follow these ethics in order to prevent occurrence of problems such as punishments.

Social ethics can be considered as being universal though they vary depending on the community since different communities have got different rules, customs, regulations and culture (Bertrand, 176). Since the ethics depend on the culture, they are different depending on the community but are applied universally to all communities. All communities globally have different social ethics which need to be followed thus new people follow them whenever they visit different places (Bertrand, 176). The ethics are therefore local since local communities come up with the ethics that are different from ethic followed by other communities. Therefore social ethics in this perspective can be local though they are universally followed since all communities follow the ethics globally.

There are many examples of social ethics which are universally applied in all communities globally. These ethics ensure the communities run smoothly where people respect each other and decisions made by others as well. Respect is the key theme in social ethics which ensures that all people respect others regardless of gender, age and the social class (Bertrand, 184). For instance when visiting someone you should knock the door first, greet the person and then get permission to get inside the house. This is a sign of respect or courtesy since all people should respect the privacy of others and cannot intrude when uninvited. Social ethics looking at this perspective ensure that the privacy of others is respected and that people are not disturbed especially when they need peace (Bertrand, 187). Social ethics therefore ensure people remain peaceful and respect the decisions made by others since respect is a two-way traffic. Social ethics keeps all people happy since people know what they are expected to do, how they are expected to behave, what they are supposed to wear and through this people live together happily.

Social ethics have ensured that global communities live together in peace and happy. All members of different communities are expected to obey the regulations and rules set down by the community (Bertrand, 176). This ensures people live in harmony which is the main goal of the social ethics. They are meant to keep the community together in unity, peace and harmony so that people can be proud as members of the given community. Every action in the community should be in line with the given social ethics in that area. All global communities have set different social ethics that are either different or similar with the ethics in other communities (Bertrand, 189). Individuals are asked to follow the set ethics so that a good life in the community can be maintained. Therefore social ethics as part of the ethics has ensured that different communities run smooth and normal lives. Without them, people would do whatever they want and this would in turn cause chaos in the communities since respect would be absent.

Cultural relativism can be defined as the view that all ethic, culture, customs and beliefs are obviously relative to a person within his social perspective (Kelly, Eugene, & Luis, 223). Therefore this means that whatever is considered right or wrong depends on a certain specific culture. This means that whatever can be considered right in a given community can be considered wrong in another community since morality has no universal standards. This means that nobody is entitled to judge the customs of other given communities since morality is not universally equal. Most cultural relativists think that all cultures are worth and right therefore have the same value therefore no culture is better compared to another one (Kelly, Eugene, & Luis, 223). They believe that cultural diversity is right and that no culture should be judged on the basis of right or wrong even those cultures with conflicting moral practices and beliefs. Cultural relativists believe that whatever is considered worm and right should be determined by the individual or the society.

Wrong and right should not be considered when looking at the cultures of different communities since there are no set standards that govern how social ethics should be raised in different societies (Kelly, Eugene, & Luis, 226). This means that nobody is supposed to judge another individual since what one individual think is wrong can actually be right according to another different individual. People have the freedom to perform personal judgments and judge themselves whether they are right or wrong. In addition, no society is obliged to judge another society since truth is not objective thus different cultures have different definitions of whatever is wrong and right. Cultural relativism basically sees nothing wrong or right since people are subjected to make personal judgments (Kelly, Eugene, & Luis, 226). For instance some communities practiced human sacrifices which can be considered neither wrong nor right. If the community practicing human sacrifice is comfortable then the vice is considered right and other societies are not supposed to judge or interfere with that custom.

Cultural relativism is not valid since there should be rights and wrongs in the society. Good should be clearly differentiated from bad so that harmony and peace can be possible in the different communities all over the globe. People should not be left to choose whatever is bad and good since all people differ but through clear set social ethics, good can be differentiated from bad therefore ensuring all people follow certain rules and regulations. Cultural relativism is mistaken since people must be guided by different ethics for harmony to exist in the communities (Kelly, Eugene, & Luis, 244). Ethics are universal thus guiding all communities against practicing vices that limit rights of people in the communities. Individuals are advised to follow the set rules and regulations since ethics has ensured that good and bad are clearly differentiated unlike cultural relativism which suggest that nothing can be considered good or bad since it depends on the judgment of the person. Giving cultural relativism a chance can risk lives of people since respect and other values in the communities cannot be followed since individuals will make their decisions without considering other people (Kelly, Eugene, & Luis, 342). Therefore cultural relativism is invalid since it promotes immorality rather than morality in and within different individuals and societies.

Different nations have different communities with each community having different beliefs, customs and cultures. Different individuals too have different beliefs but what governs life in most communities is the given ethics found in those communities (Kelly, Eugene, & Luis, 356). For instance different countries have different beliefs having different communities that have different languages. Therefore countries come up with one national language which ensures that all people in that country regardless of the cultural background are able to communicate freely using that universal and common language. For instance smiling can be interpreted as a sign of having a good mood in most countries while it is interpreted different in other countries indicating that culture is diverse and thus people learn cultures of others and respect them. When people visit different communities they are advised to learn the different cultural beliefs and customs so that they can live peacefully (Kelly, Eugene, & Luis, 365). In addition looking at someone straight in the eyes while communicating, is considered courteous in other countries while it is considered discourteous by other countries. This indicates that different countries have different cultures and beliefs though there are similar customs shared by most communities in different countries.

Different countries are observed to share different beliefs and customs. Cultural relativism has ensured that people view the culture of other people as a wrong culture while considering their own as a superior culture (Kelly, Eugene, & Luis, 223). Cultural relativism which is practiced by some countries has given rise to cases of discriminations such as racism since people do whatever pleases them. Practices such as genital mutilation, human sacrifices, apartheid and students massacres have continued happening since cultural relativism teaches that a culture is right if the society or individuals are comfortable with it. Most people have suffered since culture has not defined whatever is right and wrong, good or bad because culture relativism has ensured that communities remain free in choosing whatever is right and wrong (Kelly, Eugene, & Luis, 330). Some beliefs are not acceptable since they are morally wrong and deprive people off their rights. For instance human sacrifice leads to loss of life which is against human rights since all people are entitled to enjoy the universal freedom of life. The opinion of individuals cannot ensure that good and bad is clearly stated therefore universal ethics and universal rights have ensured that cultures do not practice vices which are morally wrong and deprive people off their freedoms (Kelly, Eugene, & Luis, 332). 


Cultural diversity is highly encouraged but morality should be ensured since some communities practice vices that cause chaos in the society rather than bringing communities together. Therefore communities should ensure they come up with social ethics that ensure all people are respected regardless of their age, gender and social status. Cultural relativism should not be encouraged in the societies since it causes more harm to the society rather than ensuring people live in harmony and respect each other. Good and bad should clearly be defined by the cultural customs of given communities rather than individuals determining whatever is right and wrong since different people vary in the way they reason.

Work cited

Bertrand Russell. A History of Western Philosophy .New York: Simon & Schuster, 1972. Print.

Kelly, Eugene, and Luis E. Navia. The Fundamental Questions: A Selection of Readings in          Philosophy. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Pub. Co, 1995. Print.






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Enron scandal

            Enron Corporation, an American energy Company was headquartered in Texas. The scandal was exposed in October 2001which then led to bankruptcy of the Corporation (Sterling, 2002). The Company was one of the five largest accountancy and audit partnerships globally. It was also confirmed to be one of the largest bankruptcy organizations in the American history. Additionally, it was also recorded as the biggest audit failure. It was established in the year 1985 by Kenneth Lay after amalgamation with InterNorth and Houston Natural gas. Later after a number of years, Jeffrey Skilling was employed and he came up with a team of executives. They took advantage of poor financial reporting, accounting loopholes and other special entries and embezzled billions of money in arrears from projects and failed deals. Andrew Fastow being the chief finance officer, worked hand in hand with other executives to delude the auditing committee plus board of directors. They were misled on high risk accounting performance and Anderson was forced not to pay any attention to the issues (Sterling, 2002).

A law suit of forty million dollars was filed by Company shareholders after the stock price of the Company had gained more than ninety dollars per share in the year 2000. This nonetheless went down to less than a dollar by the year 2001 and this led to an investigation by the Exchange Commission (Ferrell, 2008). The competitor Dynegy volunteered to buy the Company at a cheaper cost. However, this deal did not succeed and on second December, Enron Company filed for bankruptcy stated under Chapter eleven of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code. The Company had over sixty three billion dollars in assets which became the leading corporate bankruptcy in the American history before the WorldCom’s bankruptcy in the year that followed. Most of the executive at Enron were charged for various charges which led some of them to be incarcerated. The auditor at Enron found Arthur guilty of destroying documents  . The documents were related to the SEC investigation which canceled their license to review public Companies and led to the closure of the business. It was the biggest scandal in the modern economy which involved unfair management, creative accounting and misleading communication. The initial regulation was a dishonest accounting (Ferrell, 2008).

The business used the system of mark to market in an unlawful way as they worked out the unspecified profits for the next twenty years which means long standing assumed profits. They also failed to pronounce all the expenses and influenced auxiliaries which are told self-determining when they fit in at least three percent of the capital. They did this to help them hide their debts and make their earnings better. The management in the Company, used the performance review of the staff members which is used to conduct them to work hard only to in the group of winners (Fusaro, 2002). The best employees were rewarded, offered savings and pensions. This was to make them feel interested in the best form of the Company and not complain against to swindle. They also managed to bribe some bankers, politicians and analysts through forcing them and giving funds and other advantages. This included the one million dollars earned by the Energy Regulatory Board. The marketing strategy at Enron was a diversification of the making of the fraud of analysts who would sponsor the new products. The Company started to show some irregularities in its structure when it started to have large amounts of debt during its establishment. The outcome of deregulation of the pipelines of the gas is that the Company did not have limited rights to its own pipelines. In order to solve the credit of Enron and revenues the CEO had to hire Skilling who later became the Chief Financial officer to the CEO of the Company in the year 1996. It was like an overnight when he turned the Company a main market middle man for energy that was meant to control the trading market. There seemed to be success for many years but cracks started to appear later. The final analysis was carried out and showed conspiracy which led to the fall down of the business because of the fraud, careless accounting, revenue false reporting and lack of ethics (Fusaro, 2002).

Before the scandal, the Company had grown to be among the most innovative businesses all the way through in 1990s. It had a unique business strategy which made it famous in the whole world. At first, the objective of the Company was to sell gas and electricity but it ventured to other businesses by 1990s (Knapp, 2014). These other businesses included paper and pulp Companies as well as communications. The success of the Company was shown by the increase in annual revenues between the year 1995 and 2000.  It was however revealed in 2001 that the Company had incurred a loss of over five hundred million dollars which contradicted their audit reports. This scandal was also caused by special purpose entities in order to manage the risks that were linked to specific assets. It created shell Companies through a sponsor but they were funded by equity investors who were independent as well as debt financing. By the year 2001, the Company had utilized hundreds of the entities to hide its debt. It also used several of those entities like in Thomas Condor tax shelters among others in the deal (Knapp, 2014).

The entities were used for other purposes other than mere circumventing conventions of accounting. There was one violation which led to their balance sheet to understate their liabilities and overstated their equity. This means that their earnings were exaggerated. Their shareholders discovered that they had dodged the risk in their illiquid savings (Datar, 1995). Little did the investors know that the entities were in using the firm’s own financial securities and stock to finance the hedges. This is what put a stop to the Company being defended from the downside risk. Risk management in the Company was very important before the scandal due to its rigid environment and also because of their business plan. The Company developed fixed commitments for a long term which required to be evaded in order to organize the constant variation of the energy prices in the future. The Collapse of the Company was associated with poor use of unoriginal and the entities. The Company was able to maintain its risks that were connected to the transactions through evading the risks it owned with the entities. This kind of arrangement had the Company employ evasions with itself. Anderson had a role to the fall down of the Company because he hindered justice by cut into strips the many documents and getting rid of e-mails as well as the files that attached the firm to its audit (Datar, 1995).

Arthur Anderson firms around the world had to close because of improper audit in Dallas, Texas. This is because his reputation declined because of his criminal outcome which then favorably affected the perception of the market and the quality of its audit. This is because the scandals of reputation are a serious issue when the independence of the auditor is damaged (Peytcheva, 2008). It was important to close the firms the clients around the world at that time were affected and their relationship changed a lot with the Company. The news of the scandal were all over the world and the market responded negatively especially to those clients. More prominently, it is clear that the measure of inadequacy was abnormal return is crucially more harmful when the market saw the independence of the auditor vulnerable. The firm had to be closed because there were irregular returns when the dismissal of Andersen was announced as an auditor. The reputation of auditors is very important and every auditor should practice positive reputation to avoid the impact. It is clear that when the quality explanation of the audit was announced, the firms dismissed Andersen immediately. The returns on the announcement were a bit higher when Companies changed to non Big 4 auditors than when the replacement was not announced (Peytcheva, 2008).

The reputation of auditors and independence has a great effect on the audit quality seen.  It is also significant for the trustworthiness of financial statements audited and also the market prices. Audit firms need to be very transparent in order to set a good example to the other firms that require their services (Peytcheva, 2008). They should not be ignorant like in this case but should always be on the lookout of what is happening in their firms. It is important to check the records on a regular basis in order to discover irregularities as early as possible. This is because if the faults are discovered early, then it is easier and possible to look for solutions without even being exposed to the whole world. This is also important as it would help in avoiding huge losses that take time to be solved. It was also fair to close all the firms by Andersen in order to teach a lesson to other firms who have the same issues. This helped other firms to be keen on what was happening in their Companies and carry out regular audits. It is not wise for such a Company to be allowed to offer services to Companies and to later turn around and offer the audited report of the financial outcome to the activities. It was important for the Andersen firm to be closed and announced to the whole world for him to realize his ignorance. This was meant to make him understand the importance of good management and care of the firm as well as the employees. The other big firms also had a lesson to learn from this that even if the firm looks perfect from the outside, it is important to check the inside to avoid scandals (Peytcheva, 2008).
















Sterling, T. F. (2002). The Enron scandal. New York: Nova Science Pub.

Ferrell, O. C., Fraedrich, J., & Ferrell, L. (2008). Business ethics: Ethical decision making and cases. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.

Fusaro, P. C., & Miller, R. M. (2002). What went wrong at Enron: Everyone's guide to the largest bankruptcy in U.S. history. Hoboken, N.J: J. Wiley.

Knapp, M. C. (2014). Contemporary auditing: Real issues and cases.

Datar, S. M. (1995). The effects of auditor reputation in moral hazard and adverse selection settings. Ann Arbor, Mich: U.M.I. Dissertation Services.

Skinner, D. J., Srinivasan, S., & Harvard Business School. (2010). Audit quality and auditor reputation: Evidence from Japan. Boston: Harvard Business School.

Peytcheva, M. (2008). Accountability, reputation costs, and opportunistic auditor behavior.

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NSPE codes

            Memory is the fourth Canon in the NSPE code of ethics.  This principle is mainly forgotten and misunderstood. Memory seems to show the ability to recite any information.  It suggests that one knows more than what they actually present in any given document.  For instance, one can be an instruction guide on how to put a table together but they don’t know how the table is made.  When any information is represented, one expects the audience to ask more about it.  This canon is not productive currently because there are different technological devices that allow the public engineers to rely on the electronic means of memorizing.  Currently, many engineers use skilled ways of recruiting and retaining their employees in the engineering area (NSPE, Public Criticism – Comments Made at Engineering College, 1). 

The young engineers turn out to be careful as they implement trough these factors and must be aware of the ethical approach that they start their professional careers.  The essential canons helps the engineers in fulfilling their professional duties which clarifies that memory canon is no longer essential in this.  These engineers who use the most productive canons are able to hold the safety and the welfare of the society in that they perform their services in their areas of competence.   This helps them in having public statement that is in a good objective as they perform their duties more honorably so as to enhance the usefulness of the profession.  The engineers perform their duties when they are qualified by the education or have experience in the certain technical fields that are involved.  They do not necessarily attach their signatures to any documents that deal with the engineering as they do not have competence under their control.  They do not deserve the memory canon when giving out the public statements as they offer true professional reports (NSPE, Public Criticism – Comments Made at Engineering College, 2).

             They may also express their public technical objectives that are based on the knowledge of the engineering process and its competences.  They do not get any indirect award to their contract by the public authority or any other public award as having the effect of influencing the award of the contract.  This helps them in not paying the commissions or any brokerage fee in order to have the contracts.  Based on their professional duties, these engineers are guided by their highest standard of honesty and integrity.  They always admit their mistakes and do not change the facts of those mistakes.  This helps them in advising their clients or the employees on the projects that seem to turn unsuccessful.  They cannot be able to attract other engineers by misleading them based on their professional integrity.  The ethical duty of the engineer becomes an issue of the individual knowledge (NSPE, Employment-Expense paid trip by prospective employer, 2). 

            The NSPE code need that the engineer withdraws from a project and report it to the proper commands when the matter involves the risk to the public health and their welfare.  These issues relate to the matters of the legal condition and do not connect to the judgment of the engineering profession.  The NSPE code gives an obligation to the engineers to be faithful in their professional work with their employees.  Different duties arise for the engineer to hold huge safety and welfare to the public and that the obligation should be loyal for the employee or the customer.  The professional engineers are the greatest sources of the ethical challenges for the engineers.  It is not easy at times for the engineers to decide how to carry various factors that are involved in a condition and how to act when the two of the canon codes conflict.  The first obligation that involves the safety and the welfare of the public health develops from the professional approach of the engineering work (NSPE, Employment-Expense paid trip by prospective employer, 3). 

            In any organization, only the professionals have the required skills and experience in solving the technological challenges that the organization might be involved in during their design or the production process.  All the employees in any organization are assigned for different roles with a huge responsibility for the technical affairs that are assigned to the engineers.  The duty of the employing organization is got in the employment contract.  The contract of the employment specifies the duties that the employee is responsible to perform for the organization.  The contract of the engineer may be written or implicit. When the employee is dedicated to the terms and the conditions of their contract, they become the agents of that organization and the agency law appreciates them to act loyally (NSPE, Employment- Duty to inform the Employer of outside Practice, 1).

            The ethical issues that are engaged by the engineers who perform the services outside any regular kind of employment have been on question for many years.  The essential possible solution is acting potentially as some of the actual conflicts can rise between the interests of the individuals employed engineer and their ethical issues.  The NSPE board of the ethical evaluation has a means of addressing the engineering issues over the past years.  The board opened some concerns over the aspects in which the engineer pursues his duties in this area.  The NSPE codes make it clear that before complicating any outside service, the engineer has the duty to inform the employer. This allows the employer to perform her opportunities in evaluating whether the worker’s outer the service will have an encounter or oppose to the interest of the manager (NSPE, Employment- Duty to inform the Employer of outside Practice, 3). 



Work cited

NSPE, Public Criticism – Comments Made at Engineering College. 2004. NSPE Board of Ethical Review.

NSPE, Employment-Expense paid trip by prospective employer.  2002.  NSPE Board of Ethical Review.

NSPE, Employment- Duty to inform the Employer of outside Practice. 2011.  NSPE Board of Ethical Review.   


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After the Second World War, multinational corporations have sort entry open markets that were previously closed. Despite the promising opportunities with significant social economic benefits are yet to be realized.  The MNC in developing countries has been widely oversold due to the prospect of the middle-class consumers. The MNC have been further affected by financial crises in the Asian and Latin America further diminishing the attractiveness of the emerging markets. It has been identified that the emerging markets are larger than previously though not because of the few developed countries or the middle-income consumers from the developing market but rather because of poor billions entering the market for the first time (Hartman, DesJardins & MacDonald, 2014). In order for the MNC will only be at the bottom of the economic pyramid if they are able to discover the fortune in the developing countries through immeasurable contribution towards humankind. Therefore MNC has to invest in a way they bring out the billion out of poverty, desperation, terrorism, political chaos and environmental meltdown.

Strategic Issues

MNC have a fundamental policy affecting the institution mandates, values, mission, structure, resources, management, and stakeholders. The MNC requires rapid innovation in technology and the business models (Prahalad, 2008). Price performance is another issue affecting the organizations by establishing the relationship between the product and the service. In order to be successful efficiency is demanded as well as transforming its scale from bigger to better. Managerial challenges greatly affect MNC which is evident in today’s market (Hartman, DesJardins & MacDonald, 2014). The corporations differ as some sell to the poor and help them improve their lives through proper distribution that is culturally sensitive, has economic profitability and is environmentally sustainable. This is difficult because the global cultures are diverse hence making it difficult for the organization to balance due to different beliefs and customs.

Key Issues

Decision making is the major strategic issue as it is an extensive process that involves international business, interrelationships, and highlighting of the significant empirical trends. The international strategy requires a consideration of the strategic decisions that the business is in. The decisions involve the business aspects that are critical for the business survival of the corporation (Hartman, DesJardins & MacDonald, 2014). This includes the marketing positioning, the service, and the product offered that will be able to target the consumer need at a profitable rate. Financial backing is a key issue as it is required to achieve the business goals. A production system is another key issue that should be technologically advanced in order to enhance the operational process that will facilitate the delivery of goods and services as promised (Prahalad, 2008).

Human resource management in MNC is a significant issue. It is the backbone of the organization in that it deals with recruitment, retention and motivation of the employees in the relevant field by enhancing knowledge and skills all at an affordable cost. The role of HRM has a direct implication to the employment of the organization and the working conditions. Therefore the key issues of MNC are based on decision making which entails which market to serve, what to produce, employment and finance (Hartman, DesJardins & MacDonald, 2014).

Key Problems

Expansion of MNC to new geographical areas is a key problem. This is because the new region has its fair share of challenges that are different from other regions. This requires the corporation to have unique strategies that will help it overcome the challenges it faces. Trade union tactics differ from one nation to the other (Sarin, 2013). This affects the operations of the MNC due to the pressure extended, the bargaining power of the union that weakens the financial resources of the MNC. Strikes are a common occurrence in the developing market further making it difficult for the MNC to conduct business. Political instability is a problem the MNC face as well as the government may have different interest as those of the trade unions create an unstable ground for conducting business. Social and identity problem, knowledge and power have greatly shaped the local market making MNC stretch beyond the national borders.

Analysis and Evaluations

Great Britain Unilever is an MNC which has a subsidiary Hindustan Lever Limited (HLL). HLL dismissed Nirma strategy a small company that offered detergent products at low prices especially to the poor in the rural areas of India. However, HLL had to change its strategy because Nirma strategy enabled it to grow rapidly due to the value pricing, special packaging, and its great distribution network (Hartman, DesJardins & MacDonald, 2014). As a result, HLL had to change its strategy by first changing the ratio of oil to water to respond to the poor washing style. This was a major strategy implemented by the organization. HLL also decentralized its manufacturing, marketing, and distribution in order to reach the rural areas of India. This has made Nirma and HLL close competitors with 38% market share each. This has increased competitive detergent industry in India.

For the year ended on 31 March 2016, HLL revenues have increased by 4 % which is equivalent to 331.94 Rs Billion. However, the net income reduced by 6 % equivalent to Rs 40.82 Billion. Despite the decrease in income, there was an increase in revenue of personal products by 7% translating into RS97.72 Billions (Hindustan Lever Limited, 2016). The soap and the detergent segment sales increased by 1 % translating to RS 150.53 Billion. The Indian segment increased by 4 % to RS 312.33 Billion and outside India it increased by 1 % which is RS19.23Billion. This financial summary indicates a strong financial position of the corporation. The corporation has positive cash flow as the organization has increased its total assets lowering debt to equity ratio (Hindustan Lever Limited, 2016).

The success of the HLL is attributed to clear objectives developed as they reflect the stakeholder’s expectations as well as constant evaluation. Its core competence has led to competitive advantage by enhancing skills and capabilities (Sarin, 2013). The organizational structure and the control system by the HRM have ensured that employees are motivated and performance standards are met. The organization has also embraced differentiation strategy making their product unique making it earn above the average. However despite the success, the organization is faced with some challenges especially outside India such as creating the buying power, consumer education, tailoring its product to that of other regions and enhancing the distribution channels (Hindustan Lever Limited, 2016).


The organization has to venture into extensive marketing strategy in order to ensure that people get to know about the product. Educating the consumer plays an important role as it will create awareness to them as they will know its advantages and the benefits it has as well as a range of products they can offer. As the needs are different in various markets HLL management has to come up with the solution of tailoring the product to the targeted group as their need differs from that of India. Distribution is a major struggle in the external market. Great infrastructure has to be put in place in order to ensure that the products are readily available (Hartman, DesJardins & MacDonald, 2014).

Action Plan

Objective: To enhance trade within and out of India

Step 1: Build an extensive local base support. This will enhance that the product is widely used locally creating the need to venture into other markets

Step 2: Focus on the poor rather than the wealthy and the middle class. This will ensure that the market is well exploited and more potential areas are identified.

Step 3: Create new alliances. As an MNC it will be of importance because it will provide an oversight of other markets.

Step 4: Increase employment intensity of the poor. This will uplift them and make them new customers.

Step 5: Cost structure. This will enhance the management decision making as they will venture in reducing cost while maintaining quality.

 There is a likelihood that there will be challenges in implementing the strategies. However they with a great management team in place the plans will be implemented together with the help of the new alliances.















Hartman, L.P, DesJardins, J., & MacDonald, C. (2014). Business Ethics: Decision Making For Personal Integrity &Social Responsibility. McGraw-Hill Irwin

Hindustan Lever Limited (2016). Annual Financial Report 2015-2016. Retrieved from

Prahalad, C. K. (2008). The fortune at the bottom of the pyramid. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Wharton School Publ.

Sarin, S. (2013). Business marketing: Concepts and cases. New Delhi: McGraw Hill Education (India.

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Ethical Problems


            The process of publishing journals should be taken with responsibility in order to promote integrity (Billye, 2000). The Editorial Policy Committee and the Council of Science Editors persuade that all the people who are involved in publication of journals should be responsible and practice good ethics. This has however not been the case in most publications as the people concerned do not follow this codes of ethics and it has been an issue (Billye, 2000). This has led the committee to suggest an open dialogue on practices of ethical publishing, creating awareness to those in the process of editing and promoting conversant decision making by editors. In this case, the codes of ethics have not been practiced since the article published by students in 1999 is the same one published in 2006 in the Journal of Agricultural Education. It shows that fifty percent of the paper content is the same which is not ethical. The authors of the two articles are not the same and do not match in any way which shows that this is unethical. Useful information should be provided to all the sciences to provide practical support to the editors. The paper will discuss the situation, ethical problems, professional approaches, definitive approach as well as organization and development (Billye, 2000).

Ethical problems

            One of the ethical problems in this issue is the irresponsibility of editors to authors, public, owners and the community as a whole (Clinton, 2006). It is their role to give guidelines for the preparation and submission of manuscripts which was not practiced in this issue. It is also their role to set up and put into effect the criteria of authorship and it is clear that this was not followed in this issue (Clinton, 2006). The editors in this case did not treat the authors with sincerity, justice and courtesy as they are required to do. The other ethical problem is that the editors failed to provide guidelines that are clear for authors for the practices that are acceptable for information sharing before and after the publication of the journals. The other ethical problem is that the editor did not consider publishing content that has been published by the students. The editors also failed to make the authors show that their protocol of research was approved by ethic committees of the relevant institutions. The other ethical problem is that the editors did not monitor and ensure the timeline of the process of editing (Clinton, 2006). They should also have given the authors the names of all the reviewers who are associated with the journal in order to find out if it was published before. The other ethical problem is that editors did not fulfill their responsibility to the other journals. They should carry out peer review of the manuscripts that have been submitted and meet the terms of the processes and guidelines of the organization. They should also make proposals on improved assessment and distribution of scientific material. The editors did not set up and uphold high quality content of the journal and this led to fifty percent similarity of the content in this case (Clinton, 2006).

Professional approaches

            One of the professional approaches to this problem is determining whether and how this is an ethical problem. In this case, there is a conflict of professional responsibilities and this means that the editors who failed in their professionalism should explain why it happened (GreenGard, 2006). The other approach is the identification of the key values and the principles that have been involved. In this case, the editors did not protect the content of the first publication and that is the reason why fifty percent of it was copied by the second publication. This means that the editors must reconsider and cancel the second publication and maintain the second one. The other approach is ranking the ethical principles in the professional judgment as to find out the reason why the editor allowed the publication of the same content by to different authors rather than protecting the original one. The other approach is developing an action plan that is reliable with the ethical issue. This involves discussing this issue of the editor’s unprofessionalism with the parties involved to find out what the consequences are. The other approach is implementing the plan by finding ways of using professional sills on how to look for a solution. The other approach is reflecting the results of the ethical decision making by evaluating the consequences of the process for the people involved (GreenGard, 2006).

Definitive approach

The definitive approach I would take to handle this issue is the moral approach which is having respect of the fundamental rights that are shared by all citizens. This approach is directed by valuing the basic rights of human beings. This approach indicates clearly that it is unethical to deny people their rights and in this case, the right to privacy. This is because the content of the publication by the students was not protected as the editors allowed fifty percent of it to be copied (Scott, 2006). This is not ethical and is unprofessional as the rights of the students should have been protected. It shows that the editor of the journal is unethical and is not morally right for having denied the students who published the original journal their moral rights. The original content should have a guarantee of privacy and should not be allowed to be copied. This approach works by following what is morally right and is the best in solving an issue of unprofessionalism because it will follow the principles of what is right. It protects the rights of every citizen as it suggests that all people should be treated with equality regardless of their age, gender or social status. This will ensue that this issue is solved as it will be pointed out clearly that the code of ethics was not followed. This is the most professional approach to handle this ethical problem because all professionals are provided with the code of conduct before assuming office. It should then be clear to them that it is very important to protect the privacy of others (Scott, 2006).

Organization and development

            The paper has discussed into details that the process of publishing journals should be taken with responsibility in order to promote integrity. It is required that the process be practiced by people who have good ethics. The paper has also discussed the ethical problems that are in this situation. It shows that fifty percent of the paper content is the same which is not ethical. The authors of the two articles are not the same and do not match in any way which shows that this is unethical. It has also discussed the professional and definitive approaches to the problem.                                        


It may refer to a person who earns a living from an activity that is specified professionally or may mean a member of profession. It also means the education or training standards that offer the profession members with the necessary knowledge and skills that are required to carry out an exact role within the profession. In Agricultural education, professionals need to follow strict codes of conduct as required by the organization. One of my strengths related to professionalism is listening to clients carefully in order for them to feel free when talking to me (Maddy, 2002). This also makes me understand quickly what problem the client may be going through and leads to the best decision on how to take care of them. The other strength is being kind and considerate while forming relationships with people which in turn lead to a solid relationship where ideas and opinions are shared freely.  The other strength is the ability of learning everything when proper direction is given to me and if it is in the internet where I can be able to access then it is much easier. The other strength is that I do not allow my problems like stress to come between my interactions with the clients. One of my weaknesses is poor time management as I always want the client to explain everything. The other weakness is that I do not like it when people hang over me as it makes me anxious and self conscious which leads to mistakes. The other weakness is that I am not really self-confident in the work place and always suggest alternative routes to the supervisors and coworkers (Maddy, 2002).

Ethical dilemma

I was working in an Agricultural organization that was very famous and most people were recommended there. This means that we received a lot of people every day and it meant working overtime and during the weekend. I was the supervisor and this means that I had to make sure that everybody worked overtime and no permission would be given if the reason was not valid. The management also required me to give daily updates and hold motivational meetings which were tiring. It was clear that we needed more staff but the management only brought students who were on practice and had not finished their courses.  This required me to guide them on what to do and to watch them closely. I finally drew the line on overworking the staff which came down to a meeting that I knew would cost my job. I had to stick to my ethics and told the truth that more qualified staff was needed in order to work with shifts that would not be tiring and things would be done on time. The management did not like the way I expressed this and was fired the same day. Despite that, I still feel good about that decision and I do not regret it as I ended up being hired by another better Company. If I had to do it over again, I would still insist on telling the truth.




Billye Foster, 2000 Ethics and Agricultural Education: Determining Needs University of Arizona

Clinton P. Rusk, Associate Professor 2006 Evaluation of a Livestock Ethics Curriculum

For High School Youth Volume 47, Number 3,

GreenGard Samuel, May 15, 2006 True lies American way

Scott Lichter Diane September, 13, 2006 CSE White paper on promoting integrity in Scientific Journal Publications

Maddy J. Deborah, 2002, Oregon State University Service, Core Competencies for the Cooperative Extension System.

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Human Resource

Case 2: Ethical Dilemma


The stakeholders in this include the management of the club consisting of the president, club secretary, supporters group’s chairman and vice chairman and the players. Other stakeholders include the supporters, the club members and the authorities represented by the police as law enforcers. The need to have stakeholder’s representation in an organization boils down to the fact that they normally have a great influence on its success. Stakeholders involve both the internal and the external people having an interest on the goings on of the organization and their role in promoting a health working environment cannot be understated.  The management including the employees have the role of ensuring that the organizational policies that extends beyond material success are adhered to an in so doing creating a health working environment (Phillips & Gully, 2013).

  1. Internal stakeholders determine the kind of environment the employees will work in and are the best positions to identify cases of policy violation. The external stakeholders especially the authorities should be involved so that cases of human rights violation and take the organization to task so that they adhere to established general codes of conduct. The shareholders of the organization such the members of a club have a role of ensuring that no actions taken by the organizational employees and management will destroy the reputation of the firm (Phillips & Gully, 2013).

The legal issues presented in this case involve sexual harassment by a member of the organization. The issue is seen in the sexual harassment perpetrated by Dale Andrews and under the watch of McManus and this is a crime that is punishable by law. Another legal issue involved is the obstruction of the course of justice by trying to cover up a committed crime through bribing. The ethical issues in the case relate to an organizational culture that encourages involvement in bribery and crime cover up with an aim of attaining the organizational success. The human resources dilemma is whether a person’s violation of the law should concealed just because they are considered to be very productive to the firm. The management considers dishonesty by retaining Andrew and Brown merely because of their instrumental role in the possibility of winning the premiership.

Case 1: Joe Wirihana conversation

To make Joe’s job more rewarding, I would consider providing him with more tasks as part of the work as well as more authority and responsibilities required for the completion of the additional tasks. Job enrichment would work very well in increasing the motivation of an employee especially when the additional tasks are selected to match their knowledge, abilities and skills.  In the case of Joe, the additional tasks would include answering phone calls, welcoming new members to the library as well as manning other security personnel working in the library (Smith, 2012).  Job enlargement is another strategy that would work well to break the Joe’s monotonous job. While it has limitation in that it adds no additional task to ones profile, it can motivate one to increase their performance or productivity. This would involve switching Joe’s position with other watchmen so that he can guard other sports in the compound. As for the Joe’s decision to resign, I would suggest that we work together in looking for ways in which his job can be made more enjoyable, rewarding and less monotonous.

Staff evaluation tools are very essential in understanding the performance and productivity of employees and identification of most effective ones. To retain the best employees a performance assessment need to be carried out using the evaluation tools and based on the obtained results, the staff who are high performers can be rewarded accordingly (Smith, 2012). The human resource manager would need to open up communication lines so that there no surprises related to expected results. To retain the employees, the evaluation tools would confirm the various areas of improvement for each one of them (Smith, 2012). This would include discussing with the employees the problems that prevent goal achievement. I would then work with them on proposing the resolutions, problem solving and focusing on future actions. If the problems are caused by a gap in the staff’s skills, I would ensure that skill development is provided, identification of training plan and resources available for the staff to overcome the obstacles and become a high performer and successful.

Case 2: No Job for a Woman

Attracting women in the male dominated occupations presents a challenge to human resources managers as is getting them to undergo the recruitment process. This requires the adoption of various strategies that will enable overcoming handles and prejudices associated with women taking up such positions. Such strategies include focusing on a broader potential pool of candidates that would attract the best potential personnel, building internal and external professional networks that will support outreach efforts by way of making recruitment to be an overall philosophy instead of just a task to be carried out, building referral networks based on employee goodwill and looking within the various departments for potential recruits (Evans, Glover,Guerrier &Wilson, 2007). In the recruitment process restructuring the whole process will help in eliminating the negative perceptions that women may have on jobs especially those related to combat roles in the army. To enlarge the pool of potential candidates would include developing internal control systems that will stump out the cases of women harassments and in return restore confidence among  such candidates with the roles they are about to undertake(Evans et al.2007). By assuring them that issues such as sexual harassment have been dealt with in accordance with the law, and the cases have greatly declined, the women would be more willing to undertake the combating positions.

Building internal professional and referral networks would involve promoting a positive perception of such roles through the employees to friends and families. Such individuals can play a vital role in persuading potential candidates to take up the potential to explore on their abilities in such jobs that are mostly associated with the men. The reputation of the profession plays an important role in influencing the decision to apply for such positions (Evans et al.2007). The restructuring of the recruitment process would ensure that the job structure is such that one is selected in accordance with portrayed abilities in the field. Such an approach needs the system to have motivational efforts that will encourage women to raise their esteem and therefore, confidence in taking part in the recruitment process.   Extensively refuting the perceptions people like Leo have by use of media can portray a completely different image of the working environment (Evans et al.2007). For example, providing real life examples of women who have succeeded in those positions can be very helpful in offering motivation. Such includes women who have succeeded in performing combat roles in Vietnam and Israel.


Case: Managing Diversity

Question 5

  The changing business environment in New Zealand comes with various issues that concern the diverse workforce, various legislations influencing the workplace and some technological aspects that affect the level of qualification of an organization’s employees (Varma &Budhwar, 2013).  HR managers in New Zealand who come across such issues challenges have to apply their leadership skills and expertise to prevent problems that may arise (Varma &Budhwar, 2013). Diversity is one such issue which involves multi-generational employees come from different countries, cultures and backgrounds and having varying areas or levels of qualification.  Almost four generations can be found within the workforce of an organization some young and others in the age of retirement. These people can have different sets of qualifications, expectations, values and work styles at work. The challenge is how to create a harmonious working environment that allows the young staff and new recruits to learn from the more established and experienced employees (Varma &Budhwar, 2013).  Another issue includes achieving cohesion between employees belonging to different countries and cultures which may come with challenges such as communication barriers, different levels of qualifications and sets of values.  Advances in telecommunicating can also present challenges to human resource management, as relationships between Tele-working, telecommunication and report reporting are being adopted extensively in the work places (Phillips & Gully, 2013). These kinds of changes may affect the productivity of some employees.

Such challenges are encountered by managers who have to take into account the principles outlined in the Treaty of Waitangi. This agreement has various implications in regard to the employment obligations more so among the Maori people in the departments of Public services (Varma &Budhwar, 2013). The human resource managers must consider the obligations outlined in the agreement in regard to equal opportunities in employment during the recruitment and hiring process.  This involves recognizing and respecting the diversity of the staff in the working place coming from various backgrounds. For instance the treaty would be useful in recognizing the Maori people in the working place.  A business landscape that is transforming rapidly means that human resource management will continue facing emerging challenges currently and in the nearby future. The world is ever becoming more globalized and with increased movement of professionals means that organizations in New Zealand will continue encountering people from divergent cultures working in their offices and similar environment. Communication, cultural and value-based barriers will require that managers adopt strategies that will encourage a harmonious working environment.

Question 6

For the purpose of staffing , Brendon need to  focus on demand planning which will involve determining the number of staff expected to leave the firm and how the vacant positions left can be filled. Demand planning involves considering whether staffing is done against demand appropriately. He needs to determine whom and when to higher the any positions in the organizations. Four employees are nearing their retirement but are considered the best in KSA’s in the firm which means that they have to be replaced soonest time possible to avoid disruption in the operations. In addition, the individuals to replace the four valuable employees must meet the KSA’s standards required so that no knowledge gap is left in the organization management. This staffing plan needs to adopt an effective selection and induction method for those employees performing elementary tasks.

Performance management is always aimed at promoting and improving the effectiveness of employee in an organization. It is a continuous where planning is involved in monitoring and reviewing the contribution of the employee to the achievement of the set goals and objectives in an organization (Smith, 2012). Brandon would need to align the efforts of the highly performing foreign employees to the goals of Genuine Shoes firm, a process that would require him to solve the communication barrier brought about by difference in languages. This would involve establishing a planning that encourages two-way communication so as to enable positive feedback in the monitoring and reviewing performance result (Smith, 2012). Collaboration would eliminate any fear or threat posed by their performance.

Strategic plan in compensation management is based on the need to attract best employees and retaining them. Brendon would include in his plan the payment scales and company perks, benefit packages and reward programs. The strategic plan should assist Brendon in a great way to attract competent employees who can replace the four retiring individuals. Attracting employees with same qualifications as the retiring ones should ensure continued better results and productivity.  Reward programs involve compensation of the employees on the basis of their performance. Of more importance is the need retain the skilled and highly performing employees since it would show them that their efforts are valued. Perks and benefits enhance the chances of retaining the best employees hence should be part of strategic plan (Smith, 2012).

In the strategic planning, Brendon needs to consider learning and development in order to fill the skill gaps existing especially among the employees tasked with performing elementary tasks. Rather than depending on longer serving employees to train the less experienced ones, Brandon needs to have strategic plan that identifies areas that need further training and activities that can be undertaken for the purpose if training. Development involves having all the employees understand their potential and pursue various means of utilizing them for personal growth while still being aligned to objectives of the firm (Smith, 2012).



Evans, C. Glover J., Guerrier, Y., Wilson, C. (2007). Effective Recruitment strategies and Practices. Addressing Skills Needs & Gender Diversity Challenges in ITEC and Related Sectors. Retrieved from:

Smith, T. (2012). Strategic workforce planning: Guidance & back-up plans. Scotts Valley, CA: CreateSpace. 20-50

Phillips, J. M., & Gully, S. M. (2013). Human resource management. Mason, Ohio: South-Western Centage Learning. 43-45

Varma, A., Budhwar , P.(2013).Managing Human Resources in Asia-Pacific. Routledge







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Issues that should be addressed include;

  1. Business values of the organization
  2. Principles to be implemented towards achieving the highlighted business values
  3. Personal responsibilities entitled to the employees
  4. Compliance of the organization to government laws and regulations
  5. Management support through policies

Other elements of the ethics program include the following;

  1. Internal auditing and monitoring
  2. Line of communication for the policies and procedures
  3. Standards and procedures guidelines
  4. Quality improvement procedures
  5. Members encouragement towards adhering to standards and procedures

Defining success

In the ethics program, success will be delineated by the effectiveness of the program with regards to the smooth flow of the operational process in the organization with minimal or less ethical issues. This means that in defining success of the program some facts such as how individual employees have been solving ethical issues and the recurrence of ethical situations in the organization will have be gathered.

Primary stakeholders of the program

The primary stakeholders of the program will be employees because they are the focal point of implementing most elements of the program. As a result, focusing on employees will enhance the effectiveness of the program by making sure that they are not discouraged by the elements and provisions of the ethical program.

Interests of the stakeholders and the impact of the program

 Citing from the fact that the stakeholders of the program are employees, it is undeniable that their interests include supportive working environment and pressure free workplace. Therefore, the program will act as a resource for guidance and advice on how to recognize and deal with ethical issues. Furthermore, since the measure of the program’s success is effective progress of operations in the organization, the program will promote employees retention and attraction because the working environment will be conducive for each of them.

The role of CEO in promoting ethics  

Citing from the elements of the program, the role of the CEO will be implementing policies and procedures that obligate every staff member to adhere to the code of ethics (Hartman, MacDonald & Des, 2011).


Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) benefits both the society and the organization by making sure that the firm achieves and retains the market and society expectations regarding its ethical performance (Hartman, MacDonald & Des, 2011). As a result, CSR improves profitability of the organization since it enhances the standing of the firm among its target consumers and stakeholders.

An organization embracing CSR should implement strategic approaches that will help it deal with market forces that do not encourage social responsibility. On the other hand, it is factual that customers should support the firm towards being socially responsible and if the firm fails to be socially responsible, they should take the respective action such as lowering their demands on the firm’s products by shifting to other alternatives.

Citing from the definition of CSR which is business approaches that promote sustainable growth    through economic, environmental and social benefits which applies to all stakeholders, it is undeniable that allowing irresponsible actions on profits from our purchases (consumers) grants us the responsibility under the provisions of CSR (Hartman, MacDonald & Des, 2011).

  1. Referring to the case that happened to P&G Company which offered more than $2.5 million in terms of products and cash but failed to publicize it, it is true that customers expect the company to publicize their financial inflow and outflow (Hartman, MacDonald & Des, 2011). This will depict how the firm expends the money obtained from purchases.
  2. Responsibility in this case is determined by that the firm is able to satisfy market demands through revenues collected from the sales. Therefore, it is recommendable to pay attention to consider this while making purchases because what a company does with its revenues helps determine the ability of it to ensure safety and quality of the products.
  3. The most influential consequence as a consumer of a firm’s products is a good investment for the stockholders because it determines the ability of the firm to guarantee safety and quality of its products in the market. This means that if the company fails on that, it is better to refrain from purchasing their products since quality and safety is not guaranteed.
  4. It is true that different purchasing decisions by consumers can affect the conduct of the company because it determines the status of market demand and revenues generated from sales. Thus, if the company realizes the problem, there is a higher responsibility of embracing CSR provisions.  


Hartman, L. P., MacDonald, C., & Des, J. J. R. (2011). Business ethics: Decision-making for personal integrity and social responsibility. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.



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Business Ethics

  1. Explain why ethics is important in the business environment?

Ethics is important to a business simply because it allows individuals to make a moral judgement concerning what is actually right for the business (Hartman & DesJardins, 2013). This allows a company to be able to choose the right approach to in order to increase productivity.

  1. Distinguish legal responsibilities from ethical responsibilities.

There are very many differences between legal and ethical responsibilities but the main difference is, the law addresses all ethical dilemmas which are faced by the business. Legal responsibility is the process whereby business institutions abide to the law, through being transparent and honest in accountancy (Hartman & DesJardins, 2013). On the other hand, ethical responsibilities are the efforts made in order to meet the expectations of the shareholders in the business activities.

  1. Distinguish the ethics of personal integrity from the ethics of social responsibility.

Ethics of personal responsibility, is the character that one possesses, thus being able to follow the rules which govern him or her. On the other hand, ethics social responsibility is the ability to relate with other people in a work area, thus making it easier of people to relate well in a business institution (Hartman & DesJardins, 2013).

  1. Consider your own personal values and explain where they originates. Can you pinpoint their derivation? To what degree have you chosen your own values? To what degree are your own values products of your family, your religious or cultural background, or your age? Does it matter where values originate?

I am a person who follows the laws to the latter, and I obey whatever I am being told by my leaders or otherwise those who are older than I am. I obtained these values from my parents, the religion and school. In as much as I obey my elders, I also consider whatever I am being told if it will impact me positively or negatively (Hartman & DesJardins, 2013). My values are pin pointed to the religion, thus I can be able to follow values which are against the dictates of the religion. My age does not matter when it comes to my values, thus I am able to follow the values which are central to my religion and my cultural background.

  1. Some political philosophers understand the ethical foundations of legislatures to be utilitarian, while the ethic foundation of the judiciary is deontological. How would you explain this distinction? Do professionals such as accountants and lawyers have duties and obligations that other people do not? From where would such duties come?

Different people, working in different areas will tend to have different definitions of ethics in order to suit their area of work and study (Hartman & DesJardins, 2013). This consequently means that, even though accountants and lawyers have different definition of terms, they have almost the same duties. When it comes to political philosophers who believe that the ethical foundations of legislature should be utilitarian, the same applies to the judiciary, and the difference is only that they have different definitions.

  1. Consider how you evaluate whether a firm is “one of the good guys” or not. What are some of the factors you use to make this determination? Do you actually know the facts behind each of those elements, or has judgement been simply by the firm’s reputation? Identify one firm you believe to be decent or ethical and make a note of the basis for that conclusion. Next, identify a second firm that you do not believe to be ethical or that you think has questionable values and write down the basis for that alternate conclusion. Now, using the Internet and other relevant source, explore the firm’s cultures and decisions, checking the results of your research against your original impressions of the firm. Try to evaluate the cultures and decisions of each firm as if you had no idea whether they were ethical. Were your impressions accurate or do they need to be modified slightly?

Marble Tours and Travel Company, it offers different travel solutions to its clients, thus making it easy for people to be able to travel to different areas at ease. The firm has very good ethical values, since it works according to its mission statement. Moreover, its employees provide the best customer care service making it enjoyable to the clients. On the other hands, the company provides its clients with travel advice free of charge thus making the clients to fill free.

Nellie Tours and travel is also a travel company which provides transport solutions to its clients. The company does not uphold any ethical responsibilities, since the clients are treated in a very bad way. The company’s customer care representative is not active, thus one cannot be able to lodge any complaints (Hartman & DesJardins, 2013). Moreover, if you are not able to pay for the travel charges, you cannot be allowed to ask any questions concerning the company.

My impressions were accurate since I was able to point out the ethical problems that Nellie Tours and Travel Company had been facing. Moreover, I was also able to point our Marble’s ethical value clearly.


Hartman, L., DesJardins, J. (2013). Business Ethics: Decision-Making for Personal Integrity & Social Responsibility: McGraw-Hill Higher Education. ISBN: 978-0-07-802945-5




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  1. Business Ethics

What would you think about as you sat there trying to decide what to do?

I would think about the owner of the iPod, ad what would happen if I took the iPod and went away with it. I would think about if I lost my iPod then how, could I have felt if it was to be taken away (Hartman & DesJardins, 2013).

What would you do?

I would pick up the iPod try to locate the owner without making anyone to know I have it. I would therefore ask the appropriate person about an iPod and if no one has not raised an issue about the disappearance of his or her iPod, then I would keep it. Through doing this, I will be very fair since I will have asked for the owner (Hartman & DesJardins, 2013).

What are the key facts that you should consider before making a decision, as either the person who discovered the iPod, or the judicial board member?

The first fact to consider before making a decision as the person who discovered the iPod is to determine the facts of the situation. When it comes to the judicial board member, I would first consider the reasons as to why the person on question had to consider keeping the iPod (Hartman & DesJardins, 2013). This could have really helped in making sure that the right decision is made by both the judicial board member and the person who discovered the iPod.

Is this an ethical issue? What exactly are the ethical aspects involved in your decision?

Yes it is an ethical issue. The ethical aspects involved in this issue are critical thinking, and the approaches to decision making.

Who else is involved, or should be involved, in this decision? Who has a stake in the outcome?

The owner of the iPod should be involved in the decision. This is so because, one needs to think about what the owner of the iPod felt when his or her iPod was taken and kept by another person before making a judgement (Hartman & DesJardins, 2013). The owner of the iPod has a stake in the outcome, since if the judgement passed is bias it is likely to affect him since he or she will either incur a loss or get his or her iPod back.

What alternatives are available to you? What are the consequences of each alternative?

Keeping the iPod and telling nobody about it. Returning to the class the next day very early and finding the first person sitting on that chair. Asking for the owner of the iPod the next day.

How would each of your alternatives affect the other people you have identified as having a stake in the outcome?

Keeping the iPod and telling no one about it could have made the owner of the iPod to experience a great loss simply because he or she would have lost it. Returning early for the class to find the first person sitting on that chair, would have impacted the owner positively, since the chances of the owner to sit on that chair the next day were very high. Asking for the owner of the iPod could have helped in easily discovering the owner of the iPod and thus allowing the owner to receive it (Hartman & DesJardins, 2013).

Where might you look for additional guidance to assist you in resolving this particular dilemma?

I might consider involving a person who might not have known the issue at hand. This should be a neutral person in order to give his or her own ideas on the issues at hand. This would really help in making sure that the judgement provided is not bias.

Would you accept this explanation and be content with your failing grade? If not, how would you defend your own, opposing view?

I would not accept the explanation provided, simply because it is bias and thus depends on one side. I will therefore have to show the teacher my rights as a student, and argue using ethical reasoning (Hartman & DesJardins, 2013).

Are there any relevant facts on which you would rely to support your claim?

Yes there are, and this includes ethical reasoning, where both parties are allowed to provide reasons for making a certain decision.

What values are involved in this dispute? There are many values involved and this includes social injustice, racism and gender inequality.

What alternatives are available to you?

Providing the reasons as to why I am supposed to be considered to undertake that course and, being given a chance to study regardless of my religion or otherwise colour.

Besides you and your teacher, are there any stakeholders-people who are or should be involved in this situation?

Yes there are many shareholders involved, and this includes the people who have the same problems that I am currently facing. They are involved simply because, the decision made affects them too.

What reasons should you offer to the dean in an appeal to have grade changed?

I would explain to him that I was given an F on the basis of my religion and race. This could help in making the dean to understand why my paper was not looked at, and thus changing my grades (Hartman & DesJardins, 2013).

What consequences would this professor’s practice have on education?

This actions could lead to racial and religious discrimination of a certain peoples in the system of education. This could therefore lead to major problems in education, simply because only certain people could be able to undertake certain courses.

If reasoning and logical persuasion do not work, how else could this dispute be resolved?

This matter should them be forwarded to a court of law, whereby it will be agreed upon according to the law if I qualify to undertake the course or not (Hartman & DesJardins, 2013).


Hartman, L., DesJardins, J. (2013). Business Ethics: Decision-Making for Personal Integrity & Social Responsibility: McGraw-Hill Higher Education. ISBN: 978-0-07-802945-5


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There has been a lot of confusion on what is morally upright but again this only works if it is seen in diverse perspective. Raising the price of commodities and other products would have consequences suffered more by the end user, I would present some arguments based on economic, ethical and those specific moral theory as articulated by Rawl’s. An exorbitant charge is attained when the corporates twist their prices to certain heights which are unauthorized by the law. Fundamentally, Libertarian is what we would call the tendency of political philosophy in which it advocates for minimal disturbance to the people.

Economic issue

I believe what is just has a no distinction from morality and therefore, raising the prices in which it would cost a lot to people themselves is a representation a total self-interest. The arguments would expeditiously expound on what I would like to call equivalent rights going to the most extensive total system having equilibrium in all basic liberties (Rawls, 1999). The problem of exorbitant prices should not rise in libertarian. Since, it is actually in this theory that we would notice the commitment to the existence of rights to the larger group. Price hikes are worst especially if touches the health care of individuals and they heavily depend on the drug, I mean who a you to be mean with life? Still, dwelling on the same, the equality and precedence practiced in the social corporate world has reached a point which distribution of justice seen as justice as if fairness is no longer there. The concept of freedom and morality should not conflict at one point as such that justice ought to be truly and affordable to every person (Rawls, 1999). Commodities and price control should be a stable environment where a logical preference enables people to opt for systems equally regardless of class or race.


By far many agree might agree that the government should intervene in controlling the prices in the markets in a quest of covering the interest of the majority, well the theory sums in another perspective. Lodging in the idea and illuminating Rawls theory will be featured in the paper not forgetting the contemporary natural law application in accordance with a libertarian (Rawls, 1999). The concept then to vary but you would not fail to see the ambiguous virtue of common belief that individuals unique morals in the sense of natural rights stating that rights are earned by just being having human being status. The rights are constrained in a manner that is morally permissible for both and more specifically the common people.

Moral theory

Rawl’s believes that economic and social inequalities are unjust if they don’t match with certain requirements. The price hike will definitely present no equal opportunity but a complete portray of inequality going to the least in the economy (Rawls, 1999). The area of concern would be bestowing same rights served to every person should possess the same level of materials and goods and this is the actual thing that effects the moral ideal. The theory advocates for minimal disturbance and it is in this connection that the prices should be reasonably priced in an affordable manner not disadvantaging anyone in particular leave alone the gender, social or ethnic basis. It is the redistribution if justice in the system (Rawls, 1999).

This theory might not present one of the best and solid results but with series of philosophers which we have had, it would be better left to be the theory which amasses most of the concepts and arguments. Ignorance to just should not imply that concerns of justice are equal and neither implies we have captured everything we absolutely know about.





















Rawls, J. (1999). A theory of justice. Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.


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Nicomachean Ethics

Summary Book VI

This section deals with intellectual values. Aristotle states that a virtue is attained through making a selection between spiteful immoderations based on moral principles.  This, therefore, implies that individuals do not have a beneficial understanding of virtues until the moment when the right principles are defined clearly (Ross, 1999).  According to Aristotle, the soul is subdivided into both irrational and ration sections.  The rational section deals specifically with practical existence matters. This, therefore, involves the ability to reason critically to solve the issues extensively.  This, therefore, helps in developing the right choices in life (Ross, 1999).

Aristotle states that intellectual virtues are five which helps an individual’s soul at arriving at the truth.   The external truth is achieved by scientific knowledge through inductions means.  Based on proper reason technical skills of an individual are achieved (Ross, 1999).  A better life pursuing is achieved through the use of practical wisdom.  In achieving scientific intuitions wisdom which is the combination of intuition and knowledge helps in achieving the highest level of truth.  According to Aristotle prudence is a political science species based on that it is objected at ensuring life’s goodness (Ross, 1999).

Intellectual virtues assist individuals in establishing the admirable, just as well as moral virtues which assists individuals in conducting just and interesting actions (Ross, 1999). This, therefore, implies that the existence of knowledge without actions is nothing. Intellectual virtues are crucial because they generate happiness. Intellectual virtues in addition help in determining the suitable mean which helps in moral teaching.  Without the existence of cleverness and wisdom, this implies that a moral individual can never attain virtuous (Ross, 1999). This is based on that intellectual virtues assists individuals in grasping the right actions principles in life.






Ross W.D. (1999).  Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics. Batoche Books, Kitchener.


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