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Introduction to Information Systems and Technologies

Journal Entry 1: Keyboard

Nowadays, keyboards appear to be slightly obsolete input devices since work has been made easier through voice technology. There are different types of keyboards, but the Qwerty keyboard seems to be the most popular.  Despite Qwerty being the most popular keyboard used, the Dvorak keyboard is more efficient since it is more comfortable and can type quickly with less pain. However, in situations where congenitally blind individuals are involved, the Qwerty keyboard is preferred to ensure equality. Qwerty keyboard was initially designed for typewriters though being used in the digital age. Individuals can be at risk of getting carpal tunnel syndrome using the Qwerty keyboard, which often requires more finger efforts than necessary. If we keenly observe the Qwerty keyboard, we can agree that an individual can type the word "typewriter" only using the letters in the fourth row from the bottom. Therefore, every individual should be keen when interacting with different types of keyboards.

Journal Entry 2: Tesla Automotive

Under Michael Porter's three generic strategies, Tesla automotive usually relies on a product differentiation strategy. Buyers often look for Tesla commodities due to their unique image and design, sharp edge built-in technology, and relatively hassle-free purchasing and possessing experience. Tesla cars have the giant screen ever seen in vehicles and were the first to provide semi-autonomous driving. Therefore, product differentiation can be achieved through many ways, for example, by offering unique merchandise design, having technological power over all others, and providing outstanding services.

Journal Entry 3: Tesla’s Perception About Bitcoins

Tesla CEO Elon Musk has raised a concern about buying and accepting bitcoins whereby he says Tesla will no longer accept bitcoin due to climate change issues. He also said that Tesla would not sell even a single bitcoin. Tesla disposed of information that they had bought bitcoin worth 1.5 billion use dollars before accepting it as a payment for cars. One of the research leaders at broker Pepperstone argued that Musk's step was a blow to bitcoin uses.   

Journal Entry 4: COVID-19 Personal Experience

Within the COVID-19 pandemic period, many of us have undergone difficult situations. Despite experiencing complex problems, some good things have happened during this period. Students in the infected areas ranging from pre-primary level to university level have been entirely affected by the closure of schools. But this has not stopped learning since many of us are still learning from home. Information systems and technology have made schooling continue through electronic textbooks and various online courses. Hence, information and communication technology have made it possible for many learners to continue learning despite the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Journal Entry 5: Michael Dell and SCM

To succeed and gain a more competitive advantage in business, Dell decided to sell PCs to consumers directly. Dell also came up with its channel for manufacturing and selling PCs. This channel helped him do away with an increase in prices in the reselling process and significant stock expenses. Hence, Dell operated under low costs compared to anyone else in the industry. The cost-effective strategy of Dell disregarded the threats of Moore’s Law and only concentrated on operational efficiency. Therefore, Dell had to acquire EMC since the deal was to bring together the dominant server makers, personal computers and servers, and the frontline providers of essential computer storage products.

Journal Entry 6: Data- Rich, Information Poor

Technology nowadays provides data to many organization manufacturers in abundance. But it does not mean that an organization having much data should also have quality information required by other organizational systems and people. Unfortunately, the opposite seems true, whereby innovations are designed to limit organizations' communications with third-party quality systems. Therefore, despite heavy investment by organizations in technology, manufacturers may sometimes not have ideas about the amount of data they have or how it can assist them.

Journal Entry 7: Tesla Sustained or Disruptive Technology?

There are very few arguments about Tesla being a wildly innovative organization. The most generous act Tesla did upon introducing Roadster is that it did not bother competing within the limits of the industry that was already in the market nor try to take away customers from already established automobile enemies. Instead, it came up with an uncontested market environment which made the competition irrelevant. This made lenders and investors firmly believe that Tesla can take over in the future, and if the potential is not discovered, the money will go away. Under Clayton Christensen's model, a participant in the market usually offers substitute commodities using cheaper technology that seemed inferior to old participants. When the disrupter comes, he will try to improve its performance and overcome the industry. Therefore, Tesla should not be defined as a disruptive innovator; instead, it should be described as a sustaining innovator.


Journal Entry 8: Slack and The Stewart Butterfield Story

From failed business, Slack came up with new business ideas whereby he emphasizes that one should prioritize the unique features of his or her products. Before his second trial to develop an online game, he had already failed in his eight-year project. While Slack was trying to recover from food poisoning at night after taking his meal in a hotel, he came with the idea that suggested the aspect of sharing photos with other people. Fortunately, he had built this feature within the game. Therefore, it was good to go as it only required a few adjustments. Lucky enough, his online photo-sharing platform became increasingly popular with time and was adopted by companies with extensive internet services a year later after being launched. After managing to go through his new successful product, Slack did not give up again on his dream of coming up with an online role-playing game that had to involve many players. Therefore, it is upon every individual to be open to such thinking while starting their own business.

Journal Entry 9: Emotional Intelligence (El)

Upon application of principles of Emotional Intelligence, the business climate has changed without alteration, and project results have been optimized. Businesses have to create an environment whereby team members, clients, sponsors, and management can share information with clarity, deal with challenges effectively and act swiftly and strategically by making appropriate choices. For businesses to optimize climate effects, they need to increase Emotional Intelligence. Project managers must understand and accommodate the different needs of today’s workforce relating to fulfillment and values. Therefore, high Emotional Intelligence leads to project success through enhanced performance.

Journal Entry 10: Agile-Based IT Projects vs. Traditional SDLC Waterfall Projects

Agile-based IT projects have a higher success rate of 64% than traditional SDLC waterfall projects, which have a success rate of 49% as per Ambysoft's 2013 Project Success Rates Survey. The research considered the extent to which constraints are attained, showing that agile methodologies always yield more successful projects than waterfall methodologies. The study carried out by PWC in 2017 also indicates that agile-based IT projects are more successful than waterfall projects by 28%. Agile methodologies usually embrace risks because they cannot avoid them as much as they can try. Contrary, waterfall projects are strongly biased to risk aversion and typically have fixed goals in mind through which they organize themselves. The aspect of risk-taking is the main reason why agile-based IT projects tend to be more successful than traditional SDLC waterfall projects.

Journal Entry 11: Data Rich, Information Poor

 Technology nowadays provides data to many organization manufacturers in abundance. But it does not mean that an organization having much data should also have quality information required by other organizational systems and people. Unfortunately, the opposite seems true, whereby innovations are designed to limit organizations' communications with third-party quality systems. Therefore, despite heavy investment by organizations in technology, manufacturers may sometimes not have ideas about the amount of data they have or how it can assist them.


Journal Entry 12: Information and Cyber Security and IoT

Cybersecurity is among the critical aspects that individuals require to consider while they work over the internet. Therefore, cybersecurity is vital as it helps to protect individuals' workstations from harmful spyware. In the world we live today, cybersecurity threats have evolved in the information security industry. The industry continues to have challenges regarding the scarcity of cybersecurity experts, and this increases cybersecurity threats. Colonial Pipeline shut its entire network after a cyberattack that involved ransomware. It said that the attack affected its IT systems, although it did not say if any of its operational technology systems were affected directly. A prolonged shutdown would lead to a rapid increase in gasoline and oil prices in the United States ahead of peak summer driving season, a big problem for the U.S economy and consumers.  

Cyberattack on Colonial Pipeline poses a question of what will happen in the future to the health care metrics, too, with Teladoc and IoT. The cyberattack has caused many threats not only on Colonial Pipeline but also on other industries. In the health sector, cybersecurity seems more critical than ever, according to the recent research carried out in 2020. Hence, the more we digitalize healthcare, the more we increase the risks of cybercrime.  In 2019 alone, cybercrime on IoT devices increased by 300%, accounting for more than 2.9 billion activities. Cyberattacks on connected medical devices are recently growing. Therefore, the cyberattack on the Colonial Pipeline emphasizes how it is vital to come up with the IoMT industry for cybercrimes.  





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Digital Practice. 2

Introduction. 2

Disadvantages of access to data. 2

Risk of job losses. 2

Eradication of Professional Functions in the Current World. 3

Digital Practice Aspects. 5

Time Consuming. 7

Advantages of BMI 7

Solutions to the challenges. 8

Impact of Digital Practice. 9

Conclusion. 9



Digital Practice


Building Information Modelling (BIM) is a mechanisms supported different instruments, technologies and contracts pertaining to the production and management of digital representations. Building Information Modelling (BIM) is used to create and manage data during various stages of the construction project. One primary aspect of BIM is the digital depiction which assists quantity surveyors come up with definite images and measurement of the entire project. This BIM model is able to draw data collected collaborate and improved at vital phases of the project. The creation of digital BIM facilitates the interaction between workers, materials and actions undertaken during the entire process (Wu et al., 2014). There are three themes tied to Building Information Modelling- easy access to data, complete outline of the entire project and a holistic building process. In terms of easy accessibility to data, BIM has enabled physical demonstration of the outline and practical features of the entire construction procedure, which in turn gives all the detailed information on the entire project. Every participant make discipline-specific efforts which is then shared through the BIM resources. Hence people can access this information for effective and reliable decision making process. Secondly, the BIM provides comprehensive summary of the whole project through BIM technologies which construction 3D geometry images of the entire structure thus one can see the start and the end of the entire project through the spatial relationships formulated. Thirdly, the BIM provides a holistic process, once feeds the BIM useful data, it is able to provide, cost estimations of the entire project.

Disadvantages of Access to Data

Risk of Job Losses

Just like any other technological advancement tools, Building Information Modelling has automated more jobs hence reducing actual man power. Due to easy access to data, building managers no longer search for professional counsel from other third parties. BIM has made information available to numerous people. Most people can access and implement this information with ease because BIM makes it possible to minimize error. Therefore, the ability of BIM to coalesce all professional information from different areas make it more useful but it denies people jobs and reduces chances of hiring professional help from other people. Anyone can access data for various reasons. There is no need for hiring architects because BIM can come up with a standardized design which is improved on with time. Mistakes and risks are also minimized through the verification and workflow models generated in the application. In addition, the project consume less time and brief project cycles have reduced the finances spent on the entire project hence participants can design building at a faster rates and also finish it in a short period of time.

Eradication of Professional Functions in the Current World

 In the current world, a quantity surveyor and project manager can keenly supervise work advancement from the comforts of their workplaces without the need to visit the actual construction site. This solution saves time as employers can clearly communicate with their employees on any progress made. Workers can send digital images to the employer who can then verify the progression made on that particular day. Exceptional applications can also assist to plan work, control and then give feedback to the head office. Therefore, digital practices have improved output. Most of this digital devices are cloud- enabled hence actual data can be accessed on a daily basis. Over the years digital practices have saved both time and money. Consequently, quantity surveyors can work from their office without stepping foot in the field. With instantaneous internet accessibility surveyors are now able to modernize cost plans from the actual field sites and also generate BOQs on site. This has made it cost processing fast and accurate due to accurate final models.


Quantity surveying plays an essential part in the building sector. Despite of the technological changes, quantity survey remains relevant and central to the construction industry. Conventionally, the role of quantity surveyors has been making estimations, cost planning, procuring counsel, measuring, formulating bill of quantities and tender certification. Lately, due to digitization, in the construction sector, quantity surveyors have had the chance to advance their role by becoming more productive and accurate in service delivery. For example digitalization has expanded quantity surveying roles to include computerized measurement and quantification. Additionally, Building Information Modelling (BIM) has made it possible for the quantity surveyors to attain efficiency. Therefore, digitalization is slowly becoming one of the key component in the construction industry all over the world. Subsequently, customers expect quantity surveyors to adapt digital practices for the sake of cutting costs and increasing efficiency (Hatuka, Zur, & Mendoza, 2020).  The demand for digitalization from clients has forced most of the quantity surveyors to adopt BIM practices. Specifically, quantity surveyors have been slow in accepting digital practices and applying them to their functions. According to surveys, most quantity surveyors are not aware of digital practices and only a minute number have used digital platforms to perform and complete most of the tasks.

 According to digital experts, cost estimation and cost planning are some of the roles that need to be automated and digitized. This is because these functions are vital for budgeting and tending within the building industry. Cost estimation and cost planning prevent reduce inherent risks and regulate project expenses pertained to building materials, workforce, expertise services among others. Digitization of cost planning procedures has facilitated the quantity surveyors’ role to offer reliable cost estimates in the initial phases of the entire project (Dincer, 2020). At the end, the best value is offered to the customers and the coordination of the construction project is done under clear supervision and guidance. A timely cost estimation generates basic frameworks which in turn determines project viability and also serves as a primary parameter to which the project strategy is aligned to throughout the entire development. Additionally, cost estimation unveils the options which are to be considered during the initial phases of the entire project.  Therefore, digital practices impacts building design, documentation, evaluation procurement and management of the whole project. Also, digital techniques creates new ways of carrying out duties in the construction sector.

 Digital practices provides visualization to simplify the generation of theoretical estimations and the functionalities of measurements in the construction industry. As noticed by experts majority of the estimation software are created to hasten labor-intensive operations that come with quantification activities. It is easier, to determine measurements from digitalized drawing and other digital platforms.  Therefore, the software achieves extensive levels of efficiency due to the isolation and definition of essential features from the drawing and dimensions. None of the operation are reliant on manual input. As stated earlier, the development of initial cost estimations is extensively regarded as one of the most pivotal ways of digitalization practices. Digital practices enhances quantity survey due to effective cost estimation and elimination of redundancy.

Digital Practice Aspects

A stated earlier, digital practices situate people, stuff, and data material through the application of practice-based strategies which have been vital in the interrelation between these three aspects. For instance, the internet enables readers to interact with more material existing in various formats. At the same time, an internet user can incorporate more than one way of accessing other activities which they wish to engage in. therefore, the internet offers its users digital space and ensures collaborative openings for sharing and reacting to data situated in various places all over the world. Similarly, there is numerous empirical evidence that supports the collaborative opportunities the digital platforms create for their users. For example, digital software can simplify users’ work during any task undertaken. Importantly, there is a need for digital literacy to practically, put into practice scholarly and operational perspectives of the digital world (Smith, Kahlke, & Judd, 2018). For instance, for the sake of coming up with more than one solution, most of the people have resulted to acquiring skills that will enable them to efficiently convert analog systems into digital platforms that simplify the workload and build, up efficiency which in the long run upgrades the performance of the workers. On the first hand, digital literacy is key in reading and writing skills which in turn help in the execution of digital tasks. Thus, digital literacy has to help people find, consume and generate digital material while at the same time communicate and share information with other people.

 About digital practice, collecting and consuming digital material is more beneficial to users because it can incorporate more than one action. Reading a text on paper and reading the same text on-screen is different because digital practices are more interactive and effective. For instance, on digital platforms, users can access search engines, navigating tools, and thousands of images. More so, the construction of various digital tools creates more than one way of implementing issues and coming up with solutions to more than the intended challenges (Galani, Mason, & Arrigoni, 2020). The third aspect of digital practice is the application of technology in communication and sharing material due to digital reading. Based on past evidence, digitization of material enables the incorporation of multiple tools which facilitate socialization, participation, teamwork, and the generation of content. More recently, other experts claimed that comprehending digital practices was important for the cross-cultural exchange of information across different digital platforms. Additionally, two key elements emerge from the analysis of digital impact in the current society-content and systematic application of content hence curating define a digital platform for more practical usage in various fields. For example, a digital practice such as digital reading integrates and builds up social and cultural norms into digital practice.

 The digital revolution caused creative resolutions and technologies which in turn supported organizational and managerial performance. Yet, the issue lies in the digital divide resulting from the digital shift. Analog and digital practices are extremely opposite of each other and give people a hard time adapting to the new online systems (Yasser et al., 2017). To completely comprehend the terms and conditions that are accompanied by digital practices and access. The digital divide focused on the accessibility of digital tools and the ability of people to buy and maintain computers. Due to the inequalities emerging from digital practices, society is forced to become up with ways of training digital skills.

Time Consuming

 BIM is time consuming because it is not integrative, it only provides the tools for the performing the job. For example, the building process takes place in four phases, initiative stage, designing, construction and terminal stage. The manager is supposed to adhere to each details according to the specifications of the BMI. All the steps must be adhered to if the entire project is to succeed. More so most of the people have to verify the information provided for the in the BMI platforms. This eventually leads to delays and even more scrutiny. Also, due to the incompatibility with other stakeholders there are delays in the implementation of the entire project due to the poor coordination.

Advantages of BMI

 The digital practice is focused and aligned to logistics. The alignment of construction practices is rooted in intellect, culture, and other forms of analysis. It is through societal practice that digital practice disposes of its operative structure. Therefore, the vast information on behavior, identity, and socialization is considered vital for comprehending digital practices as the new normal. However, digital practices are informed through the comprehension of practice and delivery of other forms of digital material available across the entire world. For the better part of the day, most people with access to digital platforms can review more material instantaneously (Lehman et al., 2018). Therefore, digital practice is normally seen as a matter of solid reliable actions which people perform in conjunction with other things such as mobile phones and social groupings. In these perspectives, digital practice is used for observation, collection, and documentation of actual events. In simpler terms, the digital practice combines actions related to digital technologies which are then transmitted into human societies through specified interactions and relations.

One common assumption is that digital technologies are altering social practices due to their modes and frameworks. Hence, there is a clear distinction between digital and analog practices. For instance, social media has inhibited actual social interaction because people can use the internet to communicate with other people and keep in touch via these digital platforms. Also, internet users can generate videos and images for their social media followers. In the end, digital practice influences social practice in its entirely. Digital practices rely on software tools, websites, and other semiotic tools. Thus, the digital practices are considered to be virtual hence can only take place online and not in reality. However, numerous other activities can take place in other mediums other than. Subsequently, digital practices can be said to be transverse due to the interchange between tangible and online actions. Thus, the integration of the social and technological world makes digital practice to be one of the most integrative processes in the entire world (Bohm, & Hintze, 2017). A similar perspective is the completion of digital tasks. For illustration, the integration of texts, course of action, and other digital instruments enable the usage of digital platforms for connection and the integration of communication tools which in turn can be used in companies and even domestic areas.  Even though most of the digitalized materials can be mediated through text and other devices, the connection relies on the sequences generated from one end to another user end. For instance, communication needs two or more users and smart devices that can enable the installation of these devices to meet most of the needs and demands of the entire network. Digital practices are based on technological advancement and the need to come up with more than one internet connection for communication and connection.

Solutions to the challenges

Investors of built surroundings can find it beneficial to digitize their environment. Some of the advantages connected to the digitization of the built environment are the use of the internet and other forms of technology which will make the built environment more viable (Hatuka, Zur, & Mendoza, 2020). To make use of existing data reservoirs and numerous gauging mechanism frameworks, to increase efficiency and accuracy, stakeholders need to digitize the built environment for the sale of collecting data, collection of geographic information, and modeling the frameworks around them. Therefore this will create an interface between the physical and virtual world.

 Digitization has impacted most parts of contemporary society because of the nature of the community design and even management. Several developmental issues have affected research projects such as shifting to digital procedures and cutting out the limitations that come with the digitization of activities. One of the impacts of digitization is data accuracy and quality which in turn give more proper goal-oriented results. As a result of accurate data, digitization has reduced wastage as people can easily predict the outcome (Hatuka, Zur, & Mendoza, 2020). Digitization cuts out the middlemen who can come and report false information. Digitization is one of the most accurate ways of verifying data and even putting in place the materials needed to see to it that most of the project materials are put to good use. Thus, the monitoring aspect of the building is done well with the application of digital tools.  It is vital to note that digitalization will make the building environment cheaper due to the accurate application of data. Digital platforms can gather tools and data from various sources and then apply them to the construction of the entire building environment. Therefore, in terms of the planning and organization of materials, digital practices will enable more use of digital platforms for the sake of coming up with more solid plans and predictable patterns that will eventually shape how people do things in the future.

Impact of Digital Practice

 Digital practices have helped make human society more politically stable and peaceful. Digital advancements have hastened the attainment of community development through the alleviation of poverty and reducing infant mortality in the current world as more people can access data and universal (Hatuka, Zur, & Mendoza, 2020). More so the main issues which can impede human society are poorly developed road networks and health, digital practices have paved the way for the advancement of efficient construction and decrease inequality in the current world. Therefore, they have closed in the gap and enabled an effective way of practicing human rights activism throughout the entire world.


In summary, In terms of quantity surveying content, BIM comes with fair share of problems and prospects, specifically, in terms of cost estimation and quantification. BIM provides building industry the ability to automate and produce quantity take offs and dimensions straight from digital frameworks, a procedure which used to be time consuming to quantity surveyors. The ability of BIM platforms to carry out quantification of products, regions and measurements of building aspects fails to generate cost estimations. Application of BIM to cost estimation is an extensive mechanism which leads to automation of dimensions. There are various ways of integrating BIM to cost estimation- exporting construction materials into BIM software, bridging BIM tools into estimation software and suing BIM quantification instrumentation. Quantity surveying plays an essential part in the building sector. Despite of the technological changes, quantity survey remains relevant and central to the construction industry. Conventionally, the role of quantity surveyors has been making estimations, cost planning, procuring counsel, measuring, formulating bill of quantities and tender certification. Lately, due to digitization, in the construction sector, quantity surveyors have had the chance to advance their role by becoming more productive and accurate in service delivery.




Bohm, C., & Hintze, A. (2017, September). MABE (modular agent based evolver): A framework for digital evolution research. In Artificial Life Conference Proceedings 14 (pp. 76-83). One Rogers Street, Cambridge, MA 02142-1209 USA journals-info@ mit. edu: MIT Press.

Dincer, A. (2020). Understanding the Characteristics of English Language Learners' Out-of-Class Language Learning through Digital Practices. IAFOR Journal of Education, 8(2), 47-65.

Galani, A., Mason, R., & Arrigoni, G. (2020). European Heritage, Dialogue and Digital Practices (p. 146). Taylor & Francis.

Hatuka, T., Zur, H., & Mendoza, J. A. (2020). The urban digital lifestyle: An analytical framework for placing digital practices in a spatial context and for developing applicable policy. Cities, 102978.

Lehman, J., Clune, J., & Misevic, D. (2018, July). The surprising creativity of digital evolution. In Artificial Life Conference Proceedings (pp. 55-56). One Rogers Street, Cambridge, MA 02142-1209 USA journals-info@ mit. edu: MIT Press.

Smith, E. E., Kahlke, R., & Judd, T. (2018). From digital natives to digital literacy: Anchoring digital practices through learning design. Open Oceans: Learning without borders. Proceedings ASCILITE, 510-515.

Yasser, A., Clawson, K., Bowerman, C., & Lévêque, M. (2017, July). Saving cultural heritage with digital make-believe: machine learning and digital techniques to the rescue. In HCI'17: Proceedings of the 31st British Computer Society Human-Computer Interaction Conference (No. 97, pp. 1-5). ACM.

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              The use of information technology in education is an outstanding change that we have encountered in the modern world. For several years that have passed know, teachers, parents, policymakers, and students have been evaluating the possible benefits of information technology in teaching against its consequences and risks. Nevertheless, the debate has become more pressing than ever as there is an increasing demand for the incorporation of information technology in the curricula. In the process of using computer-assisted education, such a technology enables the teachers to democratize the classroom, experiment in pedagogy, as well as engage the students effectively (Parsons & Oja, 2010).

            Although others might rebuke the use information technology in elementary, it is evident that in the modern times, learners have greatly become digital natives. They have grown up and natured with it to the extent of becoming woven in their lives. This is to imply that it has become one of the basic skills that are greatly required in the classroom. Regardless of that, it should be understood the continued utilization of computers in assisting teaching learners in classroom is not just having a digital device in class. This device will have to relate to anything that has the potential of facilitating teacher and student interactions.  Classroom engagement for decades has been found to be relatively low hence compelling teachers to use other countless means to foster it (Schifter, 2008). What this suggests is the manner in which each one perceives it, for instance, whether information technology is a culprit or just a means of improving students effectiveness and engagement. 

            On the other hand, what this means is the fact that digital education is one of the mechanisms that has the potential of generating better learning opportunities through enabling elementary students to participate in online. In return, this has the ability of changing educational practices through enabling teachers to use better collaboration models, personalized instructions, as well as other innovative learning strategies (Parsons & Oja, 2010). Additionally, the success of the students demands the learners to be thoughtful consumers of information technology. In so doing, the use of computers in elementary school classroom means it will be directed at making the learners to collaborative and effective inventors of digital media. Therefore, in order to be in the position of understanding the integration of information technology, it is important to think about it in two dimensions of change. They include the accommodation-assimilation and the expressive-instrumental dimensions (Watson & Tinsley, 1995).


            The use of information technology in enhancing computer-assisted education in the elementary school classroom can be a means of stimulating change. This can be achieved through opening up the possibilities of renovating the aspects of learning and teaching environment. Ideally, information technology and teacher will have to be accustomed to each other. Although it is possible to foster successful teacher-student relationship, it is important for the software deigns to be based the dynamics of the school life. The main concern of the teachers entails maintaining the specific ethos in their classroom (Schifter, 2008).

            In addition to that, the use of computers enables the teacher and the student to execute complex transformations of ideas quickly as well as offering several representation of information. In the process of allowing learners to probe the system easily, it will be easier for them to understand their structures and for bridges between learning and teaching different but interrelated things. Additionally, the use of computers help the instructor to confront his or her experiences through making sense of IT and becoming aware of all that they do (Raymond & Philip, 2013).

            The use of information technology has the ability of enabling the teacher to better prepare for a lesson or lessons, present information and maintain records. To the learners, it is the best education tool for assisting them to research for various topics, practice learning skills, access fresh information, prepare reports, and so on. For instance, it will be easier for the learners to access learning materials that are up to date. In return it cultivates a more collaborative teaching and learning environment as students will be easily sharing information, interact with the teacher, and so on (Raymond & Philip, 2013).


            The use of information technology in the classroom is perceived to an avenue for promoting cheating. Although traditionally learners have always been developing means of cheating, the use of information technology will make it even much easier. Students can copy and paste answers from online without even taking time to think critically about what they are doing. Additionally, the use of computers in a classroom can have the ability of distracting learners as well as making loss focus. Because of the various features of technology, it means that it hinders the ability of the student to pay attention and in return affect their emotions (Chen, 2012).

            The use of information technology to enhance computerized teaching elementary students encourages learners to be lazy both in physical activities and their studies. Due to the fact that computers provide us with tons of information, learners might not feel the urge of picking an actual book and as they used to do it traditionally. In connection with that, computers make students to develop poor writing skills. Since computers has the ability of auto correcting a wrong word or sentence, it will not teach students correctly on how to write a certain word, sentence, or essay (Watson, & Tinsley, 1995).










Chen, I. L. (2012). Cases on educational technology integration in urban schools. Hershey, Pa: IGI Global.

In Watson, D., & In Tinsley, D. (1995). Integrating Information Technology into Education. Boston, MA : Springer US : Imprint : Springer Press

Parsons, J. J., & Oja, D. (2010). Computer concepts. Boston, Mass: Course Technology Cengage Learning.

Raymond, S. N & Philip P. Z. (2013). Technology in Education: Looking Toward 2020. Technology and Education Series. Routledge Press

Schifter, C. (2008). Infusing technology into the classroom: Continuous practice improvement. Hershey: Information Science Pub.


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 Consider that Data Security and Policy Assurance methods are important to the overall success of IT and Corporate data security.

            To enhance the success of the IT and corporate security, it is evident that it assists in elevating some of the challenging objectives for example the authorized assessment of personal data. Ideally, some of the policy securities and policy assurance methods depend on various techniques that can be attested to its trustworthiness. It is these mechanisms that have the ability of breaking down some of the authentication measures.

  1. Determine how defined roles of technology, people, and processes are necessary to ensure resource allocation for business continuity.

            Technology – this basically takes into consideration the revival of the business’s decisive information or data and other associated applications that are contained in its DRP (disaster recovery plan). To the business continuity, it is evident that technology assists in establishing technical and enterprise measures aimed at countering the effects of incidents or events that results to untrustworthiness of data centers. This then implies that it ensures that information technology procedures have had the potential of intervening and protecting the business data.

            People – as much as business continuity is concerned, this is regarded as the general recovery of workers and the physical working space. Therefore, it means that it is the responsibility of the organization to ensure that the management authority selected have required skills to run the enterprise. These individuals are always drawn from the business itself rather than from information technology (IT) departments. As a result of that, this is considered to be one of the survival areas with an emphasis based on human assets as well as value and not on software and hardware resources that are ultimately secured by backup systems.

            Process – this refers to the continued establishment of various strategies that are used to enhance exploitation, testing, as well as the maintenance of the existing business continuity plan.  Ideally, what this means is the fact that it is important for the business to ensure that they have updated and modified it on a regular basis so as to take into account some of the existing technological and physical threats. To focus on the need of maintaining or achieving the expectations of the business, it is important for the enterprise to come up with means (Arduini, 2010).

  1. Explain how computer security policies and data retention policies help maintain user expectations of levels of business continuity that could be achieved.

            As much as the computer security policies have the ability of enabling the user to maintain his or her expectations, it is evident that it has the ability of creating a framework aimed at maintaining robust project management in which the business will be forced to establish guidelines and basic policies that will enhance business continuity. On the same note, it becomes possible for the organization to have the ability of identifying some of the conditions and assumptions that enables the business to recognize some of the existing threats.

            In the process of focusing on the progressive prioritization of the daily operations, it becomes possible for the business organization to have the ability of utilizing existing resources for the purpose of enhancing resumptions of operations. This will ultimately have to take into consideration the need of integrating organizational functions in the process of meeting its objectives (Arduini, 2010).

  1. Determine how acceptable use policies, remote access policies, and email policies could help minimize any anti-forensics efforts. Give an example with your response.

            According to research, the use of these policies has the ability of maintaining the privacy of the user whenever extra data is need for forensic purpose. Other than making the whole process to be perceived as being resource and time consuming, it should be understood that these platform ultimately provides user data protection through secured deletion, compression, and encryption (Dahbur, 2011)

  1. Suggest at least two (2) models that could be used to ensure business continuity and ensure the integrity of corporate forensic efforts. Describe how these could be implemented.
  2. The formulation of a framework aimed at maintaining robust project. With this strategy, it means that it will be crucial for the business to ensure that they have ended up developing basic guidelines and policies that will enhance business continuity planning. This will have to take into consideration the need of establishing a business-wide aspect which in return takes into consideration implementing efficient progress control.
  3. Identification of various conditions and assumptions that business continuity through recognizing as well as identifying some of the potential threats. This will in return scrutinize the frequency of these threats as well as improve some of the strategies that can be used to handle such threats. In so doing, the main focus will have to take into consideration the prioritization of decisive operations (Arduini, 2010).
  4. Explain the essentials of defining a digital forensics process and provide two (2) examples on how a forensic recovery and analysis plan could assist in improving the Recovery Time Objective (RTO) as described in the first article.

            With regard to the impacts that digital forensic has, it is evident that anti-forensics has the effect of circumventing some of the objectives and efforts that enhances protection of personal data. It so doing, it means that it becomes possible for the same strategy to have the ability of defining the foundation, acceptable frameworks, as well as some of the practices which aid in presenting some of the objectives that end up frustrating some of the taunting efforts used. It is these mechanisms that have the potential of improving reliability and credibility. Some of the approaches used to improve recovery time objective (RTO) include;

  1. a) Categories that are relied on some of the attacked target- with regard to this approach, it means that the general acquisition of the evidentiary information or data is perceived to be a primary objective that is perceived to assist in simplifying RTO through hiding, wiping, or securing personal information. As a result of that, it becomes possible to manipulate some of the existing misleading information, for instance, timestamps, and hashes.
  2. b) The utilization of CAF tactics verse techniques – As one of the recovery analysis plan, a clear distinction is ultimately made between the definitions of counter-forensics and anti-forensics. Although the two terms can be used interchangeably, counter-forensics ultimately takes into account some of the techniques that can be used for the purpose of controlling erase, crashes, and so on. This in return has the ability of hindering investigators from impacting the improvements of the RTO (Dahbur, 2011)
  3. Provide a step-by-step process that could be used to develop and sustain an enterprise continuity process.
  4. a) Formulation of plan or framework that will enhance vigorous project management. In order to make this possible, it is important for the management authority to take the following into consideration;
  5. Development of basic guidelines and policies that will foster business continuity (BC)
  6. The establishment of a research business-wide aspect
  7. The implementation of efficient process control especially those that facilitate project management
  8. b) Identification of conditions and requirements that will enhance corporate continuity planning in which;
  9. The identification and recognition of the potential threats as well as analyzing the incidence of these threats as well as identifying certain scenario regarding the same.
  10. Focusing on the BS which ultimately prioritizes some of the existing critical operations
  11. Taking into consideration the targeted time which will enhance the formulation of resumptions that takes into account RTO (recovery time objectives)
  12. c) The introduction various action plans that will have to the take into account;
  13. The assessment of certain measures that fosters BC (business continuity)
  14. The acquisition and maintenance of rigorous back-up data
  15. Determining the availability of some of the managerial infrastructure and resources that are required. This will always take into consideration the need of procuring such resources
  16. determining some of the strong time obstacles, the means of communicating when it comes to formulating emergency decisions, and contact list. This is to imply that the whole process will involve communication arrangements and decision-making processes
  17. The realization of the efficient practical operational procedures that can be used by each individual department and level
  18. d) The implementation of training or test program or programs on a daily basis (Arduini, 2010).
  19. Describe the role of incident response teams and how these accommodate business continuity.

            According to research, the continued success of the business mainly relies on the commitments that top and middle managers have. As a result of that, it implies that one role of the managers entail ensuring that they have avoided regarding BC as one of the costly mechanisms.  The reason for that is because business continuity is something that is established through partnering with front line operatives and BCP teams. Likewise, the involvement of CEO is something that is considered to be the key ingredient in rallying BC. On the other hand, it is the responsibility of the response team to ensure that they have recognized the fact that quick response to incidents is the one that will improve the continuity of the business (Arduini, 2010).

  1. There are several awareness and training efforts that could be adopted in order to prevent anti-forensic efforts.
  2. Suggest two (2) awareness and training efforts that could assist in preventing anti-forensic efforts.
  3. a) Encryption – this is one of the techniques that is used for the purpose of making data unreadable. Due to the fact that this is perceived to be a challenging technique, the advancement in encryption algorithms as well as empowered tools are to be applied to the whole hard drive, the selection of partitions, or certain files and directories. During the utilization of this technique, the user is required to have the encryption key to assist in reversing the whole process as well as decrypt the data. On the other hand, brute-force techniques are used to enhance decryption process.
  4. b) Secure-deletion – with this technique, it becomes possible for the user to completely remove targeted data from the source system/s through using random data to overwrite it. As a result of that, it becomes possible to render the targeted data unrecoverable (Dahbur, 2011)


  1. Determine how having a knowledgeable workforce could provide a greater level of secure behavior. Provide a rationale with your response.  

            Having knowledgeable workforce has the potential of ensuring that personal information or data have been protected from unauthorized access. This will have to take into consideration the need of compiling authorized software with signatures, fingerprints, as well as other special recovery keys.  This will make it possible for the organization to safe-guard them using proper authorities.

  1.   Outline the steps that could be performed to ensure continuous effectiveness.
  2. Dedicating enough efforts to recognize and understand ACF
  3. Defining laws which have the ability of prohibiting unauthorized utilization of ACF
  4. The utilization of the weaknesses of the ACF software
  5. The continued hardening of the CF software (Dahbur, 2011)










Arduini, F. (2010). Business continuity and the banking industry. Communications of the ACM, 53(3). pp 121-125. Found at the ACM Digital Library.

Dahbur, K. (2011). The anti-forensics challenge. Proceedings from ISWSA '11: International Conference on Intelligent Semantic Web-Services and Applications. From at the ACM Digital Library.


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Pokemon GO: Privacy Concerns and the Free Labour of Users


            Pokemon GO is a free augmented reality game developed by Niantic and The Pokemon Company which was released in 2016. This game application that is available for download on smartphones allows users to catch virtual pokemons and collect digital items from real location and landmarks. Pokemon GO became an overnight global phenomenon and has generated a revenue of $2billion since it’s launch. Although this app is considered greatly successful and a step closer to the future, this paper will take a deeper dive into the social implications of this particular smartphone app in terms of various privacy and safety concerns and the free labour that users voluntarily take part in. My research asks the question, based on Niantic and Pokemon GO’s privacy policies, what are the various privacy concerns and how does Pokemon GO exploit “free labour”?


            Pokemon GO, a location-based game which relies on tracking user’s data and movements for the game to function. In its terms of service, Niantic states that information such as location, personal data and fitness activity is collected and stored while the app is being used, with the option to turn off the background activity tracking system, and that some data could be shared with third party service provider. This raises the question of what data is being shared, who has access to these data and what are the data utilised for? Another major concern that has had real life repercussions is safety issues while engaging in this game. There had been many reported cases of accidents, crime and death linked to Pokemon GO, ranging from car accidents, people falling off cliffs and an attempt of luring young girls into a van. A research done to understand smartphone overuse and inattentional blindness found that “playing Pokémon Go as the task most associated with inattentional blindness and reduced situational awareness (…) as Pokémon Go can be more cognitively demanding compared with other smartphone tasks” (Chen & Pai, 2018). The term social determinism is defined by how a person’s upbringing, social background, relationships and other social contact shapes their behaviour and social character (Rangel, Keller & Simpsons, 2011). The incidence relating to this game app will be explored through the social determinate lens.


            A research published in the JMIR mHealth and uHealth analyses privacy policies of apps that target youth, the readability of these policies using a web-based readability calculator. This research found that privacy policies uses complex, inaccessible language to avoid liability in the legal, corporate field — this results in agreements being incomprehensible to most adults and youths (Eysenbach, Bender, Li, et al., 2018). In Niantic’s Privacy Policy they disclose what information they collect and how they utilise those information in inaccessible language, utilising terminologies such as ‘third party services’, ‘cookie’, ’single sign-on’, ‘device identifiers’, etc. Niantic define Personal Data as “information that can be used to identify you”. Their service does not only collect information you’ve provided in Pokemon GO, but information from third parties’ services such as Google and Facebook (Niantic Privacy Policy, 2018). It is mandatory for users to link their application to at least one supported third-party service, the personal information Niantic receives depend on users privacy agreement with the third party app and their own privacy policies (Niantic Privacy Policy, 2018). Aside from personal information, user data such as “IP address, browser type, operating system and webpages visited” before accessing Niantic’s services is collected. Such vague and broad policies raises the concern of what are the user identifying information that are being collected and shared between different services and what are users data being used for?

            A visible privacy concern with the Pokemon Go app is Niantic’s access to user’s device location and fitness activity during and not during gameplay, users do have the option to turn off the background location tracking.

In there privacy agreement, Niantic states that they do not respond to the ‘do not track’ signal even if users disable their settings for using cookies; the reason for this is “due to the lack of industry standard on how to interpret that signal” (Niantic Privacy Policy, 2018). This goes to show that internet users’ privacy may not be completely protected despite taking the precaution of disabling cookie tracking when browsing the net.

When going through Niantic policies, they mention that they “use the information above[such as personal data, device location information, in-game data and mobile device information] to show in-game sponsored locations that are in your vicinity as part of the game play experience”(Niantic Privacy Policy, 2018). This particular policy is vague and could be interpreted in multiple ways. One, it could mean that users’ personal information is being collected in order for Niantic to put up Poke Stops, sponsored locations, as part of the gaming experience. On the other hand, this policy could be interpreted as Niantic giving these various sponsored locations player’s data. The terms of agreement only mentions these sponsored location once and provide no further information regarding how these sponsored locations function.

This paper will also illustrate how new media is a continuation of the late capitalist cultural economy through the lens of “free labour” by exploring how the app generates revenue and how it utilises free labour to aid in this process. In a research done to understand why people play Pokémon GO they found that people continued playing the game because of they find joy in discovering, fighting, collecting, advancing in the game, they have something to do, it has become a habit, they get health benefits from walking around, they enjoy the visuals of the game and are looking forward to the updates (Alha, Koskinen, Paavilainen, & Hamari, 2019). Even though players gain satisfaction and joy, they do not get monetary reimbursement by Nintendo for the time and energy they’ve invested in the game. Jin argues that free labour happens when “voluntary activity of users has been incorporated into the commodification process as media and information technology corporations and advertising agencies systematically exploit their users” (Jin & Hjorth, 2017). Another scholar states that free labour is when “knowledgable consumption of culture is translated into productive activities that are pleasurably embraced and … exploited”(Terranova, 2000). Traditionally, labour is physical or mental hard work to create commodities, however in the case of Pokemon GO, commodity is not a final material product and users are exploited to indirectly do immaterial labour for the app. Since this game is available to users for free, the company generate most of it’s income by setting up sponsored locations. The game entice users to go to sponsored places, for a chance to score special virtual items, and for every player that visits advertisers, such as McDonald’s in Japan, sponsored locations would be charged about $0.50 — at the peak of Pokemon Go, with about 3,000 McDonald’s operating in Japan, McDonald’s would be paying Niantic roughly $3million each day(Pymnts, 2017). With Niantic generating majority of it’s revenue from user’s free labour, I believe they should be more transparent in their terms of agreement in letting users know how their information is being used and not resort to vague and up-to-interpretation policies.

Other organizations have also tried to take advantage of the technology of Pokemon GO as well — by encouraging users to partake in free labour. For example scientists and conservationist in a Nature Journal urge Pokemon Go players to take pictures and identify real-life creatures during their Pokémon hunts and sharing them online, contributing to the world taxonomy(Dorward, Mittermeier, Sandbrook & Spooner, 2017).

This research will reflect on how big data is handled by big corporations such a Niantic through the game, Pokemon GO and the various privacy concerns that arises. The real-life dangers of using the app will be examined through the social deterministic lens and the “free labour” that contributes to generating revenue for Pokémon GO will be further explored. Utilising my interview questions to further understand if users would still use this app despite being aware of the consequences.

Via this increased layering of the digital onto location, ordinary, and conversant environments are altered into vital game loci. Examples where one can find Pokémon is in a person’s own washroom, gym, and even library (Terranova, 2000). The fame of Pokémon GO- advertised as the first ever-effective site based game received backlash and praise in equal measure. As all controversies on Pokémon GO sensation, one aspects remains clear, the computer video game relies on traditional, historical, societal, and ethnic settings. More so, Pokémon Go came with years of mobile technology, locating techniques, and Japanese traditions. The game capitalized on the need to incorporate new concepts and graphics to bring about simple yet intriguing games which cut across generations and relatable by other people. On the other hand, the people never gave it a second thought when it comes to giving information on their lives.

 After the introduction of Pokémon GO on 2016, media outlet gave out varied perspectives on the gaming phenomenal. Their points of view ranged from industrious communal scopes of the game, to the darker controversies concerning separation, security, observation, and menace. For some, Pokémon Go is an optimistic practice- the gameplay induces a number nostalgic experiences, motivates physical exercises, enables sincere socialization between humans and efficiently improves people’s sense of welfare (Terranova, 2000). Some people are of the opinion that the game forces users to reflect on the issues such as gender parity, racism, social, economic, age and physical injustices pertaining town movement which indirect and directly many people from time to time.

 More theoretically, after the launching of the gaming device, in July 2016, a bizarre phenomenon started unfolding (Terranova, 2000). Users across the world installed the Pokémon application and keyed into an amplified reality, roving their localities and community surroundings in pursuit for Pokémon and challenging other users at virtual Pokémon gym platforms. In the cross reality, players have to transfer via tangible space as they label, gather, craft and combat for digital artefacts, user other accomplishments, opening micro universe through their smartphones and digital overlays of the game objects and virtual locations.

As noted elsewhere, comprehending gaming ideas such as Pokémon GO gives people a chance to exploit social, traditional, economic and political elements of the community as the game relies on user based information to improve its services hence free labor (Terranova, 2000).The issues relating to Pokémon GO arise from its breach of privacy as it uses location technologies to enhance user experiences. It is vital to not that Niantic imposed severe prohibitions on users for utilizing unfair mechanisms to win common games. The developers of the game included new policies in gaming application, preventing unscrupulous means of winning the game. However, the manner in which Pokémon GO identifies winners and cheaters remains a mystery. Some people claim that in the quest to separate cheaters from real winners, Pokémon frisks its internal storages for a user’s personal information, which contradicts the rule of law. According to android rules and regulations, retrieving user information from their smartphones is punishable. Sometime companies suspended the Pokémon application for violating user’s information.

Operating in the digital media sector is not all fun and games as people seem to think. The Net slaves, coined from the term webzine, are gradually becoming vocal around the openly abusive nature of the occupation, its exhausting work schedules, and unmerciful casualization. The workers complain about the 24-hour electrical sweat workshops and the 99-hour weekly working hours coupled with poor management (Terranova, 2000). At the start of 1999, seven out of the total 15000 voluntary workers quit America online company due to lack of pay. The department of labor initiated an investigation into the issue. At first, the workers worked for long hours without pay, then, thy burnt out from the exhaustion. The above events reveal the harsh reality facing digital media. In addition, these events also unveil the gloomy world of digital labor characterized with poor working conditions degrading as days go by.

Yet, questions relating to labor in the digital economy are not effortlessly discharged as an advanced progression of acquainted rationality of capitalistic misuse (Terranova, 2000). The Net Slaves are not just a characteristic system of labor found within the internet; it also entails intricate associations with employment, which is universal in capitalistic communities.

The manner in which people speak about free labor varies most of the times due to dissimilarity in time and perceptions surrounding the topic. Haraway openly prohibited the humanistic tendencies of scholars who claimed labor force fell under the privileged category since the employed received pay after work (Terranova, 2000). Similarly, Paul Gilroy articulated his dissatisfaction at insufficiency of Marxist evaluation of work to elaborate the philosophy of the slaves offspring who appreciated creative appearance as a way of attaining personal and communal liberty. If labor was a civilizing task, which brands white men, then, humanizing labor does not make room for slavery.

However, the informatics of authority, which Haraway discusses in his manifesto, is specifically engrossed with the association between automations, labor, and assets. In the past 15 years, after the publication of his book, these facts became clearer to the public (Jin, & Hjorth, 2017). The growth of the internet gave philosophical and substantial provision to modern trends toward increasing flexibility within the workplace, persistence reskilling, self-employed tasks, and integration of practices. Publicity crusades and business manuals claim that the internet is a means through which one can gather information.

Digital labor labels value addition actions performed by people on internet platform. As an area of education, it concentrates on situations where an employer-employee interactions and outdated methods of payment (Jin, & Hjorth, 2017). Eminence given to unwarranted content providers, online provisional employees, unidentified websites, and mobile application operators over high tech specialists, scientists, and hackers. Distinguished backgrounds information contends that value-creating tasks occur outside the solid outline of the workplace and salaried workforce: Imperceptible employment of females and minorities, irrelevant labor within information concentrated industries. More so, structuring on these perspectives, digital labor researches isolate the particular impacts of pervasive computing and utilization of digital technologies which in order to highlight undefined and frequently overlooked work.

It goes without say that work force is necessary and essential for any business, either small or a large-scale (Jin, & Hjorth, 2017). Each company needs to keep records. Consequently, handling information and paying the right wages so as to always keep the workspace activity. However, as time passed by the need for more sophisticated methods of keeping information emerged and reliable accounting systems came up. Consequently, the rise of corporations created the need effective labor force services through independent firms. Moreover, in recent times most business enterprises or firms   specialize in giving quality services and consultations, which can only happen with good, talented workforces.

 The present discussion on the duty of digital technologies and big data designs to prolong widespread differences and reliance on authority, prosperity, and information Highlighted informational gaps in the arena of digital labor researches (Terranova, 2000). The changing aspects of relegation of work on digital media need attention on all levels.

It is clear that rate at which internet users consume information rises daily (Terranova, 2000). Googling facts became the norm and a way of life. some websites platforms exemplifies a website that uses graphical methods such as  pie charts, pictures, graphs for illustration and ends up giving accurate, simple, and well-articulated information pertaining labor issues. In essence, after the issues of life and after all are said and done, the heavy usage of the internet calls for more labor policy formulation to prevent overexploitation.

Business enterprises have huge amounts of data at their convenience. The only challenge is deriving any meaning from the vast data resources and then interpreting knowledge into actionable strategy. Some companies adopted advanced analytics. The ability of changing learning culture or acknowledging culture from traditions depend on simple data or analog systems is an uphill task thus the need of applying technology and data. One of the tools of managing data is the charter of an institute, the policies, and functions, interaction of the firm with the market, structure, and forms of operations within the organization (Terranova, 2000). All of the above will help one designate data according to relevant functions, align goals to the subject matter of the company for the sake of gaining need, and achieve short and long-term goals effectively. In short, management of big data and channeling all the effort through big data interpretation and management gives accomplishes project goals. Regardless of the type of business one is operating, an entrepreneur needs to make use of valued data and ideals, which assists in good marketing skills, isolating the target audience, understanding the needs of the market, preferences hence making it easy tailor the business based on the client requirements. In order to do the entire above, one needs big data. Big data plays a central role in any business entity.

  In summary, the debate on free labor began in the mid-1990s when the public raised questions on digital labor by pointing out frameworks and platforms managing the market forces within the technological world. After the introduction of Pokémon GO on 2016, media outlet gave out varied perspectives on the gaming phenomenal. After the introduction of Pokémon GO on 2016, media outlet gave out varied perspectives on the gaming phenomenal. Their points of view ranged from industrious communal scopes of the game, to the darker controversies concerning separation, security, observation, and menace. For some, Pokémon Go is an optimistic practice, which will entertain and improve the lives of people. In terms of big data, this research will be able to This research will reflect on how big data is handled by big corporations such a Niantic through the game, Pokémon GO and the various privacy concerns that arises. The real-life dangers of using the app will be examined through the social deterministic lens and the “free labor” that contributes to generating revenue for Pokémon GO will be further explored. Utilizing my interview questions to further understand if users would still use this app despite being aware of the consequences. First, a user has to download the application to his or her personal smartphone and the reveal personal information in order to create an account for operation and playing the game. Hence, the game takes most of the users’ personal information for the sake of running the application.






Alha, Koskinen, Paavilainen, & Hamari. (2019). Why do people play location-based augmented reality games: A study on Pokémon GO. Computers in Human Behavior, 93, 114-122.


Chen, P., & Pai, C. (2018). Pedestrian smartphone overuse and inattentional blindness: An observational study in Taipei, Taiwan. BMC Public Health, 18(1), 1342.


Dorward, L., Mittermeier, J., Sandbrook, C., & Spooner, F. (2017). Pokémon Go: Benefits, Costs, and Lessons for the Conservation Movement. Conservation Letters, 10(1), 160-165.


Eysenbach, G., Bender, J., Li, J., Boisrond, P., Cyr, A., Das, G., . . . Bloss, C. (2018). Privacy Policies for Apps Targeted Toward Youth: Descriptive Analysis of Readability. JMIR MHealth and UHealth, 6(1), E3.


Jin, D., & Hjorth, L. (2017). Critical interpretation of the Pokémon GO phenomenon: The intensification of new capitalism and free labor. Mobile Media & Communication, 5(1), 55-58.


Niantic Privacy Policy. (2018, October 30). Retrieved April 2, 2019, from


Pymnts. (2017, June 01). Niantic Charges Pokémon GO Sponsors Up To 50 Cents Per Visitor. Retrieved April 3, 2019, from


Rangel, U., Keller, J., & Simpson, Jeffrey. (2011). Essentialism Goes Social: Belief in Social Determinism as a Component of Psychological Essentialism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100(6), 1056-1078.


Terranova, T. (2000). Free Labor: Producing Culture for the Digital Economy. Social Text, 18(2), 33-58.


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Annotated Bibliography


Hsieh, R. L., Lee, W. C., & Lin, J. H. (2016). The impact of short-term video games on performance among children with developmental delays: a randomized controlled trial. PloS one11(3), e0149714.


The purpose of this article is to investigate whether short-term video game improves the motor skills and functions in children with developmental delays. These children have lower physical and mental ability and the condition contributes to psychological distress to the family members.  Hsieh, Lee & Lin (2016) came up with a hypothesis that interaction video game can improve the health of the children with disability and as a result, reduce family negative impact.  It is true that video games are associated with negative effects such as aggressive behavior, attention problems, and scholastic problems, among other problems.  On the other hand, video games create an interactive environment where the user interacts with the images, video games provide entertainment and enjoyment and more importantly users improve motor skills.  The authors conducted a study and participants were children aged 3 to 12 years with developmental delays in emotional function, fine motor function, and cognition function. The study used a randomized controlled trial and PedsQl was used to measure the health-related quality of life.  The findings show that children with developmental delay and who received interactive-video-game improved physical health. This study is relevant as it provides the parents to the children with disability, teachers, and pediatric specialists with a piece of great information about the importance of media exposure to promote the health of children with developmental delays.



Blumberg, F. C., Altschuler, E. A., Almonte, D. E., & Mileaf, M. I. (2013). The impact of recreational video game play on children's and adolescents' cognition. New directions for child and adolescent development2013(139), 41-50.


In this article, researchers Blumberg, Altschuler, Almonte & Mileaf, (2013) examined if the video game has an impact on the children's and adolescents cognition. The authors point out that recreational video game play is associated with cognitive benefits among children and adolescents.  To test the hypothesis, the authors reviewed the current empirical findings and found that various recent researches and studies have documented the positive effects of video game not only to young adults but to all ages and genders. According to the Entertainment Software Association, 97% of children aged 12 to 17 years played the video game in 2012 and other recent findings have reported that children aged 8 to 14 years spend more than an hour in daily basis playing the video game. To find out if the video game impacts the cognitive ability, the authors used a wide body of research including the developmental psychology journals. The empirical findings from these sources show that children and adolescents who play video game increase skill performance, improve reasoning skills, and problem-solving strategies.  The research also reported that children and adolescents aged 12 to 20 years reported that they like playing the video game to benefit their learning, and to add academic value.  This article is significant and applicable in the education system and educators should incorporate digital games in school learning to promote learning and cognitive benefits.




521 Words  1 Pages


Impacts of Video Gaming


Positive Impacts of Video Gaming

Playing of video games has become very common in the society today. Almost every individual in the society has played a video game at one time in their life either in their phone or in the computer. There are many debates that have come about in reference to video games, there are those that argue that video games are destructive most especially for the young people and they negatively impact them. There are others that argue that video games are educative in nature and they help improve the some skills such as both social and educative skills that help people especially the young people operate more effectively. The urge to play a video game is in most cases motivated by boredom. This is after one has had a hard day at school or at work and it positively impacts on the player. Video games are educative in nature and help improve an individual’s innovative and social skills.

Playing video games is not as complicated which is one reason that has attracted many people to opt to play these games during most of their free time. Playing these games however requires knowledge and skills and this is what makes the games educative. A player has to always ensure that they are needs attentive to the game structure in order to understand the clues that are given within the game. The fun in playing games is that an individual is always challenged to be creative and attentive as they explore to find short cuts and any other easy tips that will help one to win the game (Jenny et al., 2017). Then main aim of playing a video game is to break the game and this can only be achieved by an individual that is attentive and creative.

There are opinions and insights that playing these games is time wasting and it causes people especially the young people to be lazy and lack concentration on other important matters in their lives. Parents particularly dislike video gaming terming it as a waste of time while the teachers at school associate playing of video games with irresponsibility, bullying and poor academic performance (Griffiths, 2010). Well this is wrong, playing of video games is not as bad as it is generally perceived, times have changed and video games are no longer just a form of entertainment for the children. Video gaming is effective for increasing both mental and corporeal skills and it essentially acts as an educative component that gives the players the chance to advance high thinking level abilities that can effectively be used to solve issues that people are faced with in real life (Jenny et al., 2017).

Games are fundamentally created as a form of relaxation for people after having a busy day or week. But it is important that these games are structured in such a way that they have puzzles that the players are expected to solve. This means that the players need to have some skills such as attentiveness and key to instructions offered in order for them to complete the tasks that are structure in these games (Jenny et al., 2017). This means that the players need to employ mental skill; planning and management are key skills that need to be employed by the players. This helps them to use the few resources that they are given effectively in order to complete the games and these help players to equally incorporate these skills in their lives as they deal with various real life issues (Drummond & Sauer, 2014). Playing of these video games hence helps the players to learn ways in which they can effectively increase their attentiveness and organization skills to improve their lives.

The aim of playing video games is to win, which is a really great feeling that motivates one to keep playing. The urge to always win is impacted on the players and this is reflected in their real lives where they always work as hard as they do in the games to achieve their life goals and that is what winning is all about. The games help these players to understand that winning does not come easy, one has to work hard and pay attention to instructions and also dedicate time in order to achieve set goals (Griffiths, 2010). Most of the times people, enjoy playing games with their friends as they discuss various matters of life and this makes these games an effective element of improving social skills. Most of these games require several players and one has to understand the concept of team work in order to achieve set goals. The games help the players to understand the importance of interacting with other people and to learn to give every individual a chance to air their thoughts and respect every person’s opinions. A player has to recognize that individuals have altered traits and interests, thus permitting a player to learn how to pay attention to other people’s thoughts and also create their own pronounced ideas that helps them win the game. When the opinions of the players are acknowledged, this acts as a basis of motivation and upsurges one’s self-assurance, and this effects on their real lives encounters where they confidently tackle any issues that they are faced with (Drummond & Sauer, 2014). This element can encourage one to apply this self confidence in real life conditions assisting one to achieve many things that they were scared to try out.

There are many ideas that can be generated from playing of video games. The games have creative themes that ensure that though the games are used for leisure, they also act as an educative tool and people can incorporate what they learn in the games in the real world to help improve the society (Drummond & Sauer, 2014). A good case example is in the design virtual domain where the design themed games that are generated provide the rest of the ecosphere an opportunity to alter the game by integrating new thoughts which they use to generate towns in the game. This type of games give the players a chance to generate new concepts which they try-out in these games and the success motivates these players to be innovative and they generate actual ideas that they apply in real life to build better societies (Griffiths, 2010). Video have really helped to reduce the cases of drug abuse and also other violent actions that are associated with idleness among the young people. Video games provide the young people with something to do when they are not in school which helps them to be busy thus also reducing cases of depression that is in most cases associated with drug use (Griffiths, 2010).

Video gaming is something that should be recommended in the society most especially in schools as a good way of improving innovative skills and reducing destructive thoughts in students. The world today has become sophisticated and it is associated with high technological skills, a selection of good computer games can act as a good source of learning experiences for the young people which will give them a place in the digital world.

















Drummond, A., & Sauer, J. D. (2014). Video-Games Do Not Negatively Impact Adolescent

Academic Performance in Science, Mathematics or Reading. PLoS ONE, 9(4), 1–5.

Griffiths, M. (2010). Online video gaming: what should educational psychologists know?

Educational Psychology in Practice, 26(1), 35–40.

Hoffman, B., & Nadelson, L. (2010). Motivational engagement and video gaming: a mixed

methods study. Educational Technology Research & Development, 58(3), 245–270.

Jenny, S. E., Schary, D. P., Noble, K. M., & Hamill, S. D. (2017). The Effectiveness of

Developing Motor Skills Through Motion-Based Video Gaming: A Review. Simulation & Gaming, 48(6), 722–734.








Section B

  1. Through this assignment, I have learnt that in order for one to present a strong argument, facts are needed. This means that one has to do enough research to back up every details of the argument and also ensure that one is open to broader ideas. This experience has helped me improve both my research as well as
  2. This course has made me learn that I really enjoy doing research which is a great attribute that can help me become a great writer. In the past I have always struggled with getting the right research material for my essays. I have now learnt that before I decide what sources to use to write an essay, I need to come up with some key words that are helpful in getting the right sources. I can now confidently write any essay topics without fear of getting out of context because I know how to get the right research material.


1468 Words  5 Pages

Business Memo: Driving Value from Business Information Systems




Subject: Business Information Systems use In Driving Value


This memo is purposed to informing you of my plan and intentions of utilizing this week’s learning in the final project of the selected organization which is Amazon. Amazon Corporation was selected given that it is widely utilized and has created a positive impress in its online services both for individual and expertise reasons. I intend to select the most useful resources which are reliable and valid. In addition, I will only utilize sources with detailed data in reference to information systems and information sources. The plan will only consider the most secure, reliable and accurate information systems and data resources. Amazon is the largest online retailer on the global scale it depends seriously on information systems, thus it is essential that they settle for the appropriate and reliable sources that can result in the rise of the company’s performance and efficiency (Pearlson, Saunders & Galletta, 2016). In incorporating the week’s learning in the major project, it will, therefore, be necessary to comprehend how organizations utilize business learning strategies in enhancing innovativeness, business procedures and sustaining a competitive edge.

Business information can be categorized as an important support system for an organization that is mainly objected at acquiring efficiency (Pearlson, Saunders & Galletta, 2016). Amazon is in need of increasing the consumer’s comfort thus permitting the generation of fresh produce in the industry while reducing their operational expenses. The use of information systems has benefited the corporation in boosting its consumer base through the creation of flexibility and convenience. amazon focuses on Stack ranking thus creating unhealthy competition that in turn generates poor management, poor collaborations, and increased turnover rate. I would recommend that the company gets rid of the stack ranking in order to empower its staffs and create a favorable working surrounding.

It is particularly impossible for any innovative contemporary business to operate smoothly without the assistance of information systems particularly specifically being an online corporation such as Amazon. Timely, reliable and accurate information are among the most significant infrastructural aspects on which all the operations and services offered by Amazon are based (Stair & Reynolds, 2017). In the recent years, e-commerce business, in particular, has focused mainly on electronic processing with the assistance of information systems. All the existing organizations are designed effectively in acquiring the desired results. Some of the elements that create a comprehensive information system for a business are networks, data resources, soft as well as hardware (Stair & Reynolds, 2017). However, in acquiring efficiency through the use of this systems employees as a crucial aspect in driving value as well as the application of information systems. Therefore organizational change is needed to promoting a culture that is focused on processes so that Amazon can initiate value from the use of information systems.

In other words, the main objectives of a process focused organization are to lower human flaws while increasing the effectiveness of the company (Rainer & Cegielski, 2011). I, therefore, suggest that Amazon adopts the process-oriented system as its culture which will be essential in sustaining a competitive advantage and generating more value. This culture will seek to generate consumer satisfaction while improving the general productivity. Amazon cannot acquire maximum value without focusing on innovation the reason why its employees are an essential aspect in driving the capability of the information system.








Pearlson, K. E., Saunders, C. S., & Galletta, D. F. (2016). Managing and using information systems: A strategic approach. Wiley.

Rainer, R. K., & Cegielski, C. G. (2011). Introduction to information systems. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons.

Stair, R. & Reynolds, G. (2017). Fundamentals of Information Systems. Cengage Learning.

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Internet usage policy


 The internet is very important in carrying out business operations and in an ideal situation; internet should be used by employees only for business purposes. Sadly, the workplaces are not normally ideal and organizations are exposed to misuse of any system including internet by the employees and other users. Increased number of internet users in the workplace means that cases of internet misuse will increase and any business will face more risks and loss of working hours. Where employees can access any site in the internet and download anything, there are more risks that computer systems are exposed to. It is possible to download files that contain malwares such as viruses and spyware which poses huge risks to computer systems in any business. This calls for a need to have an internet policy that will ensure that any threats posed by internet use to the business systems are minimized and eliminated. The policy is also important to ensure that employees are taught the risks associated with inappropriate use of internet.

Research – literature review.

While embracing the use internet in a business by employees, it is unwise to underrate the potential risks and damaged the organization is exposed to. Despite the many benefits of using internet in business, there have been increasing cases of employees using internet and this has become a serious problem to employers due to various threats involved.  Various surveys have offered partial support for such concerns. It has been reported that on average, any employee in United Kingdom spends at least 57 minutes daily surfing the net during working hours.  In another research 51.1 percent of the participants reported to using internet in playing video and downloading music, films and personal files (Saraç and Aydem Çiftçioğlu, 3). This research demonstrates that on in two users of the internet in the workplace tends to visit entertainment sites or other activities not related to workplace.  There is always the need for protecting both tangible and intangible assets in the organization, in a world where there are many cyber activities that are harmful to business information and employee personal safety.

 Where there is no regulation on internet use by employees, the business can be exposed to hackers that are becoming increasingly sophisticated and are constantly creating tools that can penetrate business networks. This will always be to the detriment of the business and its clients. Such hackers may be working on behalf of other parties such as competitors, criminal enterprises or other agencies, but they all have the same aim of gathering as much valuable and essential information as possible(Saraç and Aydem Çiftçioğlu, 5).  In fact, various organizations such as Sony and Citibank, which are multinationals, have been victims of such attacks regardless of their size. Therefore, smaller businesses are at more risk of being exposed to such attacks since they do not have massive capital to invest in complex security systems. In addition, most non-work related uses of internet such as downloading files and videos, streaming videos and internet music are costly and bandwidth hogs. While such applications may to have direct cost effect on the business, cumulatively using them can lead to consumption of available bandwidth for the organization.

 In addition, there is potential lawsuits and liability that may result from inappropriate internet surfing by employees and such issues are quite real. Lawsuits due to just incident can get the graphic design shop that is currently doing well into legal procedures that drains resources and extend for long periods. Just a single person and using internet can entangle a successive organization into messy litigations that will undermine its growth and profitability. It is obvious that employees in present business environment depend on internet for daily operations and workflow and limiting access can easily impact on productivity (, John, and Loopesko,7). Due to this, the design shop should consider relying on internet in maintaining workflow and seek to reduce and mitigate any risks or threats related to the usage of internet by employees.

 Inappropriate surfing is very difficult to classify since what one employee may consider to be right can be viewed as offensive by other employees due to subjectivity inherent nature of determining content that is offensive or inappropriate (Yan, 558). It is therefore wise for the graphic designing shop to restrict the usage of internet by all employees for business functions only.  From the legal point of view, adopting such an approach minimizes the liability of the business. In addition, a strategic technician solution should be found that will ensure that a device that is implemented for the purpose of permitting or blocking any traffic to specific websites in the bases of content (Yan, 557). Hence, implementation of a device that can be used to determine the level of appropriateness so as to manage internet access transfers the burden of liability from the business to the provider of such solutions (Yan, 558).  The use of a technical solution should be included in the policy, so as to prevent any download of risky files and videos or copyrighted materials from getting into the businesses network.

The case of the graphic design shop

Considering the above review, lack of regulation in the use of internet may present a challenge to the business in regard to malware exposure and litigations. Like any other business that has to rely on internet in ensuring continuous workflow, the graphic design business is not an exceptional and measures have to be taken to develop and enforce such regulations. Theses malware can expose the business’s computer systems to a lot of harm and can also lead to phishing which criminals and unethical business can use in retrieving and valuable information from the business. By directing users into fake sites vital client information and project information may be retrieved by outside parties which can be costly to the business. The different unwanted agents have the potential to drain the productivity of the shop significantly if the internet access is not properly managed. 

An infection in the business systems may prevent employees from doing their daily operations and tasks while the process of removing such spam can distract the workflow in the shop. Moreover, inappropriate websites can direct the attention of the employees towards unproductive activities and this will eventually affect the growth and profitability of the business (Yan, 557). The management has to direct workers away from unproductive web surfing and towards tasks that they have been assigned.  This will enable the business to prevent issue of litigations emerging from inappropriate web surfing that may infringe on other copyrighted products. Even if such risks are not observed presently in the shop, the can emerge as the business grows and more employees are recruitment to manage increasing operations and hence the need for adopting safety measures.


The graphic design shop should implement a policy for internet usage that will lay down ethical behavior in internet bowing by employees in the office. The policy should embrace a system for threat management which will content filtering so as to ensure employees are not misusing time in visiting inappropriate websites or downloading risky materials. The policy should also involve training employees on risks posed by the internet to valuable business information and operations and the cost of any litigation that may arise from misuse of the internet. Drawing up the policy should involve the various sections in the office and create and mostly involve the input of IT section in ensuring that business information and employees are protected (Yan, 557). Collaboration with employees should be emphasized to ensure that the policy on internet usage is comprehensive and according to the needs of the business and employees.

 The content of the policy should include how to use the internet safely, spotting and averting any risks that the business may be exposed to. Specifically, the policy should highlight that should internet should majorly for the purpose of carrying out business operations while allowing personal use only when work and the business at large is not affected. The policy should ensure that employees are taught on the major risks of the web, and how to respond to such risks if noticed.  To ensure that the business and its operations are not jeopardized in any way, the business has to consider ways of filtering the content and restricting sites that can be visited by employees.  This policy should lay out the consequences of violation but not affect business operations negatively.


Saraç, Mehlika, and B. Aydem Çiftçioğlu. "What Do Human Resources Managers Think About the Employee’s Internet Usage?." (2014). 3-6


Yan, Zheng. Encyclopedia of Cyber Behavior. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, 2012.557-558

Ruhnka, John, and Windham E. Loopesko. "Risk Management Of Email And Internet Use In The Workplace." The Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law: JDFSL 8.3 (2013): 7.


1478 Words  5 Pages

Project programming and intervention

The applied project in public health is a project that is done by the MPH students with their main purpose being to know in depth how effective the overdose prevention methods can be on long-term basis so that harm can be subsidized as much as possible. Such an intervention is very important in the current and future days due to the fact that most people are suffering from overdose medication. The number of those who neglect the doctor’s prescription is getting at its peak while some opt to take over-the-shelf drugs which are not prescribed. As a result, overdose effects have hospitalized thousands of patients across the United States as much more consequences are felt.

The project is much concerned with the youths and adults who are unable stick to the prescribed amount of medication. The initial program targeted adults who range between 20 to 50 years of age for intervention. It was a model composed of a number of integration steps that could offer the best evidence-based educational intervention to the target group. This research will employ Secondary Analysis of Archived Data (SAAD) method to evaluate the project as well as identify its effectiveness (Rodriguez et al, 2016).  In order to examine the effectiveness of the modeled program, a separate program will be used. It will act as the blue print of the intervention done by the MPH students.

Describe the agency and organization

The applied health project is working under the support of an organizational unit called Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). CDC is an organization that works with the state public health agencies that was established with an aim of strengthening the university-based prevention intervention centers (Rodriguez et al, 2016). It offers a more systematic program for disease control at regional and local levels. The organization has tried to come up with modern and uniform approach of surveillance of public health based on the health records that portray the health status of the community.

How those factors affect the program planning for your Applied Project

One of the most significant factors is the involvement of the key staff members and resources in during the planning. This factor is basically viewing at the project leadership which by far extent affects the planning of the project (Snyder, 2013). Bodies such as the project committee, sponsor, and the project team must be actively involved in the project planning for it to be successful. This may also affect the allocation of workgroups, time scheduling and funding of the project. The other factor is the project scope. It affects how documentation of changes is made, how the management of the schedule will be moved and also how different methods of interventions shall be applied. The scope factor also determines how planning on challenges is going to be made (Snyder, 2013).

The other factor is the nature of the specific situation of the target audience. Understanding the nature of the overdose extent of the participants would affect positively the planning process. This is because team members will be able to make the relevant choice of tools and techniques that will apply in the intervention (Snyder, 2013). On the same note, availability of guiding resources can also help in the planning process. This may include project planning manuals and previous project reports. All these factors have an effect on the planning process of the project (Snyder, 2013).




Rodriguez, J. L., Thomas, C. C., Massetti, G. M., Duquette, D., Avner, L., Iskander, J., & ... Richardson, L. C. (2016). CDC Grand Rounds: Family History and Genomics as Tools for Cancer Prevention and Control. MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, 65(46), 1291-1294. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6546a3

Snyder, C. (2013). A project manager's book of forms: A companion to the PMBOK guide, fifth edition. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.

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639 Words  2 Pages

Visual displays of data

            This means presentation of data in a graphical or a pictorial format and is seen by most disciplines as a contemporary correspondent of visual communication. The main goal of data visualization is to pass information efficiently ad clearly through graphs, information graphics and plots. Arithmetical data may be set using lines, tools and bars in order to communicate a quantitative message visually. If this is doe effectively, it helps the user to analyze and reason about the data and evidence. It also helps in making complex data simpler, usable, accessible ad understandable. It helps the users who have particular analytical tasks like comparing and understand causality in following the task. Tables are normally used where users for users to look up a certain measurement. Various types of charts assist in showing relationships or patterns in the data for one or various variables (Tufte, 2006).

            Data visualization is a science and an art because some see it as a branch of graphic analysis while other people view it as a grounded theory. It is used by decision makers to view analytics that are visually presented in order to grab complex concepts as well as identifying new patterns. Interactive visualization helps in taking concepts further through using technology to present into graphs and charts. This process has been used for centuries from maps and graphs to the innovation of pie charts. It has been made it possible by computers to process huge quantities of data in a faster manner. It has recently become a fast developing merge of art and science. It is meant to make changes to the corporate landscape in the next few years to come (Pauwels, 2006).

            Big data is significant as it is a potential for great opportunity in big Companies and banks. Due to the manner that human brain processes information, use of graphs and charts to picture large amounts of difficult data is simpler than using reports or spreadsheets. It is a rapid and easy way to express ideas in a universal manner. It also makes it possible to conduct tests with different situations through adjusting slightly. It is also used in recognizing areas that require concentration or development. They also help in clarifying the factors that influence the behavior of customers. They also help in understanding the kind of products to be placed in a particular place. Data visualization is also used in predicting sales volume. However, there are challenges that are involved in data visualization such as IT team being faced by many requests for information. Decision makers are also disturbed as it may take a long time to have answers of particular questions. This means that it is not easy to manage big data as well as presenting it in a manner that business leaders may understand and apply it. There can be an important effect if visual analytics are paired with big data. The other challenge is the way to access and analyze huge amounts of data in a faster manner and how to feature in quality of data. Effective data visualization should be able to make the viewer to consider the substance instead of the methodology, the design or even the technology of producing the graphic. It should also be effective in such a way that it does not distort what the data has to show (Love, 2008).





Tufte, E. R. (2006). The visual display of quantitative information. Cheshire, Conn: Graphics Press.

Pauwels, L. (2006). Visual cultures of science: Rethinking representational practices in knowledge building and science communication. Hanover, N.H. [u.a.: Dartmouth College Press [u.a..

Love, N. (2008). The data coach's guide to improving learning for all students: Unleashing the power of collaborative inquiry.

622 Words  2 Pages

Wifi Positioning System (WPS)

It is factual that with the influx of GPS, location-based mobile apps and services have increased significantly making it easy to trace where one is just in case one does not know the place. However, it appears that GPS fails once a person is inside the building (Guo, 2014). The reason why GPS tends to fail inside a building is based on the fact that signals are carried by waves at a frequency that cannot enable them to pass through solid objects. GPS appliances receive signals from a satellite where most of the times the frequency does not penetrate some solid barriers (Yuanfeng, Dongkai, Huilin & Chundi, 2016). Additionally, when the GPS signal is inside the building, it is exposed to a variety of barriers and interferences thus making it hard to locate the position of an individual. This is the reason why one ought to use an alternative method to site the location while inside the building. Therefore in this case, the alternative is WiFi positioning system (WPS). WiFi positioning system (WPS) is used in indoor positioning where specific data is transmitted to WiFi access point (Woo, Jeong, et al, 2011). Unlike GPA, WiFi is effective in that it sufficient, it provides back channel and in indoor positioning, GPS is not used.   ‘Received Signal Strength Indication’ and ‘Media Access Control’ are used together with fingerprinting method in helping the app to use a database and calculate the location (Mautz, 2008).  In order to get the accuracy in indoor positioning, factors such as available networks, walls shielding and more are considered.   In addition, accuracy is measured from 5-15 meters and sensor fusion can help to view the accuracy and unlike GPA, WiFi helps in detecting the floor level. Generally, this paper will focus on how the WiFi positioning system works together with the benefit of the WiFi signal connection.

It is perceptible that indoor navigation using WiFi is being significantly used in the contemporary number of projects (Yang & Shao, 2015). The reason is because there a wide variety of existing WiFi signals that can be used for indoor navigation. Furthermore, positioning requires the user only to enable WiFi connectivity in the phone without login requirements. Precisely, WiFi positioning system enables the phone to calculate the position of the user by combining the “fingerprint” of the available WiFi hotspot together with the data taken from accelerometers of the phone (Yang & Shao, 2015). Using the signal strength and the distinctive IDs of all the existing WiFi hotspot, the WiFi positioning system using the compass of the device is able to site the location of the user. These things are matched against data acquired from the area accessed through the internet or from data contained in the device. The estimation of the location can be effectuated if the device moves to some extent because WiFi positioning system’s algorithms is able to gather numerous fingerprints from the available WiFi hotspots (Van Haute, De Poorter et al, 2016). The accuracy is refined by the compass and accelerometer signals which capture the footsteps of the user as the device is moving around. However, it appears that the WiFi positioning system requires similar data to be gathered from the building ahead of providing location fixes of the same building. This means that another person with the same but special app should walk around the building several times (Van Haute, De Poorter et al, 2016). This helps the system redevelop the navigation area by capturing the patterns of WiFi fingerprints. As a result, the device is able to trace the map of the place so that the WiFi positioning system can obtain that data to spot the location of the user in the building (Petrenko, Sizo et al, 2014).

Under the basis of WiFi connection, it is factual that every WiFi access point starting from router, customer hotspot to internet- enabled point of sale system, transmits certain definite data (Petrenko, Sizo et al, 2014). Thus for WiFi positioning system, through Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) and Media Access Control (MAC) address, the mobile app is able to calculate the current position of the device user. This demands for a database with information regarding the specific location which can be compared with while spotting the position of the user.  This process is known as fingerprinting. Because of the technical restrictions of the operating systems of mobile devices, fingerprinting functions only with android operating system. Therefore, it is undeniable that WiFi positioning system cannot work with iPhone operating system (iOS). Under the Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI), the device is able to obtain various values of signal strength within the building. RSSI is a scale that is used to calculate power levels of the signal received by the device from a wireless network. Different positions have different signal strengths which make up a map of the building (Pathak, Palaskar, Palkar & Tawai, 2014). In deriving the position of the user in the building, the map is used to compare the signal power values recorded by the portable device and by comparing with the values in the map, the position of the user is identified (Helhel & Kocakusak, 2016). Precisely, the positioning using fingerprinting is done using two ways which include using neighbors where distance between RSSI reading points and reference points fingerprint are used to determine the position of the device, and use of statistical data of the fingerprint to estimate the position (Helhel & Kocakusak, 2016).

Generally, use of strength of network signal to calculate the distance of the user is called WiFi trilateration technique (Bobescu & Marian, 2015). This technique is broken down to Spherical Trilateration Algorithm which utilizes different factors such as frequency of the signal, address and actual coordinates of the access points, and signal strength among others (Bobescu & Marian, 2015). As aforementioned, the signal strength as received by the device can be used to determine the distance between the device and source of the signal (Sapiezynski, Stopczynski, Gatej & Lehmann, 2015). This means there has to be several access points within the building which can be used to determine the location that the mobile device is receiving the signal. The strength of the signal at these points varies exponentially which depend on the distance between the device and transmitter (Sapiezynski, Stopczynski, Gatej & Lehmann, 2015). Thus, this dependence is taken as a function of distance. The estimated distance using the strength of the signal is presented with a circle which represents the access point. The intersection of three circles provides the location of the device user.

Literature Review       

With the widespread encroachment of mobile internet which has resulted to extensive use of internet services, the demand on indoor positioning has increased tremendously (Rui, Qiang, Changzhen, & Jingfeng, 2015). This has resulted to development of different kinds of apps that support navigation inside the building where GPS appears to be ineffective.  Citing from the fact that GPS does not work inside a building, researchers have established ways of using WiFi networks to determine the position of an individual within the building (Rui, Qiang, Changzhen, & Jingfeng, 2015). WiFi indoor positioning has been successful because most of the buildings in the contemporary technological world are installed with WiFi network connections. In this case, the ordinary WiFi indoor positioning algorithm that uses fingerprinting is more effective since it does not depend on access points to estimate the location of the device user (Rui, Qiang, Changzhen, & Jingfeng, 2015).

However, it is factual that fingerprinting approach appears to face two major challenges regarding its application. One of the drawbacks includes time consumption during offline acquisition process to create a map of the building. The other challenge is based on the inaccuracy associated with fingerprinting approach (Rui, Qiang, Changzhen, & Jingfeng, 2015). The accuracy of the approach can only be determined at 2-5 meters. Precisely, indoor positioning can be broken down into three groups which include proximity algorithm, scene analysis algorithm and triangulation algorithm (Rui, Qiang, Changzhen, & Jingfeng, 2015). For proximity algorithm, the estimation of device position is done determining the relationship between WiFi checkpoints and target position in the building. As the device receives the signal from different access points, the position of the access point that exhibit strongest signal is regarded as the position of the device. On the other hand, triangulation algorithm uses principle of triangle properties where when the device receives signals from different access points, time and angle of arrival together with signal strength are used to estimate the distance between the device and access points (Makki, Siddig, Saad & Bleakley, 2015)). Lastly, scene analysis algorithm involves collection of fingerprints in the building which are used to estimate the position of the device using online data/measurements and the location fingerprints. Generally, these are the principles that are applied in development of WiFi positioning system.

Benefits of the App

  • The benefits of the app using WiFi positioning system for the indoor positioning include the following;
  • It promotes indoor positioning without using GPS
  • It detects the level of the floor
  • It estimates the position of the user within a large range – up to 100 meters (Kennedy, Kingsbury, et al, 2016)
  • It can use any existing WiFi network
  • Clients will enjoy a back channel

 The app is applicable in building navigation where GPS is basically inapplicable. For instance, navigation in complex buildings such as shopping malls, railway stations, exhibition halls, airports museums, hospitals, and industry buildings are some of the most potential places that WiFi positioning system app can be used (Zheng, Chen, Sun & Chen, 2016). Generally, the indoor navigation app enhances user’s services and minimizes the complexity of navigating in an unfamiliar building (Van Haute, De Poorter et al, 2016). However, the user is required to have a mobile device with android operating system. Some of the cases that the app can be used included while analyzing the walking routes and flows of the visitors, tracking the movement of goods, animals, vehicles and machinery, and navigating in buildings (Kennedy, Kingsbury, et al, 2016). It is noteworthy that to tack the movement of objects, WiFi tags ought to be instilled in the objects in order to be able to follow them (Helhel & Kocakusak, 2016).     


Sapiezynski, P., Stopczynski, A., Gatej, R., & Lehmann, S. (2015). Tracking Human Mobility Using WiFi Signals. Plos ONE, 10(7), 1-11.

Makki, A., Siddig, A., Saad, M., & Bleakley, C. (2015). Survey of WiFi positioning using time-based techniques. Computer Networks, 88218-233.

Rui, M., Qiang, G., Changzhen, H., & Jingfeng, X. (2015). An Improved WiFi Indoor Positioning Algorithm by Weighted Fusion. Sensors (14248220), 15(9), 21824-21843.

Yang, C., & Shao, H. (2015). WiFi-based indoor positioning. IEEE Communications Magazine, 53(3), 150-157.

Van Haute, T., De Poorter, E., Crombez, P., Lemic, F., Handziski, V., Wirström, N., & ... Moerman, I. (2016). Performance analysis of multiple Indoor Positioning Systems in a healthcare environment. International Journal Of Health Geographics, 151-15.

Petrenko, A., Sizo, A., Qian, W., Knowles, A. D., Tavassolian, A., Stanley, K., & Bell, S. (2014). Exploring Mobility Indoors: an Application of Sensor-based and GIS Systems. Transactions In GIS, 18(3), 351-369.

Helhel, S., & Kocakusak, A. (2016). Improved Indoor Location Systems in a Controlled Environments. Telkomnika, 14(2), 748-756.

Bobescu, B., & Marian, A. (2015). Mobile Indoor Positioning Using Wifi Localization. Review of the Air Force Academy, 1(28), 119-122.

Pathak, O., Palaskar, P., Palkar, R., & Tawai, M. (2014). Wifi Indoor Positioning System Based on RSSI Measurements from Wifi Access Points: A Tri-Lateration Approach. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 5(4), 1234-1238.    

Woo, S., Jeong, S., Mok, E., Xia, L., Choi, C., Pyeon, M., & Heo, J. (2011). Application of WiFi-based indoor positioning system for labor tracking at construction sites: A case study in Guangzhou MTR. Automation In Construction, 20(1), 3-13.

Yuanfeng, D., Dongkai, Y., Huilin, Y., & Chundi, X. (2016). Flexible indoor localization and tracking system based on mobile phone. Journal Of Network & Computer Applications, 69107-116.

Kennedy, A., Kingsbury, R., Coster, A., Pankratius, V., Erickson, P. J., Fagundes, P. R., & ... Vierinen, J. (2016). THERE'S AN APP FOR THAT. GPS World, 27(6), 58-66.

Zheng, Z., Chen, Y., Chen, S., Sun, L., & Chen, D. (2016). BigLoc: A Two-Stage Positioning Method for Large Indoor Space. International Journal Of Distributed Sensor Networks, 1-9.

Mautz, R. (2008). INDOOR POSITIONING - AN AD-HOC POSITIONING SYSTEM. Geodesy & Cartography, 34(2), 66-70.

Guo, H., & Hong Kong Polytechnic University. (2014). A mobile-phone based indoor WiFi positioning system. Hong Kong Polytechnic University.


2078 Words  7 Pages

Use of information technology

The Uber Company still has the plans of expanding their businesses in advancing the self-driving cars but not everyone is happy of their decision.  The Company’s independent cars have the safety drivers who are guiding them at all times.  Thus one of the Company’s hailing directors says that, “the company’s drivers should not be worried about the robots who are taking their jobs.” The Company will create more jobs that are connected to the self-driving cars thus creating other car maintenance jobs.  The company now has a lot of drivers doing R&D for the robotic self –driving cars and this is based on the whole records  that the company is having from the numerous rides the drivers have in a day which is increasing the growth of the self-driving car know how (Kokalitcheva,2016). 

            The Company ought to have new ideas and advantages about the self- driving cars but it’s true that the innovation of new things is hard to plan and to succeed.   A lot of modernizations need a long period of time since they are established up to the time they are used.  Like the Company above, their main problem is that they are speeding up their rate of diffusion of their innovation of the self-driven cars.  The Company should practice diffusion which is the way in which any modernized process is driven through certain modes over time and among members of the public.  “Thus innovation is not really important during the process of diffusion thus having the innovation is not just the role of using a normal pattern of new ideas” (Rogers, 2003). 

            Technology that is based on the social theory helps us on our direction-finding and understanding the technology domain. As the company making the self-driving cars acts on moving from the personal devices and machinery objects to the sociotechnical systems, makes nus think that such innovations are ways of assembling the universe rather than being simple world objects.  Thus through the company’s innovation, we get that technology are ways of organizations.  Michel called these kinds of technologies, the technologies that are controlled by power.  “These self-driven technologies are those that persons remake their persons” (Matthewman, 2011).















Everett M. Rogers, (2003). Diffusion of innovation. 5th Edition.  Free Press. 

Kokalitcheva, K. (2016).  Not EVERYONE Agrees On The Future Of Urber Drivers When Self-Driving Cars Arrive. 

Matthewman, S. (2011). Technology and Social Theory.  Philosophy of Social Science, 2nd Edition. 


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