Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

CONTRAST three differences between Benjamin Button and Toby Dammit and DISCUSS HOW they influence the satirical and hyperbolic Tone of the narratives.

33 Words  1 Pages

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

Structure and Form: Poetry Analysis
Please respond to the following questions:
1.    How does sound influence the meaning of the poem? What kinds of poetic devices of rhyme or sound are used? How do they influence the meaning of the poem? Cite lines and offer an interpretation of these.
2.    How is the poem organized in terms of internal structure? In other words, what structural principles does it employ? What do the choices of speaker, situation, and setting have to do with the poem’s structure? Again, provide examples by citing lines from the poem and offering an analysis of these.
3.    Every poem has a particular form, whether or not it adheres to a traditional stanza or verse form or to conventional ideas about line, rhythm, or spacing. Examine closely the form of any poem in this book, including its arrangement on the page and division into lines and stanzas. How does the poet use form to shape sound, emotion, and meaning? Cite lines from the poem as examples to show the relationship between the poem’s theme and its external form.




EDGAR ALLAN POE
The Raven

Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary,
Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore,
While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping,
As of some one gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door.
5 “ ’Tis some visitor,” I muttered, “tapping at my chamber door—
Only this, and nothing more.”
Ah, distinctly I remember it was in the bleak December,
And each separate dying ember wrought its ghost upon the floor.
Eagerly I wished the morrow;—vainly I had sought to borrow
10 From my books surcease of sorrow—sorrow for the lost Lenore—
For the rare and radiant maiden whom the angels name Lenore—
Nameless here for evermore.
And the silken sad uncertain rustling of each purple curtain
Thrilled me—filled me with fantastic terrors never felt before;
15 So that now, to still the beating of my heart, I stood repeating
“ ’Tis some visitor entreating entrance at my chamber door;—
Some late visitor entreating entrance at my chamber door;
This it is, and nothing more.”
Presently my soul grew stronger; hesitating then no longer,
20 “Sir,” said I, “or Madam, truly your forgiveness I implore;
But the fact is I was napping, and so gently you came rapping,
And so faintly you came tapping, tapping at my chamber door,
That I scarce was sure I heard you”—here I opened wide the door;—
Darkness there, and nothing more.
25 Deep into that darkness peering, long I stood there wondering, fearing,
Doubting, dreaming dreams no mortal ever dared to dream before;
But the silence was unbroken, and the darkness gave no token,
And the only word there spoken was the whispered word, “Lenore!”
This I whispered, and an echo murmured back the word, “Lenore!”—
30 Merely this, and nothing more.
Back into the chamber turning, all my soul within me burning,
Soon I heard again a tapping somewhat louder than before.
“Surely,” said I, “surely that is something at my window lattice;
Let me see, then, what thereat is, and this mystery explore—
35 Let my heart be still a moment and this mystery explore;—
’Tis the wind and nothing more!”
Open here I flung the shutter, when, with many a flirt and flutter,
In there stepped a stately raven of the saintly days of yore;
Not the least obeisance made he; not an instant stopped or stayed he;
40 But, with mien of lord or lady, perched above my chamber door—
Perched upon a bust of Pallas just above my chamber door—
Perched, and sat, and nothing more.
Then this ebony bird beguiling my sad fancy into smiling,
By the grave and stern decorum of the countenance it wore,
45 “Though thy crest be shorn and shaven, thou,” I said, “art sure no craven,
Ghastly grim and ancient raven wandering from the Nightly shore—
Tell me what thy lordly name is on the Night’s Plutonian shore!”
Quoth the raven, “Nevermore.”
Much I marvelled this ungainly fowl to hear discourse so plainly,
50 Though its answer little meaning—little relevancy bore,
For we cannot help agreeing that no living human being
Ever yet was blessed with seeing bird above his chamber door—
Bird or beast upon the sculptured bust above his chamber door,
With such name as “Nevermore.”
55 But the raven, sitting lonely on the placid bust, spoke only
That one word, as if his soul in that one word he did outpour.
Nothing farther then he uttered—not a feather then he fluttered—
Till I scarcely more than muttered “Other friends have flown before—
On the morrow he will leave me, as my hopes have flown before.”
60 Then the bird said “Nevermore.”
Startled at the stillness broken by reply so aptly spoken,
“Doubtless,” said I, “what it utters is its only stock and store
Caught from some unhappy master whom unmerciful Disaster
Followed fast and followed faster till his songs one burden bore—
65 Till the dirges of his Hope that melancholy burden bore
Of ‘Never—nevermore.’ ”
But the raven still beguiling all my sad soul into smiling,
Straight I wheeled a cushioned seat in front of bird and bust and door;
Then, upon the velvet sinking, I betook myself to linking
70 Fancy unto fancy, thinking what this ominous bird of yore—
What this grim, ungainly, ghastly, gaunt, and ominous bird of yore
Meant in croaking “Nevermore.”
This I sat engaged in guessing, but no syllable expressing
To the fowl whose fiery eyes now burned into my bosom’s core;
75 This and more I sat divining, with my head at ease reclining
On the cushion’s velvet lining that the lamplight gloated o’er,
But whose velvet violet lining with the lamplight gloating o’er,
She shall press, ah, nevermore!
Then, methought, the air grew denser, perfumed from an unseen censer
80 Swung by angels whose faint foot-falls tinkled on the tufted floor.
“Wretch,” I cried, “thy God hath lent thee—by these angels he hath sent thee
Respite—respite and nepenthe from thy memories of Lenore!
Quaff, oh quaff this kind nepenthe and forget this lost Lenore!”
Quoth the raven, “Nevermore.”

1062 Words  3 Pages

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

You will compose a poem which highlights the topic of discrimination and its effect on society. You will need to research the various types of discrimination found in societies and decide which type of discrimination you want to highlight in your poem. You will need to research about different forms of poetry and the elements and techniques of poetry writing.  You will need to choose a specific structure (sonnet, haiku, ode, free verse) for your poem and use at least four different poetic devices. In an oral presentation, you will need to read your poem and then explain the theme of your poem as well as your choice of structure and your use of poetic devices

127 Words  1 Pages

 

My Childhood

The amusement park is my home,

Pay attention to the concession stands, thrilling rides, and stunt doubles, they’ll make you go wow

Pay attention to mickey mouses, donald ducks, and silly ol’ goofy's that run the show

Pay attention to the ques of children behind cool Mr. Pop

All patiently waiting for their ice-cold, ice sweet, ice cream treats

Amongst other things, that was once me

 

Do you smell that?

Sizzling dogs sitting on the grates, and I don’t even hesitate to put them on a rainbow plate

One that already had a burger pizza sandwich with no vegetables of course

Lunch was always my favorite part

I could eat whatever I want, sleep whenever I felt like

Now I have to start my weight, otherwise, it will be too late

To start my race before I lose the path

 

I rode fear ghost a shady ride that claimed you would die

But I came out alive, more alive than ever before

With joy, glamor, and thrill written all over my face

The sound of fun was yet to fade

I could not define sorrows as they never knocked on my doors

I could smell a bright future

 

Aimlessly wandering through the arcade,

Me and my friends found a machine called a crusade

A shooting game where we killed stupid zombies

We’d then waste more money playing 2 on 2 air hockey

Nobody told us about tomorrow

 

Today I stand here helplessly,

My good friends are long gone I’m left with agony

The future is tough and rough I miss my past

My world is full of tears and joy long gone.

 

274 Words  1 Pages

 

‘The Lost Baby Poem’ by Lucille Clifton

Abortion is a topic that has instigated a lot of arguments and debates, there are those that support abortion and there are those that are against it. Those that support abortion argue that a woman has the right to do what she wants with her body and she should not be forced to have a baby that she is not prepared to have. The others argue that having an abortion is an act of murder because life begins after a baby is conceived. ‘The lost baby poem’ by Lucille Clifton is an abortion poem that brings to light some of the reasons why women go through abortion, some of the main reasons mentioned include poverty and fear of the well-being of their babies.

The poem is about a woman that reminisces about a child that she could have had if she did not have an abortion. The child was expected to have been born in winter, a time that is denoted by financial problems. The woman does not regret her decision because she feels that it would have been a mistake, but promises to take care of her other children. The poem that has three stanzas has no rigid structure and this helps in making the poem more personal. It helps the reader to understand and actually witness a mother explaining to her unborn child why she had to do to terminate her before she was born.

The first stanza of the poem, the speaker explains how she performed the abortion. ‘“The time I dropped you almost body down down to meet that water under the city and run one with sewage to the sea what did I know about water rushing back what about drowning or being drowned” (line 1-6). She keeps repeating herself and the lower cases are used on the ‘I’, symbolizing a sense of shame as a mother for what she did. She feels that after what she did, she does not deserve to be capitalized. The lower case is also to avoid making the poem s personal so that it applies to many other mothers of her time that did the same thing to protect their children. The poem ends with a tone of remorse, blame and even self-pity.

In the second stanza, the speaker makes excuses for why she did what she did, arguing that it was all for the benefit of the unborn baby. “You would have been born into winter the year of the disconnected gas and no car” (Line 7-9). She tries to explain that she was poor at the time and she would not have been able to take care of the baby.  The mother illustrates that where she lived at the time was far from the city “We would have the think walk over Genesee hill into Canada “wind” (line 9-10). She argues that even though she had the baby, it would not have survived and she would have had to ensure a loss. This stanza illustrates that this mother had many issues at the time that convinced her that abortion was the only way out.

The third stanza has a different tone and perspective from the first two stanzas, she is hopeful of the future and she has learned from the mistakes that she made. “If I am ever less than a mountain for your definite brother and sisters let the rivers pour over my head let the sea take me for a spiller of seas” (line 15-19), she promises to improve her ways and swears never to do what she did to her unborn child to her brothers and sisters. She understands that what she did was a mistake and she was forced by circumstances, she however promises never to allow the pressures of the world to force her to do what she did. The ending of the poem represents strength and courage of the woman to face the world without fear.

Clifton was born in Western New York State to a father that was a steel worker and a mother who was a laundress (Encyclopaedia Britannica, p 1). Her family origin gave her an advantage to understand the issues that faced women especially black women that had to fight for their place in the society and hence her feminist themes in most of her poems. This poem is personal to Clifton in that she at one time attempted a home abortion that was unsuccessful. Clifton tried to terminate her last born child Alexis with pills and coat hangers at her home, because she was not ready to have a baby (Lupton, p 7). The story of Clifton and the speaker in choosing abortion is a representation of the choices that women have to make, whether they are in high or even low social status.

Abortion in the 1970s was a common thing because it was a time before abortion was legalized, and the adoption system was not like the modern day open adoptions (Lupton, p 8). This was a time when America was facing stagflation and so taking care of children was not an easy option for many mothers (Lupton, p 8). The mothers that opted for adoption suffered great emotional distress because they had no way of knowing who adopted their children and how their children were doing. This is however not enough reason to support abortion. What this mother did to her unborn child in the poem was wrong and though she tries to justify her actions, her reasons are not worthy. All her stated reasons are speculations, she really had no idea what would happen. She presumes that it would be a harsh winter, but she really did not know whether this would happen. There are many children that are born in harsh winters and they survive just fine. The mother should have given the child a chance to live by being as strong as she is promising to be for the other children that she will have.

 Abortion is wrong; it denies a child the chance of living and it risks the lives of the mothers. Abortion also causes emotional distress on the mothers who feel ashamed of their actions, and always feel the need to apologise to their unborn babies as evidenced by the poem. Abortion should be illegalized because it I not any different from murder. There are many women who are struggling to get pregnant and they would really appreciate it if they were given a chance to have a child that they can take care of and call them their own. The adoption system should be well structure to facilitate proper care of children and to also motivate more mothers to opt for adoption services instead of abortion. The society should be educated on the negative effects of abortion and Adoption should be adopted as an effective strategy to help reduce abortion rates in America and the rest of the world.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

Clifton, Lucille. “The Lost Baby Poem by Lucille Clifton.” Poetry Foundation, Poetry

            Foundation, https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems/53239/the-lost-baby-poem.

Encyclopaedia Britannica. “Lucille Clifton.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia

            Britannica, Inc., 23 June 2019, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Lucille-Clifton.

Lupton, Mary J. Lucille Clifton: Her Life and Letters. Westport, Conn: Praeger, 2006. Print.

 

1209 Words  4 Pages

Poem analysis and biography of the poet

 ‘The Second Coming’

William Butler Yeats   

  Biography

 William Butler Yeats was the son to John Bulter and Susan Mary Pollexfen.  He was born in 1865, in Sandymount (Gonzalez & Emmanuel, 419).  As the eldest son, he got the opportunity to join Godolphin School and later joined the Metropolitan School of art  in Dubin from 1884-1886.  It is also important to note that Yeats was a member of the Anglo-Irish community.  Anglo-Irish was an ethnic group but since the group had lived in Ireland for hundreds of years, they had adapted to Irish life.  However, some Anglo-Irish could resist the way of life and they loved and respected England.  Yeats was patriotic to Irish and wished that the Irish could become a free and independent society (Gonzalez & Emmanuel, 419).  While in the art school, he was not a good student and he realized that painting was not his talent.  Instead, he could pay trips to the Irish countryside and he could meet his relatives, and he explored the Irish stories and legends.  Although Yeats started literacy work in 1882, in 1886, he officially started the literacy career and published his first dramatic poem known as ‘Masada' (Gonzalez & Emmanuel, 420).  Later, he published many other works such as ‘Crossways, ‘The Celtic Twilight', and others.  Yeats did not only engage in literacy career but he established societies and clubs that aimed at bringing together artists, and also the clubs' aim was  see that Irish achieved its independence and becomes free from England's authority (Gonzalez & Emmanuel, 420).  Note that throughout the 19th century, Yeats was interested in Irish politics and he was so much committed to Irish nationalism.

 During the Irish nationalism, Irish people wanted to stay away from foreign rule since it diminished their interest.  In all his work, Ireland was the literacy subject and he revealed the need to create a sovereign Irish (Powell et al. 456).  He wrote plays, produced dramas, and created the Irish National Theater Society.  He was the head of the national theatre until 1915.  However, while in the Irish theater, he was in love with Maud Gonne, who was an activist.  Yeats thought that Gonne would become his lifetime part but unfortunately, Gonne left him for another man.  Later, the nationalists and extra-nationalists criticized Yeats's work and argued that the theatre did not express the interest of the nation (Powell et al. 457).  However, she married Georgie Hyde-Less, who joined the Yeats' alliances to assist him in his poetry work especially on the use of mastics and spiritualism.  In 1922, Yeats received a Nobel Prize and gained a reputation throughout the 20th century.  He died in 1939 due to health issues.

 

 Poem analysis

 The Second Coming 

 First, the purpose of the poem ‘The Second Coming’ is to express the chaos and confusion, and the vision of the future.  In lines one to four, he uses the metaphors;  ‘The falcon cannot hear the falconer' to indicate that things are not working well or there is no order or control  (GALE, 1).Things have disintegrated and collapsed.  The society is failing and there is no morality since there full of mass killings.  The society is greed and it cannot control the anarchy and confusion (GALE, 1).  The poet says that the innocent or the good people are struggling whereas the powerful villains are enjoying.

 In analyzing the poem critically, the author reflects on World War 1 and the political turmoil that the Irish experienced during the 20th century.  Irish focused on civilization and it showed its nationalistic effort toward the achievement of civilization (Allison, 217).  Irish wanted to become a free state or in other words, it wanted to come out of the British dominion.  In writing this poem, Yeats has a positive future and he believed that one day Irish would come out of the authoritarian government.  Yeats and other volunteers engaged in the Civil War and they combined efforts to liberate the country (Allison, 217).  The first stanza is a reflection of the profound changes that occurred during this time.  

 In the second stanza, the poet gives a revelation of what will happen.  He relates this stanza with the second coming of Christ that is in the book of Revelation.  For example, when Jesus comes back the second time; the righteous will be saved while the unrighteous will be destroyed.  In the first line, he says that ‘surely some revelation is at hand' (GALE, 1).  When the revelation will be revealed, an image with the body of a lion and the head resembles a human being will come and the coming will be accompanied by a real shadow, and darkness.  The poet sees a vision that a time will come and the society and world full of chaos and violence will be changed.  Similarly, when Jesus comes back, the world will be completely changed and there will be a new earth and a new heaven.  The present world has a sinful state but the Christ who is the savior will destroy and save the just.

 In interpreting the poem, the poet uses political and religious ideology to assert that  Ireland would come out of the England authority.  He sees a future that is  full of peace and Ireland will experience great expansion (Allison, 218).  Note that Ireland wanted full independence and activists have joined the nationalistic movement to fight for independence.  As one of the Anglo-Irish minority, he has a sense of nationalism and believes that the social troubles will come to an end.  He foresees an apocalyptic revelation that the nations will experience a new age.  A new world is coming and there will be no more conflict (Allison, 218).  In the line ‘when a vast image out of Spiritus Mundi', the poet asserts that there is a connection between the world soul and the memory.  In other words, the poem has a religious belief that human beings will forget a traumatic situation and the Irish people will achieve their national identity.

 In the first stanza, the reader is taken in the world full of chaos.  It seems like the thing that is happening is a sign that the second coming is at hand when the world will be changed and the negative experiences will be chronicles.  In addition, the Irish will have a great future where people will enjoy freedom and autonomy (Allison, 219).  Even though the poem reveals a chaotic image where things are falling apart,  at the end  the country will experience a nationalistic pride. The war will come to end and Ireland will become a distinct region and rule itself.  However, to achieve freedom, Ireland has gone through difficulties since it has experienced mass killing but the present condition is a stepping stone to a  bright future(Allison, 219).  It is important to note the theme of the apocalypse is represented which means that justice will be achieved and the injustices will come into an end.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Work cited

 

Gonzalez, Alexander G, and Emmanuel S. Nelson. Modern Irish Writers: A Bio-Critical

Sourcebook. Westport (Connecticut: Greenwood, 1997. Print.

 

Powell, John, Derek W. Blakeley, and Tessa Powell. Biographical Dictionary of Literary

 Influences: The Nineteenth Century, 1800-1914. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press,

  1. Print.

 

Allison, Jonathan. Yeats's Political Identities: : Selected Essays. Ann Arbor (Mich.: University

of Michigan Press, 1996. Print.

 

GALE, C. E. N. G. A. G. E. L. E. A. R. N. I. N. G. (2016). POETRY FOR STUDENTS: A study

guide for william butler yeats's "the second coming.". DETROIT: GALE, CENGAGE

LEARNING.

 

1258 Words  4 Pages

The Poetry of Langston Hughes

 “Let America Be America Again”

Langston Hughes- 1902-1967

Reflection

The poem ‘Let America be America Again' is talking about the American dream which can be defined as the idea that everyone should achieve their dreams; that is, love, freedom,  equal opportunity, justice, and fairness (Hughes, stanza 1). Langston Hughes wrote this poem during the 20th century when poor White and Negro were denied liberty and freedom. I think that the American dream assured equal opportunity for all but African-Americans did achieve their dream. In stanza six, where he says ‘homeland of the free', Hughes uses a sarcastic tone to indicate that America has never been a free homeland.  In general, Hughes says that the American dream never occurred to the African-Americans and the immigrants.

 I have enjoyed reading the poem, and I feel that in writing this poem, Hughes desire to have the real America that was intended to have love, liberty, freedom, and equality (Hughes, stanza 5). Note that these positive features do not exist in America, but rather, America is characterized by tyrants' scheme, slavery, greed, gang, rape, among others (Hughes, stanza 3). Americans did not expect these things; instead, they desired a free homeland. Therefore, the narrator says that the dream is dead, and he appeals to the poor man to build a better America and make their dreams come true (Hughes, stanza 14). In describing how America looks like, he uses an angry voice.  However, at the end of the poem, the narrator uses a hopeful and optimistic tone by saying that ‘America will be' (Hughes, stanza 17). He calls the disadvantages, discriminated, and prejudiced to rise up and make America look as it was intended to be. 

 

 Langston Hughes.  Mother To Son

Reflection

 My personal reflection on this poem is that it is about a mother expressing her negative life experience. I believe…no crystal stair (Hughes, line 9), symbolizes how the life has been tough and full of pain, difficulties, troubles, sufferings, and adversities. However, the mother tells the son that she has never stopped making an effort. Therefore, she persuades her son not to give up in times of challenges, but he should continue to move forward to achieve his dreams.

 I feel that in writing this poem, Hughes was thinking about the African Americans and the poor living conditions they experienced in the 20th century. I think the narrator is an African-American mother talking to his son about the oppression and racial injustices they experienced.  Because the mother knows that her son will also encounter the same challenges, he urges him to persevere the ups and downs, and move forward for a better life (Hughes, line 9). I have gained hope and encouragement from this poem. Despite the troubles and challenges I encounter in life, I should persevere until I achieve my goals. The poem reveals the reality that life is full of difficulties, but despite everything, one should struggle until one reaches his or her desire.

 

 

 

 

 

Work cited

 Attached files

Langston Hughes- 1902-1967. "Let America Be America Again"

Langston Hughes Mother To Son

 

516 Words  1 Pages

 

‘The Arrival Of The Bee Box’ by Sylvia Plath

The poem ‘The Arrival Of The Bee Box’ by Sylvia Plath is a free verse and it contains eight stanzas. Seven of the stanzas have five lines and the last stanza is made up of a single line. This is a very unusual ending as it breaks the norms of most poems; the last stanza is more of an afterthought. The poem has no rhyme scheme and the meter varies from one line to another, which reveals a certain irregularity within a tight structure. The general form of this poem gives an impression of a structure that is extreme. The long lines that contains from 11 to 16 syllables, they are dominated by the controlling short lines that contain 4 to 8 syllables.

The basic theme in this poem is a search for control of the creative female self. The speaker uses symbolism as she indirectly talks about slavery which all relate to her anger and her need for control and freedom (Plath, line 13). Although the poem is about the reality of keeping bees, it is an extended metaphor of the emotional and creative energies of the poet who has lived a depressed life.

The bees in the box represent people like she who has been deprived of their freedom all their lives. These are people who are angry at the society for being deprived of their rights. The poet at the end illustrates her desire to be free which is referenced by her illustration that the agony is just temporary (Plath, line 36).

 

 ‘The Bee God’ by Ted Hughes

‘The Bee God’ by Ted Hughes is a 25 couplet stanzas poem. Although there is some uniformity in the poem, thoughts have been dispersed into small pieces as a result of incompleteness feelings at the loss of Plath. This is also a representation of the fragile mental state of Plath after the loss of her father. The fact that the poem is a free verse allows for conversational tone, which is as if the poet is speaking to Plath directly.

This poem is a reaction to most of the poems by Plath that link Hughes as one of the sources of her miserable life. In the poem, Hughes uses the title ‘The Bee God’ symbolically to represent the father of Plath who he illustrates was the cause of her pain and suffering. He further illustrates that he, just like Plath was just a victim and not the villain.

Through the poem, he tries to distance himself from the negative controlling profile created by Plath’s works on him. Hughes constantly uses the adverb ‘never’ to prescribe a sense of uncertainty that makes him look vulnerable (Hughes, line 1 & 8). This poem metaphorically objectifies Plath, making her a tool for Hughes poetic manipulation. Plath hence is hence

The word ‘Daddy’ is also symbolically used in the poem to help enhance the feelings that the problems that Plath had with her father were psychologically damaging and it affected her relationship and marriage (Hughes, line 2, 14, 17 & 30).

There is a concept of circular structure that is presented with the mention of the word ‘well’ both at the beginning and at the end of the poem linked with the father (Hughes line 1, 50). ‘Well’ is an imagery that represents darkness and being trapped. Plath was an individual always tormented by her father ever since she was young, and it is something that always came back around.

Works cited

Hughes, Ted. Birthday Letters. , 2009. Internet resource.

Plath, Sylvia, and Carol A. Duffy. Sylvia Plath. London: Faber, 2012. Print.

 

607 Words  2 Pages

 

Love

 

                                A strange                                                                            yet unavoidable feeling;

  People couldn’t live without                                                           Like drugs, the heart keeps on

             craving. Purely humans know about                                      No person can Nor science explain The

 theory of love The wonders it brought to the world are felt,     Warmth that’ll make us melt, Nobody

  can define Emotions love brought by, What is it to love? Not that I can think of How to see Iove, By heart

    or by sense, Almost still finding, Some already found, Others are still tirelessly searching, Others stopped

      But how and what, How to love, And how to be loved remains unknown, No one really knows, Though

        Love is very gentle yet unclear, Love is really unknown, People are unsure the true meaning of it,

           A feeling that warms the heart, A feeling that cuts deep, When taken jokingly, To love is to

              live happily together, to get through problems together To love is to assist one another, to

      build dreams for two, To love is to motivate each other, with genuine words of

praise, to always care, To love is to make memorable moments, of the good

    times spent together in life, To love is to defend one another, When

                                           the enemies attack , to truly love is to respect one another, Even

at worst times, To love is to stick together For better for

   worse, Because Love is patient, Love endures, for

      many years through fears and tears, Sharing a

          smile as a lover and a friend, Because at

the end, love conquers all, Love may

       get painful a times, And

         lovers may hurt  each

           other But all I know

             Love is the Best

    Feeling man

       has Ever

        known.

 

 

277 Words  1 Pages

Beowulf

 Introduction

Beowulf is an epic poem from Old English literature.  The poem was written during the early part of the 18th century in a Christian Britain and it reflects the memories of the pagan and also the Germanic origins. The important point about the poem is that the most essential virtue being presented is courage. Beowulf, the protagonist is loyal, brave and courageous, and these traits make him become the prime Germanic hero.  He is engaged in three epic battle, that is the battle with Grendel, the battle with Grendel's mother, and the battle with the dragon.  Beowulf's virtues are related to warlike courage and at the end of the war, his people define him as mild, gentle, and a kind man.  The poem is very creative and imaginative and the reader understands the origin of our language, the origin of the British people, and more importantly, the reader gets an insight of the life of people including the birth, the conflict, the fame, the spirituality, and more.  Generally, Beowulf is an epic Germanic hero of the poem, a courageous man and strong worrier who conquers three monsters: Grendel, his mother, and the dragon, and finally the battle costs him his life.

 

 Beowulf poem talks about Beowulf, the king of the Danes who kills Grendel, Grendel's mother, and the dragon (Bloom, 13).  In the first part, Grendel causes trouble in the hall by attacking people found in the palace and the king kills him. Then, her mother desires to revenge but Beowulf kills her.  Fifty years later, he kills the dragon and he later dies.  The main point is that Beowulf is a hero not only because he kills the enemies but also because he values the society and he looks forward to protecting it.  No matter the cost, he is there for his people and he focuses on saving them from evil (Bloom, 13).   Note that he is an epic hero because he risks his life so that he can accomplish better things.  The truth is that he supports nationalism and his heroic deeds defeated Denmark and Sweden and as a result, he builds a strong culture in Anglo-Saxon. In general, the poem, which is the oldest epic narrative plays a significant role in presenting the heroic tradition.  In specific, the poem presents the positive elements in an Anglo-Saxon culture which include bravely and loyalty (Bloom, 14). Note that the Anglo-Saxons adhered to loyalty and as a result, the governing system shared the tribal culture. Similarly, Beowulf is loyal to his kingdom and he overcomes the enemies and his fame spreads in the entire territory.

 

 

Beowulf's battle with Grendel

 

            The beginning of the story talks about Scyld Scefing, a great king who founded the Danish royal dynasty.  When Scyld Scefing dies, Beowulf becomes the ruler of the things that the king leaves behind and later Beowulf' son, Healfdene inherits the position and later, Hrothgar, Healfdene's son, takes over and becomes the ruler (Crossley-holland & Heathe, 106).  At this time, the rulers were expected to be loyal and faithful to the thanes and their relationship symbolized a heroic code.  Thanes played a significant role in the battle by being courageous and loyal.  When thanes were away fighting, the rulers were expected to reward the thanes by giving gifts, food, drink, shelter, entertainment, and sharing the wealth (Crossley-holland & Heathe, 106).  Hrothgar builds a festing hall known as Heorot to the king.   In the hall,   the king holds feats and gives out treasures and more importantly, the king makes the members recognize or be aware of the difficult times that will come.  During the festivities, the poet's audience makes noise, sings the song, and praises God and other practices that symbolizes how Grendel will be tortured.    According to the poem, Grendel killed his brother Abel and for this reason, all Cain's descendants are malevolent monsters and they strive against God (Crossley-holland & Heathe, 107).  Grendel becomes angry with the sounds coming from the when the night falls, he moves slowly into Heorot and grasps thirty thanes,  takes the feasts of men and goes back to his private place.   He repeats the same offense the next night but during this time, the thanes become frightened and move to sleep to another secure place.  He repeats this act for 12 years and despite the fact that Hrothgar is distressed due to the death of thanes,   Grendel is unappeasable (Marshall, 17). Note that as Hrothgar and the thanes use the hall during day time, Grendel takes up or spend time in the hall during the night.  Hrothgar and thanes report the matter to the heathen gods but Grendel's continues with his night evil.  Eventually, Beowulf gathers other fellow warriors and destroys the monster.  Note that the worriers who are known as the geats are well-armed enters into the mead hall. As they arrive, Beowulf talks to Hrothgar and tells him that he has come to compete for his mission.  Beowulf promises that he will use his courage and stretch and to defeat Grendel as he comes to conduct his evil acts in the hall.  During the night, Grendel creeps into the hall and starts to seize and devours the geats.  Unfortunately, Beowulf grabs Grendel and both engage in a fight and the monster is wounded and vanquished (Crossley-holland & Heathe, 109).  The Scyldings are so happy about Beowulf's tremendous deed and a great feast is held and Beowulf is given many gifts including horses, armor, and a gold collar.

 

Beowulf's battle with Grendel's mother

 

After the death of Grendel, the Grendel's mother avenges the death of his son.  Note that the mother had an aspiration for glory and he desired to revenge to gain fame.   She believes that through revenge, she would show her heroic deeds and win glory.  She says that ‘…it is always better to avenge dear ones than to indulge in mourning…' (Traidl, 48).  This indicates that rather than grieving, she must revenge and if she dies, then people will remember her because of her might deeds.  Before Beowulf engages in the battle, he talks to Hrothgar and tells him that when he dies, he should lead his people, give out the treasure to Hygelac and return the sword to its owner (Traidl, 48). After giving him the speech, he jumps into the water where he finds Grendel's mother. Unfortunately, the mother grabs him and takes him to his private place.  In the lair, Beowulf and the mother engage in a fight and suddenly Beowulf takes a sword placed in the corner of the lair but he could not lift it because it was so huge and heavy  (Marshall, 27). However, since Beowulf was strong and courageous,   fights the mother and overcomes her by cutting off her head.

 

 

Beowulf's battle with Dragon

After Beowulf overcomes Grendel and his mother, he moves from Denmark to Geatland and ascends to the throne for 50 Years (Rauer, 24).  Then, the dragon's rich hoard is robbed and the dragon becomes enraged and desires to revenge.  Beowulf, who is old but young in spirit attacks the dragon single-handed.  However, he is escorted by eleven men and carries a strong iron shield. He attacks the dragon but the dragon overwhelms him with deadly flames (Rauer, 24).  The companions flee but Wiglaf assists the Beowulf and they overcome the dragon.  However, Beowulf is left with a fatal wound but Wiglaf attends to him and he also brings him precious hoard ((Marshall, 43).   Beowulf is happy that he has won the treasure and later he passes away. 

 Focusing on the three epic battles that Beowulf fought, it is worth saying that the major themes of the poem are heroism.  In other words, Beowulf is an epic hero who demonstrates his heroism by being brave and courage (Rauer, 20).  Note that in Anglo-Saxon culture, heroes could show honorable behaviors and the will to fight.  Beowulf adheres to these norms and shows his will to fight by fighting Grendel, Grendel's mother, and the dragon.  Even though he costs his life, his name is not are not dimmed but rather, he creates fame and he is well remembered for his good characters (Rauer, 20). In addition to depicting the heroic nature of Beowulf, another important thing is that Beowulf heroic deeds represent a warrior culture.  The loyalty of the characters such as Beowulf being loyal to the king and Wiglaf beings loyal to the Beowulf enables them to overcome the enemies and pass the kingdom (Rauer, 24). Apart from being loyal, Beowulf is brave in that during the fight, he does not show fear but he remains courageous in the midst of adversity.  For instance, Grendel and his mother are malicious and they desire for vengeance which at the end costs their lives (Rauer, 28). This indicates that bravery is an important trait that enables him to attack the enemies and even if he dies, he creates a good reputation. 

 

 

Conclusion

 The research paper has analyzed the poem ‘Beowulf' which is about the events of the Germanic past.  The primary theme in the poem is about an epic hero who fights the forces of evil.  The poem shows concerns on human dignity and the heroic society, and more importantly the society's cultural heritage.  Beowulf is referred to as an epic hero since he engaged in a war fight and kills Grendel, his vengeful mother, and the monster.   Beowulf's courage and strength, and his selflessness are valued since they enable him to protect his people.  The poem represents the nature of heroism and the reader recognizes the heroic nature of Beowulf this his mighty deeds.  Note that Beowulf shows ethical codes such as loyalty and bravely and his great deeds makes him achieve everlasting fame.  It is also important to understand that in the Anglo-Saxon culture, loyalty is important and heroes focus on maintaining loyalty through gifts such as jewelry, horses, and others.  In the battle, Beowulf's primary goal is to attain an everlasting face. The Anglo-Saxon culture is also characterized by ethic code and this means that a warrior should be loyal to this lord.  Even though Beowulf takes place in Denmark and Geatland, it reflects the Anglo-Saxon culture and their traits such as loyalty and bravely.  Note that the poet focused on the values and beliefs such as strengths and courage.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Work cited

 

Marshall, H E. The Story of Beowulf. , 2007. Internet resource.

 

Rauer, Christine. Beowulf and the Dragon: Parallels and Analogues. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer,

  1. Print.

 

Bloom, Harold. Beowulf. New York: Bloom's Literary Criticism, 2008. Internet resource.

 

Crossley-holland, Kevin, and Heather R. R. I. O.-I. Odonoghue. Beowulf - the Fight at

Finnsburh. , 2008. Print.

 

Traidl, Veronika. Telling Tales About Beowulf: The Poems and the Films. , 2015. Print.

1789 Words  6 Pages

 

Introduction

            This poem had been written by Sylvia Plath and directed to her father. Sylvia comes from a town called Polish where there are wars and this had been making her to keep the name as secret forever.  Her father had died when she was ten. This poem had been written by a girl who had thought that her father had been God. The poem tries to bring out the idea of a female victim who had decided to go away from her father. The repeated rhymes and short lines have established top her childish figure status in relation to the father who had been ruling with all authority. This also shows the meaning of the use of the term “Daddy.” In the poem, Sylvia characterizes her father as a devil and vampire. The paper below also entails various literally devices that has been used in the poem

            The poem brings about the relationship between the journey of Plath and her father who had died while she was ten years old. She says that he, “do not do anymore” and she feels like she is similar to a foot that had been staying inside a black shoe for a period of thirty years where she could rarely breathe (Plath, n. p). Sylvia insists that she had been aiming at taking his life but unfortunately had died before the time of her plan. Plath describes her father as heavy as a bag that had been filled with God and the bag had been similar to a statue which had a big toe its head dipped inside the Atlantic Ocean. Plath claims that it had always been difficult to communicate to her father. She had been thinking that every single German was him even before he could utter a word. She had a feeling of being very much different from her father. She had been wondering if she could have been a Jew due to her sameness with gypsy. While Sylvia tries to explain the distance and fear towards her father, she refers to him as Luftwaffe with a blue Aryan eye and having a smart mustache. She had been thinking that “every woman adores a fascist” and the “boot in the face” that a man like her father would come with.

            The moment Sylvia tends to recall Daddy, thoughts had been usually coming in to her mind and sees him with a cleft chin instead of foot while standing on the blackboard. However this thought does not make Daddy a devil. Instead, Sylvia sees him as a black man (Plath, n. p). This man “bit [her] pretty red heart in two.” Daddy had died when Sylvia was ten years old and she had made attempts to join him while she was twenty years old but the attempt failed. Later, Plath had been brought back together and was able to realize her course. This caused her to make a model of Daddy and offered him “a love of the rack and the screw” and “Meinkampf look.” Sylvia goes on to promise Daddy that she had been “finally through” as the hook had been taken off from the telephone and there could be no travelling of voices through it. Sylvia had been having considerations that if she had been in a position to kill one man, that would have been similar to two beings according to her. Her comparison of Daddy to a vampire had been behind the feeling that he had taken her blood for a period of a year but according to her, the duration had been similar to seven years. Sylvia says that the villagers who had been despising him were now celebrating his death. Plath says that this had been happening through the villagers dancing on the ground where his body had been laid. Sylvia concludes by saying that “Daddy, Daddy, you bastard, I’m through.”  

Literally Elements

Flashback

            The author uses flashback when she says that her father died when she was ten she tried to reach him when she was 20 years, “I was ten when they buried you, at twenty I tried to die.“ There is also use of flashback where Sylvia says that she had prayed for her father to resurrect, “I used to pray to recover you.” This means that Sylvia had been praying to get the father back (Plath, n. p). 

Personification

            There is the use of personification where the author says that her town had been scrapped down by the roller of war, “In the German tongue, in the Polish town Scraped flat by the roller of wars, wars, wars.” This means that the there had been war in the town and this had made it popular hence the author did not want people to know the she had been belonging to it hence decided to never mention it (Plath, n. p). 

Metaphor

            There is use of metaphor where the author says that could rarely talk in the presence of her father as the tongue had been stuck, “It stuck in a barb wire snare.” This means that Sylvia had no freedom of expression in the presence of her father (Plath, n. p). 

Symbolism

            The author uses symbolism where she is referring to the situation she had been living in the presence of her father and is free now, “Any more, black shoe In which I have lived like a foot.” The author brings the meaning that the life she had been living did not allow her to express herself freely.  The author also uses symbolism where she created a model and refers to it as her father,” I made a model of you.” It means that after discovering her course, she made a symbol to represent the father (Plath, n. p). 

.Conclusion

            Sylvia had written the poem to explain her relationship with her father. The girl had been keeping the name of her hometown as the town had been associated with wars. The father had died while Plath was ten and she tried to reach him at her twentieth year but it failed and this made her come back to her senses and realized her course as seen in the above discussion. The theme in the poem had been grounded on bringing out the idea of a female victim who had decided to go away from her father. The girl was small as discussed above and had been able to give her father different titles. There has also been use of various literally elements as discussed above.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Work cited

Plath Sylvia. Analysis of the poem: “Daddy” Ariel. (2019).

 

 

 

 

 

 

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1107 Words  4 Pages

 

Theme of Death in Three Different Poems

There are numerous themes found used in poems. However, death is the most recurring theme for many years. Death is a common event that occurs to every human being. Death is universal, but many people still experience anxiety over death. Whether the theme of death results from fascination or a coping way for loss of loved ones, loss and grief is still a common subject amongst poets. Death is the major focus in ‘Remember' by Christina Rossetti's, Phyllis McCormack's ‘Crabbit Old Woman', and ‘Refugee Mother and Child' by Chinua Achebe. This paper analyzes how the three poets use different styles, imagery, and symbolism to explore death and its consequences on people.

In ‘Remember', the poet addresses her companion and urges him to remember her after she dies. She pleads with him to always remember her even after her memories begin to fade away. Finally, the narrator gives her lover a go-ahead to quickly forget her because it is good to forget and live happily than to have memories and be unhappy (Rossetti 13). The second poem ‘Crabbit Old Woman' presents an old woman who is at death bed. The nurses treat her unfairly, and her only wish is that they could see through her and not her physical appearance (McCormack 148). The last poem is ‘Refugee Mother and Child' which is based on the 1960s refugees in the Nigeria civil war. The poem shows the love and devotion of a mother towards her dying child (Achebe 30).

In Rossetti's poem ‘Remember', the poet strives to portray the pain and despair associated with death. McCormack's poem is a request for society to stop the stereotype that old people are hopeless, and do not require care when they are almost dying (McCormack 145). ‘Refugee Mother and Child' by Chinua Achebe shows the absolute love and devotion a mother has towards her child while knowing that her time with the child is quickly ending.

In Christina's poem ‘Remember', the poet claims that death might not always be the cause of loss and grief. Every person has a different interpretation about death, and each person's view is different from the other. Religion played a significant role in Christina's life, thus she is optimistic about death in her poem. Christina argues that no one knows about death, and refers to death as a ‘silent land' (Rossetti 28). Silence in most cases is used to describe a peaceful place without noise, with no war or conflict. In the modern world, silent places are scarce and mostly limited to churches and libraries. According to Christina Rossetti, death is an environment there are no problems and horror. Further, people will be able to meditate in silence.

In the poem ‘Remember', the poet attempts to make the reader to see death from her point of view. The death of a loved one is a moment of sorrow, however, people get used to the loss and focus more on the future, with the good memories shared to keep them company. To Christina, death comes to teach us the value of our family and friends, and to stop taking them for granted. The poet entirely changes the perspective of the reader through teaching them that death can occur at any time, and people should enjoy life to the fullest while it lasts (Vermeule 26). Also, death is a line between the living and the dead. Through her poem, Christina Rossetti reminds individuals of the importance of treasuring their loved ones, before death snatches them away.

The poem ‘Crabbit Old Woman' presents an old woman who tries to convince the nurses to stop stereotyping old people as hopeless and people who do not need proper care. The woman is nearing death and does not want the people to have such memories of her. The title of the poem itself brings a sense of death, as the old age is often associated with death. The first 22 lines contain questions towards the nurses and try to show the typical stereotypes that the nurses have when handling the old lady. Line 23-24 is the turning point of this poem "Then open your eyes/ you're not looking at me." (McCormack 152). In this line, the woman is demanding acknowledgment from the nurses. The initial attack on the nurses changed positively, and good memories as readers are taken through the old woman's life. The language changes from conversational to poetic style. The change is evident when the poet uses a metaphor "with wings on her feet" in line 34, which represents the freedom she once had, but not anymore. 

The next turning point of McCormack's poem is the induction of mood change from positive to negative. The use of tone such as "Dark days are upon me" in line 57 depicts her cold and fearful life. Also, the last parts of the poem contain imagery related to death "old carcass", "crumbles", and "battered heart". (McCormack 150). This imagery gives the reader a clear picture of what the woman goes through at her old age, and that she cannot escape her death. Lastly, although the woman is afraid of death she finally accepts her death as a "stark fact", and pleads with the nurses to look inside her and see the person she really is, instead of focusing on the physical body.

Similarly, ‘Refugee Mother and Child' to depict the horrors of death for Nigerian refugees in 1960s. The poem explores the daily activities of the Nigeria civil war refugees. The people are filled with loss and grief. Although the poet bases the poem on one refugee family, this represented the occurrences that were happening to all the refugee families. Achebe demonstrates the horrible lifestyle led in refugee camps, through the use of a tone of pain and despair. "The air was heavy with odors of diarrhea"(Achebe 33) shows the suffering the refugees go through in their daily life. The poet gives a description that shows the disgust and perception he has for that environment. Additionally, the author uses the religious imagery of worship by referring to "Madonna and Child" (Achebe 32). The images show the devotion the others have for her dying kid. The second stanza uses a negative language to describe the condition of the refugees. Further, Chinua Achebe uses "combed the rust-colored hair" to describes the hair of the child, "odors of diarrhea" and "blown open bellies" to appeal of the readers' sense of touch, smell, and sight respectively (Achebe, 34). Also, the poet gives a physical description of the people like "washed-out ribs and dried-up bottoms" that shows how cruel life is to refugees.

The second stanza starts off with a long sentence containing few verbs. Lack of many verbs in the opening sentence symbolizes lack of energy by the refugees. The poet associates the mother with a ‘ghost' on two occasions. Achebe's choice of language gives the readers a feeling that the mother is nearing death, and she cannot escape death. Lastly, the poet takes readers back to when the mother and her child led normal lives, but at the end, Achebe (35) uses the simile "now she did it like putting tiny flowers on a grave" to reassure that the child will still die. 

In conclusion, the three poems use the theme of death either directly or indirectly. Although each poem's aspect of death differs from the other, they complement each when it comes to the final outcomes for the characters. Chinua Achebe's poem presents the consequences of war whereas McCormack's poem shows death in a more controlled environment. Finally, these poems help readers to appreciate death's complexity and how it differs from one person to another.

 

 

Works Cited

Achebe, Chinua. "Refugee mother and child." The Earth is Ours: Poems for

            Secondary Schools. London and Basingstoke: Macmillan (1994).

McCormack, Phyllis. "Crabbit old woman." Canadian Review of Social

            Policy 68/69 (2012): 155.

Rossetti, Christina G. Remember Me When I Am Gone Away. Souvenir, 1989.

            Print.

Vermeule, Emily. Aspects of death in early Greek art and poetry. Vol. 46. Univ of

            California Press, 1979.

 

1351 Words  4 Pages

 

Introduction

In the poems Howl and America, Allen Ginsberg implies that the relationship between subjectivity and ideology is constructed through the narrative in terms of the language, cultural, economic and political structures that are created to be used.

Ideology closely to the principle of subject in that a man is by nature, an ideological animal so that they use ideology to define themselves as humans. ‘People as the subjects develop their own ideology while such ideology makes them subjects’ (Bennett & Royle, 2016).  Subject is an important term in this respect since it makes one to critically pay attention to means in which “I” has no autonomy and considering that in reality its existence in a form of vacuum (Bennett & Royle, 2016). In this case, “me” will always be subjected to forces and its effects are felt on the outside factors including environment, cultural, economic, social and even education.  A person becomes a subject in terms of being subjects to other people who controls him or on whom he depends.  On the other hand, the implications of the “subject” idea are significant since it ideology relates to a person’s internal identity regarding how he thinks about himself as a subject (Bennett & Royle, 2016).This idea of personal perception as subjects is clearly outlined in the “Howl” which is presented as a loud poem that has unsettling imagery where people prefer their individuality and life energy that defies any conformity including blending in. This happens after they can no longer condone social oppression so that they eventually start crying against the system.  

The poet also illustrates a self-destructive generation by repeatedly questioning the question of subjectivity especially in relation Moloch, the generation itself and in regard to the generation’s own mental alienation.  In regard to the aforementioned outside factors, the poem is set in a transition period, between the modern culture and the postmodern world.  The modern cultural aspect relates to self-fragmentation where subjectivity is de-centered, and a person as subject is deconstructed so that this deconstruction at a personal and then society level and eventually at the metaphysical level (Călin, 2016). This regards the setting of this poem.  In addition, the social and personal appears to be one thing which is a revelation of the Poet’s idea of the modern culture.  The poet’s deconstructs the universe metaphysically which forms the center of a new freedom and this leans towards elimination of subjectivity.  The freedom relates to the changing ideology among the characters in the poem like Solomon, who become totally free and denounces the narratives that have been imposed on them by exterior forces.  If the political and cultural consequences through which Ginsberg is defining the postmodern culture, where the individual becomes liberal in terms of sex and culture,  is accepted , it would mean an effective acceptance of the poet’s demolition of subjectivity in form of government bureaucracy , social institutions and the narrative symbolized by Moloch (Călin, 2016).

 The Poet’s Howl can be seen as exploring the subjectivity politics in their simplistic form, especially once his sexuality discussion touches on liberation and rebellion.  The Howl indicates a level of tension resulting from the issue of homosexuality and queer discourses.  Ginsberg seems to have taken delight in a gay culture that was viewed as painful and disgusting sex act that was also punishable, and this relates to ideology in that it involves the twisting and reinterpretation of homosexual male identities that were present during that period (Van Engen, 2012). When the characters in the poem shriek or howl due to pleasure in any place including rooftops, police cars and subways, they are shown to reiterate an image of their masculinity (gay masculinity) in a manner that is not painful but perverse.  The gay identity is constructed in a queer homophobic manner, when it is refigured as a moment of pleasure though considered perverse and painful.  While the psychiatric hospital scene in Howl does not particularly mention queers, it alludes to it by creatively cites the psychiatric patients by referring to them as present gay-male identity since in these periods, insane was a connotation for homosexuality (Van Engen, 2012). It is queer that even though thus hospital was supposed to be a place of stigma and discipline, it turned out to be an erotic place in the poem.  “over the roof they’ve come to drop angelic bombs the hospital illuminates itself imaginary walls collapse O skinny legions run outside O starry-spangled shock of mercy the eternal war is here O victory forget your underwear we’re free” (Ginsberg, 2008).  The line at first appears as if the characters were escaping from the constraints of the hospital, but the poet’s “run outside” imperative  involves an assumption that the pathological homosexuality “ outside” is yet and may never occur.  It uses the walls as imagery for constraints where the subjects remain stuck in appreciation of gender normativity (Van Engen, 2012).  In addition, the phrase “eternal war” indicates that the difficulties are continual, and a tremor is sent through the walls of the hospital so that intimacy between the men is limited. However , the changing ideology among these men in terms of their sexuality makes intends to make them no longer subjects of  hetero-normativity so that they city is transformed into a place that is more livable but queer.

 

The issue of ideology and subjectivity as implied in the poem ‘America’ relates to how the society and culture of the country made people its subjects.  The poem represents the status of Ginsberg as a positive rebel to America shown to be a war monger. The ideal society as America is represented is challenged in this case especially in relation to the effort to make the world to be subject to its ideology. The transgression that America has perpetrated makes this lyrical subject to desire to be a saint and through his poetry he wishes to positively rebel.  In this case, his ideology seems to differ with the American one and he is initially being seen as supporting the Marx’s writing as part of the rebellion (Posman, 2014). On the other hand, Ginsberg presents himself as a great Time Magazine reader which implies the infiltration of the country’s culture in his life. The limitation of “self” (me) are removed which leads to a vicarious experience. The Poet then finally comes back to his own identity and person and thus “wants to take our cars from out our garages” (Ginsberg, 2008).  In this phrase, the poet is engaging with the conventional suburban needs for commodities and the country’s wealth reification, but then there is Russian threat that would see them contentedly destroy the comfort enjoyed by the modern America.  At the start of the Poem, Ginsberg seems to be dissatisfied with the consumerism ideology of the American economy, which has held him subject to the contemporary culture. In the phrases “I am sick of your insane demands” the poet alludes to the fact that he has been a subject to the conventional way of life and the circumstances and wants to be free of them (Ginsberg, 2008). 

 In a defiant attitude Ginsberg, wants to depart from the boundaries that anti-communism has engulfed him.  He creates a character who has been dejected, and willing opposes the idea adopted by America in regard to the war policy.  He does this in a manner that is inflammatory so that the challenge seems to come specifically from him.  The individual identity comes into play in this case, and the use of “I” enables the poet to express clearly his stand on the issues facing America.  “I” in literature show how the ideas and even question of the personal identity (Posman, 2014).  Literature is seen as an institution that “allows one to say everything, in every way” (Bennett & Royle, 2016).  In America, the individual identity of the poet enables him to embrace the role of addressing the problems being faced by America even though his dedication is only indicated in the last lines. At the end of the poem the authoritative and open “I” poses the question; “America this is the impression I get from looking in the television set. America is this correct?” (Ginsberg, 2008). The situations in which the poet finds himself in lead to the questioning of the anti-communism ideology and the military and political policies adopted by America.  There is a direct conflict between the country and the queer citizen that is focused on at the end of the poem.

Conclusion

Howl explores a new way in which insight can be gained, by opening a way in which subjectivity and ideology are related through a narrative. In American ideology is seen as leading to subjectivity.

References

Bennett, A., & Royle, N. (2016). An introduction to literature, criticism and theory. Routledge.

 Ginsberg, A. (2008). Other Poems. Twentieth-Century American Poetry, 219.

 Călin, Ș. A. (2016). Howl and the Postmodern Subjectivity. Annals of the University of Bucharest-Philosophy Series, 63(2).

 Van Engen, D. (2012). Howling Masculinity: Queer Social Change in Allen Ginsberg’s Poetry. In Gender, Sexuality and Urban Spaces: Conference 2011, Working Papers Collection (pp. 1-15).

 Posman, S. (2014). What are you if not beat?–An individual, nothing. They say to be beat is to be nothing (Doctoral dissertation, Ghent University).

 

 

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