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Histological Analysis of the Retina of Mammals

 The vertebrate eye focuses light on its cells. The eye cells absorb light to form images from the surrounding (Tosini et al., 2007). Comprehending retina histology exposes the functionalities of the eye which in turn helps in developing medication.  The convolution of the retina, from its detailed multi-layered outlook to its numerous cell varieties and operations has helped specialists form visual perception on retina processes and other neighboring organs. Presently, the retina performs two tasks- converting light into electrical waves; retina interneurons conducting physiological procedures in order to form images from visual stimulations. One of the most direct passageways is photoreceptors, bipolar cells, and then ganglion cells.  The mammalian eye specializes in detecting and analyzing light. The eye consists of a fluid cavity surrounded by three coated tissue. The external section consists of the cornea, limbus, and sclera. The cornea makes is the transparent part of the mammalian eye and the while section is the sclera. Both tissues are made up of collagen fibers (Contín et al., 2013). The cornea performs the refractive functions of the eye. The sclera is firm and resilient to infiltration hence can safeguard other intricate sections of the inner eye. The limbus marks the transition part between the cornea and sclera.

            The fundamental structure of retinal information dispensation involves visual details that move from photoreceptors to bipolar tissues to the ganglion region (Peng et al., 2017). The ganglion region initials activities which enable other parts of the eye to respond to light. These impulses from the ganglion region are propagated through the optic nerve in the brain nuclei for projection.

The Mammalian Eye

Mammals have a pair of eyes. Even though mammalian vision cannot be compared to bird eyesight, it can perceive color. The eye dimension varies from one mammal to another. The vertical axis grows larger with age. The mammalian eye structure assumes a laminar arrangement which can be partitioned into three key parts (Luz et al., 2014). The names usually reflect on the functionalities of each part. The fibrous, the vascular, and the nervous part. The fibrous part is the external part and is made up of the cornea and sclera. The sclera is the white section of the eye. The sclera contains thick connective nerves. Protein collagen found within the sclera insulates the eye from damage and infection.

            The vascular part makes up the middle eye section. This section consists of the iris, ciliary cells, and choroid. The choroid harbors red blood cells which circulate oxygen to the retinal tissues and eliminate waste material from the eye (Osakada et al., 2007). The choroid retains the dark color within the inner eye which prevents reflections in the eye. The iris is visible and can be seen when one looks into the eye of another person due to its transparency. The pupil is an essential aperture which prevents reflection of light due to its dark cells.  Besides the pupil, the nervous part contains sensory layers such as the retina. The retina participates in vision procession due to its photosensitive cells. Photosensitive cells are made up of rods, cones, and their associated neurons. To enhance vision and light intake, the retina is smoothened and arched. The retinal center is known as fovea centralis and is made of a high number of rods and cones. This explains the underlying reasons why the fovea centralis has visual clarity and easily detects items. Hence, the mammalian retina is the constituent in the optical structure (Ly et al., 2015). Not only does the retina transduces light energy into an image that can be interpreted within the neurons, but it also filters certain features of an image to suit brain interpretation. Motion, color, quality specifics, and contrast are processed by various ganglion cells. Initial retina synapse- the cone structure, has one of the most multifaceted synapses in the central nervous system. Light indications are moved through retina synapse bipolar cells. Horizontal cells control the synaptic diffusion at the cone structures by giving a negative response and bipolar cells transmit light waves in the retina area. There are various types of bipolar cells. There are various bipolar cells and within the chimpanzee retina, bipolar cells give separate cone lines among the ganglion cells. Therefore, the bipolar cells signify the red-green color zone within the retina region. The majority of the bipolar cells move illumination indications into the internal sections of the retina. The rod signifies the movement of singular bipolar cells and it encounters a cone pathway via the amacrine cells (Garrido et al., 2014). This is one of the most complex rod passageways. Recently, rod pathways were unveiled via the retina. In the mammalian eye, different types of ganglion cells form dendrites hence closing in the gaps within the retina. The brisk cells and color oriented ganglions are some of the most important parts of a retina.

            The retinal tissues are utilized during eye surgeries. After dissection, the retinal parts can be rectified at room temperature. The retinal parts can be kept in sucrose for preservation and protection. Once dissected, the retina can be observed under a microscope. Depending on professional interest, numerous mechanisms can be used to study the eye. Hematoxylin-eosin discoloration can help envisage the inner components of the retina (Palacios et al., 2010). Golgi staining assists in the labeling of the different parts of the eye and even assign each segment its ph. Immunochemistry enabled tracking the various proteins using various antibodies. Immunochemistry has played a significant role in retinal histology. As stated earlier, photoreceptors are made up of rods and cones. Rods and cons make up the inner and outer parts of the retina and their organizational distinction and observable through microscopes. The external sections of the rod comprise of membranous circular objectives which look like coins. On the other hand, the external sections of the cones harbor enfolding of the outer tissue which taper marginally thus developing cones. The external plexiform coating connects the photoreceptors and the bipolar cells as observed under an electron microscope. Bipolar cells are special due to their dendritic outlook above the axons. Ganglion cells contain enlarged cells with dendritic channels.  Furthermore, the amacrine cells process cells which contain characteristics of axons and dendrites thus permitting the conversion of light within the retinal cells.

The Cells of the Retina and Multiple Species Comparisons

 Dissociated retina tissues from a rabbit's eye reveal a combination of cells within the retinal region. Various retinal cells contain various cells hence explaining cell specifications associated with retina (Storch et al., 2007). Thus, the study of retina morphology provides a deeper understanding of the evolutionary adaptations of the retina within various surroundings. The confines of the eye’s walls consist of three concentric coatings. The external tunica fibroma plays a skeletal function as it maintains the eyeball shape hence the ability of the eye to bring into focus distant objects relies heavily on the shape of the eye.

 Verified information on the connectivity of the mammal retina neurons is derived from years of studying. For comparison to taking place, samples must first be collected for the study. The species most likely to be used in comparison studies are hamsters and pigs. For the sake of eliminating impacts of light on the process, all the eyes can be dissected at the same time. After the extraction of the eye, the main function of the eye was noted (Silberman et al., 2014). Even though the retina of each mammal appeared to be the same, they differed in terms of neurochemistry and even the size and shape of some of the parts. These comparison experiments reveal that the mammalian retina can be reprogrammed to suit certain functions and situational conditions. It is vital to note that several mammals' species have the ability to transdifferentiate the retina section. For instance, a chick can transdifferentiate its retina according to histological inspections. Removal of a chick's eye during the embryonic stages and then applying pigmentation to the retinal section assists in observing transdifferentiation. Recently, experts proved that somatic mammalian tissues could be restructured to match a prompted pluripotent stem tissue. The ability to manipulate the eye considers situational factors such as the amount of light and life stages of the eye cells. More so, effective differentiation of prompted stem cells into neural retina tissues is one of the ways of treating retinal parts during therapy.

The function and arrangement of the mammalian retina is an important task in present-day society. The retina's photoreceptor enables people to perceive light signals, transforming light energy into nerve impulses, and transferring impulses to the brain. Retina rods facilitate the interpretation of colors and cones perceive light. Cones are linked through the bipolar neuron to the ganglion retina sections (Lenkowski et al., 2013). Horizontal and amacrine tissues are inhibitory nerves whose role is interacting with the retinal and its functionalities. Processing visual material within the retina is important due to the receptive sections and stimulation nerves it contains in its anatomy. More so, the mammal retina forms a tinny layer of neural cells behind the eyeball which transforms light into an electrical indication. The neural retina varies in size depending on the mammal in question and usually represents reduction. The retina is known for spatial detail processing due to the cones and rods photoreceptors. Cones and rods are light-sensitive features signaled every time electrical signals are generated from the retina. The spatial material is kept via the geniculate nuclei and then mapped into the retina for other processing regions. There is relative processing within the retina and the brain systems and people understand these electrical indications as visualization. Even though vision is an analog mechanism, experts claim the brain and the eyes can be used to make a model which carries out metabolism, and diffusion.

Meanwhile, Amacrine cells are vital interneurons situated in the internal retina and their function may only be observed or detected under specific waveforms (Yu et al., 2011). As earlier specified, Amacrine cells are inhibitory neurons and develop dendritic cells on internal coatings of the plexiform. In other words, they join the bipolar to the ganglion cells. Amacrine cells absorb electric waves from the bipolar tissues and also enable management and incorporation of activities within the bipolar and ganglion tissues. In simpler terms, Amacrine cells integrate with synaptic perpendicular pathways. Hence, amacrine cells are synaptically dynamic within the internal plexiform coatings and their main functions are integrating, modulating, and interposing sequential domains to the graphic dispatch introduced to the ganglion tissues. Amacrine cells are lack axons within their structures. Amacrine cells remain hosted within the retina. Amacrine cells vary in size and shape as one moves from one mammal to another.  It is vital to note that Amacrine cell synapses usually reciprocate bipolar activities that are, the Amacrine synapse responds whenever bipolar cells input are sent out into the retina. The majority of the amacrine cells possess common neurotransmitters for responding to reciprocal waves from the bipolar regions. Thus, from a general point of view, intermingle with subsequent synaptic waves from the perpendicular pathway is made up of photoreceptors. Within the plexiform coatings, active synapses have to modulate visual transmission from other regions of the retina for refinement and interpretation.

 The retina connects to the central nervous system and this explains the underlying reasons retinal damage may lead to loss of vision. Even though regulation of retinal neurons the diversity of the retina and the neighboring cells. The cellular components are carefully constituted in mammals. Investigating rabbits and mice retina revealed that bipolar and other parts of the retina make up a constant fraction of retina functionalities. Hence, the retina arrangement is similar across different mammals (Provis et al., 2013). It is good to note that the retina structure differs from one mammal to another but it can be modified based on the mammal’s visual requirements. Retina alterations are intensely composed. The ganglion layer plays a crucial role in adjusting the retina in order to fit the visual demands of the mammals. For instance, prey mammals possess parallel shaped ganglion cells that facilitate visual detection and isolation of images at various locations in order to detect predators (Craig, Calinescu, & Hitchcock, 2008). On the other hand, predators need high-resolution visualization. In order to supplement high-resolution needs, a predator's retina is situated in the optical axis consequently increasing ganglion cell thickness. For example, fish contains intensively compacted ganglion cells within the retina (Haynes et al., 2013). Similarly, the photoreceptors vary from one mammal to another. The dissemination and percentage of photoreceptors inform the mammal's nature. Mammals with numerous rods within the retina such a rat, normally inhabit nightly surroundings. Whereas mammals with an equal proportion of cones and rods live in diurnal environments because they can detect graphic stimulations in photopic and scotopic situations.

Nocturnal mammals usually have larger eyes than humans do. In deem lit areas, their pupils widen hence collecting more light from the environment. As light enters the pupil, the lens concentrates it on the retina. The lens connects to the brain through the optic nerve. The retina is a highly multilayered structure (Haynes et al., 2013). The rods and cones consist of ten distinguishable layers. The concentration of sensory nerve cells is concentrated in the eyes than any other place in the body. The retina contains various types of photoreceptors- cones and rods. Both photoreceptors are named after their shapes. Cones function during the daytime while rods function under low light intensity. Rods are intensively differentiated in nocturnal mammals. For example bats’ retina lack cones while other mammals have only a few rods. Most of the nocturnal animals have a tapetum- a feature that maximizes the amount of light entering the retina (Sher et al., 2013). The tapetum reflects light on the retina back via the retina hence ensuring that light falls on sensitive rods. The tapetum assists people see through a flashing light as it concentrates light on light-sensitive rods. In other words, the retina's role is processing light hence allowing mammals to see objectives around them. Rod photoreceptors react to various amounts of light hence sensitive toward dim lightings. The ability to differentiate one objective from another heavily relies on rod functions. On the other hand, cones help mammals interpret color information hence bringing about visual perception and clarity. The rhodopsin takes in light, enabling rods to steadily allow light to pass into the eyes in dimly light places consequently helping people to see in darkly lit rooms or situations. Diurnal mammals have smaller eyes compared to nocturnal animals.

Bovine Retina and Marine Comparison

 The description of the visual features of bovine retinal tincture reveals uncultured physiology and well-defined ultrastructure. From previous studies, the bovine retina is similar in some ways to that of other primates but exceptional in some cases (Avanesov, & Malicki, 2010). The existence of cones in the bovine retina is never been exploited in detailed analysis. Defining endothelial cells confirms the ultrastructure of the bovine retina may vary with time. Retaining the presence of endothelial cells alters the rate of metabolism and storage. The alteration in induced metabolism affects the ultrastructure of the bovine retina. The human eye is a multifaceted tissue despite its small size. The eye enables humans to see their surroundings without any problem. For example, it alters light entering and going out of the eye. This procedure visualizes the whole surrounding hence humans are able to see. The eye has a special focusing system which is fast and effective. The fragile sections of the bovine eye coordinate with each other to give out details to the brain and then the brain interprets it instantly hence producing quality images to an individual. A bovine retina is similar to the human eye. Dissecting a bovine eye exposes detailed anatomy information hence assists people to learn more about the eye. The horizontal cells help in contrasting, upgrading, and preserving of spatial information. The Muller cells contain glial which sustain metabolism and homeostasis within the confines of the retina. The bovine retina converts light energy into chemical indications before uploading them into the brain. This conversion procedure requires the capability to sense light stimulation and convey that particular signal from one region to another. In the bovine retina, light detection starts at the innermost retina cells, the photoreceptors, situated on the external coating. Rods are sensitive in light and ensure visibility in dimly lit areas. The use of photoreceptors to communicate at the synapse level with an external plexiform layer is facilitated via neurotransmitters (Abbott et al., 2011). Bipolar cell's organs are shallow at the nuclear section. Within the internal plexiform coatings, bipolar cells ensure the conduction of impulses to the ganglion regions. Retina ganglion cells receive the last signals and then transmitted from the original trigger. The received signals are sent to the axon. The axon conveys the electric impulses further to the optic nerve and the brain. The modulation of stimulated cells via ganglion dendrites ensures the stabilization of neuron activity. Depending on the need, different mechanisms can be applied in the visualization of the retina. Rods and cones have external and internal sections and their physical dissimilarities. The external sections of rods comprise a cluster of membranous circles that look like coins. On the other hand, the external sections of the cones have moldings.

 Disorders that affect the retina are grouped into two- diseases that attack photoreceptors and ones which infect internal parts of the retina. This is the main reason specialists use histological mechanisms to define retina and its affected cells. Also, the central nervous system can be researched via various methodologies. Suitable selection of tissues is a vital aspect of analyzing retina cells. The retina is an exceptional portion of the central nervous system due to its availability and susceptibility to being studied separately from other parts of the eye. Different methodologies can be used while studying the retina. From simple discoloration to labeling the nucleus neuron mechanisms. Staining gives detailed information on single cells and the entire tissue. For the sake of differentiating various sections of the retina. For example, through iontophoretic intracellular inoculations, one may isolate different sections of the retina for staining (Sherpa et al., 2008). Cell staining is important for visualization and identification. Labeling can be done by injecting targets into the axon path. Target is a neuron tracer. Moreover, these staining techniques enable experts to estimate the number of neurons in a certain retinal section. The development and advancement in immunochemistry gave experts an added advantage in analyzing the core functions of the retina. The ability to selectively label proteins contained in one kind of cell permits the observation of its core functions and systems. Thus, at the end of it all, the balance between the internal and external features assist the core functionalities of the entire retina.

            Mammals’ photoreceptor cells contain specialized coatings on the external sections where effectual photons detect, collect, and amplify light. In the photoreceptors, the cells containing light energy are transformed into neural stimulation (Kolomiets et al., 2010). The neural coating and biochemical synapses convey these stimulations into other parts of the retina and then into other parts of the brain. Intake of light energy into the retinal region activates rhodopsin in the external sections of rods. Consequently, molecular and electric stages in the transformation of light into neural stimulations might include modifications within enzymatic actions and permeability alterations. Rhodopsin within the rods' outer parts is arranged into lamellar shaped coatings circles in an external covering plasma envelopment. Assessment of retina structure and molecular mass dissemination could regulate stoichiometric associations of rhodopsin to supplementary coating constitutions within the external sections. More so, the initiation of quantitative investigations of rhodopsin material within the external sections is the first phase in the assessment of molecular fundamental functions of the retina. While observing the eye, light intake is the most obvious function of the eye (Craig et al., 2008). However, no one can tell how the eye cells are greatly pigmented and coated with internal bulbus covering. Just like a camera, the capability of the eye to collect scattered light determines the quality of the final image. In the mammalian eye, light has to land on the lens before it is projected onto the neighboring cells found on the macula. Hence, the photo-oxidative waves within the retinal area rely on the lens. More so, he choroid contains tissues that permit intensive blood perfusion than any other part of the body. The venous and choroid permits the transportation of oxygen in and out of the eye cells. Also, the retinal region creates a tight-connection situated between the blood vessels and external sections of the photoreceptors. The connection between the adjacent membranes of the epithelial strips (Porciatti, 2015). This way, the retinal regions creates a section between blood and retina obstruction. The obstruction functions through the facilitation of epithelium cells hence effective in isolating internal retinal from systematic effects of blood flow. This is vital for the immunity of the eyeballs and extensive isolation and transport of blood in the retinal space. The transportation of nutrients to the codes and rods regulates the homeostasis functions in the retinal space hence eliminating water and waste products from the retinal space. The photoreceptors are extremely differentiated cells hence important for metabolites such as glucose and forms of metabolism. Glucose and metabolism of energy assists retinal in the visualization circles hence the retina remains healthy and free from diseases. All the nutrients and proteins flowing in and out of the receptors assist also in the elimination of waste products from the eye. This way, the eye remains healthy and free from disease-causing infections.

 While studying the morphological aspects of retinal tissues and cells, the growth of the sclera occurs due to the optic covering which becomes densely specialized. The sclera is thin, heavily pigmented, and tensile. The scleral skin extended on the bovine. On the other hand, the choroid is located between two internal chief mesenchymal coatings. It is situated between the sclera and pigment coating in the retinal region. The choroid coating acquires extensively vascular sections. Moreover, the cells develop outpost and pigmented tissues and muscles.

 The laminar construction of the retina is visually stable. For instance, the sea otter can see in water and air. The eye structure of the sea otter resembles that of a terrestrial animal. The sea otter’s lens is lenticular-shaped (Kolomiets et al., 2010). The frontal surface of the lens has an enlarged curvature. One of the most notable features of marine mammals’ anatomy is the iris as it tightened onto the frontal lens. The reduction of the iris cells affects the shape of the lens.  The adjustment of the iris helps the sea otter absorb light both in water and air. The eyeballs envelop numerous tissues, containing refractive medium and several adnexa. These act as accessories structures such as ocular cells which assist the eyes to move as they lift eyelids and lacrimal seals the head is associated with the surrounding, routines, and feeding mechanisms. Generally, predators’ eyeballs are positioned forward on the head whereas a preys’ eyes are laterally placed. The positioning of the eyes gives mammals a field of view which permits focus on items, nearby surrounding, and perception. The eyes of domestic mammals are spherical with compressions on due to a bony orbit.

The seals have huge eyes which permits them to see in water and air. However, on terrestrial regions, their vision decreases. A seal’s lens enlarges and oval in shape in order to help in concentrating light refracted in the water surface. Their eyes can see in the dark and murky water. In addition, the eyes contain numerous rod cells which assist in distinguishing black, white and grey pigmentation hence sensitive to dim light energy. The seal’s tapetum lucidum is intricately specialized (Kolomiets et al., 2010). Tapetum lucidum is located behind the retina acts as a mirror which reflect light into the retina. It is the tapetum lucidum that makes a seal’s eyes glow due to its reflecting properties. A mammal’s visual range is estimated to be 400-700nm. The range varies due to ultraviolet extension in diversified terrestrial species such as a sea. Ultraviolet sensitivity assists a seal see in dim blue light surroundings. While on the land, the snow and ice reflect the ice.  This reflection assist the seal create contrast images. As stated earlier, the tapetum lucidum is a reflective coating located on the back of the retina. The chromatic features of the retina integrated with the retina epithelium and is translucent to allow light into the retina.






 The bovine’s eyes give room to an extensive wide view due to the lateral positioning of the eyeballs. The eyeball of most mammals is an irregular sphere, compressed from the highest to the lowest part. The middle parts of the cornea and sclera arcs and known as anterior and posterior sections. The function of the eye is to facilitate the ability to keep the body moving and balanced. The visual perception hence the ganglion cells, has to convey electric impulses to the brains. The amacrine cells and bipolar cells form the pathway through which the electric impulses flow from the retina and into the optic nerve for interpreting. Sometimes, the eye has self-regulatory of the nerves and skeletal tissue which keeps the eye in check. From a general perspective, the neurons and internal parts of the retina contain the radial glia in most mammal retina. The aspect of the retina which enables it to perform above its predominant abilities is the existence of glia within its Muller cells. These Muller cells are arranged perpendicularly to each other and form a distal border to limit external membrane and junction complexities found in between the Muller cells and cones and rods. The proximal limits of the cells are normally marked by an internal coating that fuses the upper and lower parts of the Muller cells. The nuclei. The closeness of the retina to the central nervous system enables the eye to detect any insufficiency and inability to regulate the much-needed attention required for capturing light. The sensitivity of the eye not only to light but too injuries and foreign objects. The eye is to stay away from anything that could cause it to harm hence the eyelids found in some mammals. The cell saccharides are made up of various functions. The collection functionality of the eyeballs and the neighboring nerves helps in redirecting the light energy and forming images in the eye. Most of the tomes, the eye caters to its nutrition requirement and sustenance.














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 The Panda




The Panda

  • The panda is a playful bear that is native to China
  • It feeds on bamboo and occasionally eats rodents and birds when the bamboo cannot sustain it.

Thesis Statement: The panda is a playful bear, which feeds on bamboo but sometimes eats birds and rodents and has a highly developed sense of smell.

Main Idea 1: The panda’s main food is bamboo.

Supporting points

  • It has a great appetite for bamboo and can eat up to 12.5 kilograms of bamboo a day.
  • For it to be able to get enough nutrients from the bamboo, it eats different parts of the bamboo plant.
  • It occasionally feeds on rodents, insects or birds when the bamboo cannot sustain it.

Main Idea 2: The panda is a loner.

Supporting Points

  • It does not like to be around other pandas and because it has a high sense of smell, it knows when another panda is around and avoids them.
  • It releases a waxy scent marker to mark their territory.
  • When Pandas come across each other, they growl, bite each other until one gives up.
  • The only time a panda seeks for another is during their mating season.


  • The panda is a playful bear that lives in bamboo forests and feeds on bamboo.
  • It is a loner and releases a scent marker to keep off other pandas.




The Panda is a bear that is native to the south-central of China. It lives in remote regions with mountains in central China. It is known for its black patches around its body. The Panda likes the regions because of the high bamboo forests which are cool and wet. The panda is a playful bear, which feeds on bamboo but sometimes eats birds and rodents and has a highly developed sense of smell.

According to the National Zoo, the panda makes its den from logs or stumps of conifer trees that are found in the forest where they live. Because bamboo is low in nutrients, the panda has to eat a lot of it and for it to get a variety of nutrients, it has to eat different parts of the bamboo plant. When there is not enough bamboo to sustain the large pandas, they occasionally feed on rodents, birds, or insects.

The panda is a loner, it doesn’t like to be around other pandas and because of its highly developed sense of smell, it knows when another panda is around and avoids them. In case they come across each other, they growl, bite each other until one of them gives up (Bradford 2019). The panda has a waxy scent marker found under their tail that they discharge to mark their territory. With it, other pandas can know the age, sex, and more about the panda by sniffing the marker. The only time the pandas look for each other is during their mating season according to the National Geographic.


The panda is a playful bear that lives in bamboo forests and feeds on bamboo and rodents and birds when the bamboo cannot sustain it. It eats up to 12.5 kilograms of bamboo because it is low on nutrients. The panda is a loner and releases a scent marker to keep off other pandas. The only time a panda looks for another is during the mating season.


Bradford A. (2019) Giant Pandas: Facts about the Charismatic Black and White Bears: Retrieved from:

National Geographic GIANT PANDAS 101: Retrieved from https:// www. nationalgeographic.


Smithsonian’s National Zoo & Conservation Biology Institute Giant Pandas: Retrieved from






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Discussion and assignment


Define your phytochemical. What is it?

Flavonoids are natural products founds in plants that have a polyphenolic structure (Panche et al, 2016). They are secondary metabolites that have variable structures and plant pigment. Flavonoids are beneficial to plants in growth and defense, and for human health.  Flavonoid is sub-grouped into  chalcones-they are found in  wheat products, tomatoes, strawberries, among other sources, flavones- they are found in  flowers and fruits such as red peppers, citrus fruits, mint, celery, among other sources, flavanones-they  are found in oranges, lemon among other source, flavonols- they are found in onions, grapes, lettuce, among other source, flavanonols- they are found in bananas, pears, apples, among other  sources, anthocyanins-they are found in  cranberries, strawberries, blackberries, red grapes, among  other sources (Panche et al, 2016). Flavonoid compounds are used in the plant kingdom but they are visible in the flower pigments. In plants, flavonoids give plants colors, and in fruits, it attracts pollinators and helps in fruit dispersion (Panche et al, 2016). In plants, flavonoids also act as UV filters and as a defensive agent again biotic and abiotic stresses.

Tell us food sources your phytochemical can be found in

 Flavonoids are found in fruits and vegetables such as apple, citrus fruit, spinach, oranges, legumes, and more (Panche et al, 2016). They are also found in beverages such as green and black tea.


Is there a time when your phytochemical is more abundant in your food source? Examples: early growth stage, after cooking.

 Flavonoids are more abundant in food source after cooking. Raw vegetables are not healthier and cooking is crucial in that cooked vegetables contain more antioxidants (Gunathilake et al, 2018). For example, cooked carrots have a high level of beta-carotene, and cooked spinach, and other vegetables have a high level of antioxidants. Cooked vegetables increase their flavonoid content (Gunathilake et al, 2018). Thus, it is important to cook vegetables to increase the antioxidant properties.

 Explain what your phytochemical does for the human body.

Flavonoids have many health benefits. They are involved in different biochemical actions which include;

Anti-cholinesterase activity

 Acetylcholinesterase breaks down neural acetylcholine and if it is blocked or inhibited, the neural acetylcholine levels increases and communicate to brain cells, and as a result, it provides symptomatic relief of Alzheimer's disease. Since the drug development focus on discovering an effective drug for the inhibition of cholinesterase, research has shown that flavonoids have anticholinesterase activity.

Anti-inflammatory activity

Cyclooxygenase enzyme (COX) produce prostaglandins that are the response for providing vascular homeostasis and inflammation stimulus (Panche et al, 2016). The research has found that flavonoids such as flavonols and flavones have good anti-inflammatory activity

Xanthine oxidase modulators

Xanthine Oxidase promotes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid.  Note that when the level of the uric acid is high, it can cause complications (Panche et al, 2016).  The research has found that flavonoids have XO-inhibitor acidity and the XO inhibitors prevent inflammatory ailments.

Disease-combating activity

 Researchers have found that flavonoids have immune-regulatory roles. A diet that contains flavonoid prevents CVD risk factors. Flavonoids also have therapeutic agents that prevent the risk of hypertension and improves vascular health (Panche et al, 2016). Food rich in flavonoids improves endothelial function. Apple and in specific the pelingo apple inhibit in vitro tumorigenesis and thus it can be used in the chemopreventive activity (Panche et al, 2016).  Fenugreek seeds reduce cell deterioration and tannin-rich food inhibit pancreatic lipase.

Anticancer effect of flavonoids

             Cancer is a burden in some countries and the main causes of cancer are behavioral factors such as lack of physical activity and consumption of unhealthy foods (Ruiz‐Cruz et al, 2017). The research has found that pharmacological properties that are found in flavonoids inhibit cell damage and thus, it reduces cancer incidence. Flavonoids also inhibit the cell proliferation and provide chemopreventive effects, and therefore reduce the risk of cancer.

Flavonoids benefits on the cardiovascular system

             Research finds that people suffer from cardiovascular diseases due to reduced consumption of fruits and consumption (Ruiz‐Cruz et al, 2017). However, flavonoids have antioxidant properties that prevent cardiovascular diseases and prevent coronary diseases. The antioxidant properties provide cardioprotection through preventing blood clot, preventing LDLs oxidization, and inhibition role.





Gunathilake, K. D. P. P., Ranaweera, K. K. D. S., & Rupasinghe, H. (2018). Effect of Different Cooking

Methods on Polyphenols, Carotenoids and Antioxidant Activities of Selected Edible

Leaves. Antioxidants, 7(9), 117.


Panche, A. N., Diwan, A. D., & Chandra, S. R. (2016). Flavonoids: an overview. Journal of         nutritional science, 5.


Ruiz‐Cruz, S., Chaparro‐Hernández, S., Hernández‐Ruiz, K. L., Cira‐Chávez, L. A., Estrada‐Alvarado, M. I.,

Ortega, L. E. G., ... & Mata, M. A. L. (2017). Flavonoids: Important Biocompounds in Food.

In Flavonoids-From Biosynthesis to Human Health. IntechOpen.








Your vitamin/mineral: Vitamin A

Define your vitamin/mineral what is it – in its natural form – not synthetic.

Vitamin A is an essential micronutrient and fat-soluble vitamin. It is naturally obtained in many foods and the main sources are animal sources such as egg yolk, cheese, milk, and other sources, and plant sources such as carrots, maize, papaya, and other sources (Blake, 2017). 

Where is it found?   What parts of the world is most abundant?

Vitamin A is categorized into two types of Vitamins.  Preformed vitamin which is obtained from animal foods and provitamin A which is obtained from plants (Blake, 2017). The parts of the world where Vitamin A is more abundant are affluent countries such as Europe, United States, North American, and Australia (Ang et al, 1999). These countries consume vegetables, fruits, and dairy products.   

What is the human body function of your vitamin/mineral?   

  • Vitamin A maintains the function of the epithelial tissue (Blake, 2017).
  • It maintains vision
  • It maintains a healthy immune system
  • It helps in growth and development
  • It aids in reproductive function
  • It helps bone formation
  • It prevents anemia by producing red blood cells (Blake, 2017).

What is the adult RDA or daily needs or adequate intake?

 The adequate intake for adults is 900 μg RE for males and 700 μg RE for females (Blake, 2017).

Give an exact example of what you would need to eat to meet your daily needs. 

 To meet the daily needs, one is supposed to eat liver, sweet potatoes, spinach, eggs, dark-green leafy, broccoli, carrots, mango, kale, red peppers, pumpkin, among other sources (Blake, 2017).

Identify three other food sources and how much vitamin/mineral is in a serving.  

Other food sources include ¼ cantaloupe= 233 micrograms, I medium sweet potato=1096 micrograms, and a ½ cup of spinach=573 micrograms (Blake, 2017).

What are the effects of too much of the vitamin/mineral?  Is it toxic?

Too much consumption of vitamin A has a negative effect in that it leads to hypervitaminosis. This occurs because vitamin A in the liver accumulates and later causes toxicity (Blake, 2017).  It is also important to understand that toxicity does not occur from diet alone but it occurs due to the use of high-dose supplements.

How much is too much?

The amount of vitamin that is considered too much is 3,000 µg (Blake, 2017).

How much time does it take to see effects?     

One will suffer from acute hypervitaminosis A- after a few hours, and chronic hypervitaminosis A-after a period of time.

What are the effects of too little of the vitamin/mineral?            

Low levels of vitamin A or vitamin deficiency leads to negative effects on the body. It is important to note that there are two types of deficiency; primary deficiency- occur due to dietary deprivation, and secondary deficiency- occur due to interference with absorption (Blake, 2017). Thus, deficiency does not only occur due to undernutrition but it also occurs due to poor absorption or transportation of Vitamin A.  Deficiency causes:

  • Too little of the vitamin or vitamin deficiency leads
  • Night blindness
  • xerophthalmia
  • Stunting of bones
  • Severe infection

How much is too little?

Too little vitamin A is less than 5,000 IU.  The latter is the Daily Value of vitamin A to both adults and children according to the   U.S Food and Drug Administration (National Institute of Health, 2013).

How much time does it take to see effects?      

 It will take a period of time to see the effects since deficiency will impair the immunity slowly by slowly.


Tell us something interesting about your vitamin/mineral.  Something not in the text. 

             The interesting thing about Vitamin A is that as adults obtain vitamin A from vegetables and fruits and babies obtain it from breast milk.  This means that pregnant women should ensure vitamin A in their diets to prevent infant mortality (Blake, 2017). A point to note is that pregnant women should avoid taking too much amount since it may cause birth defects. Thus, they should talk with the healthcare provider concerning the amount of vitamin A.

























Ang Y.W., Catharina., Liu Keshun., & Huang Yao-Wen.  (1999). Asian Foods: Science and        Technology. CRC Press


National Institute of Health. (2013). Vitamin A. U.S Department of Health and Human Services.  Retrieved from:


Blake, J. S. (2017). Nutrition & you. New Jersey : Pearson,


1514 Words  5 Pages


Origin and evolution of whales


Whales are aquatic mammals. Whales are under the infraorder Cetacea. The two parvorders of whales are; baleen whales and tooth whales. Toothed whales include; dolphins, porpoises. Scientifically they belong to the Animalia kingdom and the class of Mammalia. Whales evolved from land living mammals. Indohysus are the closes sister group to modern whales and did not descend from them. Whales over the time have descended from pakicetid, Ambulocetids, Remingtonocetidae, protocetids and Basilosaurids.

Indohysus which is a small animal that lived about 50 years ago in the northern region of India is believed to be the closest sister group of Cetacea. Indohysus share some traits with modern whales and particularly the Involucrum, which is a bone growth pattern that most whales are associated with and no other species have it. It also showed little signs to adaptation of marine life; signs such as short heavy limbs that that help them stay under water, this adaptation of there is similar to those of hippos. Pakicetids were the earliest whales and were hoofed mammals. They are known to live in the early Eocene around 50 million years that have passed, the first of its remains were found in Pakistan in 1979, at the what would be regarded as the shores of Tethys ocean. Many more discoveries followed. The reason, they are associated with evolution of whales is the skull of its auditory bulla which is commonly referred to as the ear bone, it is highly unusual and resembles that of a whale. Its jaw bones resemble the teeth of fossils whales. Its serrated, triangular in shape teeth also links it to modern whales. They were poor swimmers and this is proved by the fact that they had short hands and feet (Understanding evolution, n.p).

 Oxygen isotopes of bones of Ambulocetids are high in salty water. This indicate that these whales lived near marine shore lines and drank salty water like the existing whales. These whales also had nostrils that were positioned further and at the back of their snouts a trend that is seen in modern whales which have nostrils on their heads. These ancient whales were also large in size, they had a fat jaw like what is seen in modern whales.  they also had long back hinds and a tail that showed no sign of a fluke. This shows that as whales engaged more in aquatic life the more their nostrils also evolved to be located further away in the back of their skulls. These early aquatic whales continued to show changes that confirm that they are ancestors of modern whales. The pelvis of these early aquatic whales continued to decrease in size (Understanding evolution, n.p). their veritable column also increased.

Remingtonocetidae are also ancient whales, they were found in Middle-Eocene in south Asia 43 million years that have passed. Their habitat was shallow marine deposits although they proved to be more aquatic than ambulocetid, it has been proved by recovery of their remains in shallow marine areas such as near shores and lagoons. According to oxygen isotopes in their bones they did not ingest fresh water nor were they dependent on it. They rarely used their sense of vision since they had small orbits. According to oxygen isotopes of their bone they did not depend nor live in fresh water. Their features do not give any clue if they came to land, compared to all other ancient whale they had shorter limbs. This reduction in size was preparation for the mammals that evolved from it to adopt marine life (Thewissen, 35).

Whales are also believed to have evolved from protocetid, which are a diverse group from Asia, Europe and Africa. They are known to have lived around 43 million years that have passed. Its first remains were discovered in a coastal lagoon in South Asia, they were more aquatic compared to remingtonocetids, and Ambulocetids. They were the first ancient whales to live their habitat and disperse to oceans all over the world. They also displayed great aquatic adaptation, some of them were able to support their weight on land while others could not. Unlike the remingtonocetids and ambulocetids they have big orbits which were oriented literally and are similar to those of modern whales that might have been used to observe under water prey, its nasal opening was large and near the snouts. They had short limbs that were used for swimming. They also had a variety of feeding techniques, they have methods of sound transmission that link them to modern whales although their method of sound transmission was not much advanced like that of modern whales.  (Thewissen,36).

As whales begun to swim more changes took place in their skeletons. Their limbs begun being used more for steering than their former use which was padding. The sequence of the tails of these early whales resemble those of living dolphins. Other early whales such as Dorudon and Basilosaurus had tailfins that they developed in order to adjust to their aquatic lifestyles, these two ancient whales are known to have come to existence 40 million years that had passed.  The structure of their body allows them to propel themselves forward and resist the force on water as they swim. The hind limbs of these two whales were none existence and it is believed that they served no function in their bodies and may have been internal to the body wall like what is seen in today’s whales, occasionally tiny hind limbs are discovered inside their body walls (Thewissen, Cooper, George, & Bajpai, n.p).

Basilosauridae can be regarded as the first fully aquatic whale around 40 million years ago and they spent their entire life in the ocean. They had a blow hole that was shifted toward their eye, they had a fluke acting as the tips of their tail. Their hind limbs could support if they were to walk on land and had flippers for fore limbs. All these features are responsible for making them similar to modern whales and their features did not allow them to leave the ocean. There were seven genera of this whale but can be classified further into two categories according to their body types; basilosaurus which have a body that resembles that of a snake with an approximate length of 17 m, they swam with sinuous movements taking their entire body along with them. Other body type of this ancient whale is shorter and approximately 4 m short this is was called dorudontines, its shapes is easily recognized as the shape of modern dolphins. Their skeletons are easily recognized and are similar to those of modern whales. despite their similarity to modern whale they were not able to use echolocation like modern whales. Unlike the long one it swam using an up and down motion of their tail fluke (Thewissen, Cooper, George, & Bajpai, n.p).

The resemblance between bisilosaurid ancient whales and modern whales is very visible. As time went by ancient whales went on to evolve, the first modern whales referred to as odontocetes and mysticetes were discovered 34 million years that have passed.  They descend from a cetacean known to be monophyletic. One of the most famous innovation of odontocetes whales is echolocation that alerted them of what was surrounding them, echolocation would later prove to be important to modern whales in hunting. A new feeding method was adopted by these whales it involved filtering food using baleens. Filter feeding and echolocation are important to modern whales. These sea mammals that resembled modern whales are known to have conquered nearly all the oceans. Deep seas, shallow seas, riverine, tropical and artic waters all inclusive (Thewissen, Cooper, George, & Bajpai, n.p)

During the time of Darwin, the only known and oldest cetacean was basilosaurids which was large and streamlined in shale and are easily recognizable to anyone who is familiar with modern whales.  A hundred and thirty years later the Pakicetids remains were discovered.  When the oldest basilosaurid remains were discovered they were not identified as the remains of a whale. Whales are cetaceans and some of their features are indicators of their land ancestry. They are often on the surface of water breathing air after some time, even though their bodies have fully adopted living in water. Traces of the land ancestry of whales is visible in the features of their embryos. At the first stage of these embryos they have hind libs that are visible externally but as it continues to evolve the hind limbs disappear gradually (Thewissen, 42).

After scientist discovered that whales’ ancestors were land mammals, they sought to discover mammals that were related to them. A whale being a cetacean it proved hard to find any relationship between it and other land mammals, the fact that hippopotamuses are their close relative has been contradicted by the fact that whales date 50 million years back in history and there is no possibility that their closely related relatives are alive. Paleontologists continue to look for the land even-toed ungulates mammal that displays any relationship to the whales. In 2007 skeletons of raoellids were found, these skeletons display a close relationship to the whales when studied (Thewissen, Cooper, George, & Bajpai, n.p).

Modern whales are categorized as baleen whales and toothed whales. All modern baleen whales have baleens in place of teeth although the use of baleens is different among the species. Filter feeding is another beneficial factor in the lives of baleen since it is their way of feeding. The development of filter feeding can be credited to the environmental change and physical changes that took place in the ocean as time went by.  The ancient baleen whales had very little or no baleen and relied heavily on their teeth. Whales were forced to adapt to echolocation when toothless whales split from baleen whales, this happened about 34 million years that have passed the technique of echo location helps them locate their prey while hunting.  The skulls of an ancient whale, squalodon were the first to show evidence of echolocation and lived around 33 million years ago, however, it is unlikely that they are the ancestors of toothed whales (Thewissen, Cooper, George, & Bajpai, n.p).


Evolution of whale dated beck up to 50 million year ago, when Indohysus showed features that resemble those of modern whale.  Hippos have been known to be the closest relative of whales that exist to date. Pakicetid were the earliest whales, they were hoofed mammals. Its first remains were discovered in Pakistan in 1979 near a river that was close to the ocean Tethys. The skull of its auditory bulla resembles that of modern whale. Amblulocetus is another ancient whale although its features were far more developed to resemble this of modern whales compared to pakicetid, they survived more in marine water and depended on it according to oxygen isotopes of its bones. Remingtonocetidae is also an ancestor of modern whales. They had notable features such as reduced semicircular canals that were responsible for helping them balance on land. Basilosaurids were the first whales to live in water only and its close relationship to the modern whales is very visible. odontocetes and mysticetes were discovered 34 million years that have passed and echolocation that helped them navigate their surrounding them hunting was noted. As whales continued to evolve so did their feeding techniques, baleen whales begun filtering their food using baleens located in their mouths.  Raoellids have been named as the closest relatives to whales. The origin and evolution of whale has become one of the most and best documented macroevolutions.






















Thewissen, J G. M. H. Walking Whales - from Land to Water in Eight Million Years., 2014. Print.

 Understanding evolution. The evolution of whales. n.d. retrieved from;

Thewissen, J.G.M., Cooper, L.N., George, J.C., & Bajpai, S. From Land to Water: The Origin of Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises. (2009). Retrieved from;


2002 Words  7 Pages

             Describe the characteristics of water and carbon that makes them important to living things in general, and to specific forms of life including plants, animals, and prokaryotes.

            A large percentage of living things on earth are composed of carbon. All living organisms depend on carbon in order to grow, live, and reproduce. This is what makes carbon to be the finite resources that keep on cycling through the earth in various forms. Living things depend on water for regulating their body temperatures, breaking down food, for growth, and so on (Scott & Fong, 2004). 

Why is NASA looking for water on Mars?

            Since life ultimately relies on water, NASA is searching for water on Mars as a proof for possible life.

Describe the differences in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

            Eukaryotic cells are the type of cells whose organelles are membrane-bound. This is to imply that they can either be multi-celled or single-celled organisms, such as plants, insects, human beings, fungi and so on.  On the other hand, prokaryotic cells do not contain organelles in a membrane.  Bacteria are an example of these organisms (Merchant & Favor, 2015). 

How have the characteristics of each kind of cell put limitations and provided opportunities for the survival and divergence of modern living things?

            For thousands of years that have passed, prokaryotes were perceived to be the only form of life. As time went by, more complicated eukaryotic cell emerged as a result of evolution. Although each cell has the potential of reproducing, they all contain a genetic material that distinguishes them (Stubbs et al., 2014).

Why might both cell types be considered equally successful?

            The reason as to why both cells can be regarded to be equally successful is because they share similar characteristics. Another reason is that all living things are composed of cells considered to be the basic unit of life. Both cells have the potential of regulating the transportation of materials within the bodies of living things (Merchant & Favor, 2015). 














Merchant, R. G., & Favor, L. J. (2015). How eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells differ.
New York : Britannica Educational Publishing in association with Rosen Educational Services

Scott, A. S., & Fong, E. (2004). Body structures & functions. Clifton Park, N.Y: Thomson/Delmar Learning.

Stubbs, M., Suleyman, N., & Horton-Szar, D. (2014). Crash Course: Cell Biology and Genetics. Saint Louis: Elsevier Health Sciences UK.




395 Words  1 Pages

The  ability to  provide  public leadership  or  create  a surrounding  that favors  it  is  an  essential and  central part  of  any  individual  who holds a community office. The role and functions of a public front-runner enable him  or  her  to  navigate  through  their  duties  while at the  same  time  solving  challenges  that comes  with the role. Whether a business entity or a public office, public leadership boils   down to the qualities of the person who is to perform the role of a public leader (Cherry, & Jacob, 2016). In fact,  their qualities  and   character  go into  shaping  the   roles  and  duties  they perform  on  daily  basis. In other words, public  leadership does not  stay in the  confines  of a community office  but  is  applicable   to other  sections of the  society including   medical institutions, depending  on how the   individual holding  the  post  executes  their  post.

Ethical failures have normally pointed to either leaders themselves or their leadership styles. Examination of a leader is done through the manner in which they decide to implement their duties. When it comes to set4ing a good example, the leaders are the mirrors   through which other people judge their ethical standards from. For instances when a leader arrives early at an event, the other people are more likely to follow suit and come early (Patient Engagement, 2019). A Leader has a duty of maintaining acceptable ethics and bears the results of the standards he or she upholds. Communicating ethical standards through a leader shapes the opinion of their people under him and gives them a role model to whom they look up for mentorship. An ethical leadership style gives out many positive outcomes unlike especially from a leader. An ethical administrator implies that he or she goes beyond the usual good guy picture. A goo leader makes ethical his first agenda and models it through his work ethic. In addition, they incorporate the ethical culture in ever function they carry out. For instance, while filing up posts and operations that need administrative system of the firm they should apply ethical standards. Rewarding ethical behaviors form other employees motivates.

A leader should have both technical and teamwork capabilities hence each morning he ro she writes a to- do-list (Julian, 2019). First, the leader coordinates various factors relevant to the situation. More so, he or she can make many workers achieve a single objective. In other words, creating cohesion among people enables a quick way of countering the emergency hence cohesion makes decision making of a leader effective.

 According to the behavioral theory needs vary depending on the disaster at hand. The objective of any leader is reduction of an emergency from graduating into something more catastrophic and unmanageable (Julian, 2019). The leader can control an emergency by defining the problems and identify the needs in line with the context of the incident. For example, in case of a fire, the immediate need is evacuating the building using the emergency exit. The second requirement is containing the fire from spreading. In terms of management, a leader has to deploy resources, according to finances or human labor. Resources indirectly provide the support needed to manage a disaster. Some researchers are of the opinion that strategies without resources are not workable. Thus, strategies go hand in hand with resources.

The ability to put things into order and clear perspective might come naturally or after some practice. Enforcing instructions and meet the necessary essentials within the time limit permitted (Cherry, & Jacob, 2016). For instance, a leader should ensure all assignments are attended for the sake of time management. In addition, stating goals is not sufficient enough. An effective leader has to go an extra mile and ensure they map goals with actions. Simplifying a goal within a group of people creates a sense of purpose rather than an uphill task. Simplified goals create thousands of possibilities easing off pressure within the group. For example, working hard is an objective but delegating of duties simplifies work and improves on work ethic of the leaders and his or her followers.

Leadership is not hereditary and thus one cannot be a leader from birth. Some may argue that the exposure to leadership positions at a young age sets one into a leadership path, early in their lives (Cherry, & Jacob, 2016). However, exposure is not equal to attaining successful leadership. History has enough examples of people who failed to leave up to expectations although they were leaders from an early onset. Although all of the above may be true, leaders are made; it is fact that stands undebated for centuries. People do not have qualities that make them leaders from birth. In fact, leaders learn a lot from their day-to-day activities, which later shape their perspectives and decisions on various matters. On the other hand, enrolling to a program does not automatically make one a leader. Making a leader means that a person is willing to learn. Some people succeed and give out good results after learning while others fail. Therefore coupled with proper management skills ensure one get ahead of his time and reap the benefits of all qualities encompassing a leader.









Cherry, B., & Jacob, S. R. (2016). Contemporary nursing: Issues, trends, & management. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Julian, J. F. E., Manalo, C. B., & Estiva, E. A. (2019). Using Images to Elicit Leadership and Management in Nursing Praxis: A Photovoice Research.

Patient Engagement (2019). Health IT Playbook.

915 Words  3 Pages

Carnivore Nutrition


To have an understanding of the nutritional need for carnivores calls for first having knowledge on their anatomical characteristics. Carnivores are normally meat eaters and their features that enable such a diet facilitate the break dog of protein and killing of the different bacteria that can be found in meat that is decaying. This discussion will majorly focus on cats and dogs as major carnivores that are normally found easily within the reach of human beings. The anatomical features of all the carnivores comprises of  digestive tracts that are acidic , short and simple , sharp teeth , Jaws that move vertically while their saliva lacks amylase.  The digestive system is designed as short, simple and acidic so as to enable quick and easy digest fat and proteins while its ability to secrete hydrochloric acid in is exceptional.  In order for to facilitate b the breakdown of protein and killing of bacteria that is commonly found in decaying meats , these carnivores manage to keep the gastric pH at about 1-2 .  The sharp teeth are meant for slicing of meat and not for grinding plants .These teeth are elongated so as to facilitate killing and tearing of prey.  The molars have jagged edges and are normally triangular so as to function like   blades that offer some smooth cutting of motion just like blades found in shears.  The vertical movement of jaws provides a smooth motion of cutting and can open widely to swallow   big pieces of meat.   The lack of amylase carnivore’s saliva means that the work is wholly placed on their pancreases to for the production of this digestive juice, for digesting of any carbohydrates.   Therefore, whenever cats and dogs are fed as if they were herbivores or omnivores where amylase is found in the saliva makes the animals’ pancreases to work harder so as these foods those are full of carbohydrates are digested. This is contrary to the usual case where normal quantity of enzyme required in the digestion of fats and proteins in cats and dogs.  

Carnivores’ anatomy and physiology - canines and felines

  Hence, the carnivores in which cats and dogs belongs are normally created to function for nearly exclusive digestion of foods from a meat based diet.   The cats and dogs are normally differentiated from the herbivore and omnivore animals on their basic anatomical features and they are adapted for more or less exclusive diet that is based on meat.   The stomach acid in dogs is highly concentrated which facilitates the breakdown of proteins faster. The pH in the stomach acids for these carnivores is around pH1 when compare to human whose stomach acid pH is between 4 -5(Christenson, 2008).  The wide opening of the mouth has a single joint and hence, carnivores can swallow big pieces of meat.  The jaws and teeth are also adapted to swallowing of whole food but not for crushing and chewing plants and this explain the case of almost restricted meat-diet (Christenson, 2008).   The enzymes for digesting protein are not released in the mouth because of the potential danger of damaging the auto digestion or oral cavity.  This also means that food for carnivores is not normally mixed with saliva but its swallowed whole.  Despite the visible outside difference of cats and dog races, they have descended from wild ancestors and with whom they have similar genetic code.  These carnivores nornmally have difficulties while trying to digest grains which are complex and large carbohydrates.



 The dietary requirements for carnivores should consider the fact that there are just like domesticated wolfs that feeds on meet for almost all nutritional needs.  This fact indicates that the appropriate foods for cats and dogs which be a common question in the mind of cat and dog owners. Since we have observed that internal physiology for cats and dogs is similar to their fellow wild carnivores, their nutritional and physiological needs are same to those of the predator cousins that feed almost on fats and proteins only.  The dogs that are domesticated presently, regardless of their breeds can eat the food eaten by wild predators and they need such a diet for their maximum health. Their basic physiology has seen little change after being domesticated in spite of their visible variation in physical appearances (Sawyer, 2008).  The protein requirements in carnivores are needed for serving as building blocks and hence their general health.  They are required for growth and development and are a major factor in the maintenance and sustainability of skeletal and muscular structures and the immune system of these animals.  Yet protein in itself is not the key, but it is the amino acids which are found in them that are required.  These proteins are broken down into these amino acids by the aforementioned digestive systems so that they can be used in the body for building , rebuilding or even replacing the body cells .  The proteins are necessary for cats and dogs for the basic functions of the body that comprises of cellular regeneration, production of enzymes and hormones, maintenance of different tissues and   provision of any energy that is needed. Even though protein is vital, not all of these proteins work in an equal manner as their qualities vary in a big way between different sources.

These differences in the quality of proteins depend on the source of the protein, protein digestibility and the composition of amino acid making up the proteins.  Animal proteins are normally considered to be complete proteins for the carnivores while plant proteins are known to be incomplete sources. The composition of amino acids in animal proteins is complete are required for the functions of both cats and dogs bodies and they are available in quantities that equals these requirements. This means that feeding animal proteins to cats and dogs ensures their overall health, growth and body maintenance.  However , proteins found in plants like gluten in corn , meal  made of soya beans  or even protein isolates in plants do not have all the required amino acids and in the appropriate proportions that are need in  carnivores like cats and dogs.   There are various amino acids that are needed in cats and dogs that cannot be found in plant proteins and these comprises of taurine, arginine, tryptophan, methionine and even lysine (Sawyer, 2008).  This shows that the nutrition content of proteins offered to carnivores’ matters and not all proteins have the right composition of nutrients required in the normal function of the body. The right composition of animal acids is only found in the animals proteins and therefore, any feeds for cats and dogs should be almost exclusively made up of the proteins from the flesh.  Another feature that defines the quality of protein offered to carnivores is its digestibility, and its key measure.  It would not be necessary to have a diet that is made of high quality protein if such protein is not easy to digest.  Foods that contain proteins that are highly digestible are one the digestive system can break it down into smaller components that are easily and quickly absorbed.  In the carnivores’ short digestive systems, proteins from plants are not as effectively digested as the meat proteins.  This makes meat as the source of protein for carnivores as being the best choice since it can be digested easily and has sufficient amino acids that are vital to growth and development of carnivores.


 Fats are also an essential part of carnivore diet and play an important role in their health.  These roles include acting as a concentrated energy source, supplying vital fatty acids such as Omega-3 which cannot be produced within the bodies of cats and dogs.  While fats are normally perceived to have negative effects by humans who are health conscious, it is a vital dietary need in cats and dogs and the focus on reducing fat intake in people should not be at expense of how this food is necessary to these carnivores (Sawyer, 2008).  Fats are also not similar in terms of quality but a big difference can also be found in their structure.  Cats and dogs do not normally suffer from health issues relating to high animal fats levels such as heart disease and cholesterol problems, which can explain the fact that these carnivores are in need of meat based fats   but not from plant sources.  The two animals need high quantity of animal fats and this should be provided in the foods given to them. The animals enjoy a lifestyle that is more sedentary than the wild carnivores and hence, it is important to have a moderation in the fat, and normally the best range of the fats is between 15 to 18 %.   Carbohydrates are not the right source of energy when compared to fats since they provide energy faster than fats and carbohydrate loading lead to excessive buildup of lactic acid in the carnivore muscles (Sawyer, 2008). This in turns lead to hypoglycemia condition that relates to fatigue and weakness in the body of cats and dogs and this makes animals fats to be the best energy source. Since essential fatty acids cannot be made in the body, they have to be obtained from foods.  The major ones include omega-6, Omega-3 and DHA, and balance omega-6 and omega-3 is necessary since both work together.  The biggest lack of fats is omega-3, but a ratio of 2:1- 5:1 is considered as ideal for these animals.  Omega-3 from plant is obtained from flax, soy and canola (ALA), and ALA has to be converted to DHA and EPA for cats and dogs to obtain nutritional benefits from it. However, the best source of these fats is omega three from fish, since they are absorbed directly and readily unlike ALA from plant that is not biologically appropriate for the animals since they are known to be inactive.


  Carbohydrates as a source of energy for cats and dogs are required in as little quantities as possible, and they usually offer an economical energy source in the dog’s diet.  Therefore, these carnivores do not have any nutritional need for the carbohydrates since there are evolved to obtain energy from protein and fat.  Their natural diet has next to no carbohydrate and any predigested in the prey’s stomach make up a negligible fraction of overall diet.  The conventional pet foods manufactured today result to fluctuations of blood sugar, resistance of insulin and are known to be a major cause of diabetes obesity and a myriad of other complications in dogs and cats health. This is due to high level of carbohydrates content in the conventional dry foods.  The consumers are ignorant of the fact that these foods are not essential since manufacturers are not required to show the level of content. The high level of intake induces enzyme factors that lead to excess carbohydrate being stored as fat in the body.


Another aspect relates to vitamins in the diet carnivores.  Some vitamins are produced inside the body of a dog especially Vitamin C or the Ascorbic Acid.  Research has indicated that for large dogs, an over dose of this vitamin can considerably lead to an improved immune system and hence facilitate the healing of various injuries inside the body. Although, extra Vitamin C is necessary for humans, it is not sensible to conclude the same for carnivores such as dogs, since there is no detailed knowledge about certain chemical reactions inside the body of a dog which results to production of Ascorbic Acid (Eliasen, 2003). It is also not clear what other chemicals that come with generation of this acid, some of which can be very vital for metabolism in the dogs body .However, a constant supply of Vitamin C in a dogs diet can collapse the ability of the dogs to produce this vitamin inside the body .Therefore, it is certain that Vitamin C should not be supplied in the diet of a dog unless in the case of a very extreme acute due to injury or infection.  In such a case, Vitamin C should be used as a medicine for fighting the infection rapidly and then supplementation is stopped.  It should be used the same way antibiotics are used by humans.  Other Vitamins are quite necessary for this diet including vitamin A and vitamin B1. Vitamin B1 or thiamine is an important nutrient in the metabolism of carbohydrates and particularly in the nerve tissues of carnivores.   Vitamin A which is soluble in fat and its large amounts or Vitamin A Toxicosis can affect the neck or cervical spine and also the front legs which lead to some deforming (Eliasen, 2003).   However, including large amounts of meats from animal organs especially the liver and diets containing all-organs and it can lead to excesses.  The result is lead to weight loss, unkempt coat, impaired mobility and pain which indicates a bigger underlying problem.

An important issue in carnivore diet is the provisions of foods in a state that will ensure that important nutrients are intact and will benefit their body functions. When a dog or cat has been feed on cooked or processed foods, they are denied of various live enzymes which are quite critical for appropriate digestion and health (Schlesinger & Joffe, 2011).  The carnivores have good and bad bacteria that are found in the intestines and form part of intestinal ecology.  For their immune systems to function in the right manner, the amount of good bacteria should be around 80 % of the intestinal flora while the bad bacteria occupy the rest of the flora (Bloomer &Thomason, 2010).  Dogs are normally designed to consume things that herbivores or omnivores cannot and their gastro-intestinal tracks are created with features that can hinder different pathogenic bacteria that like e-coli from controlling their bodies; the tracks prevent an upset of a healthy intestinal flora balance.  Their saliva also has enzymes whose function is to neutralize harmful bacteria and preventing pathogenic organisms so that they do not migrate in large numbers into the gut.  With a healthy immune system, those bacteria that can survive the acidity in the stomach are destroyed by bicarbonate, bile salts and digestive enzymes occurring naturally (Bloomer &Thomason, 2010).  .  Cooking or processing foods meant for the carnivores’ diet the various necessary enzymes that carry out these important actions.  As a result the body of the carnivore resort to enzymes reserves for processing the unnatural food and this quickly depletes the vital enzymes.  Even though the dog has its natural defense system against such bacteria, an infection requires just a few bacteria for it to occur and this affect the immune health of the animal.  To prevent case of the carnivores being infected by salmonella, an appropriate diet has to be provided and this diet should contained meat whose preservation is properly done to prevent bacterial infection right from the slaughterhouse (Bloomer &Thomason, 2010). The meat fed to these carnivores should also be protected from being infected during the processing, handling, packaging, transportation and even storage.  However, for safety of the animals’ health, all products should be viewed as already contaminated. Those dogs and cats that are which are given poor diets will have a very weak immune system because of lack of important enzymes  or even live nutrients which can be  found in a diet made of fresh food (Lee,  2014) . This will surely lead to more risks for diseases that are related to bacterial infection.

What can be deduced from the above discussion is that cooked or processed foods may not be the appropriate diets for carnivores or cat and dogs as pets for that matter.  Denaturation’s effect is to alter the chemical and physical properties of the protein, making it less usable or completely unusable.    The changes resulting from Denaturation is known to be as a result of complete damage of certain patterns that make up the chains of amino acids. Hence, cooking and processing foods that are provided to dogs and cats makes it useless to their health.  These changes that occur as a result of cooking lead to destruction of the vital nutrients that are required for the various body functions of the carnivores. It is better for the foods offered to dogs and cats to be raw since these carnivores have various digestive enzymes and hydrochloric acid which can digest or destroy the harmful bacteria and safeguarding the good bacterial in the intestinal environment in the stomach.   Providing diets to these animals which is devoid of necessary live enzymes and complete amino acids will result to reduced immune system and therefore poor health for the animals.   This shows that the conventional diet provided to cats and dogs by their owners, most of which is processed or even cooked does not add any nutritional value needed in the bodies.

Feeding the carnivores on foods that are grain-based can lead to yeast infection in Cats and Dogs.  This is in addition to processed foods and vaccines that weaken the animals’ natural immune systems, or steroids that have the ability to shut down the ability of the body to fight against infections by yeasts.  This proves the notion by science that cats and dogs as carnivores were are not suppose to eat vegetables and grains since their digestive systems were not designed to do so.  Their diet should consist of prey and one which is raw but not processed or cooked.  Just like other carnivores in the wild which consume very small amount of vegetations, with not vegetables or grains, the diet for domestic carnivores should also be the same (Schlesinger & Joffe, 2011).  The two groups of animals have almost identical internally and their dietary needs are also similar.  In addition, the raw diet has very many live enzymes and vitamins that are destroyed when food intended for domestic felines and canines, hence their diets are best given raw than processed or cooked.  The conventional diet for pets benefits humans more than it benefits   cats and dogs, since humans are the ones at risk of being by bacteria in such foods. However, there is no study which documents that pet or even humans are at risks of being infected by micro-organisms such as Salmonella due to providing war meat to the carnivores. However, there may be some undeniable evidence linking the diets based on raw foods with nutritional risk. For sure, carnivores were meant to consume meat.



Sawyer, D. (2008). The Practice of Veterinary Anesthesia: Small Animals, Birds, Fish and Reptiles. CRC Press.322-330


 THE ANATOMY OF EATING. Retrieved from:


Christenson, D. E. (2008). Veterinary medical terminology. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders.

Lee, J. (2014). The Inner Carnivore. (Paperback)

Eliasen ,M., (2003).Why adding Vitamin C to your dog's diet is

Not always a wise thing to do


Schlesinger, D. P., & Joffe, D. J. (2011). Raw food diets in companion animals: a critical review. The Canadian Veterinary Journal, 52(1), 50.


Bloomer, K., Thomason, J., (2010).Salmonella: The Bad Bacteria. Retrieved from:

Thomason, J., (2010).Yeast Infections in Dogs.1. Retrieved from:


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Week 5

 Question 1

Mendel Gregor lived in a monastery located in Australia and he tended the garden in the monastery.  Through  the  observations of the  growth  of  peas  in the garden, Mendel  come up  with  three  distinct principles  which were  ignored  by  scientists  in the period  but later  become the  basis  for  science genetics (Jenkins, 2015). All the  pea plants  hold a male  and female  reproductive  organs which  means  that  through  self pollination they  reproduce.  Mendel realized that through the self pollination the plants produced offspring with similar traits as theirs.  He examined seven different contrasting characteristics and wished to determine what would be generated through cross pollination which resulted in hybrids (Jenkins, 2015).

Question 2

Mendel was involved in studying the inheritance present in peas also known as Pisum Sativum. Peas were chosen for his experiment since he was used to identical studies, have a simplified growth process and can be harvested annually. In addition  cross pollination was easy since  it  would be performed  by  hands  by removing the  stamen to prevent  the occurrence  of self pollination (Jenkins, 2015).

Question 3

Peas  were  ideal  organism  to study  the independent assortment  law  since  Mendel  had concluded that traits  are transmitted in an independent way  to  their  offspring’s.  The principle was   formulated post the dihybrid crosses amid plants that differed in regard to pod and seed color.  The organisms were suitable for the experiment based on its ability to self pollinate (Jenkins, 2015).

Question 4

One of the dominant traits established by Mendel is red color and the recessive is white color.  The F1 generation of the two resulted in red flowering heterozygous individuals.  With the self crossing of F1 generation this resulted in heterozygous and homozygous red flowering and white flowering homonymous. The offspring were noted to be 75percent red and 25percent white flowering which is the ration of 3:1 (Jenkins, 2015).

Week 6

Question 1

Galapagos islands and geography were  the  best places  for  gathering evidence regarding  evolution  because  the places presented  easiness in  studying  species diversity  since there  were not  many species  to be viewed.  In addition  the  islands  were alienated from another  by a significant distant, deep waters as well as strong water tides  that  prevented  newcomers and  many  plants and animals  from  breeding with  each  other  of the  same kid that  may have  led to  colonization  of other shore.

Question 2

Galapagos island finches toady are referred as Darwin finches. Darwin  was involved in the  experimentation  of the  finches  in explaining  the  adaptive  species radiation  based  on  environmental  changes, mutation  impact  and  allelic changes (Quiroga & Sevilla, 2016).  In addition, he held  extensive  knowledge  in regard to  natural selection  and survival  which helped in understanding the  characteristics  of the organisms (Quiroga & Sevilla, 2016).

Question 3

According to Lamarck’s theory species underwent changes in the respective responses to environmental changes.  He  also   stated  that the  adopted  change was  permanent  provided that  the  environment  continued  to  exist (Grant & Estes, 2009).  On the other hand Darwin’s theory was based on natural selection and survival for those that were fit.  As the environment was subjected to changes species being affected were involved in changes to fit in the environment. Darwin’s theory did no believed in internal vital pressure while Lamarck’s did and did not additionally consider struggles for survival (Grant & Estes, 2009).

Question 4

Galápagos land iguana is a resemblance of post dragon’s mythical creatures with spiny crests, clawed feet and long tails. They are heavily built with thick back feet but smaller legs on the front.  Their part of adaptation to the dry and hot environment includes they ability to conserve energy via slow movements (Class adventure, 2014).

Go Ahead Blog: 2010




Class adventure. (2014). Top 5 Unique Wildlife of the Galapagos Islands. Retrieved from

Grant, K. T., & Estes, G. B. (2009). Darwin in Galápagos: Footsteps to a new world. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press

Jenkins, S. H. (2015). Tools for critical thinking in biology. Oxford University Press.

Quiroga, D., & Sevilla, A. M. (2016). Darwin, Darwinism and conservation in the Galapagos Islands: The legacy of Darwin and its new applications. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.

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            According to Susan, different topics have different research approaches that are applied so as to be effective in getting the most appropriate king of information and analysis. Morphological and behavioral research in this case is not described using direct results but rather they are examined through a multiple dependent pathways. This is incorporated with biological mechanisms development and the assessment of the complex ways in which the extra organism factors interact with other organisms at each and every stage of their lives (Sperling 205). In doing this, with the emphasis on the possibility in the growth of biological as well as the behavioral coordination an understanding as well as an analysis and a conclusion that results to a belief on the gender based behaviors are genetically formulated.

            The author expresses the fact that the readers may not be in a position to understand  some of the social, biological as well as ecological foundations of the nonhuman primate violent behavior.  She thus tells the unfolding of the story of the primates so as to enlighten the reader on the structural functionalists and the sociobiological replica (Sperling 206). This is element is quite essential and it makes the research successful and it allows the reader to familiarize and get a background on the topic. The setting of this study is rich and diverse as the writing of the author is quite engaging thus making it interesting for the reader to read more and understand about the primates. It thus develops an insight of social constructions that illustrates how gender and control are interconnected in the past and entangled.   





Sperling, Susan. "Baboons with Briefcases vs. Langurs in Lipstick." Gender at the Crossroads of Knowledge DI LEOARDO, M., ed., Berkeley: Uniersity of California (1991): 204-234.

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Life Insurance Business Purposes

Scenario 1

A life insurance policy can be used by a business owner as it is a valuable tool for the business. It is an important tool for cash value component as it can be used for a business expansion and an increase in stock. It is a good option as it reduces the overall risk of a business as it provides a basic financial foundation. Many problems are solved mainly those that are associated with the maintenance of the business as well as its growth and success due to the fact that life insurance covers the entire business and the owner's estate (Goldman & Sigismond, 2014).

A life insurance in this matter can be used as loan collateral for the business expansion by a way of acquiring funds from banks or the private lenders. The life insurance policy provides an inexpensive platform for the loans due to the guaranteed level rates that are insured by the insurance policy due to the satisfaction of the requirement (Goldman & Sigismond, 2014). When a company uses the life insurance to get a loan the company pays the premiums, owns up the policy and the listed beneficiary. As long as the key man policy is effective the business owner and the bank can sign off the collateral agreement in which the assignment is a lien against the policy proceeds in which upon the death of the business owner the bank has the first rights to the outstanding amount the business owe and the remaining proceeds are injected back to the business hence the continuation of the business (Goldman & Sigismond, 2014).

Scenario 2

A business owner may use a life insurance policy due to its numerous advantages. This is because the money accumulated from such a policy can be used in the business and plan for the unexpected. A life insurance is a very cost effective solution to the many threats that affects the business such as the loss of an owner or a key employee (Goldman & Sigismond, 2014). A life insurance can be used in a key person insurance, protection of a business loan, sell funding of the business such as finding of the capital tax gains in case of a business in death and the split of dollars arrangement that may exist in a business. The owner may use the life insurance platform so as to provide the business with the numerous advantages of taxes on investing and on the part of the enticing compensation package that can be used to attract best employees (Goldman & Sigismond, 2014).

A life insurance for a business owner comes with executive compensation that often supplements a very beneficial package that attracts executive. Such packages offer a wide range of benefits that includes a life insurance protection. This ensures that upon the death of an executive their dependants receive money that is used to cater for all the expenses that are connected to the funeral arrangement, reduction of debt, education costs and provide a future income for the dependents (Goldman & Sigismond, 2014). The policy can also be used by the owner in order to provide a beneficial portion to the employees that can funded jointly. In conclusion, life insurance can be used to protect the interest of the business owner and ensure prompt operation of the business itself. The policy also provides a sense of security to the creditors even with the departure of key personnel’s. It is also a wealth creation strategy that can often be used to increase business operation achieving stability which is essential for the future success of the business (Goldman & Sigismond, 2014).




Goldman, A. J., & Sigismond, W. D. (2014). Business law: Principles and practices. Mason, OH : South-Western Cengage Learning



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