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How Democratic is UK Politics


Democracy is the rule of the people, by the people, for the people. This consequently means that those who are in power which is the government should be able to serve the people, through the elected leaders who are referred to as by the people, to the members of the public. The United Kingdom is a unitary government with delegation that is governed within the structure of a parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy. In the monarch, Queen Elizabeth II is the current head of state whereas the Prime minister is the head of government.

The UK political system is diverse in the sense that there are a lot of political parties and branches of the government, however, the country is democratic even though it has a monarchy. The monarchy is not the head of the government, and the Queen does not have the authority to make decisions on how the government should run. Only the prime minister who is also the head of the government has the authority to make decisions on how the government should run. This was not however the case, in the 19th century, the monarch had total authority over the government, and was relied upon to make most decisions concerning the way the government should run (Driver, 2011).

On the other hand, laws in the UK are made by the legislature, which has the authority to make new, amend laws, and to also remove laws which may be old. The legislature which is also the parliament is composed of the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The two houses are tasked with the mandate of making laws (Moran, 2017). On the other hand, the executive has the power to implement as well as enforce laws. This arm of the government works on behalf of the Queen even though it is controlled by the British government. Finally, the Judiciary has the power to prosecute law breakers as an independent branch of parliament. The highest court in the country is the Supreme Court which falls under the courts of appeal.

            UK’s democratic political system allows the citizens to elect the leaders of their choice. There are also multiple political parties, where members of parliament are registered in either of the political parties. The citizens get a chance to elect the members of parliament, and the party that gets most seats has the authority to form a government (Driver, 2011). For instance, if the Conservative Party wins majority seats in the parliament, then the party forms a Conservative government. The citizens are consequently allowed to perform their democratic right of electing political leaders. If a party wins majority seats in parliament, it means the citizens prefer that party to form the government, hence the party is allowed to form the government.

            In addition, any registered citizen above the age of 18 years it may either be a commonwealth member or a British citizen is eligible to vote in the country (The UK's Changing Democracy, 2018). People with disabilities are not excluded from voting, hence they are allowed to perform their democratic right guaranteed they are registered as voters. On the other hand, in the event that a winning party does not have overall majority, the parliament is referred to as a hung parliament, whereby the party is allowed to form a coalition with a smaller party which enables the ruling party to have a majority in parliament.

            The office of the Prime Minister in the UK is not recognised by any bill of constitutional document, however it subsists only by long-established convention. The ruling party which basically forms the government elects the prime minister. As the commander of the parliament, the prime minister automatically becomes the head of government (Moran, 2017). The UK prime minister therefore has not have the authority to sign bills into laws. Nevertheless, the Prime Minister is not above the law, and is consequently answerable to the House of Commons in the event that he makes a mistake which may negatively affect the country. Similarly, the members of parliament also account for the mistakes they make, since the constitution of the UK does not accord them the power of not being arrested.


In as much as the UK political system seems democratic, one would question why the citizens are not allowed to elect a leader they prefer as the Prime Minister. Unlike in other countries where the members of the public are allowed to democratically elect their own president or prime minister, this authority is accorded to the parliament whereby members of the ruling party elect the prime minister. The selected Prime Minister may not be the preferred choice according to the citizens, however, the government which they elected chooses the preferred candidate for the job. The only power vested upon the citizens is the power to elect members of parliament who make up the government.


Driver, S. (2011). Understanding British party politics. Cambridge: Polity Press.

The UK's Changing Democracy. (2018). London: LSE Press.

Moran, M. (2017). Politics and governance in the UK.

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The Current State of America

The United States of America has over the past decades enjoyed its stay at the top, as the super power with a thriving economy, advanced scientific and military systems and also the best modes of transport, and communication systems. Nonetheless, over the past few years America has been forced to sit back and watch as other countries thrive economically, scientifically, and also in the field of technology. America has been involved in different activities all over the world, which have consequently become a burden limiting the country from focusing on its own affairs. This move has seen other countries focusing more on their affairs, hence flourishing their economies. It is for that reason that this paper will agree in support of authors’ assessment of the U.S, and also provide a solution to this problem.

The U.S is majorly focused on the affairs of other countries, rather than its own affairs, a move which has seen other countries outsmarting the it economically. For instance, the U.S has waged war against terrorists, and has increasingly been sending troops to the countries such as Afghanistan to aid in combating terrorism. In as much as this is a good deed, the country seems to be spending its time and resources on other matters concerning war, while the country’s economy is at a halt. Countries such as China, have been focused on growing their economies, a move which has seen China’s economy growing exponentially. In addition, China and India have also focused on improving of their education systems, a move which has resulted in the mass production of engineers (Zakaria, 30). As a matter of fact, the U.S currently relies on immigrants for technological advancements, with foreign students acquiring three quarters of PhD’s in the U.S.

The U.S is currently relying on immigrants for technological support, with most engineers coming from China. This basically shows the U.S is currently asleep since it cannot depend on its population, hence technocrats must be outsourced from other countries. Similarly, immigration policies in the country have become the driving factor of U.S economic success and not its education system. The education system in the country seems to be less reliable in the sense that the country is not able to produce enough engineers, while most immigrant students tend to outperform native U.S students. As Zakaria states, the U.S should only focus more on its problems rather than competing with other countries (Zakaria, 42). America’s focus has been on competing with other countries, a move which has prompted it to focus on outsourcing readymade technocrats in order to help the country remain at the top of the game. In so doing, the country has shifted its attention on the education system, and instead focused on bringing in people who may be of help. In other words, the U.S is not interested in growing engineers, but it looks for ways of seeking the best from other countries, a move which leaves the country at the mercy of immigrants and the immigration policies. In the event that the immigration policies change and all the immigrants are forced to go back to their countries, the U.S economy will crumble. This is so because the success of the U.S economy is dependent on the immigrants. 

            On the other hand, the laws which the U.S government makes, seem to affect those in need instead of being of help to them. In ‘Plata O Plomo’ by Javdani, the U.S government is providing aid to the Columbia to stop the drug problem. In as much as this is a positive gesture, it does help the country in any way (Javdani, 449). Owing to the fact that drug lords are forcing Coca farmers to cultivate coca which is the main ingredient in the production of cocaine and heroin or risk losing their lives. The term ‘Plata O plomo’ translates to silver or lead, which basically means you accept money which is silver or a bullet which is lead (Javdani, 449). In such a situation, farmers are forced to choose silver, in order to save their lives and that of their families. Instead of focusing on means of destroying the drug market, the U.S has opted to support Columbia in abolishing the cultivation of Coca. In the same way, the U.S seems to be putting the lives of the innocent farmers at risk, instead of channelling the money into other sectors such as the education sector. Channelling the money into the Columbian education sector would help in educating Columbians against the abuse of drugs, and also aid in the creation of job opportunities. Henceforth making the youths to shift their minds from working for drug lords and instead focus on improving their lives and that of their parents. In addition, the U.S government should also educate its own students against the abuse of drugs, a move which will reduce demand of cocaine and heroin thus saving the lives of Columbian farmers.

            Finally, the bills passed in the House tend to focus only on the U.S as a country, and not on the outcome of the bill. For instance, the U.S passed a bill which could not allow the importation of goods from manufacturing works where child labour was used. According to the House, the bill aimed at stopping child labour. The Bill would eventually see millions of children working in factories being laid off (Divakaruni n.p). This brings about the question of whether such children would be able to cater for their needs after losing their jobs. These children were forced into child labour due to poverty, a move which compelled their parents to sell them to factories. Abolishing child labour would consequently mean such children would go hungry and even starve to death due to lack of finance. The House could have thought of the effects of the bill on third world countries, before being passed. Passing stringent laws as if they worked in the U.S setting was not good at all.

            Nevertheless, the U.S government could change this problem, through offering assistance to third world countries, particularly in the field of education. In so doing, these children would go back to school. In addition, the U.S should also offer food aid to such countries, hence eradicating child labour all over the world while at the same time improving the education system in third world countries. On the other hand, in order for the U.S to remain at the top, it would need to focus more on its education system thus being able to produce engineers and technocrats. In addition, the country should also be ready to join the world in focusing on their own affairs hence improving its own economy.

Work Cited

Zakaria, Fareed. “The Future of American Power: How America Can Survive the Rise of the Rest.” Foreign Affairs, vol. 87, no. 3, 2008, pp. 18–43. JSTOR, Accessed 30 Apr. 2020.

Javdani, Marie. Plata O Plomo. In Slide share. 2017. Pp. 448-451 Retrieved from:

Divakaruni, Chitara. Live Free and Starve. Gavilian. 2005. Retrieved from.

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Federalism is the system of political organization that integrates the national government and the local government in one system. The local government includes state, provincial, or other sub-governments. It is a form of a government where there exists a division of powers between the two types of government. It is a system that integrates diversity, ethnicity and opposition parties and includes making and executing decisions from members of both governments.

According to Wu (1), the issue in the article is the laws concerning state internet neutrality which is one of the many state rights that have been initiated in the name of corporate governance. The state rights are not getting enough support because the Republican Party is under new management and is in control of every branch of the federal government. This is contrary to the previous years whereby the Republican Party was a true party of the federal government and established the innovation of federalism. The party is not interested in the local inequalities but is devoted to shaping the nation in the image of the party and its leader. The Trump administration is opposing and fighting the California policies on clean air and wants to destroy them. The Republican court has worked hard to disapprove of the state laws that could promote the privacy of a consumer and the marginal revenue of an organization.

This issue is an example of federalism because a state has a right to govern its laws and according to the state laws, the federal government is not supposed to act on an issue regarding the laws that a state implements. California passed its internet laws to prohibit blocking of the internet. This was a representation of the federal neutrality of the internet that was forsaken by President Trump’s administration. The internet originated from California and therefore has all the reasons to defend an open internet Wu (1). It is also a land where entrepreneurship regarding technology has flourished

According to Wu (1), after the passing of the internet law, Jeff Sessions who was the attorney general for the Republican Party declared that California would be sued for breaking corporate liberties. They were to be sued for interfering with the freedom of cable and phone companies to obstruct or moderate content from the internet. This means that if the Republican Party supported the economic disseminations, they could have accepted and followed the state laws whereby the federal government refutes any authority to act. As soon as the people who supported the Federal government in American politics gain control of it, they begin to oppose it.

The lack of respect for federalism has led to the nationalist movements to destroy the enemies of the state to gain greatness and by this, they have to submit to the party line. Wu (1) states that the cities which disagree with Trump’s immigration policies have experienced ruthless battering showing what anti-federalism looks like. There is no respect for the local government and embracing the differences is not shown either. The reduced respect for federalism has endangered the union by making the existing dissipation in the nation more unbearable. This is so because the states serve as safeguards where people can move to leave behind politics and a culture that they cannot follow.

 In the future, if this persists, the state will be in no position to fight for political change which is often done with the best interests of the people. Racism will be on the rise since there will be no challenge on the reigning government Wu (1). It will lead to the lack of development in the states because they will be denied any rights to propose or oppose anything and this will lead to a lack of development in the nation too. The nation has been molded into what the leader and the party want leaving out the important issues that need to be resolved more so from the local authorities. When it comes to issues regarding transgender rights, state rights are just supported by mere words and no action. The transgender rights include their right to employment, education, and freedom to engage and be included in the state welfare programs which help in the development of a state and the nation as a whole. When the trans genders are left out, they often face rejection and discrimination. Limiting women's rights causes inequality, low salaries, limited rights to education and employment and exclusion from decision-making processes.

When the clean air rules are destroyed, the most likely thing to happen is that people will be affected health-wise by the dangerous emissions from industries. This will put the lives of very many people in danger and risk their health. These emissions are capable of having a lifetime effect on people and may sometimes lead to death. By attacking the state neutrality laws, economically a state is threatened and much so is because California is a state where the technology business thrives. When the internet is blocked or slowed down, the businesses do not do well causing an impact on the economy. These misunderstandings and lack of state rights could lead to the economic collapse of a nation Wu (1).

Federalism in the United States is an efficient method of governance because when a state is given the right to solve some of the problems, the whole system becomes more efficient. States often listen to the needs of the citizen and respond to them compared to the national government Wu (1). State governments are closer to the citizens and hence are in a better position to impact their government, decision making, and the government policies. An example of this is California responding to the net neutrality concerns and ban the blocking of the internet in their state. This means that a state knows better the kind of businesses that thrive well and what they need to move forward. When the national government makes decisions for the state, they do it with their best interests and not for the state.

According to Wu (1), when the national government is allowed to come up with solutions for all the problems, the solutions tend to be effective in some states and not effective in other states. This could also lead to unreasonable, cruel and oppressive use of power. It could lead to a lack of freedom for the people and even destroy lives. For example, federalism can make trump’s immigration policy of battering cities that do not comply with the policy ineffective. The immigration policy is a form of a policy that oppresses the citizens in a very cruel way.

When a state has the right to their policies, they come up with solutions that look out for its citizens and therefore no one will feel oppressed. Issues like gender inequality, transgender rights which are mostly not a big concern for the national government are addressed effectively by the state government. Wu (1) states that federalism is a method that should be used for governance because issues are addressed from the level of the citizens living in the state. When California put the clean air rules, they knew better the reasons as to why they did so and the benefits that would come with the rule. The national government could hardly come up with such rules because they hardly understand the problems the state has with emissions.

Federalism allows different policies to be innovated Wu (1). When a certain policy is put in a state and for some reason, it does not work, it is tried in some other state and if it works effectively in solving their problems they adopt it. It allows people who cannot agree politically or on other issues have the right to move to another state and leave behind a culture that they cannot keep up with. The state rights help citizens to fight for a political change that they feel is needed or oppressive.


Federalism allows sanity to prevail in a nation. It increases the freedom of the citizens and enables their rights to be heard and addressed. State rights enable a state to develop in all aspects and in the long run help to develop the nation as a whole. The inclusion of all citizens is made possible by the state government. Federalism makes the people who are being governed be put into consideration and policies to be made with them in mind. It protects citizens from tyranny, increases their participation and disseminates power and is an effective form of governance.











Works cited

Wu Tim.” The Republican Attack on California “The New York Times. Oct 3 2018 /2018/10/03/opinion/california-net-neutrality-federalism.html.
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The Marines of Montford Point: America's First Black Marines by Melton A. McLaurin


          The book is about an outstanding American story where the first African American to serve as marines at camp Montford Point had a story of honor, patriotism, and their characters were known to be those of a great generation. The story shows how African Americans had to fight and endure a lot in order to be accepted in the military. It is about how African Americans who were both free and slaves joined the military hoping to be accepted and have their freedom.

           The book is about how the African American people were segregated and how they had to go through hardships. Some had to drop out of school since they could not afford a good education. They had to be laborers in order to survive and could not afford to get decent jobs because of their races and were not educated. Their living or housing conditions were poor because of their race. According to McLaurin (2009), even when they went to be recruited in the Montford Point, the corps there who were white isolated them too. Eventually, due to their persistence and showing that they can be as good as the white corps, the segregation law was banned.

           Before the blacks were recruited, all Montford officers and instructors were white men who were chosen for their service. McLaurin (2007) states that the white corps were committed to an isolation policy but the first commander at Montford Point requested that the black recruits be given the same recruitment just as the white did. There was a ban on African Americans not to join the military and the navy.  Due to the horrifying conditions at the sea, the navy was desperate for workers to work in the sea and that is when they started to accept a few numbers of free sailors. After recruits completed boot camp which included persistent activity, they were assigned to a unit that remained at Montford Point until they were shipped for tasks overseas.

         According to McLaurin (2007), the recruits who had trained at Montford Point came had different educational backgrounds. Some had a college education and some of them did not get the chance to continue with their education past elementary school. There were professionals who joined the recruitment including teachers, skilled traders, and laborers. Some of the reasons the men joined the corps include, the marine’s fame as a fighting service, adventure, employment, and some joined intentionally to ensure the end of the corps tradition of racial exclusion. Segregation of black recruits was the official approach of the corps during the entire recruitment at Montford and it was the law of the United States. Isolation was not only at the training camp but reflected in the entire white population. Housing and employment discrimination existed too among the African Americans leading the segregated communities to economic hardships.

              The purpose of the book was achieved because when the African Americans took to the streets to protest about their right to equality, segregation in the United States was banned. The writing is effective because when the African Americans went to battlefields and proved themselves to be as good as the white corps, it led to their rights being looked into. The strengths of the book are that the chapters are written in a way that is very easy to follow and understand. Each chapter has examples of people who give their real testimonials and this makes it more interesting. Despite these testimonials, the format used for them makes the reader make their own conclusion and connections because it does not include much of the historical deliberations. The author of the book had a postgraduate doctoral degree in American history and McLaurin (2009) in his arguments and conclusions makes the reader want to discover more and this makes it a very interesting book. I would recommend the book to other people because it enlightens on the history of America and mostly in regards to segregation and how it came to an end.



           Racial segregation has a very big impact on people. The lack of employment, lack of education, being rejected to places and housing problems are all negative impacts on people who are segregated due to their race. The right to freedom and equality is important in the community and in the nation as a whole because people work together with no boundaries. When discrimination is finished, people get equal rights leading to a peaceful nation.

















McLaurin, M.A. (2007). The Marines of Montford Point: America's First Black Marines. Chapel

             Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.

McLaurin M.A (2009). Marshall on McLaurin, 'The Marines of Montford Point: America's First Black Marines': Integrating the Few and the Proud: The Struggles of the First African American Marines Retrieved from


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The Kentucky Resolution and the South Carolina Exposition and Protest.


The Kentucky resolutions were political statements and the arguments were that the national government put together states and any exercise from unassigned powers was not valid. According to Dow (1), the state had the right to decide when their authority had been violated and decide on the way they should be corrected. The resolutions also declared that the state powers should determine the effectiveness of the federal law. According to Calhoun (1), the South Carolina Exposition and Protest was a document written to object the tariff of abominations. This tariff stated that if it was not revoked, South Carolina would retreat. It also expressed the doctrine of nullification which is the idea that a state has a right to dismiss federal law. The national government can rightfully exercise only the powers that it is given, the ones that are mandatory and proper to perform them effectively. The others are reserved for the states and the people. Those who claim to exercise authority under the constitution should show that it is granted or that it is necessary.

Dow (1) states that the Kentucky resolutions were protests against the restrictions on civil freedom found in the Alien and Sedition Acts rather than what was expressed in the constitution. The resolutions criticized the Alien and sedition Acts to be unconstitutional and this was because the acts violated the federal authority. They stated that the federal government had no mandate to exercise powers that were not specifically assigned to it in the constitution. They protected the constitution’s civil freedom more so the freedom of speech and that of the press. The resolutions were written to respond to the Alien and sedition Acts. The Alien Acts gave the president the power to detain and deport any non-citizen he considered dangerous in the United States even if their country was at war. The suspected aliens had no right to any legal hearing or the charges against them.

 According to Dow (1), in the sedition Act, it was a crime talk, write, or publish anything that was not true, anything that was hostile or scandalous against the U.S government, President or Congress. Many people were prosecuted by the sedition act which targeted the newspaper editors who were in favor of the Democratic-Republican Party. The resolution was written to protect the freedom of the press to be able to work and publish freely. The resolution declared the Acts null and void because they were not constitutional.

Dow (1) states that the resolutions were intended to convince other state congresses to pass the same resolutions which did not succeed because most of them argued that the federal courts were the legal interpreters of the federal constitution. The language and tone of the resolutions are constitutional agreements that were developed to elaborate on the necessary structures of the government. They are perceived as the early occurrences of party politics in the United States and also an aim to obtain an electoral advantage. Though the rest of the states declined the resolutions, the measure acted as political promotion, uniting the Democratic-Republican Party.

The South Carolina exposition and protest was a document that was written to protest against the act of abomination according to Calhoun (1). The tariff was argued to be unconstitutional because it favored manufacturing over agriculture and commerce. The power of the tariff was to generate income and not to protect the American industries from foreign competition. The tariff violated the constitution and was said to be oppressive, unequal and destroyed the freedom of the country. It made the southern the slaves of manufacturing and imposed a protective tax on agriculturalists to benefit the Northern people who owned factories. This oppressed people and made the rich richer and the poor poorer. The economic disagreements between the industrial North and the agricultural south could not be avoided. The tariff placed high taxes on foreign manufactured goods which were a disadvantage for the south because it was agricultural and had to import most of its products. The south exported its products and the tariff would make other countries increase their taxes as well. The tariff was beneficial to the North because the industries were more developed and therefore brought more money.

 According to Cox (1), the South Carolina Exposition and Protest were written to bring change to the weakness in the system and reinforced the principle of nullification which is the right of a state to ignore, nullify any federal law that is not in line with the constitution. Some community interests can be handled fairly by focusing on the will and the power of several states in the government and this reduces a lot of conflicts. The states have different concerns and interests which cannot be managed by the general authority without injustice and oppression and therefore they should be a division in the exercise of powers. This would enable the states to give their views regarding their areas of concern. It was written to oppose unauthorized taxation from the people.

According to Dow (1), the Kentucky resolutions in the U.S history were passed to oppose the Alien and Sedition Acts and were drafted by federalists. The Republicans responded in the Kentucky Resolutions which were embraced by the Kentucky congress in November 1798. They attacked the Federalists on the constitution and how they could increase the power of the national government to the states. Another resolution was adopted in February 1799 which allowed the states to implement their decisions and nullification of laws that were not agreed upon.

According to Calhoun (1), South Carolina’s Exposition and Protest was a document that was written during the nullification crises. The document was meant to protest against the Tariff of Abomination which was passed to protect the industry in the Northern United States. The nullification doctrine which stated the idea of a state having the right to object federal law was adopted by congress, making the tariff null and void.

The two documents were written to protest on states having the authority to decide when the federal government had surpassed their powers. Both the Tariff of abomination and the Alien and Sedition Acts were perceived to be unconstitutional, oppressive and denied people the rights to their freedom. The two documents include the doctrine of nullification which failed to pass because other state congress did not pass the protests. The writers of both documents concealed their authorship because they were part of the government by the time they were writing them. According to Dow (1), both documents spoke about the freedom of the people. The documents talked about delegation of powers and that the states would be the judges of the constitution.

According to Dow (1), the Kentucky resolution was written in response to the Alien and Sedition acts because they argued that the Acts illegally took the powers that were set aside for the states. The South Carolina Exposition and Protests were written to protest against the Tariff of Abomination. The argument of this was that the dangers of the Alien acts could not be compared to the problems experienced with the Tariff. The Alien Acts in the Kentucky resolutions were Acts that violated the constitution by granting the president the power to detain and deport non-citizens with no considerations and deny the press their freedom of speech and publishing. The other document spoke of the violation of the constitution by favoring the manufacturing industries over agriculture and commerce.


States should have the ability to nullify a national law if it is not constitutional. If the state believes that powers of a certain law have not been properly used, or they are oppressive they should be nullified. If the laws do not include the major topics for example laws regarding citizenship and health regulations or maybe the laws put are not satisfying to the people, the state should nullify them. States should have the ability to nullify a law if the federal government oversteps the powers granted to it by the constitution. State nullification should be used when the activities of the federal government go overboard in its performance according to the constitution. If high taxation is introduced and it is not according to the constitution, the state should have the ability to nullify the law.








Calhoun C. J. South Carolina’s Exposition and Protest:

Carolina_Exposition_and_Protest. Accessed 26 Mar.2020

Cox, William. "What was the purpose of the South Carolina Exposition and Protest?" Custom-

Writing, 17 Mar. 2020, Accessed 26 Mar. 2020.

Dow C.D. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions of 1798: 26 March.2020


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 Controversies Surrounding the Electoral College



The Twelfth Amendment to the constitution of the United States is responsible for providing the procedure that is utilized to elect the president and the vice president to office. The Twelfth Amendment took effect in 1804 and since then all the presidential elections held in the country have been governed by it. Two times in the 21st century, 2000 and 2016 the candidate with the most popular vote across the states has not won the presidential election since they did not win most of the votes in the Electoral College.  There has been a controversial debate raised by politicians, journalists, and constitutional scholars that the candidate who wins the most popular vote should win the election. Also, proposals have been brought forth suggesting that the Electoral College be bypassed without necessarily having to amend the constitution to ensure that whoever wins the popular vote becomes president. The below discussed is an exploration of the issue surrounding the Electoral College and proposals that have been brought forth on how to ensure that the candidate with the most votes wins the elections.

            The National Popular Vote Movement argues that the vote of every citizen is important and should count regardless of where they reside. The National Popular Vote Movement is of the opinion that the country’s Electoral College system disregards the votes of the citizens and reduces them to mere spectators in the event of an election (FairVote n.d). The current election system that is firmly grounded by state laws in the country allows the votes cast by the Electoral College to take all basis. The movement believes that there are state-based constitutional ways that can be used to ensure that the presidential candidate with the majority of the most popular vote wins the election through the National Popular Vote interstate compact.

            States have the constitutional right to exercise full control over the allocation of electoral votes.  The election system can be set in a way that the current winner also wins the Electoral College vote. States can either choose to vote for the candidate who has won the most popular vote or not. Under the National Popular Vote interstate compact, it is possible for the candidate with the majority of popular votes to win the elections if the 50 states and DC choose to cast their Electoral College vote in their favor. However, this compact take effect only when the majority of states sign the agreement that the electoral college will vote in favor of the candidate who has the most popular vote in the state (FairVote n.d). In general, this means that a majority of the 270 Electoral College voters have to join the compact for it to take effect.  The national Popular vote plan has been introduced in all 50 States and up to date only 15 states and DC have joined the compact. These states have a total of 196 Electoral College voters and the activation of the compact is at 72.6% (FairVote n.d).  The National Popular Vote plans on ensuring that the vote of every citizen is equally valued.  The National Poplar vote aims at eliminating the unprecedented inequality that has plagued presidential elections in the country, the implementation of the interstate compact will ensure that the most popular vote from the District of Columbia and all 50 states determines who wins presidential elections.

             In 2019 the New York times magazine collected a few opinions from United States citizens and most of the opinions presented to the Editor at the New York Times were a mixture of bitter feelings towards the Electoral College voting system. Most of the citizens wanted the abolishment of the Electoral College since it only existed as a form of deliberate discrimination (The New York Times, 2019). In the opinion of many citizens the existence of this system of voting conflicts with their democratic rights.  Also, following the controversy surrounding the election of 2000 and 2016 voters in the United States believe that the time for a constitutional amendment abolishing the Electoral College has come (The New York Times, 2019).

A survey conducted in the U.S. revealed that 58% of voters say that the constitution should undergo an amendment to ensure that the candidate with the majority of the popular vote wins the election. However, 40% of the voter’s population prefer to keep the current system, where the final decision on who wins the presidential vote is based on the majority of the electoral vote (Daniller, 2020).  The 2006 election was responsible for stirring the presidential debate towards the amendment of the constitution. The majority of Republicans support the current election system.  In 2011, majority of the Republicans wanted the constitution amended but following the presidential win of President Donald Trump who had lost the popular vote and won the electoral vote they now prefer that the current system remain as it is (Daniller, 2020). 81% of Democrats believe that the constitution should be amended.

It is impossible to by-pass the Electoral College without having to amend the constitution.  If the nation has no desire to amend the constitution but desires to change the current voting system to allow the presidential candidate with the majority of popular votes to win the presidency then the country should consider the implementation of the interstate compact proposed by the National Popular Vote Movement. The movement gives forth a reasonable approach that can be implemented without necessarily going through the procedure of amending the constitution (FairVote n.d).  The proposal presented by the movement is superior to the long procedure that is required to amend the constitutions, only a signature from Electoral College  members from the various states is required declaring that they will vote in favor of the candidate who received the majority of the popular vote in the state.

In conclusion, the presidential elections in the United States are governed by the Twelfth Amendment of the Constitution. The Electoral College has determined the outcome of presidential elections since the 19th century. The constitution states that the candidates who receive the majority of electoral votes win the presidency regardless of whether they had lost the most popular votes.  History has served the U.S. with occasions where the candidate who has lost the most popular vote wins the presidency because they won the electoral vote, this has happened twice in the 21st century.  The National Popular Vote Moment is a movement that was established to ensure that the candidate who wins the most popular vote also wins the Electoral College vote. The Approach provided by the National Popular Vote movement can be considered as superior to other approaches that call for the amendment of the constitutions with a focus on abolishing the Electoral College.











Daniller, A. (2020). “A majority of Americans continue to favor replacing Electoral College  with           a nationwide popular vote” Retrieved from;        tank/2020/03/13/a-majority-of-Americans-continue-to-favor-replacing-electoral-college-         with-a-nationwide-popular-vote/

FairVote (n.d). “A National Popular Vote for President” Retrieved from;   

The New York Times (2019). “Exploring Alternatives to the Electoral College”. Retrieved from;   






1186 Words  4 Pages





The Pen is Mightier than the Sword Debate the Use of Diplomacy over Arms

The pen is mightier than a sword, a phrase that is universally used to demonstrate the effectiveness of communication in dispute resolution compared to the use of arms. War is a more aggressive and destructive approach that when adopted to resolve existing conflicts creates not just tension but destruction as well. In today’s globalized setting, where countries rely on each other socially, economically and politically, conflicts are inevitable. Diplomacy, therefore, refers to the act of dealing with individuals tactfully and sensitively. Diplomacy involves managing foreign relations typically through a nation’s representatives in international settings. The practice involves negotiations between the affected countries with respect to addressing specific issues. It also means the use of administrative procedures to solve issues more effectively than violence. In general, diplomacy entails the use of non-aggressive approaches specifically communication to persuade the opponent in order to come to a common understanding.   The approach discourages measures that might lead to any form of destruction whether psychological, physical, economic, political, or social[1]. Countries are able to convey critical information through the use of diplomacy since it promotes peace and encourages efficiency. Hence, this report argues that diplomacy is a more effective deterrence than the use of arms as it promotes positive international relations, which encourages social, economic and political stability.

Diplomacy unlike the use of arms is more effective since it is highly valuable in maintaining healthy relationships[2]. Globally, states prefer to using diplomacy since it enhances their ability to guard their reputation with regard to integrity and transparency and this in return enhances their ability to deal with future disputes without the engagement of force[3]. The use of diplomacy creates a move toward peace by encourages people between the affected countries to interact both socio-economically and politically. The use of arms encourages countries to exercise excessive use of force to demonstrate their power and dominance which affects peace and leads to instability[4]. War deters the ability to think in a logical manner while diplomacy allows the affected parties to discuss, negotiate and come to an understanding about the issues affecting them. The use of diplomacy helps in creating alternatives that align with the needs of the party and allows them to settle for a solution that is mutually benefiting hence promoting better relationships[5]. The approach persuades the states to accept the measure for a particular benefit.

Diplomacy helps in ensuring a solution is designed and implemented, thus resulting in the durability of the results, unlike war. The effective use of this approach requires the application of tactics to ensure that the parties negotiate the interest that each desires. Unarguably, not all international issues deserve the use of force to resolve them[6]. Most conflicts between states emerge due to misunderstandings which can be addressed by enhancing communication. In the past war between states has resulted in destruction rather than benefit with some countries still struggling to recover from the hurt they encountered[7]. Arms were not developed to help manage conflict but protect a country from an enemy. Diplomacy offers little to no room for errors that are facilitated by major misunderstandings. The results are desirable and are experienced in the long-term across generations.

The results achieved through the use of diplomacy are generally agreeable and pleasant when compared to warfare. The use of arms supports the notion that it is only the most powerful nation that will survive[8]. One it is definite that the powerful state will win by overwhelming the weaker opponent the results are not agreeable. The state that has been defeated will remain bitter for a long-term owing to the suffering that it bears during and after the war. In warfare involved parties suffer greatly in terms of loss of resources, destruction, political instability, deaths, and irreversible injuries[9]. The case is however different when it comes to diplomacy where the only threat is verbal and this helps in mitigating destruction.

Diplomacy is a cheaper and less time-consuming alternative than the use of arms. Violence is an expensive approach that not only demands the states to invest their resources but also time. The military is often deployed in engage in the warfare and this means that the states incur losses as its resources are used to the maximum to fight the enemy and deaths are unavoidable[10]. The time spent in the war can be used in dealing with more valuable activities such as trade and this, therefore, disables the states. For instance, the United States invested heavily in its search for the infamous Osama Bin Laden who had terrorized its territories for years. Also, it is worth noting that war destroys the ability of countries to maintain economic relations. Through negotiations, this would have helped the country to save heavily and not waste as much time in the warfare that partially affected its foreign relations with Saudi Arabia[11]. In the globalized setting today, each state depends on the other for resources, services or selling its produce. It is these relationships that help in promoting the stability and sustainability of a nation.

Diplomacy is an ethical and feasible solution for enhancing foreign relations. Communication, as supported by diplomacy, supports states in settling for an alternative that supports the greater good for everyone rather than causing harm. Ethically speaking, the utilitarianism theory holds that the most ethical option is the one that generates the greatest good for the largest number of people. In other words, there is a need for differences between the right and wrong choices by mainly concentrating on the results[12]. An action that results in deaths, destruction and life-lime scars such as war cannot be considered as ethical given that it affects the welfare of the people[13]. On the other hand, diplomacy usually considers the well-being of all the involved parties and this is an ethical measure. Decisions should be guided by the anticipated consequences, if at any given time the alternative would hurt the states then it should be discouraged. Diplomacy helps in strengthening relationships and this serves the needs of the greatest number of individuals from all the involved parties.

Diplomacy helps in eliminating misunderstandings and fosters growth. Parties can present their grievances on the table and also highlight their interests. The approach helps in determining the source of conflict and creates an opportunity to develop solutions that align with the grievances of every party[14]. Communication goes a long way in understanding the views of each other and enabling states to compromise where possible to develop powerful relations.

Diplomacy has an immediate effect when it comes to resolving conflict than the use of arms. The form of communication that is supported by diplomacy involves the use of written and verbal approaches[15]. The measure is comprehensive since it covers all the aspects of the conflicts and helps in avoiding violence. Diplomatic activities spread faster in terms of addressing conflict and this has an immediate impact in terms of transforming the entire society. Due to the simplicity of the process, this allows the countries in reaching the set objectives. On the other hand, the use of arms takes time since there is no time negotiation and this affects the ability to attain the desired objectives in the short-term.

Moreover, diplomacy helps in changing the attitudes, perspectives, and wounds, which are created by warfare. The use of arms encourages retaliation in general, while diplomacy promotes better understandings[16]. Diplomacy can successfully assist in solving both major and minor issues that are likely to affect foreign relations. The use of arms goes against human rights, which normally discourages the use of excessive force leading to the death of innocent individuals.

                 However, while the use of diplomacy is critical in resolving a dispute, arms might prove to be effective where a party violates the rights of the other[17]. If a written agreement is violated by one party, the other might respond through the use of arms as a means of protecting its population and deterring the other from destroying it. Also, in the situation of invasions such as terrorism the use of arms is feasible over diplomacy since such situations demand urgent responses. Consequently, the approach to be used depends on the situation and the expected outcome of each conflict[18].

In conclusion, diplomacy is a more effective approach to solving disputes and enhancing foreign relations than the use of arms. Diplomacy is a cost-effective, time-saving, efficient, simple approach that results in desirable results. Warfare disadvantages weaker states by allowing those with more resources to win and the results are not agreeable since they favor one party over the other. Diplomacy provides an opportunity to solve issues peacefully without violence and therefore, promoting peace and discouraging retaliation.

















The Hague Institute for Global Justice. "Modern Diplomacy as a Tool For Conflict Prevention? – The Hague Institute for Global Justice, 2020. Retrieved from:

Al-Muftah, Hamad, Vishanth Weerakkody, Nripendra P. Rana, Uthayasankar Sivarajah, and Zahir Irani. "Factors influencing e-diplomacy implementation: Exploring causal relationships using interpretive structural modelling." Government Information Quarterly 35, no. 3 (2018): 502-514.

Ann, Sartori, A. E. Deterrence by diplomacy. Princeton University Press. 2013.

Ashraf, A., 2020. Deterrence and Diplomacy. In Deterrence (pp. 35-56). Springer, Cham.

Cohen, Dale J., and Minwoo Ahn. "A subjective utilitarian theory of moral judgment." Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 145, no. 10 (2016): 1359.

Gee, A. (2015). "Who First Said 'The Pen Is Mightier Than The Sword'?". BBC News, 2020. Retrieved from:

Jönsson, C., 2018. International Relations Theory and Diplomacy. The Encyclopedia of Diplomacy, pp.1-16.

Mead, Walter Russell. Power, Terror, Peace, And War. Reprint, New York: Vintage Books, 2013.

Muldoon Jr, James P. Multilateral diplomacy and the United Nations today. Routledge, 2018.

Nye, Joseph S. Soft Power. Reprint, New York: PublicAffairs, 2009.

Winger, G., 2017. Soft power by other means: defense diplomacy as a tool of international statecraft (Doctoral dissertation).







[1] Gee, A. (2015). "Who First Said 'The Pen Is Mightier Than The Sword'?". BBC News, 2020. Retrieved from:

[2] Ashraf, A., 2020. Deterrence and Diplomacy. In Deterrence (pp. 35-56). Springer, Cham.

[3] "Modern Diplomacy As A Tool For Conflict Prevention? – The Hague Institute For Global Justice". Thehagueinstituteforglobaljustice.Org, 2020.

[4] Mead, Walter Russell. Power, Terror, Peace, And War. Reprint, New York: Vintage Books, 2013.

[5] Ann, Sartori, A. E. Deterrence by diplomacy. Princeton University Press. 2013.

[6] Nye, Joseph S. Soft Power. Reprint, New York: PublicAffairs, 2009.

[7] Winger, G., 2017. Soft power by other means: defense diplomacy as a tool of international statecraft (Doctoral dissertation).

[8] Mead, Walter Russell. Power, Terror, Peace, And War. Reprint, New York: Vintage Books, 2013.

[9] Jönsson, C., 2018. International Relations Theory and Diplomacy. The Encyclopedia of Diplomacy, pp.1-16.

[10]"Modern Diplomacy As A Tool For Conflict Prevention? – The Hague Institute For Global Justice". Thehagueinstituteforglobaljustice.Org, 2020. 

[11] Gee, A. (2015). "Who First Said 'The Pen Is Mightier Than The Sword'?". BBC News, 2020. Retrieved from:

[12] Cohen, Dale J., and Minwoo Ahn. "A subjective utilitarian theory of moral judgment." Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 145, no. 10 (2016): 1359.

[13] Nye, Joseph S. Soft Power. Reprint, New York: PublicAffairs, 2009.

[14] Al-Muftah, Hamad, Vishanth Weerakkody, Nripendra P. Rana, Uthayasankar Sivarajah, and Zahir Irani. "Factors influencing e-diplomacy implementation: Exploring causal relationships using interpretive structural modelling." Government Information Quarterly 35, no. 3 (2018): 502-514.

[15] Gee, A. (2015). "Who First Said 'The Pen Is Mightier Than The Sword'?". BBC News, 2020. Retrieved from:

[16] Nye, Joseph S. Soft Power. Reprint, New York: PublicAffairs, 2009.

[17] Ann, Sartori, A. E. Deterrence by diplomacy. Princeton University Press. 2013.

[18] Muldoon Jr, James P. Multilateral diplomacy and the United Nations today. Routledge, 2018.

1972 Words  7 Pages


What was the impact of imperialism on India?




            The impact of imperialism on India was both negative and positive. Positively they were introduced to modern technology, standards of living and this led to the increase in population and negatively that led to famine and they started depending on the British.

            According to Hutchins, F. G. (2015).one of the many ironies of the British connections with India were that those who wanted an Indian empire were opposed to how it would be acquired. The conquerors thought of it in terms of profit and national advantage and knew the Indian society was to be admired.

            Economically they were greatly affected because initially India would sell their products overseas and when the British realized that, they started discouraging the Indian industry. The British government then took direct control of infrastructure, took all the profits that were being traded by the Indians through the Suez Canal making the Indians live in poverty.

            Socially there was introduction of hospitals providing good healthcare and this encouraged population growth resulting to famine in some areas.


            Some of the changes may have sounded and seemed great but left the Indians suffering and despite them producing crops, cotton and other goods the profit went to other people.


Hutchins, F. G. (2015). The illusion of permanence: British imperialism in India

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Truman Administration and the Loss of China

            According to the existing literatures, it is evident that the4 loss of China can be documented on the willful abandonment of the nationalists in the late 1949. The reason for that is because such an agreement was meant to seal the decision regarding the disengagement from further activities aimed at supporting the nationalist of Taiwan.  On the other hand, what transpired in this case is the exchange of mixed mind for the next six months during the outbreak of the Korean War between United States and Taiwan. This in return was perceived to be the strategic plan for the defense of the western pacific (Truman et al., 1998).

            On the other hand, it is evident that the new information regarding the factors that resulted to the Truman’s decision and ambition to adopt Chinese policy is something that was trapped into the posture of supporting the views of nationalist. The reason for that is because Chinese communists had initially maltreated the diplomats of the United States after hey overtook power.  In the process, it was held by the Chinese communists that some of the diplomats were to be held captive just because of the hostile acts that they made during the Mao’s regime. In connection with that, from the perspectives of the communists, there was the need of conducting smooth relations with the United States (Powaski, 1998). Despite that, such a strategy proved to be ultimately impossible because of the continued support that nationalist used to bestow on Taiwan. On the other hand, it was extremely difficult for the nation to accept the considerations that were given by the nationalist. In case the same consideration could have been earlier recognized, it means that it could have been possible for the government of United States to end the war that had prevailed for that duration (Tucker, 2001).

            Although the Truman administration is perceived to be one of the incidents that led to the emancipation of the Taiwan policies, it is evident that it ended up creating conditions that were unfavorable. The reason for proving such conditions to be unfavorable is because they had the potential of preventing the establishment of the required diplomatic relationships with the United States. it is the same scenario that made the Korean war to be terminated on the basis of maintaining diplomatic peace. Despite that, it should be understood that by that time Truman was founded on two-China policy (Chen, 2001). As a result of that, what this implies is the fact that the assessment of Truman’s intention for Taiwan was ultimately based on the manner in which the United States supported nationalists in controlling the political grounds that were established. In connection with that, the special reference to this secret diversion was also based on the funds that were initially allocated to Taiwan for the purpose of improving its economic standards. Regardless of that, the procedure that was used was perceived to have been conducted without the consent of the Taiwan representatives of the state department. Therefore, it was important for the Taiwan representatives to ensure that they have natured it to the extent of securing or keeping it separate from Chinese communists (Truman et al., 1998).

            Nonetheless, it was imperative to substantiate the United States policy and the establishment the military policies. The reason for that is because military policies were perceived to be divided on the question that assisted nationalists. The same rationale is the one that could have determined whether Taiwan could have been one of the United States points of interest or not. Furthermore, according to the perspectives of President Truman, there was the need of ensuring that all the liberties that were granted to other nations had been abandoned. In association with that, such a strategy never worked because the joint chiefs of the CIA of the administration staff were in the forefront. They had a huge impact to the progress of the Taiwan nationalists because they of the United States strategic interests (Powaski, 1998). Regardless of that, it was approved that the continued domination and/or administration of unfriendly powers to Taiwan could have proved to be disastrous to the diplomatic relationships they had with other nations, especially the United States.

            Seemingly, it was important for President Truman to ensure that he had trended carefully if he desired to gain extra support from the nationalist. Despite that, that failed him because he had to take several steps to convince them. Unfortunately he failed to gain the required support from the nationalist. For instance, the issuance of the Chinese White Paper was perceived to be detrimental because it ended the support the country had from other nations. Such a discredited report is the one that ended up placing the Chinese mainland to communists’ interests. This in return deprived nationalist their rights and autonomy to control their political regime (Powaski, 1998). The involvement of Truman with the Chinese government also continued to weaken his policies. The reason for that is because it had the potential of impacting his initial involvement in policymaking. The same involvement had greatly impacted personal ideas that he had to submit to the nationalist.  As a result of that, it means that a large percentage of the information that he was fed with remained to be shrouded in clouds of bureaucratic competitions. The same analysis can also be based on not only the divided loyalties that existed but also on the information that was presented to the nationalists and communists (Chen, 2001). For example, due to the fact that Truman was ultimately concerned with strategic significance of his country, he failed to take into account the views and aspiration of his people. This is connected with the fact that he failed to understand the fact that Taiwan could have become an independent state or a protectorate of the United States.

            On the other hand, the policies that Truman had formulated during that time had a great impact of the diplomatic relationship it had with China. Although such policies were somehow personal, the relationship that the country had with the United States was imperative in fostering his regime. For instance, as the relationship he had with the United States continued to deteriorate, the political support given to him also declined. As a result of that, it was imperative to take the views of the nationalists into consideration so as to save their country. Furthermore, the strategies that were used by the United States did not have the potential of reviving the prevailing condition (Tucker, 2001). The reason for that is because it ended up dividing the opinions of the nationalist and the communists to the extent of escalating national turmoil.

            In connection with that, the establishment of the British regime in China also had a great impact on the diplomatic relationship that was initially established. The reason for that is because it is the one that resulted to the alteration of the diplomatic policies that were initially established. In association with that, it is evident that the strong opinions of the United States also continued to diminish the perspectives of President Truman. Although the Chinese communists were extremely supported by various nations, what failed Truman is the fact that a large percentage of the communists had deviated from their foundational rules (Powaski, 1998). Although the United States had tried to revive that situation, there was the need of ensuring that all the supporting groups have been stimulated to the extent of maneuvering with the rules of the law. Consequently, the loss of China can also be based on the conflicts that existed. The reason for that is because it is the one that ended up entangling the diplomatic relationship that China had with other nations, especially Taiwan and the United States. The failure to allow U.N forces to instill military defense in China did not approved to be ultimate means of resolving the conflict that existed (Truman et al., 1998). On the other hand, the continued use of the diplomatic relationship with the United Nations could have been the way out but ended up failing President Truman to continue with his political agendas. 
















Chen, Jian. 2001. Mao's China and the cold war. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Powaski, Ronald E. 1998. The Cold War: the United States and the Soviet Union, 1917-1991. New York: Oxford University Press.

Truman, Harry S., Robert H. Ferrell, and Bess Wallace Truman. 1998. Dear Bess: the letters from Harry to Bess Truman, 1910-1959. Columbia, Mo: Univ. of Missouri Press.

Tucker, Nancy Bernkopf. 2001. China confidential: American diplomats and Sino-American relations, 1945-1996. New York: Columbia University Press.


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SUBJECT: Nuclear Deterrence

The globe is undoubtedly facing significant threats, and moaning will not make it a safer place. Nuclear deterrence has been the dominant aspect of the American defense strategy since the beginning of the Cold War. The deterrence strategy is easy as it seeks to persuade that potential adversary that the cost and threats of a proposed action outweigh the anticipated gains. Undeniably, the plan has been useful such as in deterring the Soviets from attacking as the potential attackers are threatened by the disastrous risks of a nuclear retaliation strike by the US. According to Lewis (1) Russia has recently expressed plans to operationalize an underwater thermonuclear weapon with the capability to douse cities such as New York in substantial radioactive fallout. In response to this development, the US should develop and operationalize a doomsday device to deter possible surprise attacks from parties such as Russia.

The potential existence of a doomsday machine is disturbing and relevant at the same time. There is a need to develop a strategic nuclear weapon to enhance the security of the country’s borders by deterring the enemy from attacking. An attack on the US creates significant safety and social, political, and economic stability threat to the rest of the world, given that the US is a superpower (Geist 238). Nuclear deterrence is a practical approach, even though the risk of massive destruction is inevitable. The effectiveness of the doomsday strategy is demonstrated in the film Dr. Strangelove. In this film, the soviet diplomat shares with the US generals and President that the machine was developed to prevent a surprise attack, and the approach also deters retaliation by beheading the command structure (Rosenbaum 1). The automated system of the device would, therefore, assure massive destruction as retaliation even if it meant wiping out the members of the Soviet regardless of whether they were indecisive.

In Dr. Strangelove, the United States nuclear strategic identifies and recognizes the flaws of a doomsday device as a deterrence strategy. He noted the possibility that an unauthorized mission bomber might activate it. However, this is a flaw and an advantage since it would instill fear on the potential aggressor (Rosenbaum 1). There is no point in developing the machine and keeping it as a secret as it would affect the effectiveness of deterrence and only promote retaliation. Lockie (1) notes that with respect to the Nagasaki and Hiroshima nuclear attacks, the US was driven by the need to win the wars, but that has changed, and its main objective is to avert the occurrence of conflicts. In this context, the US needs a doomsday device whose primary intention is not to enhance its security and that of the planet by obscuring the potential aggressor from launching the nuclear.

The deterrence concept asserts that the intention of using nuclear weapons is to discourage other nations from initiating attacks, through the assurance of revenge and potential Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD (Geist 238)). The strategy is useful in enhancing US security as it would inform states that the country is well equipped and ready to launch vengeance in case of an attack. Nations such as Russia hold the most nuclear weapons, and this threatens the stability of the planet. With a doomsday device, the US will not be hurting is security but boosting it because the existence of the weapon is a guarantee of its overall preparedness to fight any possible attacks. Without the device, the enemy is more confident of winning, given that the responsiveness of the US in retaliation would be gauged as weak.

Nuclear weapons are unique as they are characterized by powerful aspects with the intention of causing massive destruction. While a state might emerge as a win against another by launching its nuclear weapons, the damage is mutual as it affects both the aggressor and the victim to the point of damaging the entire planet. The stability of one region influences the balance of the other, which results in global collaboration and growth. However, for most nations, nuclear weapons serve as a source of wealth and power. The atomic war is based on the need for power, and the competition will ultimately hurt global security (Geist 240). The ability to retaliate is critical in the fight against nuclear attacks, and this justifies the necessity for the use to develops and operationalize its own doomsday device as a deterrence intervention.

To conclude, the potential threat of a nuclear attack on the US is both relevant and worrying. The security of the nation cannot be enhanced by hoping that the attacker will change their intention and spare the world the trauma. Developing a nuclear deterrence machine is the best measure for assuring the potential attacker that vengeance is guaranteed, thus deterring both attacks and retaliation. Developing this device will help the US to enhance its security and that of other states across the globe. With Trump as the President, this strengths my argument as he is an individual who believes in protecting the nation’s security and welfare regardless of the cost.



Geist, Edward Moore. "Would Russia’s undersea “doomsday drone” carry a cobalt bomb?." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 72, no. 4 (2016): 238-242.

Lewis, Jefferey. Putin’s Doomsday Machine. Foreign Policy (2015).

Lockie, Alex. Russian media threatens US with 100 megaton nuclear doomsday device after key arms treaty fails. Pulse, 2019. Retrieved from:

Rosenbaum, Ron. The Return of the Doomsday Machine? Slate (2007). Retrieved from:




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The development of homeland security after 9/11 terrorist attacks.



  • To examine the development and mission of The Department of Homeland Security
  • To analyze the impact the attacks of September 11th had on the United States
  • To provide possible security solutions that can be implemented to prevent future attacks

Research Question:


Does the existence of Homeland Security make our nation more vulnerable to terrorist attacks?

Thesis Statement:


Following the tragic events of September 11,2001 security in America has not stopped evolving. The debate is whether this evolution has caused America to be more secure or more vulnerable to attacks.



For this term paper, most of the information will be taken from government sources, such as the Department of Defense (DoD) and DHS websites and policies. The research conducted will provide evidence to address the given topic. To attain such a goal, I will analyze the history and trends of terrorist attacks in the United States. The amount of research on the topic will present a valid and credible term paper on the topic of the development of homeland security after 9/11 terrorist attacks.


  1. Introduction
  2. Theoretical background on The Department of Homeland Security
  3. The impact the attacks of September 11th had on the United States
  4. 4.1. The development of Homeland Security
    4.2. The different components within Homeland Security
    4.3. Security measures that were implemented (Post 9/11)
    4.4. History of terrorist attacks in the United States
  5. Possible security solutions that can be implemented to prevent future attacks
  6. Conclusion




254 Words  1 Pages

 Homeland security



            After the terrorist attack that occurred on September 11, terrified and horrified American citizens wanted the government to come up with the strategies to be used in protecting their country from further incidences of terrorist attack. To respond to such an overpowering public sentiment as well as o the vast sense of susceptibility revealed by terrorism, the government struggled to implement measures that answer public questions or concerns. Furthermore, such measures were meant to ensure that the nation has improved its ability to cope up with terrorist attacks.  Ideally, the measures and the steps that followed after that were considered to be a program for ‘Homeland Security” (White, 2016). Initially, although this program was considered to least effective, it was later proven to be a national priority.

  1. Theoretical background on The Department of Homeland Security

            After the 9/11 terrorist attack, the president had required the concerned authorities to create a White House staff that could represent and be in charge of all the tasks that were to be completed by Homeland Security. Headed by the director of Homeland security, his main duty was to ensure that necessary steps and measures have been taken so as to protect Americans from threats of Terrorist attacks. Moreover, Homeland Security Council was also established to act as the anti-terrorism member of the council representing the national security department. In connection with that, a document was released to highlight all the proposed objectives, aspirations, and strategies to be used by Homeland Security (Beckman, 2016). What this implies is the fact that the establishment of this department had the potential of representing the largest reorganization of the United States’ federal government.

  1. The impact the attacks of September 11th had on the United States

            After the attack, thousands of innocent people lost their lives. Families and the American society remained terrified of this incident to the extent of living in fear each day. Thousands of toxic substances were spread throughout the country which in return continued to impact the health of people. Thousands of people died from toxic dust. The economy of the country declined considerably because of the closure of major governmental businesses and privately owned businesses. Moreover, the rate of unemployment increased greatly making the living standards to be difficult for the Americans. Geopolitics was extended into the society which in return impacted the dynamics of peoples’ culture. A great emphasis was placed on home life, regular church attendance, an increase in patriotism, the emancipation of the masses through social media, and so on (Jenkins et al., 2011). Legislations were also passed by various governments around the world aimed at combating terrorist attacks. 

4.4.1. The development of Homeland Security

            Fostering protection of American citizens from such attacks was understandable and perfectly natural. As a result of that, using Homeland Security was to make it easier for the government to explore all the steps that can be feasibly and prudently undertaken to reduce the exposure to such attacks. According to the perspectives of the American government, it was also logical to invest financial and organizational resources towards fostering the activities of that program. On the other hand, as a result of the establishment of the Homeland Security, also Americans wanted its agenda to be linked with that tragedy to ensure that rapid actions have been undertaken to assure the troubled population that their safety will be guaranteed (White, 2016). Regardless of that, dispassionate and honest evaluation had to be made for the available opportunities that can be used to improve protection against terrorist attacks.

4.4.2. The different components within Homeland Security

            Homeland Security is made up of several operational components. They include;

  1. United States Coast Guard (USCG)
  2. U.S Citizenship and Immigration Services
  3. United States Customs and Border Protection (CBP)
  4. Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA)
  5. Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC)
  6. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
  7. United States Secret Service (USSS)
  8. United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE)
  9. Management Directorate
  10. Transportation Security Administration (TSA)
  11. Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction Office
  12. Science and Technology Directorate
  13. Office of Intelligence and Analysis
  14. Office of Operations Coordination

4.3. Security measures that were implemented (Post 9/11)

            Nonetheless, preventing or hindering terrorist activities ultimately relies on intelligence. Apparently, in case the terrorists and their intentions are kept secretive, it becomes difficult to deny them the chances of attacking. Therefore, Homeland Security was to take that tasks that can improve the counter-terrorism intelligence of the United States. Despite that, it is evident that a vast amount of local or raw intelligence were collected after the 9/11 attack. Gathering of the intelligence data was not the only task to be performed.  Homeland Security team was to take the responsibility of analyzing, integrating with other existing intelligence and evaluate it before communication to the concerned authorities in order to ensure that such data has been effectively used (David et al., 2017).

            Ideally, after the 9/11 terrorist attack, the Bush administration ended up identifying intelligence and warnings as one of the United States’ integral cornerstones of its strategies and efforts for combating terrorism. This is what made it possible to launch various initiatives that could assist in improving analytic capabilities as well as enhance the coordination of Homeland Security with other intelligence agencies, like the Defenses Department, FBI, and CIA. This was imperative because it assisted in the conversion of intelligence into an immediate warning and warnings into effective response or actions. That also had to take into account the need for mapping out an explicit and sensible allocation of duties amongst these agencies (White, 2016).

            The next step that was to be undertaken entailed making the borders of the United States less porous. After the 9/11 terrorist attack, it was found out that illegal entry of people and goods into the United States was something to worry about. Taking into account its lengthy coastlines and remote borders, the country faced numerous challenges in coming up with better means of preventing illegal border crossing. Efforts that have been put in place include strengthening border patrols, especially along the America-Mexico border. Moreover, although it is impossible to protect everything, the Bush Administration together with Homeland Security was required to ensure that their transportation systems and critical infrastructure have been made more secure through the use of surveillance systems (Johnstone & Elsevier, 2015).  Health and decision-making personnel were also required to come up with techniques that can be used to protect and respond to any form of chemical attack. Strategies were also put in place to train individuals who will assist in facilitating quick response in case of an attack. 

4.4. History of terrorist attacks in the United States

            According to data collected, to date, the number of terrorist attacks that has occurred in American has reached 85. The terrorist attacks comprise of radical Islamist attacks and violent attacks from right-wing extremist members. Other cases involving terrorist attacks involve things like massacre through organized shooting, scalping, slave raid, assault, sacking, assassination, stabbing, and so on.

  1. Possible security solutions that can be implemented to prevent future attacks

            In future, it is also desirable to ensure that the potential targets of terrorist attacks were not left susceptible to attacks. Moreover, Homeland Security should ensure that realistic strategies are put in place to increase protection as much as possible. It is logical to say that the so-termed as consequence risk management after terrorist attacks has the potential of minimizing adverse effects in various imaginable scenarios. Because of that, the future initiatives of the Homeland Security should entail reducing the chances of terrorist attacks as well as limiting the negative impacts of any attack that might occur. Therefore, from such a broad initiative flows a surplus of certain policy programs (Johnstone& Elsevier, 2015).  With the prevention objective, an important task that has to be taken into account is to identify and prevent probable terrorist attacks through deny terrorists the means of attacking.

  1. Conclusion

            The terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11 left a huge scar on American society and the world at large. Thousands of lives were lost during and after the incident. This compelled the government of the United States to come of strategies aimed at assuring the safety of its citizens. One of the steps that were taken was the establishment of Homeland Security. The objectives of the Homeland Security can be summed in three words that is preventing, protecting, and responding. Preventing terrorism is one of the ideal objectives of Homeland Security. The manner in which this program as assisted in protecting the American from incidences of terrorist attacks is what has made it be considered as being a point of concern in the future. 













Johnstone, R. W., & Elsevier. (2015). Protecting transportation: Implementing security policies and programs. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Butterworth-Heinemann.

White, J. (2016). Terrorism and homeland security. Cengage Learning, Inc

Jenkins, B. M., Godges, J., & Dobbins, J. (2011). The long shadow of 9/11: America's response to terrorism. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.

Beckman, J. (2016). Comparative legal approaches to homeland security and anti-terrorism. London: Routledge.

David, H.M, Daniel, A.D, Robert, N, Jeffrey, V. S, & Michael, W. (2017). Introduction to Homeland Security. CRC Press




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 Understanding the Concepts of Irregular Warfare

In June of the year 2005 in Bagdad Iraq, a convoy with female U.S marines was bombed, the gunmen ambushed and killed two marines and four other American troops. This attack led to the death of one female and 11 others were badly injured (Associated Press. 2005). This has been regarded to be one of the lethal terror attacks against marines, and most especially against women in the country by al –Qaida. The number of American female soldiers in Iraq is increasing as the U.S troops continue to battle to the raging insurgency in Iraq. Female soldiers in Iraq are normally stationed at various check points to help in security search on women as a way of showing respect to the Iraqi culture (Associated Press. 2005).

Muslim women in Iraq are not supposed to be searched by men, and so the female soldiers come in handy during such procedures. The female soldiers that were killed in the 2005 attack were a part of the marine team that were assigned various check points within Fallujah (Associated Press. 2005). These marines were attacked after a hard day work as they were going back to their base at Camp Fallujah. Fallujah was an insurgent’s fortress that the U.S forces invaded in the year 2014 and so it brought a lot of rivalry between the Insurgents and the U.S forces. The U.S worked with the Iraq government to help liberate Fallujah from the Insurgents and to help rebuild this city to limit the return of the insurgents.

This Fallujah attack is a good case example of an irregular war. An irregular war is the term that is used to define little wars, primeval warfare and low force conflicts in nations. In the Fallujah attack case scenario, this was a fight for the city of Fallujah by the insurgents that felt that this land belonged to them. The insurgents were against their government because they felt that it betrayed them by joining hands with the U.S to get rid of them and that is why this automatically qualifies to be defined as an irregular war. Irregular wars normally exists in highly specific working environments, this are ‘microclimates‘ that require to be understood by intelligence experts, the military commandants and the policy creators (White, 2008).

There are challenges that come with this, for one these working environments consist of elements including, ecology, ethnicity, religion, politics and even geography. The military experts do not really pay attention to this issues and it is one thing that contribute to irregular warfare. Another challenge is the fact that specific local geography, politics and history plays a great role in irregular warfare. Intelligence experts, the policy makers and war fighters do not really take time to collect, analyse and assimilate data to help prevent irregular wars and this hence become a challenge (White, 2008).

It is equally important for military combats to consider cultural geography putting in mind that the geography of small areas is important in tribal context. It is important for the commandants to consider the tribesmen, their culture, their religion, to help understand the kind of forces that should be applied and the effect that it will have on the people from the regions (Jones, 2018). In the case of the Fallujah attack, the main reason for the attack was because of the Iraqi cultural beliefs that do not allow women to join the army (Hunt & Posa, 2004). Women in Iraqi culture are expected to stay at home and take care of children and their husbands. Iraqi women are restricted from pursuing professional goals, and most especially any masculine perceived professions (Hunt & Posa, 2004).  The U.S choice to bring female soldiers in the region was miscalculated and it triggered the attack. The Iraqi felt disrespected by this decision and their response was through the attack of the female convoy to help pass on their message of resistance. This is an attack that could have been avoided if consideration was given to the ethnic beliefs of the Iraqi. A better strategy would have been employed to ensure that no female soldiers were present in the troops sent to Iraq to avoid disrespecting of the Iraqi culture.

Another important concept that should be considered is the terrain of the region, it is important to consider how the terrain is affected by different weather conditions. This consideration can greatly help to understand the best forces that can be used to effectively operate within this type of terrain (Pelleriti et al., 2019). Irregular warfare normally occurs in rugged, remote and what can be defined as difficult terrains that constrict modern forces. A terrain that is difficult limits mobility and reduces technological advantages. A good illustration of this concept is the U.S operation in regions such as Mogadishu, Beirut and Mogadishu. The geography in all these regions is what contributed to either failure or success of U.S operations in Lebanon and Somalia (Jones, 2018). It is hence an important element for the policy makers, the intelligence experts and the operators to understand the geography of the region they are operating in.

In irregular warfare, the forces do not approach the rigidity of the modern forces. The units much smaller in size and in structure, this makes it difficult to exhibition how the enemy power looks like and how they are organised (Pelleriti et al., 2019). The concept of deployment actually loses meaning because the forces are closely assimilated with their civilisation. The weaponry that is used in the irregular warfare is something that should be considered, most of the weapons that are used by the enemy forced are those that work best against the modern force in the enemy terrains (Jones, 2018).

In relation to the Fallujah attack, the terrain played a great role in favouring the attackers. Fallujah at the time was a small, remote town, with a very small population and no electricity. With this type of terrain, the U.S combat did not expect any form of ambush most especially a bomb. The bomb used during the attack was an improvised explosive device, a common cause of U.S causalities in Iraq (Associated Press. 2005).. This was a weapon that the U.S combat could not detect using their modern technology and so modern technology in this case worked against them. With the concept of a small population, the U.S military did not expect much action from such a population. The small population made it difficult for the U.S combat to detect any form of resistance from the locals.

The main reason why an irregular warfare is normally defined as irregular is because of its emphasis of operation, which is to advance or uphold power on the pertinent population through political, psychological or economic methods. What was in the past defined as rebel, criminal and bandit is what has come to be known as the combatant on the irregular battlefield (Pelleriti et al., 2019). The department of defence (DOD) in U.S defines Irregular warfare as ‘ a violent struggle among state and none-state actors for legitimacy and influence over the relevant population’ (Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States. 2017). It goes ahead to indicate that Irregular warfare can employ full range of military and other competences in order to erode an opponent’s power, impact and resolve. It is through the destruction of the opponent’s forces that the target population can be controlled.

Since the 9/11 attack, Irregular warfare has been expanded to encompass terrorism, counterterrorism, insurgency and counterinsurgency by the U.S. The department of defence (DOD) is trying to stress the fact that irregular warfare should have a diverse mind-set, proficiencies and policies than conformist warfare that is more dedicated on overpowering the enemies (Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States. 2017). The fact that the objective of the conflicts in irregular warfare is winning the support of the population or their acceptance, politics hence becomes an active instrument and remains to be foremost throughout the war. There is always an intended goal in starting any sort of war and a plan on how the war will be steered (White, 2008). By proper diagnosis of the type of insurgency is critical when considering provision of external support. The U.S has come to understand this concept and that is why their choice of countries that they support in the irregular warfare is always those whom they hope to gain from economically for instance their support and presence in Iraq.


Associated Press. (2005, June 25). Convoy is ambushed in Fallujah. Retrieved from

Hunt, S., & Posa, C. (2004). IRAQ’s Excluded WOMEN. Foreign Policy, (143), 40–45.


Jones, S. G. (2018). The Great Irregular Game. National Interest, (157), 57–64. Retrieved


JP 1, Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States. (2017, July 12). Retrieved from


Pelleriti, J. A., Maloney, M., Cox, D. C., Sullivan, H. J., Piskura, J. E., & Hawkins, M. J.

(2019). The Insufficiency of U.S. Irregular Warfare Doctrine. JFQ: Joint Force Quarterly, (93), 104–110. Retrieved from

White, J. B. (2008, June 27). Some Thoughts on Irregular Warfare. Retrieved from





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