Edudorm Facebook

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

Both the Vietnam war and the Iraq war are viewed by most Americans as major strategic blunders and political disasters. Why did the US go ahead with either of these wars? 

42 Words  1 Pages

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

Nuclear weapons need a rigorous control that prevents unauthorised use, and yet, one which still allows for their intended use. What techniques are available to achieve such controls?

39 Words  1 Pages

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

Develop an intelligence report that collects, analyzes, and disseminates information on the Boston Marathon Terror Attack (Bombings) of 2013. Your briefing to the media and to the general public should occur right soon after the attack.

47 Words  1 Pages


The American conception of government and the role of its citizens

Tocqueville posits that democracy is the inevitable destiny of modern societies and that it is prone to many dangers. In the earlier days when supporters of aristocracy and democracy strongly opposed each other very few Americans made the efforts to make democracy more efficient. He strives to explain how the central government and state governments can work together, with the judiciary and other institutions to ensure that the Federal constitution is not violated. Tocqueville impresses on the need to come up with a system of study that will enhance democracy in America. He observes that it has advanced the farthest in America among the countries of the world and managed to so without falling into the many pitfalls that beset democracy. In his writings, Tocqueville believed that democracy was justified because its benefits outweigh its drawbacks and it offers opportunities to lots of citizens.

He observed that while America was democratic it also contained many features of governance that contradicted purely democratic governments in which the people have the sole authority to govern. Thus he does not view America as a democracy, rather democracy and America are two separate concepts to him. In his writings, Tocqueville thus endeavors to find ways to make democracy more effective in its purpose for America as a country[1]. He concludes that for democracy to retain its effectiveness, the people must govern, parties must be able to facilitate proper national dialogue and a working press that is not censored in any way should be allowed to do its work[2]. The writer examines democracy in America and points out the loopholes through which democracy can be made ineffective to the extent of tyranny dominating America. To Tocqueville, democracy is seen as equality where all citizens are seen as equals regardless of their socioeconomic status or intellectual achievements.

He observes that democracy is very influential and has a great contribution to make in determining the course and destiny of western societies. He claims that institutions, laws, ideas and practices derive their existence from the social state which is shaped by democracy. When Tocqueville talks about democracy, he argues that it is the form of governance that derives its sovereignty from the people but also cautions against the drawbacks that may result from democracy being based on universal suffrage[3]. Tocqueville sets out to reconcile the apparent contradiction of a mode of governance where individual liberty is predominant and yet the majority rules. He further advocates that democracy should help ensure equality in the distribution of property, income and wealth that can be achieved by providing equal opportunities for all to acquire those things[4]. Tocqueville observes that in Anglo-American society equality was ingrained throughout the history of the nation although, this form of equality was not ideal but an approximation of democracy.

The disparities that he observed were correctly attributed to inequalities that he attributed policies and practices that were prevalent in the society like inheritance laws. However, these laws when exposed to democracy brought upheavals that people rallied around to eradicate and in a way ended up being the reason equality advanced in America. He observes that the wealthy despise democracy but are prudent enough to be courteous to their less affluent fellow citizens. He observes that this contrasts widely with how things are done in European countries in which aristocrats do not freely interact with the commoners. The author examines the interactions and relationships between the rich and the poor.

He observes that democracy is most effective during periods of crisis because people of great character tend to rise and guide people during these times. However, in periods of apparent calm, he claims great danger exists because some parties or a small group of individuals tend to prevail with little to no resistance. These parties he points out become complacent and begin to serve the interests of a few at the expense of the people[5]. He claims that all political parties tend to claim to have the best interest of the majority at heart but few individuals lack the intellectual ability to determine what the individual ordinary citizen needs. This he so convincingly points out can only be determined by the majority.

The writer also correctly emphasizes the role the press plays in ensuring that democracy is made possible and enhanced to its apex. Informed citizens conversant with the events of the country around them are better equipped to provide inputs that have better chances of bringing about the correct political decisions. Freedom of association is another important avenue through which democracy is affected. However, as past events have shown modern America has thrived under universal suffrage as far as governing and politics are concerned. Tocqueville has thus been proven wrong on that aspect. Another aspect that he was opposed to was the high frequency with which political leaders are elected in America. This also has worked successfully to earn the present United States the title ‘the free country’.



de Tocqueville, Alexis. "Democracy in America: Historical-Critical Edition, vol. 2." (1835)




[1] Alexis, de Tocqueville. "Democracy in America: Historical-Critical Edition, vol. 2." (1835). p. 375.


[2] Alexis, de Tocqueville. "Democracy in America: Historical-Critical Edition, vol. 2." (1835). p. 289.


[3] Alexis, de Tocqueville. "Democracy in America: Historical-Critical Edition, vol. 2."  (1835). p. 309.


[4] Alexis, de Tocqueville. "Democracy in America: Historical-Critical Edition, vol. 2."  (1835). p. 378


[5] Alexis, de Tocqueville. "Democracy in America: Historical-Critical Edition, vol. 2." (1835). p. 427.


921 Words  3 Pages


Malcolm X contribution to change

When considering Malcolm X's life, his life experiences that are cultural society and his belief have many social and cultural implications for his life experiences. Malcolm's life is all about his religious and racial factors in the fighting for the African American's right in the American community where they are oppressed by the white. The fight includes the fight for their civil right, where the policy is sorted through his force and fights towards the African American. His fight was responsible for changing the African American name from the name Negros and coloured to afro American and blacks. His association with Afro American unity was meant to fight for the civil rights of human right. He considered that the most important issue was nit the voting right but the need to preserve the blacks' integrity, identity, and independence. His fight is the key to the youth’s motivation, his effort in attaining educational achievement, his belief and stand on his religious choice, his fight towards the right and freedom of the African American, his fight against the white people's evils in society, his influence in the political and religious grounds, and his sacrifice for the need of the fellow African American.

After Malcolm was imprisoned, his interest in education and teaching commitment is crucial in developing policy and knowledge. To acquire knowledge in all the fields, he was interested in. He spent most of his time in the library, where he memorised the dictionary and participated in debates to strengthen his forensic skill (Tucker, and Jed B.185).  The need for education as the vital weapon toward eradicating oppressive policies and fighting for their right is the key to Malcolm’s discussion. The skill obtained through education is the key to individual development, emphasising the need for education to the youths as the fighting tool. Education is, in this context, considered the key to the development of the policies that were essential for the fighting for African Americans. His fight in the African American and the white is based on the organisation's formation, which was the key to its success. His knowledge through debate was the key to debating the policy changes and maintaining education's importance.

The religious change and adoption of the Islamic faith were followed by the following of the faith and practices, which is the key to decision making where one has to stand with the choices they make. In response to the Islamic religious belief that Malcolm had to change his name to commit to the Islamic religion, they regarded the family names as white. This led to changing his name from little to X; his stand in the Islamic religion is considered an achievement in response to his influence on the period (Jones, and Trevin. 420). The growth and development are used as the symbol of commitment and the result as the time was recorded to have the greatest growth and influence in the Islamic religion. The youth's commitment to the activities of interest can be considered a vital tool for achieving their goal as the Islamic community acted as a tool for Malcolm's political and religious goals.

African American oppression required to address on both the political and religious grounds where Malcolm’s organisations do the activities. His fight towards the African American right, from the civil right to the human right, indicates that the youths can fight for the less privileged. The key to the development and policies that fought for the African right was through the development of Islam's nation, based on African American rights (Jones, and Trevin., 422). The development of afro American's organisation was the main tool for changing African American rights from civil right to human right through Malcolm's direction. His fight is also associated with changing the African American name to Afro American or the blacks; all this fight indicates that the people's right can be attained through the fight and policy-making to better society.

 African American's oppression was affected by the white, where he was the key to fighting white people's evil. His fight against the African American's oppression was done by the whites who could not identify the Africans and consider their integrity, where Malcolm was more concerned about (Malcolm, 2). The use of the name negros by the white was degrading the African America where they considered them as coloured, thus not part of the community. This was the response to the restriction on the civil and human right as they considered them not part of the community. The development of an organisation can prevent the oppression of the people in the community in the current world done by the first class to fight for their rights and condemn evils done by the fellow citizens and members. In addressing the evils in society, he never considered race, where he addressed Mohamed's evils despite their religious and political policies.

Malcolm's effect on society, both politically and religiously, was the key to change despite using all the means possible in the community. In return, the influence as the key to the development of African American policies and rights emphasises using the influence and power to societal change (Varda, et al., 14). The influence is the key to the change. It tries to advocate for people's power to better society without interfering with individuals' personal needs as interference. Malcolm used his influence to advocate for the change in the African American through the nation of Islam and Afro American organisation where they fought for their right and acceptance. This organisation is the base for developing the black nationalist ideology and the black power movement, which are formed due to his ideologies, ideas, speeches he offered, and martyrdom. This provides the base for the leaders to fight and use their influence to fight for the community's development and betterment using their influence in society.

The African American community's development and change are built under organisations and individuals who sacrifice their interests and life for community change and betterment. This plays a vital role in policy development and changes through the fight by the influential people in the community. The fight should ensure that the community protects the less privileged in the community as the people who are usually disadvantaged by the high-class policy. The evils in the communities are best controlled by the law enforcers who should be on the frontline in eradicating evils like corruption without considering or favouring some parties. In response to the people fighting for human rights and the oppressed, the government should ensure their safety to protect the people's interest. The death of the influential African American leaders and the freedom fighters for the people indicates the commitment the leaders should have in fighting for the community betterment and development by eradicating racial discrimination of the nation's development economically, socially and politically.







Work cited.

Jones, Trevin. "The Ideological and Spiritual Transformation of Malcolm X." Journal of African American Studies 24.3 (2020): 417-433.

Jones, Trevin. "The Ideological and Spiritual Transformation of Malcolm X." Journal of African American Studies 24.3 (2020): 417-433.

Malcolm, X. "Islam Behind Bars: A Critical Analysis of the Development of Islam in America's Prisons Temeika Beasley Spruiells January 1, 2019 Tbspruiells. com." (2019).

Tucker, Jed B. "Malcolm X, the Prison Years: The Relentless Pursuit of Formal Education." Journal of African American History 102.2 (2017): 184-212.

Varda, Scott. "Malcolm X and the Nation of Islam: Rhetorical Tactics in the First Dozen Years."

1249 Words  4 Pages


Political campaigns and advertisement.


The change in the technological world has affected the advertisement of products and other services offered by digital means. The political parties have adopted this trend to do advertisements on the political parties and their candidates using billboards, newspapers, articles, radio, television, and other forms of mass media (sualman, mahmor, & saahar, 2018). The advertisement ids aim to direct the forums to attain large numbers to increase the popularity of a party or candidate. The digital platform's current trends have been done to increase the exposure that these parties and candidates get as the world has been brought about into a global village by social media. In this response, the change in trend creates more exposure for the parties and candidates to sell their agendas to the citizen in a more appealing way. Despite the positive effect the advertisement has on the parties and candidates in terms of exposure, the negative effect is also associated with the program's ability to spread the negative influence of political rivalry.

The advertisement on the political ground is usually based on the development of the policies while opposing the opponents' policies rather than the usual advertisement where we provide the agenda of the candidate. The rivalry between two opponents under the advertisement where the opponent ridicules the performance, liability, and exploring the opponent's weakness creates rivalry and violence among the supporters (mahmoud, et al. 2020). The development of the rivalry where the supporters are involved in regard to the candidate supports the source of the civil wars. The developed rivalry develops enmity among the citizens creating tension in the country as the differences grow to toxic levels. The negativity associated by the political leaders in sighting their supporters increases with the increase in the political pressure and the differences in their agendas. This causes the opinion of the voters to the opposite direction affecting the election results affecting election validity.

Political advertisement is usually associated with developing information about a candidate, and political parties are just formulated to create individual popularity. The advertisement provides information that is considered false and misleading as it's built on individual propaganda. The policies in place for the political parties are not associated with self-restraining for the political leaders in the things they say on public forums (ikeanyibe, et al. 2018); the lack of restraining creates a ground under which the leader’s slender others were creating the rivalry that is transmitted to the supporters. The platforms and advertisements are associated with the transition of negative and misleading information that can ruin individual reputation in society even though the nature of information is ambiguous. When the information is followed by violence among the supporter, it's usually associated with cases of death of either the candidate's supporters as people try to ridicule the reported information. In this case, the election's validity is affected as the leaders with good quality are eliminated through misleading information.

The need for development strategies is associated with the more important control measures that need to be taken to control political conflicts. The effects of rivalry need to be controlled to reduce the cases of conflicts associated with the supporter’s rivalry about the people they support. In control, the policies need to control the advertisement's aspect where an individual is discriminated against with the information provided by the opponents affecting public opinion (mcconnell, 2018). The effects are in both the minor party and the individuals as in the political ground in most cases; the winner is considered to take all. The control in the internal party matters and their structure helps control the party level's nomination activity, thus promoting stability in the country’s politics. The control helps regulate and ensure that the fairness necessary for democracy is attained through fairness in the electoral activities both at the party level and election.  The activities cannot be easily controlled; thus, only policy application is the measure to control the advertisement effect on election results.



















Ikeanyibe, O. M., Ezeibe, C. C., Mbah, P. O., & Nwangwu, C. (2018). Political campaign and democratisation: Interrogating the use of hate speech in the 2011 and 2015 general elections in Nigeria. Journal of Language and Politics17(1), 92-117.

Mahmoud, A. B., Grigoriou, N., Fuxman, L., & Reisel, W. D. (2020). Political advertising effectiveness in war-time Syria. Media, War & Conflict, 13(4), 375-398.

McConnell, A. (2018). Rethinking wicked problems as political problems and policy problems. Policy & Politics46(1), 165-180.



760 Words  2 Pages

Global Recession and US Security

  In the last decade, the USA has experienced momentous and unconceivable financial regressions. What commenced as a market meltdown grew into a challenging financial ordeal. The international financial crisis became a primary USA security concern, spreading unpredictability in most parts of the world. Negative trade conflicts, USA intelligence agencies stated that the global situation also posed a threat to the USA due to its geolocation politics and the role it plays in checking the rest of the world. Growing unemployment cases and diminished welfare expenditure are some of the reasons that might lead to insecurity due to civil unrest and violence direct at the USA government. In these recent times, the emergence of security challenges stems from financial crisis experienced in various states

 It is the duty of all the people involved to come up with logical assessment systems that would reduce the ongoing recession and its impact on the people. Policymakers' primary objective is to persistently restore marketing functionality, forestall the spiraling crisis among active participants and respond swiftly to any financial crisis emerging in the USA. The financial crisis and international recessions might generate economic crisis in most developing countries. Also, most of the countries found themselves in a difficult situation because they could not find an immediate solution to their financial crisis. Time is an ultimate factor because nations take time before they can resume normalcy after any financial crisis. More so, the longer the recovery phase, the greater the damage on the USA's strategic economic interests.

 As noted during a financial crisis, assets’ values decrease, enterprises and clients have less purchasing power and financial institutions undergo liquidity scarcities. Financial crises are linked to bank runs where entrepreneurs remove their finances from accounts due to depreciating value experienced in most financial institutions. In instances such as financial bubbles, the crisis might spread to the rest of the economic zones but one region. It is vital to note that most of the challenging facets of financial crisis occurred due to overvaluing or even illogical mannerisms that cause market prices to plummet. In the past, most financial crises were due to banking panics. Once the stock market clangs, most financial bubbles plummet currency crisis occurs hence leaving the country in a state of depression. Some of the causative factors of the financial crisis are systematic meltdowns, unpredictable or unmanageable human mannerisms high-risk incentives.

 In most developing economies economic the rates of economic development decreased severely. Thus, the refugee movement in the USA increased hence presenting new challenges to homeland security. USA financial reports warn that the persistence of financial crisis would be detrimental to USA positioning in the world as other nations would try and challenge its authority on most issues of the world. In the wake of the financial crisis, most USA intelligence agencies have made it possible to come up with a threat list that would help to identify sources of insecurity in the USA and around the world. As evidence through the civil unrest, most experts claim that if a financial crisis is not checked, then the government should be able to come up with incentives of meeting the immediate needs of its citizens. Most of the security risks are posed by Muslim nations due to extremists who cannot be kept under control. For instance, there are not enough financial resources to track down these extremists.


565 Words  2 Pages


Money, power, politics


 One fundamental thing that everyone is aware of is that there is global inequality as a result of disparities in wealth distribution. Another reality is that the world had two classes of people; those who live in extreme poverty and those who are billionaires. What disturbs people most is not knowing the power behind the inequality crisis. The author persuades the general public to read this book to understand where the world is and why, and where the world is heading. Despite knowing the harsh reality, the author gives us hope by saying that it is possible to achieve real democracy.  The harsh reality that people need to accept is that power elites are the root cause of violent economic order in the world. Power elites are powerful people who have wealth and political power. These individuals form an alliance whose role is to undermine human rights, and ultimately destroys the planet.  Since the power elite has dominated the world, citizens have become powerless. A point to note is that power elites justify their actions in the eyes of controlling the planetary resources. In a real sense, their motive is to rule the world by making political and economic decisions. The power elite has a higher level of coordination and consistency that is enabling them to exploit the planet and cause a crisis for humanity. Therefore, this is a time for social change and every human being should take corrective actions to protect humanity.

Have you ever wondered about the increased global crisis and inequality?  To understand the root cause of rising inequality, it is important to note that the world is in the stage of global capitalism in which power elites have established global networks with a similar goal of state and international control[1]. A point to note is that everybody wants a radical reform or radical change but no human being would want a system of global capitalism merely because it is characterized by coercive domination and instability. However, the system of global capitalism does not have a consensual rule or in other words the other party cannot have an agreement on the issue. This means that global capitalists have the power to make decisions and particularly to control the distribution of wealth and power. However, the author says that despite the power of global capitalists, it is possible to achieve equal distribution of wealth but if only people would understand the power of global structure[2]. The knowledge of power global structure that everyone should know is that there is a Transnational Capitalist Class made up of 389.  In the past, members of the capitalist class ruled at the national level but today, power elites have established capitalist globalization. This means that the national power networks have moved out of comfort zone and they have entered into a global level where they have access to political and economic power and financial capital[3].  A small group of wealthy people is now controlling humanity with the aid of financial conglomerate or large global companies provide the financial elite with financial capital. This indicates that there is a connection between the power elite and global firms. The global power elites have the power to control global power. Since their power is concentrated in the different transnational state, the global power elite has the power to make policies concerning the economy[4]. They also communicate with the government officials and give a command that everyone should follow. 

 Global Power Elite uses the global corporate media to spread pro-capitalist propaganda. The power elite uses the strategy of distracting human minds by providing stimulating and breaking news that twist minds so that people might not realize the rule of giants[5]. Note that the power elite aims to control the capital growth and for this reason, the transnational media control human ideas and emotions by providing government propaganda. Note that when individuals receive global information and news their mind is twisted in a way that they do not realize the basic truth or in other words they fail to realize that many things concerning the capitalists' system are concealed[6]. Power elite wants total information control or in other words, they ensure that the corporate media tell stories concerning pro-capitalism so that people can stay informed 24 hours a day. For example, the global giant invests heavenly in Comcast Corporation, Disney, Time Warner, Bertelsmann, and others to disseminate information and ideas that alter the public's views and feelings.  In particular, the corporate media disseminate information that influenced the public to change behavior and support the agenda of the capitalists. 

  Having understood that the power elite wants to maintain the global capitalist system and control the global financial state, the author says that there is an ongoing resistance to the concentration of wealth and power. For example, the Bolivarian Continental Movement, Arab Spring ports, the Indignant Citizens Movement, and others have strong collective actions toward the power elite's ideological manipulations[7]. These social movement organizations have been successful in combating inequality and poverty. Stakeholders in both the public and private arena have realized the devastating consequences of inequality and they have put an extra effort to make their voices heard[8]. These organizations have precise responsibility in ensuring that the weak and vulnerable receive wealth equality. 




 Focusing on money, power, and politics, the author has demonstrated how the global power elite elites are wealthy people who have the power to make political and economic decisions. The global power elites are fueling the inequality crisis in that they make policies that increase their wealth and to make the capitalist system keep running. They marginalize the powerless and destroy humanity to benefit themselves. However, realizing freedom and justice based on human rights is the best strategy in the 21set century. The entire world should understand that the capitalist system is the primary cause of mass human suffering and in all actions, they should put human rights into consideration and realize the humans deserve freedom and adequate health well-being and therefore there is no need for wealth inequality. Finally, the global power elite needs to make the needed changes and ensure that rather than destroying humanity, they should use their power and networks to serve the poor and ensure that every human being enjoys rights and freedoms. On the other hand, organizations should put extra effort to fight economic inequality and ensure that the government makes policies that support equal ownership of capital. The Global power elite cannot realize the global chaos simply because they are the steward of financial wealth. However, nonviolent social movements should not wait until the powerful giant destroys everything. This is the time to save democracy and attack the capitalist regime. 



















Phillips, Peter. Giants: The global power elite. Seven Stories Press, 2018.





[1] Phillips, Peter. Giants: The global power elite. Seven Stories Press, 2018. Ch.1.




[2]  Ibid, Ch. 1

[3] Ibid, Ch. 1

[4] Ibid, Ch. 1

[5]  Phillips, Peter. Giants: The global power elite. Seven Stories Press, 2018. Ch. 6





[6] Ibid. Ch. 6

[7] I Phillips, Peter. Giants: The global power elite. Seven Stories Press, 2018.  Ch. 7




[8]  Ibid, Ch. 7

1193 Words  4 Pages


Political analysis


Political socialization refers to the process in which people develop political identities. Personal values and behaviour that influence the decisions they make and how they interact with others for the rest of their lives. Concerning politics, Americans greatly rely on the information they pick up from their families, schools and society in general.

During the early stages of development, learning occurs through observation and imitation of people who are closely involved in the child’s upbringing. Children therefore adopt the political disposition of their family members, teachers and other peers that they interact with on a regular basis (Neundorf & Smets, 2017). In the United States for instance, there only exists two dominant political parties and this greatly influences what party people are likely to side with. At a young age, majority of citizens follow the political party supported by family members and friends. Although the number of parties to choose from is low, the decision is greatly influenced by other people’s opinions and beliefs.

Although people’s core predispositions regarding politics are influenced by peers and society especially in the early stages of human development, people form their own opinions and attitudes later on in life. The influence that society, friends and schools have in determining people’s predisposition is revisited later in life as people develop their own understanding of the political environment; they live in (Pew Research, 2014). The experiences that people have combined with existing information about political parties therefore influence what political predispositions people have.



The complicated relationship that exists between public opinion formation and public policy outcomes is mainly because public opinion is often manipulated to affect the attitudes that people in society have on new policies before they are enacted. When used accordingly, public opinion should serve the purpose of introducing topics that should be discussed further and assist in enacting new policies (Hobley, 2012). In most communities however, elect leaders introduce new policies as public opinion to determine the kind of reception the policies will have when used to govern society.

When new policies are introduced to citizens as public opinion, it makes it difficult for representatives to identify which policies originate from the public and which were introduced by elites or influential people in society. The misrepresentation of possible policies for public opinion also limits society’s ability to share ideas and give input policies that could benefit society in general.

The complications involved when forming policies has created a system where society is governed by the elite rather than ordinary members of the community. The founders would be displeased with the approach as it denies equal opportunities to its citizens. The misrepresentation of policies as public opinion helps the elite to introduce policies that protect their interests, even at the expense of the ordinary people (Dur, 2019). Since public opinion was meant to give the ordinary people a platform to give their input, giving control to the elite defeats its purpose and is therefore goes against what the founders intended.




Political parties are made up of a group of individuals who share similar ideas about the scope of the government working together to meet the shared policy goals set by the parties. Members are selected to fill specific positions in the party and their responsibilities involve creating and implementing policies; furthering the party’s agenda; and managing government operations and policy making processes (Lumen, 2016). Candidates are selected to represent the party during national elections and the candidate who wins the presidential seat determines which party will control the government until the next elections.

The major function for political parties is to nominate candidates for public office and fill government positions that are responsible for running the country. Although the overall goal is to maintain the well-being of the country and all its citizens, parties rely on their own legislations and programs when governing over a country (US Embassy, 2020). Parties are also responsible for enacting policies that are passed into law and dictate how people interact with one another. The policies are influenced by public opinion, trends in society and the party’s opinion regarding the best approach to serve the public and protect their interests.

Although a lot of challenges in the government arise from the existence of parties, they are an important part of society and the situation would be worse if there were no parties. Parties hold their members accountable for the decisions they make and also limit the amount of power an individual could have (Lumen, 2016). A country with no parties would therefore be exposed to corruption, dictatorship and other vices that arise when poor leaders are placed in leadership positions. 



The major reason why the United States has fewer political parties than most of the rest of the nations is as a result of the electoral system of congress used. In order to present a candidate for elections, candidates must first be elected by the first-past-the-post principle and only the candidate with the most votes get to represent the party during elections (Sifry, 2018). Once the general elections have been conducted, the party that nominated the candidate governs the country while the losing party gets no representation at all. The first-past-the-post approach discourages smaller parties from coming up especially because they have a lesser chance of winning and nothing as compensation for loosing.

            In other countries however, elections are rather flexible and voters can vote any candidate from any party provided they follow the right procedures. Unlike in the United States where presidential elections are usually between two candidates, elections in other countries allow for multiple candidates from different parties and this encourages the emergence of more parties (Drutman, 2018). Furthermore, politicians in other countries are more willing to start new political parties or form alliances and in so doing, increase the number of political parties. In the US however, there is little input from politicians to form a new political party and this contributes to the lower number of political parties in the United States.






Media has a significant impact in society as it helps to shape up public opinion. Part of the media’s roles in society is to inform people about events that transpire around them. The information shared helps people develop opinions and attitudes about events and policies that exist in society (Happer & Philo, 2013). The media is however required to present unbiased information by only sharing facts. While the media does not tell people what to do, the nature in which information is covered could influence the attitudes that people have towards specific topics in society.

            The media also influences the enactment of new policies that govern society. Take the Black Lives Matter movement as an example. Coverage by the media has created a platform where people can share their experiences and bring an end to discrimination and oppression on the basis of colour (Holbert et al, 2011). Coverage by the media ensures that the general public is aware of such vices in society and sparks conversations that seek to remedy such occurrences. Since policies are a product of public opinion, the media’s influence in shaping public opinion therefore contributes to the development and implementation of new policies, both direct and indirectly.







Spin bias

            Spin bias in reporting occurs when the media or reporter favours one interpretation of a story or event and fails to give full information to allow the target audience to make unbiased conclusions. The media reporting is usually subjective and facts are presented in a way to favour one side of the story over another (Baker, 2020). In politics, bias by spin could gather support for candidates who are represented more while placing those underrepresented at a disadvantage.

Omission Bias

Omission bias on the other hand refers to occurrences where the media leaves out sensitive information that could disprove or alter people’s stand on a topic or event. The media could opt to leave out undesirable information about a politician because exposing it to the public could jeopardise their chances of being elected (Boomgaarden et al, 2017). Omission bias has far reaching consequences as it could mislead voters to side with candidates that are not worthy of being elected. 

Selection of sources Bias

Bias by selection of sources occurs when the media uses more sources on one view than the other and this misleads the audience into favouring one side of the story. When one view is backed with more sources than the other, the audience is misled into thinking that the side backed by sources is more credible (Leonhardt, 2019). In politics, voters may be swayed to support one party by presenting sources to validate one party over another, placing the less covered view at a disadvantage.


            The tripartite nature of political parties in the United States is made up of the Executive, Legislative and Judicial parts that make up the federal government. The executive branch of the United States government is administered by the president and bears the responsibility of enforcing the laws and policies made by the legislative branch. Different parties rely on their influence and ability to sway the public opinion when trying to ensure that their candidates are elected as president as this gives the party more control over processes such as enactment of policies.

            The second part that makes up the tripartite is the legislative or congress and is responsible for making laws that govern the country and all its citizens. Congress is further divided into two sections, one of which is the Senate and comprises of 100 senators, two of each selected from each state in the country (Johnstone, 2005). The second section is the House of Representatives whose responsibilities include discussing ideas and opinions to determine whether they should be passed into law (Truman, 2016). The House of Representatives is made up of 435 representatives where the number of people selected to represent each state is determined by the population in each state.

            The judicial part of the government comprises of the nine justices and the Supreme Court. It is made up of special judges whose responsibility involves interpreting laws to determine whether they are in line with the constitution. The justices exclusively hear cases that involve issues that relate to the constitution and are regarded as the highest court in the United States (Truman, 2016). They federal judicial systems however have smaller courts that are present in every state and hear cases regarding federal issues in their respective states.


Different parties try to have the most control over the parts that make up the tripartite as this gives the party more power and influence. The influence that each part of the tripartite has in determining election outcomes helps parties to identify regions where support is strong and regions that can easily be swayed to gain more votes. Democrats and Republicans have alternated power at a national level in the United States for the better part of the 20th century (Primo & Snyder, 2016). There are however specific states that pledge loyalty to a single party and their votes greatly influenced the candidate’s success during electoral campaigns. The south for instance has supported candidates from the Democratic Party from as early as the 1870s to the 1960 during the period governed by Jim Crow policies.

In the period between 1970 and 1980 however, the conservative Republican Party gained popularity in the region and support shifted from the democrats in the south (Mollers, 2003). Democrats however retained their influence in the region because the republicans would often vote in generational democrats. Control and influence tend to shift between the democrat and republican parties even in recent elections. In the 2010 gubernatorial elections for example, republicans were the majority leader with 53 percent of the votes while the democrats managed to get 47 percent of the total votes (Truman, 2016). Power is therefore likely to shift between the two parties until a new powerful party comes up to contest their control.






Baker H, (2020) “How to identify Liberal media bias” Media Research Centre, retrieved from,             https://www.mcgill-           %20of%20media%20bias.pdf

Boomgarden H, Eberl J and Wagner M, (2017) “One bias fit all: three types of media bias and     their effect on party preference” Research Gate, retrieved from,               of_Media_Bias_and_Their_Effects_on_Party_Preferences

Drutman L, (2018) “Why Americas 2-party system is on a collision course with our          constitutional democracy” Vox, retrieved from  constitutional-democracy

Dür A. (2019). How interest groups influence public opinion: Arguments matter more than the             sources. European journal of political research58(2), 514–535.

Happer C and Philo G, (2013) “The role of the media in the construction of public belief and        social change” Journal of Social and Political Psychology, retrieved from,   

Hobley M, (2012) “Public opinion can play a positive role in policy making” The Guardian,        retrieved from,     opinion-influence-policy

Holbert L, Kiousis S, McCombs M, and Wanta W, (2011) “The news and public opinion: Media effects on civic life” Wiley, retrieved from,            ke/The+News+and+Public+Opinion:+Media+Effects+on+Civic+Life-p-9780745645193

Johnston P, (2005) “Our government’s tripartite soul” Yale News, retrieved from,   

Leonhardt D, (2019) “The six forms of media bias” The New York Times, retrieved from,   

Lumen, (2016) “Political parties: What are they and how do they function” United States Government, retrieved from,  

Mollers C, (2003) “Steps to a tripartite theory of multi-level-government” The Jean Monnet         Program, retrieved from,

Neundorf A and Smets K, (2017) “Political socialization and the making of citizens” Oxford        Handbooks

Pew Research, (2014) “Political polarization in the American public” U.S Politics and Policy,      retrieved from, fordhb-9780199935307-e-98

Primo M and Snyder M, (2016) “Party strength, the personal vote, and government spending”      American Journal of Political Science, retrieved from,

Sifry L, (2018) “Why America is stuck with only two parties” The New Republic, retrieved from,   

Truman S, (2016) “Three branches of government” National Archives, retrieved from   

United States Embassy, (2020) “The role of political parties” retrieved from,   



2357 Words  8 Pages

How Do The Two Captain Americas In Gillis Show Ethnic And Civic Nationalism?

Captain America is a symbol of unity and national cohesiveness. His persona embraces people from all walks of life and he embodies justice and civic nationalism.  It is rare to draw out political lessons from a comic character, however Captain America has proved time and again that he stands for justice and equality. Captain America is forced into politics in what appears as a trial to change America for the better. He begins to support patriotic initiatives such as “the national identity card bill’ (Gillis 16) with this bill the government will be able to fight illegal aliens and deal with other issues such as unscrupulous employment which overworked and underpaid American workers. According to Grant, America was one of the first nation to adhere to the rule of law and respect the precepts of democracy hence dubbed ‘New World’ (Grant 43) because of its diversified culture. The American culture has always been founded on convergence of the past, contemporary and the future. Americans are taught to be just and fight for ideals they deem right in their own eyes. Thus, the two Captain America stand up for justice as exemplified in their own words, “for whatever from the forces of tyranny and subversion take, they will find Captain America ready” (Gillis 6). This shows the determination and courage Captain American is willing and determined to take in order to bring justice within the American borders. In summary, Captain America is not only rescuing people from villains seeking to destroy the world, but he is making a clear stand against bad leadership by taking part in political matters such as voting for a bill. As a result, American fundamental ideals are founded on unity, justice, peace and equality. The Americans values a system where people can live in harmony, access basic needs without any prejudice or discrimination.

 According to Kendi, the American people have grappled with inequality, racism, and even gender imbalance for a very long time. Currently, President Donald Trump’s utterances revealed the nation’s hidden prejudice hence forcing other Americans to confront racisms head on. Even though peaceful protests were termed “looters and thugs” (Kendi 50), black Americans never loosen their grip on seeking the wheels of justice. After the president assumed office, he undeniably went on a racial assault ever recorded in the American history. Since the president holds the most powerful office in America, people could no longer hide the entrenched racial systems put in place to slow down the minority ethnicities in America. The secret was out in the open and this forced an open conversation on the issue. Based on Kendi’s details Americas were stack in denial about racism for the longest time. However, President Donald Trump brought it out as an issue which needs to be solved. The president of United States of America is supposed to be a symbol of national unity and cohesion. Unlike the president Trump, Captain America steps up to the plate. One American releases Captain American from his ‘suspended animation’ (Gillis 12) because Americans are in dire need of a hero. Americans are known to be patriotic despite of the changing political landscape. No matter the injustice meted out against him Captain America thanks an ordinary American citizen for freeing him from his suspension. Sometimes even the just people experience injustice in their own land. Captain America signifies justice and correction, “the world’ll be strange to you now but you’ll see what needs to be done” (Gillis 13). Americans are confident in Captain American because he knows what needs to be done and he is willing to go an extra mile to see to it that justice prevails on every corner of America. In summary, America is grappling with injustice, entrenched racism, and poverty. The will power to stop this menace is in the hands of brave men and women who will stand up against injustice.

             Some critics and outsiders claims that USA only upholds negligible fabrications of national unity. The core fundamental entities of USA fail to live up to their perceived standards.  The variance in terms of demographics and national identity date back to foreign nationalities. This is because, most Americans are foreigners and do not have a common identity. Consequently, most Americans’ identity is dependent upon the founding fathers of the nation. The diversity of Americans has proved futile as it destroys their authenticity as a nation. Genealogy proves that Americans come from distant countries. Similarly, captain America stands up and assumes one identity, which is ‘I’ll try to live up to your expectations” (Gillis 8). Captain America is already recognized as a hero and he himself recognizes that people regard him highly. His identity is entrenched in people’s expectations. For instance, he stops crime and makes America safe and for this reason, people have high hopes towards him. More so, identity is not about genealogy or origin but also values. The Americans values have shaped the way other nations perceive them. Thus, human values should shape how people perceive other human beings because deep down, the sense of belonging and basic needs and emotions makes people human. Captain America is deeply disturbed about “how much American values have been eroded” (Gillis 14). This implies that Captain America is well aware of the values that makes people American. In short, identity should be rooted in value systems and humanity and not just genealogy and background. People should recognize that deep down they are humans and humanity should be the core agenda of any human being.

            Based on kendi’s observations, the current “political stale” (Kendi 56) mate was triggered by racism and police brutality. In the midst of a pandemic, political indifference, police killing and protests, the Americans have sought out justice through legal means. Their voice needs to be heard at a time, the president office is not sensitive racial slurs and the needs of the people. Thus, the call for justice for police is a necessity and required by all the people. For many years, Black Americans have been considered marginalized and left to fend for themselves, even at a time when the pandemic is killing most of their kin, they have no protection against an unfair justice system that seeks to incarcerate them.  In Gillis, Captain America stops injustice on its tracks as he stops robbery with violence and returns things back to normal. In the wake of the meaningful ban of Captain American comic, people are worried that they might be attacked or experience other forms of injustice.  Once, Captain America is freed, he captures America’s enemies as implied in this statement,” It was a freak accident, and until we can figure out what happened, we can’t risk letting the enemy duplicate the process and put us back under” (Gillis 17).This statement truly demonstrates the sheer will and courage to bring peace and normalcy into American societies. Most of American are free but sometimes, prejudice and injustice has forced all races and people to fight back and ensure that justice prevails at the end of the day. No matter the time or period, justice remains justice, one journalists asks captain America, “so tell me Cap, how does and old Nazi-buster find it living now in today’s society”? (Gillis 16). The question sought to unveil the American principles in the past and presently. In the past, blacks were slaves ad worked in cotton farms, however, in the current world, everyone is free and the society is fair and free. Anyone can voice their concerns about anything bothering them. In summary, justice and a fair society is a progressive step in the current world. Everyone needs to fight for justice no matter the time or place so that the world can become a better place as time goes by.

 According to Kendi, during the Obama presidency, America society denied systematic racism. However, in the Trump administration, systematic racism could not be denied due to the president’s utterances and social surveys carried out showing that black Americans were not employed and were more likely to be incarcerated than other ethnicities or minority races. Discrimination is nothing new in American but this does not mean that people cannot overlook the racial discrimination experienced in the current world. Due to the sensitive nature of discrimination, most people tend to come out forcefully and deny the fact that racism exist and that it affects most parts of their lives. In Gillis captain America, USA was a united nation and stood against many ills,” during the big one, America stood united against the Axis! There was a real sense of loyalty to America’s ideals of patriotism!”(Gillis 10). Captain America’s statement Americans are a cohesive people who can join forces to fight foreigners but the same force cannot be applied in rectifying years of unfairness and slavery. In the long run people have to fight for justice and make their voice heard. It a fact that the current American society is riddled with mischief and injustice, despite of the inclusive face it portrays in television programs and government appointments, discrimination and injustice are the order of the day. Thus, may be America never changed nor did it abolish slave and its vices. Thus, the current state the earlier point to a problem that never really went way, the government needs to formulate new policies which can stop systematic racism and bring about inclusion in the communities. Based on the facts presented in Gillis’s Captain America, the society is quickly changing and Americans need to live up to their ideals so that they can make the world a better place for everyone. In an interview, Captain America implies that Americans should be fair and no one should live in an unequal society as it makes it hard for good people to go about their business as usual,’ and this agitation even if well meant only helps them and makes it harder for the good guys—if I’m worthy to be called that—to do their jobs” (Gillis 6).The rich cannot live peacefully if the poor are always at their throats, borrowing or looking for something to eat. Thus justice should bring about balance in the society so that everyone can live a peaceful life.







Works cited

Grant, Susan-Mary. "In War Time: Dialectics of Descent, Consent, and Conflict in American Nationalism." Genealogy 2.4 (2018)

 Kendi. I. The End Of Denial. The Atlantic, 2020

Gillis IF Captain America Were Revived today? 1984



1756 Words  6 Pages


Biden for president

Joe Biden is the former vice president and is currently the Democratic presidential nominee. I would vote for Biden because he has served in the public life for a long time and because of his experience he would make a good president. Biden understands that the core values of the nation, the democracy and all the things that have made America is at stake at the moment and needs to be changed and he believes that he is the change that the nation needs. Biden is a decent person in politics and has solid working qualifications.

 His empathy is hard-won as a result of the pain from losing two of his children. This makes him an understanding human being and a great listener to people’s problems and personal losses which is a good virtue for a president. Hence the immigration policy where he will undo policies that have been put by Trump. Policies that separate children from their parents at the US Mexican border and those that ban the travel from Muslim countries. On the unfolding of the coronavirus crisis, Biden has rooted his recommendations from advice sourced from healthcare and economic experts (Glueck 1). This shows that Biden is ready to work with the interests of the people and the nation at large in a professional way. In his policy on coronavirus which is a major challenge facing the country, Biden will provide free testing for everyone. Healthcare for Biden is a top priority and this he associates with personally after the loss of his first wife, his daughter, and his son who died of brain cancer. This is a surety that he will look into the best healthcare services and programs that will benefit each person regardless of their social class. He will expand the public health insurance that was passed during Obama’s era as president. He promises to offer all Americans the opportunity to enroll in a public health insurance option. Biden believes in the value of bipartisanship and has insisted on extending overtures to the republicans. This cooperation will bring unity in the country and everyone will work towards the same objective.

False information that has been spread about Biden according to Subramaniam & Lybrand (1) includes claims from Trump who is the other candidate in the presidential race claiming that Biden would shut down the country to combat coronavirus. These claims are from an interview that Biden had and was asked if he would shut down the country if scientists said that it was the right thing to do. Answering the question, Biden said that he would listen to the scientists and so this was taken out of context. More so, a president cannot single-handedly shut down a country. He can offer his input and take other measures but his power to regulate the restrictions that states put in place is limited.

Taking on China in his foreign policy would be a bad idea because China has again and again exploited the United States. China is a disruptive and dishonest competitor who has been involved in an unfair environment and trade practices (Schlesinger 1). There has been an escalating tension between China and its neighboring countries regarding the Chinese influence on diplomatic, political, and economic grounds. China has shown superpower ambitions in trying to achieve national domination through their military competition. China poses a lot of challenges for the country and Biden’s policy of taking them in would be a wrong move and would have to involve a lot of measures and a lot will have to be put into consideration.

Trump is the current president and his leadership has been questionable. In terms of public health, the economy, and politics, his leadership has come out to be a disaster mostly in the midst of a pandemic (Shear et al. 1). Trump's government shifted its fight against the pandemic from the white house to the authority of the state which is a failure in his presidential leadership. Of the measures that prevent the spread of the coronavirus is wearing a mask in public and Trump has refused to wear a mask even in public rallies. He has been pressing schools to open and even threaten to withhold federal funds if they do not comply even when it is still not safe for the children. The way he has handled the virus shows that he is incompetent to the extent of labeling the coronavirus as the China virus revealing of his racism.

Trump has made statements that marginalized and discriminated members of racial minority, ethnic, and religious groups. He complained that Mexican immigrants bring drugs and crime to the US and are rapists (Lamb, Charles & Neiheisel 136). Revealing his discrimination, he banned Muslims from entering the United States and said that he would put into consideration the closure of mosques in the country. Trump's leadership skills and attitudes towards different ethnic groups are questionable and make him appear to only have his interests at heart and not the citizens.











Glueck K. Joe Biden: The New York Times 2020. Retrieved from https:// www.nytimes. com/ interactive/2020/us/elections/joe-biden.html

Lamb, Charles M, and Jacob R. Neiheisel. Presidential Leadership and the Trump Presidency:

Executive \Power and Democratic Government. , 2019. Internet resource.

Schlesinger J. M. What’s Biden’s New China Policy? It Looks a Lot Like Trump’s. The Wall street Journal 2020. Retrieved from Shear M. D, Weiland N., Lipton E., Haberman M. and  Sanger E. D. Inside Trump’s Failure: The Rush to Abandon Leadership Role on the Virus. The New York Times 2020. Retrieved from Subramaniam T. & Lybrand H. 10 false or misleading claims Biden and Trump make about each Other. CNN Politics 2020. Retrieved from


962 Words  3 Pages


State Government and Politics

Answer 1

The constitutional was formed to create a strong central government. The constitution focused on bringing political and social change. Today, the central government controls everything and the Americans say that the United State could not create the Articles of Confederation but rather, it could focus on a single integrated national or in other words a strong national government (Janda et al. 2009). For example, the articles of confederation was  associated with weaknesses in that it lacked the power to tax, failed to regulate commerce, failed to address foreign affairs, and other problems. For these reasons, the confederation was destroyed and a new government was created. The Convention wrote a constitution which stated that there should be a government with a legislative branch, an executive branch, and a judicial branch (Janda et al. 2009). The state constitutions were displaced and a new constitution created a strong central government that not only addressed the problems of taxation but also addressed the problem of democracy. Therefore, it is worth saying that the central government brought unity and integrity. Furthermore, the constitution created a strong central government that promotes fairness, common welfare, freedom and prosperity, increased citizen participation, separation of powers, and control power through checks and balances (Janda et al. 2009). 

 For example, during the 20th century, the federal government was involved in the education system and a Department of Education was created in Washington. The federal government brought significant changes to the education system. For example, it addressed poverty by establishing legislation 'No Child Left Behind'. The law was designed to support poor children by providing financial aid packages of local schools (Chandra & Rajendra, 2004). A point to note is that Florida can control the education in some areas or in other both the state and the central government should have control.  For example, a state like Florida is capable of identifying the local requirement and establish schools to meet the needs, provide free and universal education, provide financial support, find skilled educators, control the education, and other roles (Chandra & Rajendra, 2004). However, the state lack means and resources for supporting the education. Thus, the states should have an involvement in the education system but the central government should have a strong power as it provides a high level of federal funding (Chandra & Rajendra, 2004). Note that some states have problems of funding and therefore the central government will provide education policy and ensure that all children receive an education.

Answer 2


The United States has achieved the goal of Federalist No. 51 where the power should be shared by two distant government and each government should have separate departments. An area that shows that the U.S has achieved a goal is OBAMA CARE.  A point to note is that the issue of OBAMA CARE is between the federal and state governments. For example, the federal government established the health reform (Patel & Rushefsky, 2014). However, it was a shared responsibility in that the as the federal government focused on access, quality,  and efficiency as well as resources, rules, and enforcement, the state government concentrated on the personal health services, hospital regulation, health monitoring, disease control, health care financing, and the provision of Medicaid programs to the people (Patel  & Rushefsky, 2014). Even though the Reagan demonstration argues that the federal government aim was to cut the budget, there is an evidence that the federal government ensures access to healthcare through addressing the financial burden. For example, the federal government came up with a universal coverage program. It then forced the States to follow this plan. A point to note is that the federal government has a greater responsibility in creating health policies that promote equality and quality of care, provision of resources, control the rising healthcare costs, and promote consumer-driven healthcare (Patel & Rushefsky, 2014). A point to note is that the Obama healthcare reform has been a success because the government has shared responsibility.

Answer 3

 The Founding Father such as Thomas Jefferson, Ben Franklin and others would not be happy with the idea that legalizing marijuana is illegal. This is because the Founding Fathers used marijuana for medical purposes-in specific, they used hemp (Marion & Hill, 2019). George Washington also used marijuana for medicinal purposes. In the 1880s, marijuana was available in drug stores and pharmacists could sell the medicine to treat skill inflammation, cholera, depression, nausea, and other illnesses (Marion & Hill, 2019). For many years, people have gain relief from the use of marijuana and they reported no side effects. Thus, the Founding Fathers could stop the federal government from passing laws that prohibit marijuana legalization. They could encourage the states to use medical marijuana for recreation.

 However, there should be new approaches to drug use because marijuana is a dangerous drug. Marijuana possession and use are associated with violence and health issues. Thus, the federal government should flex their muscles or in other words, they should be proactive in enforcing laws to prohibit the legalization of marijuana (Marion & Hill, 2019). Note that the drug cost is high. A strategy is needed to address the drug cost and also address the health and safety issues as well as crime and violence (Marion & Hill, 2019). Legalization of marijuana should be illegal because the individual, the families, and society will suffer greatly from the harm yet they will not be able to control the crime and other consequences.

Answer 4

 The National Security Agency is protecting the U.S by collecting and analyzing information that could be a threat. For example, surveillance activities analyze computerized records and conduct data mining to identify terrorist activities. However, the activities have raised debate where some argue that the citizens are treated unfairly. The major argument is that the intelligence gathering is violating the constitutional rights in that the citizens are not protected from free speech (Cunningham, 2017). Citizens no longer live in a free society but rather they are in a society where they are unable to exercise their rights.

 However, security is more important. Thus, the national security agency should continue with the surveillance activities to protect the citizens from thefts and terrorism. Note that terrorists are a huge threat and many Americans live with the fear that terrorism like that of September will reoccur. Another point to note is that technology advancement has enabled the terrorists to use different tactics such as radiological and biological bombs to conduct a crime (Cunningham, 2017). Also, the crime cost is high compared to the costs of surveillance. Thus, there is no need of exercising liberty while at the same expose oneself to the risks of an attack (Cunningham, 2017). It is important to allow the government to exercise its power to protect the Americans from attacks.






Janda, K., Berry, J. M., Goldman, J., & Hula, K. W. (2009). The challenge of democracy:

American government in a gobal world. Boston: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.


Chandra, S. S., & Rajendra, S. K. (2004). Principles of education. New Delhi: Atlantic

Publishers and Distributors.


 Patel K., & Rushefsky E Mark. (2014). Healthcare Politics and Policy in America. Routledge   


Marion, N. E., & Hill, J. B. (2019). Marijuana 360: Differing perspectives on legalization. Rowman &



In Cunningham, A. C. (2017). Privacy and security in the digital age. Greenhaven Publishing




1224 Words  4 Pages


Federalism and Intergovernmental Relations

  When the Articles of Confederation was formed, the American leaders established a State government or the power of the state. The State government was given the authority and power to settle disputes, making treaties, borrow money, maintain general welfare, and declare war, among other roles (Janda et al. 2009). However, the State government lacked the power to levy taxes, regulate foreign trade, it did not have a national court system, among other weaknesses. It was suggested that there is a need for a strong central government rather than a small government. However, some opponents such as Thomas Jefferson argued that the central government would be a threat to the citizens. Opponents of a central government argued that the independent states should cooperate and address state matters and each state should have its supreme power as well as freedom and independence (Janda et al. 2009). Therefore, the widespread fear of the central government made the Articles of Confederation to give the state government more power whereas the central government became weak.

 Focusing on the limitation of power, it is important to note that the idea of limiting the power brought significant weaknesses. Note that during the 17th and 18th centuries, the founding fathers had realized that the central government should control the states (Janda et al. 2009). However, the system of government that allowed states to govern themselves was associated with the following consequences; 

  • Economic disorganization due to a failure to regulate trade, and lack of power of taxation
  • Lack of national leadership due to lack of systems of courts, and lack of chief executive
  • Legislative inefficiency due to one vote, inability to pass laws, and difficulties in the amendment process.
  • Bankruptcy due to failure to pay debt
  • Shays' rebellion due to a heavy debt by Massachusetts farmers
  • Failure to regulate interstate commerce
  • Failure to maintain order due to lack of central leadership (Janda et al. 2009). 

















Janda, K., Berry, J. M., Goldman, J., & Hula, K. W. (2009). The challenge of democracy:

American government in a gobal world. Boston: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

347 Words  1 Pages
Get in Touch

If you have any questions or suggestions, please feel free to inform us and we will gladly take care of it.

Email us at Discounts

Busy loading action
  Working. Please Wait...