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Article: “Donald Trump says flap over Chinese phone company ZTE involves U.S. jobs and sales”

Article summary

            USA Today reported that critics are against Trump's idea of negotiating with ZTE Phone Company in China.  The company was involved in a cyber-espionage, and for this reason, US does not allow American companies to sell software to ZTE. In specific, ZTE was accused of violating Iran sanctions and export controls and failed to admit their illegal acts that is; exporting American technology without a legal agreement.  The firm was charged with $892M to settle the claim and export ban for seven years. However, despite the supplier ban, President Trump is focusing on restoring the company. He argues that the ZTE company creates a ‘large trade deal' with the US since the firm gets many products from the U.S (Jackson, 2018). Thus, President Trump is not only negotiating with China, but he is also forming a personal relationship with the President of China.  Liu, who is an economist and a politician in China will visit Washington and hold trade talks with President Trump. There is a conflict between President Trump and the critics as the latter argue that Trump is backing off his promise to restrict Chinese trade practices. Trump is interested in restoring the Chinese business and the many jobs lost in China.  However, this is a bad deal since ZTE is among the companies which are restricted from receiving high-tech materials from U.S (Jackson, 2018). ZTE  is anxiously  waiting for  the approval  of restoring its  business practice by arguing that  the termination of  its ‘major  operating activities' will not only affect its survival but it will also have a negative impact  on  U.S companies and   consumers who  purchase Android phones.  Douglas Jacobson who is a lawyer also supports the Chinese phone company by stating that the case is unusual and there is no legal mechanism.


My Take:

            The Trump's willingness to restore the ZTE business is a way of bringing economy and national security issues.  Even though president Trump has a positive focus on restoring the lost American jobs, the restoration of ZTE‘s business practices with creating an intractable nature where both China and U.S will enter into technological cold war (Jackson, 2018).  Note that the reason for banning the supplier of software to ZTE is due to technology-based threats.  Thus, the efforts toward restoring the Chinese firms is an indication that the U.S focus on improving the technological development in China and return, China will expand its cyber capacity.   Note that ZTE technology will increase the cyber security threat and trade tension between the two countries.  The problem with president Trump is that he focuses on Chinese company success and ignores the national security. Allowing the ZTE to restores its business activities is like giving it the opportunity to control the U.S telecommunications infrastructure, steal information and engage in undetected espionage (Jackson, 2018). This is an issue of concern since the idea to authorize the ZTE firm in restoring its business practices does not come from Treasury and Commerce officials but Trump personally intervenes and violets the law informant rules.  Note that Trump also ignores the egregious behaviors of the ZTE firm since the firm failed to comply with the agreement that is; punishing the employees who exported U.S technology to other countries (Jackson, 2018)..  The point is that U.S should stop doing business with China just because the relationship between China and U.S is complex. It is complex in a way that Chinese firm spy American business and as a result, U.S will suffer from loss of secrets. If it is not possible to stop doing business with China, then there is a need for an international effort to monitor the operating systems, detect security exploits and take appropriate actions.



  Jackson David. (2018). Donald Trump says flap over Chinese phone company ZTE involves U.S jobs and sales. USA TODAY. Retrieved from:




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Global Encounters

 There is a difference between the exploration and trade in China and Europe since the European expansion was an Atlantic expansion that was associated with success and dominance in the world economy. On the other hand, the exploration and trade in China experienced an economic decline. The possible reasons for the differences are that in the 15th century, China had maritime expeditions that were capable of reaching East Africa and the Arabian Peninsula (Stockwell, 2003).  However, the expeditions for the exploration ended in 1433 and China created a sense of self-sufficiency and withdrew from the global exploration.  On the other hand, Europe was able to exploit the resources and expand its global commerce due to the technological changes.  The second reason is that the commercial revolution.  In the 13th century, China had expanded the economic growth in the Afro-Asian world system.  Europe was also in the Afro-Asian world system, but as a result of the creation of the new world system in 1500, Europe got an opportunity for global expansion, and it dominated China (Stockwell, 2003).

 Based on the Chinese Treasure Fleets, China sent its fleet to the Indian Ocean in the 14th century, but the overseas expedition did not last long due to internal problems. The fleets remained in the t were in the India Ocean, and for this reason, the Mandarins persuaded the Chinese monarchs to destroy since the eunuchs would contaminate the territory. However, Portugal and Spain had already entered the Indian Ocean using their caravels and dominated the Indian Ocean (McAlister, 1984).

One aspect of the transatlantic slave trade that reveals the human cost is the slavery.  This means that European expansion was influenced by slaves that were brought from Africa and Asia.  The demand for labor was high since colonizing nations were dependent on the New World for sugar and coffee.  Thus, slave trade increased since about 12 million Africans were transported to work in the New World until in the 18th century when slave trade became illegal (Rawley & Behrendt, 2005).  In the New World, slaves experienced terrible conditions such as long working hours, physical abuse and more.

The abolition of slavery will have positive implications for human progress. First, there will be freedom and equality.  This means that all people will be treated equally and discrimination and racial prejudice will end as no one will rule over another.  The abolition will also cause social justice and human rights where all people will have access to civil rights, political rights, social rights and more.











Rawley, J. A., & Behrendt, S. D. (2005). The transatlantic slave trade: A history. Lincoln: University of

Nebraska Press.


McAlister, L. N. (1984). Spain and Portugal in the New World, 1492-1700. Minneapolis: University of

Minnesota Press.


Stockwell, F. (2003). Westerners in China: A history of exploration and trade, ancient times through the

present. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co. Publishers.



















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 Election's Finance Regulation

Government regulation entails the Government's ability to impose regulation laws on those under their rule. Federal government agencies and departments implement the various regulations to different bodies as instructed by Congress. Regulation of election finances is vital in a country to prevent massive loss of the government's revenues. The campaign finance laws help to control the sources, people receiving the money, the amount and the frequency of money donation for political campaigns. In 1971, The Federal Election Campaign Act, which required all campaign committees to produce reports on how they spend money.   This paper analyzes the various ways South Dakota, Nebraska and Minnesota control their voting, campaigns, and election finances. Second, study some elected positions and their redistricting history in the last ten years, and, finally, how these redistricting affected the elections in those states.

Regulation of campaign, voting, and election finances is essential in any country. South Dakota put up, some measures to control campaign finances. First, all candidates must possess his or her campaign committee which helps them financially through contributions. The campaign committees must have a treasurer appointed by the candidate. The candidate can also occupy the position of the chair. It is against the Federal campaign law to form a committee to make contributions while the treasurer position is vacant. Second, every candidate is required to file a statement of Organization to the South Dakota Secretary of State before 15 days of becoming a candidate are over. A qualified candidate is one who raises and disburses contribution equating to $500 and has created a valid committee for election to public office. According to Malbin & Gais (1998), the government, in May 2015, prohibited Party Action Committee from giving donations to party committees and individual candidates. Individual candidates and political parties could contribute any amount to ballot measures.

Minnesota campaign limits are among the best in the best in the country. Unfortunately, some contributions are unlimited which allows some sources to contribute vast amounts of money into the campaign which leads to overspending. According to Malbin & Gais (1998), PACs limit contributions made by individuals, political committees and funds to election candidates to $2000 for governors every election year, $1000 for Attorney General and $500 for candidates for legislative office. During non-election years, the funds given to candidates are even more limited. Various sources prohibit individual candidates and political parties from collecting an excess amount of money

In Nebraska, all state candidates are subjects to the Nebraska Political Accountability and Disclosure Act (NPADA). Federal government Candidates are not subjects to NPDA. A candidate should register the committee to the commission once he or she raises a total amount of $5000 in one year (Malbin & Gais, 1998).  An individual candidate should raise $100 for Statement of Organization fee. It must also file periodic campaigns statement. Individual candidates and political parties can contribute to the ballot question committee without any limits.

South Dakota and its adjourning states have some similarities in their way of managing campaign finances. First, all the states are required to form campaign committees before the election commission considers the committee qualified. Second, all candidates should file campaign reports on how contributions are spent to prevent theft and corruption of money (Malbin & Gais, 1998). The states also require that prohibit ballot measures from contributing to election candidates and their campaign committees.

 However, the states' regulation methods also differ. First, In Minnesota there are no contribution limits of the amounts contributed per elections, while in South Dakota, the commission is strict on contribution limits. According to Malbin & Gais (1998), the minimum quantity for qualification into the commission is $500 for every candidate while in Nebraska, the minimum amount candidates have to raise $5000.

Redistricting is the map drawing of district boundaries for America's congressional representatives or other elected local officials within a state. In 2012, South Dakota redistricted its legislature. Like every other state, South Dakota had to follow the constitution which stated that the state legislature should be populated as nearly equally, which is practicable. Redistricting was to ensure that the people of each boundary were well represented. Each district elected one state senator and two house member.  In Minnesota, redistricting happens every ten years. The last redistricting occurred in 2010 where the new boundary lines would contain 30 members of the house and 16 senators. It would create 23 new positions; 15 in the house and eight seats in the Senate (Gelman & King, 1990). The country is planning on another redistricting in 2020. Also, section 5 of the Nebraska Constitution states that the, redistricting of state should happen after every federal decennial census. The constitution also provides context essential in knowing the questions to be asked in redistricting political subdivisions.

             Redistricting usually has some effects on the elections. First, the redistricting process threatens democracy in a state. It makes people lose faith in the polls. In Minnesota, the politicians chose who will vote for them instead of voters electing their politicians. Political parties chose as many districts as possible which are in their support. The people go through "no choice" election of the city council and state officials. Minnesota's Common Cause Director sees technology as the force behind politician's abilities to divide districts in their favor (Malbin & Gais, 1998). Lack of opposition also makes the elections less competitive.

Also, while redistricting help to ensure all voters equality, it becomes a political duel because both the legislature and judiciary are fighting for votes. The states experience more competitive elections when courts and commissions are involved directly in the redistricting process than when elections happen through the regular state legislative process (Abramowitz, 1983). This conflict is not healthy for any state because both parties should be neutral.

Redistricting of states also makes government officials unresponsive to the voter's needs. 2 in 5 voters say that they do not feel that the state officials represent them well. Also, 65% of citizens are dissatisfied with the government's work. The damaging effects manipulating districts are becoming more evident on the federal level. According to Gelman & King (1990), many of the districts have given rise to a Republican member of Congress operating safely in rural communities which leaves them vulnerable to opposers in the Democratic Party. 

Additionally, redistricting leads to wastage of the government funds spent on the added district members. The government requires qualified officials and resources to lead the process, to ensure the redistricting process in the states is successful. These officials need money as a reward for their services. Also, redistricting ends up adding more member to the Senate and the House of Representatives who will need money for their campaign committee. The new members also expect to be paid which lead to excess usage of the government election funds. Also, the government spends more money during the election process due to increased polling stations in the new districts. The redistricting process makes the marginalized members of the delegation weaker due to racial discrimination (Abramowitz, 1983). The most influential members and the natives gain from the process.

Lastly, the district lines enable politicians to predict the results in an election. The politician's aim of redistricting states is to get their stronghold districts together. The census figure did before redistricting process is used to draw lines of results. The greedy leaders take regions which are densely populated to retain more votes. Most politicians maintain their seat even when people insist on change. The retiring incumbents hold the other remaining open positions. 84% of the seats in 2010 remained in the hands of those who previously occupied them before the Election Day (Abramowitz, 1983).

In conclusion, Government regulations of campaign finances play an essential role in ensuring no wastage Government revenues through corrupt means. Regulating of candidate's contributions and expenditures helps to keep the leaders on toes knowing they have to report how they spend money. Redistricting of positions ensures all states are represented in the federal government thus promoting equality. However, the racial discrimination involved might bring more harm than good to these states. It increases tension as those discriminated races become overly sensitive because any move made by the government feels like an attack on them. When the government creates more seats in the national assembly, it means more money on campaign committees and polling stations during elections. It is therefore advisable for governments to avoid too much redistricting if government fund is to be regulated efficiently.








Abramowitz, Alan I. 1983. “Partisan Redistricting and the 1982 Congressional Elections.”

            Journal of Politics 45:767–70.

Gelman, A., & King, G. (1990). Estimating the electoral consequences of legislative

            redistricting. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 85(410), 274-282.

Malbin, M. J., & Gais, T. L. (1998). The day after reform: Sobering campaign finance lessons

            from the American states. Albany, NY: Rockefeller Inst. Press.





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Asymmetric conflicts


 An imbalance in the military power characterizes the contemporary armed conflict. Various studies have confirmed that asymmetric conflict is rooted from powerful motivating factors namely ethnic and religious identity.  Since the 9/11 era, states and non-state actors have adopted unique characteristics and nature of war where they use asymmetric methods. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the asymmetric warfare by focusing on how the globalization has contributed to the rise of armed groups and, how the states have shifted from interstate warfare to asymmetric warfare. By looking on how globalization had led to armed groups, the paper will analyze how the armed groups affect the nation-states in terms of social-economic, political and security state.  Due to the development internet and information technology, the paper finds that there are new forms of conflict known as netwars where criminals use networks in planning and completing the mission. The article will also discuss how technological innovation has assisted the criminals in planning terrorist activities. Finally, the paper will discuss the major types of a transactional crime organization, their role, and measures to combat them.


The asymmetric conflict involves the use of entirely new methods or conventional capabilities that the opponents cannot understand. The globalized economy is characterized by a hybrid war where adversaries employ military strategies and tactics in the battlespace. In a real sense, asymmetrical wars do not comprise a quantitative difference such as power, but it shows qualitative differences regarding behavioral standards and means. It is important to understand that the interstate warfare (conflict between states) contributes to asymmetric conflict where states employ guerilla strategies to undermine the interstate rules. States goes beyond the   established state order and changes the character of war. The shift from interstate warfare to asymmetric conflict has contributed to the rise of armed groups. This means that state and non-state actors have deployed the military operations and weapons of mass destruction to minimize and exploit the weakness of their nations. Another point is that globalization has contributed to the rise of armed groups in that terrorists have the opportunity to operate on a worldwide scale.  War is shaped by the level of technology, the economic circumstances among other factors. This means that through globalization, migratory flows and the availability of information technology, terrorists can integrate and form transnational organized crime. The International organized groups can commit all kinds of crime including human trafficking, drug trafficking among other criminal activities.  Globalization has given rise to netwar where international organized group use technologies such as communications technology to attack target areas and commit a crime.  The law enforcement should implement the necessary measures to combat the international organized groups and prevent their devastating effects on the national and international security.


 It is important to say that globalization has brought both advantages and disadvantages to the national and international sphere. For example, globalization has brought benefits through the transmission of cultural values, language exchange, great human sensitivity, inter-exchange of labor, transfer of technology, and exchange of knowledge among other many benefits. However, the research paper has confirmed that globalization has created conflict between the wealthy and developing nations and the gap has contributed to the conflict. In other words, nations like the U.S feel like they have a dominant power over developing nations and they tend to dominate the global trade.  The imbalance of power contributes to war between state and non-state actors in trying to defend own national economies. Since globalization has introduced the information and communication technology, terrorists have developed a new form of war called ‘netwar' where terrorists commit a crime in an internet manner. Thus, globalization has brought disruption on national and international economy, social and political aspects.



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 Persuasion in The Republic

The Republic is a Socratic dialogue work by Plato, which is concerned with justice, characters of justice, orders, the city state and the just man. It is one of the most influential philosophical work and political theory. The book starts with Socrates talking to the jury about justice in order to convince them to release him. The dialogue involved five characters: Thrasymachus, Polemarchus, Cephalus, Glaucon and Adeimantus. Socrates explains to his interlocutors the meaning of justice and the difference in happiness levels between a just person and an unjust person. All of them had different opinions pertaining justice. They consider the features of a government and compare it to different hypothetical cities. Socrates’ interlocutors argue that the unjust people in the society are more blessed than those who observe justice. The book start with an act of force and ends with an act of persuasion. Socrates tried to persuade them on justice, including the gods’ justice. He told them that there cannot be a chaotic or evil God, which everyone could emulate and therefore, the guardians should not tell stories which perceive the Gods as evil because the stories are lies. However, in order to ensure a rational persuasion, Socrates’ knowledge of his argument was a key factor, but he encountered some problems before persuading them. This paper analyzes how Plato understands the problem of rational persuasion, and how he develops his philosophy to overcome the problem.

Plato understands preservation of negative teachings as the main problem faced when trying to make a rational persuasion. Many people have a negative perspective towards the society as a result of what they learn from childhood. It is so hard for a philosopher to convince a non-philosopher to abandon their own idea of human nature. The jury’s argument is based on true believes which is so hard to change while the Socrates argument is based on knowledge. First, according to Bloom & Kirsch (2016), Glaucon is stuck with the idea that all goods is divided into three classes: things people desire for their beneficial outcomes, for example, doing physical exercise to reduce the risks of getting life style diseases. Things people desire for their own peace of mind, such as joy and things people desire for their own benefit and for their positive outcomes to the person. Glaucon views justice as evil and he wants to be convinced that justice is a virtue and that is valued for itself and its consequences. Socrates uses his knowledge of the nature of knowledge in both the individual and the city. He explains that a society is attributed to the fact that people depend on each other to survive and if each individual specifically plays his or her in promoting justice, the city would be a just place. Also, Socrates explains that a person has a rational part of the soul which governs the other parts to be just. He also explains to them the importance of emphasizing on physical education and diet of the guardians to protect their bodies from diseases and weakness. The guardians should watch their diet by eating in moderation. The city shows the capability to control its future rulers if it able to control the guardians’ education.

            Secondly, Plato blames the slavery mentality of the citizens on the increased oppression from those in power. Thrasymachus believes that injustice is naturally good and one should not suffer from it. He argues that laws are made and the requirement of the law is what is called just. This is seen as a social contract between the guardians and the people to avoid being unjust to each other. Glaucon explains Thrasymachus argument saying that many just people do it unwillingly and for fear of punishment (Stalley, 2007). Also, that the wicked prosper more than the good people in the society. Socrates responds by saying that the guardians and the philosopher kings act as the rational part of the society which guides the warriors and the producers in order to ensure maximum security and peace in the society. He adds that lawlessness would give more power to the Guardians and they would mistreat the citizens.  Socrates suggest that both male and female Guardians should be given the same kind of education and they should not own private properties. This would help to reduce discrimination of the poor by the rich.

Plato understood religion preservation as a result of lack of enough knowledge of the gods by the people. After Glaucon is done with his speech, Adeimantus concluded that god does not punish the unjust in the afterlife, since poets who wrote about judgment also wrote about god’s ability to forgive if one repents and offers a sacrifice to the gods. According to Klosko (1993), Adeimantus demonstrates that unjust people could obtain their fortune through unjust measures, devoting some money from their wealth to offer sacrifice to the gods would render them innocent in the eyes of the gods. Socrates uses his knowledge of religion to persuade Adeimantus that the gods are just and if one repents, they stand a chance to be forgiven. The guardians are, therefore, advised to eliminate stories that portray the god’s as evil because those claims are not valid.

Plato developed ethical and political philosophy to overcome the problem of preservation and the strong false believes that the people had. It states the reasoning of what is moral an individual rather than being governed by rules or fear of consequences. According to Plato, the souls is divided into reason, spirit, and appetite (Cooper & Hutchinson, 1997). He argues that the human soul must have at least two of these parts in order to explain their psychological problems. Reason helps people to thinking abilities to judge between wrong and right, spirit gives a person emotional to feel empathy for others, and appetite increases the peoples’ desire to attain justice. However, Socrates urges people to balance the three aspects in order to make good ethical choices. Early in the dialogue, Socrates encounters Thrasymachus who insist that justice in the society is of the stronger lot. He held the view that it was normal for the superior people in the society to dominate others, lie, and steal, because they would get away with it. The story of Gyges was used to illustrate this. Gyges was given a ring that made him invisible and the story is used to show the unethical aspect of committing unjust acts without being caught. On the other hand, in his political theory, Plato is against democracy. Socrates was killed by a democratic government of Athens and this explains why Socrates was against the government. He suggested that philosophers would make the best kings. The city was also not in support of women voting and supported slavery. His idea of a perfect city is communism where everybody contributes to the wellbeing of the society. At birth, each citizen would be told that they are destined for a certain thing in life and they should not try to change their fate.

Plato’s Ethical philosophy was successful. Ethical philosophy gave people an understanding of their rights and the desire to fight for justice (Morrow, 1953). This philosophy also softened the leader’s hearts to empathize with the people thus reducing oppression. On the other hand, his political theory failed. Although many citizens were not in support of the fake Athenian democratic government, they saw Plato’s idea of philosopher kings and the concept of fate was called “the noble lie” which would keep order in the society with everybody stuck to their fate.

Knowledge is an essential trait when it comes to persuading people. Many people find it hard to change from what they were taught from childhood to completely different ideas and it takes people with enough information to convince them otherwise. Justice remains to be a dream to the poor in the society as the rich obtain justice through bribing of those in authority. Those who try to persuade people to oppose unjust situations and entice them to resist oppression are in most cases assassinated by the government because they are a great threat to power. The society should unite to fight corrupt authorities in order to ensure justice is equally served to everyone regardless of gender or class.



















Bloom, A., & Kirsch, A. (2016). The republic of Plato. Basic Books. United Kingdom: Oxford

            University Press.

Cooper, J. M., & Hutchinson, D. S. (1997). Plato: complete works. United States: Hackett

            publishing Co.

Klosko, G. (1993). Persuasion and moral reform in Plato and Aristotle. U.S:  Revue

            internationale de philosophie.

Morrow, G. R. (1953). Plato's conception of persuasion: United States: Duke University Press.

Stalley, R. F. (2007). Persuasion and the tripartite soul in Plato's Republic. UK: Oxford

            University Press.



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Theories of US foreign policy


            The purpose of this article is to focus on the role of theories or theoretical perspectives in creating US foreign policy.  It is not easy to understand the American foreign policy simply because there are many factors that influence the making of foreign policy.  To address this complexity, the International Relations scholars have introduced a number of competing theories which focus on both international and domestic factors that influence the American foreign policy. The purpose of using a theoretical framework is that in making policy, the policymakers focus on both internal and external world and gains knowledge and skills as well as the necessary information needed.  In order to explain the American foreign policy, the theory of international politics does not work alone but rather, what is needed is a theory of foreign policy which focus on understanding why other nations created specific foreign policy. In general, to explain the American foreign policy, the analysts should combine systematic sources and domestic sources to provide a comprehensive picture of how the U.S should make foreign policies.

            U.S foreign policy stands for the actions or standards which U.S takes to conduct relations with world's nations, to achieve national objectives and more importantly to maintain the national security as well as world peace. In making a foreign policy, U.S  focus on sustaining  the values and interests  through  evaluating factors from external environment,  societal environment, the  governmental setting, the bureaucratic roles and  the individual personalities (Schmidt, N.D). These factors that influence the foreign policy-making are independent variables and they play a significant role in explaining the foreign policy. These domestic factors are important in that they focus on core values, non-governmental aspects, and the domestic political system and, they play role in the formulation and implementation. Mostly, the domestic factors identifies and analyses the things to consider in creating the foreign policy or in promoting democracy, freedom and human rights (Wittkop et al. 2008).The major claim is that these factors can be referred as ‘pre-theory' that explain the mechanism by which the U.S foreign should be made.  Scholars are interested to know more on the theory of foreign policy which explains "what states try to achieve in the external realm and when they try to achieve it"(Schmidt, N.D). The point is that even though the domestic sources  focus on the domestic political system and what to focus on,  it is important to explore the external world and  understand the structure of the international system.

The major factor that will help explain the American foreign policy is the external force- this goes beyond the understanding of core values and ideology to appoint where to explores the international system and the world politics. External theories claims that U.S foreign policy should be made by focusing on external pressures in the international system.  For instance, the defensive realism and offensive realism supports the claim by stating that the factors in the international system help understand that the ‘international system is made of sovereignty states and, each state believes that it has the highest authority and should use the authority for security and survival’ (Schmidt, N.D).The importance of focusing on external factors such as the states' amount power and U.S amount of power will help the America create a foreign policy. Note that in the international realm, states acts as security maximizers through expansionism which leads to a counterbalancing coalition. Thus, by understanding the amount of power in the other states, America will become a ‘defensive positional' where it will maintain a moderate power for security (Schmidt, N.D).  On the other hand, offensive realism argue that it is important for America to understand the states' distribution of power not to maximize security but to maximize power. This means that due to the anarchical and uncertainty that exist in the internal system, U.S should find an opportunity to maintain a higher authority for nation's survival. Every state focus on achieving the global hegemony and since it is not possible, states tends to create a regional hegemony in other nations. Thus, in addition to understanding the distribution of power to maintain the security, U.S should also prevent the emergence of regional hegemony through the use offshore balancing (Cameron Frasser, 2006).


 Given that defensive realism and offensive realism would help the U.S explain the foreign policy through understanding states' distribution of power, liberalism and Marxism also supports the claim by asserting that America should focus on the internal factors to understand the behaviors and get the direction of the American foreign policy (Schmidt, N.D).. According to the liberal theory, U.S should first focus on domestic institutions in terms of social, economic and political institutions and, values and identities. Since U.S is interested in promoting freedom and human rights to everyone, some non-liberal regimes may create a hostile environment. Thus, American should understand its domestic condition and best strategies to extend the democratization either through free-market economies, foreign aid, and diplomatic negotiation among other strategies (Cox, Ikenberry & Inoguchi, 2000).  Another theory that would explain the American foreign policy is the Marxism. The U.S led to ‘The Tragedy of American Diplomacy' through its expansionism goals, access, and control.  The policy of expansionism and imperialism which rooted from the U.S capitalism nature led to economic burden in both the U.S and other nations.  Since the goal of foreign policy is to promote freedom, peace, human right, democracy and maintaining a balance of power in other nation, U.S should focus on its economic factors as well its capitalism nature and offer economic benefits to the international system (Schmidt, N.D).

 Another important point is that the combination of external sources (defensive realism and offensive realism) and domestic sources (liberalism and Marxism) will effectively explain the American foreign policy (Schmidt, N.D). In other words, the Neoclassical Realism states that the external factors will help understand the structure of the international system and the world politics but the U.S will not explain the foreign policy without the internal factors. Domestic or internal factors give direction as well as a convincing explanation of policy formulation and implementation and more importantly helps in understanding the systematic factors.  It is important to note that both domestic and external factors work together in that first, before making a policy, America should understand the power distribution and the governmental structures in the international system (Schmidt, N.D).  In addition, constructivism theory supports the need to combine external and internal factors in that rather than focusing on materialistic assumptions only, U.S should also consider national identity (Houghton, 2007). The latter defines the role which American will play in the international realm. In other words, U.S should create a self-defined image which will distinguish the nation from other nations. Note that for America to explain its foreign policy, it should have a national interest which stems from social interaction and the purpose of the interest will be to help understand the relations between other liberal and non-liberal states and, be in a position to explain the foreign policy (Houghton, 2007)..





The article has confirmed that systematic sources cannot explain the American foreign policy nor domestic sources. However, both sources collectively play a significant role as they present a comprehensive picture to the U.S on how foreign policy should be made.  For instance, the eternal sources concentrate on the internal system and the world politics whereas the domestic sources concentrate on the societal institutions, core values, and ideologies. External sources help the U.S maximize security and power where the internal sources will provide an insight on how to achieve the foreign policy goals.  However, unlike external and external factors, constructivism argue that the U.S should not only concentrate on materialistic assumptions such as power, wealth, security, survival and more but should also focus on its national identity which defines its role in the international realm.
















Houghton, D. P. (2007). Reinvigorating the study of foreign policy decision making: toward a

constructivist approach. Foreign policy analysis3(1), 24-45.


Wittkopf, E. R., Kegley, C. W., & Jones, C. M. (2008). American foreign policy. Belmont, Calif: Thomson

Higher Education.


Cox, M., Ikenberry, G. J., & Inoguchi, T. (2000). American democracy promotion: Impulses, strategies,

and impacts. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Cameron Frasser. (2006). US Foreign Policy After the Cold War: Global Hegemon Or Reluctant Sheriff?



Schmidt Brain.(N.D). Theories of US foreign policy

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In what ways did this dispute show the WTO was a well-designed institution and in what ways did the dispute show there were problems with the WTO mechanisms which need to be resolved?


This dispute involved Japan as the plaintiff and The United States as the defendant while Brazil, Korea Canada, Chile and European Community acted as interested parties. In 1999, Japan requested The United States, Departments of Commerce and International Trade Commission on anti-dumping concerning investigations on their certain products of hot rolled steel. The United States was had banned the importation of those certain hot-rolled steel products on the ground that Japan was the imports as a conduit to dispose of their under-valued steel in The United States economy. Japan on its response by accusing The United States of violating some set agreements set by World Trade Organization (W.T.O). An appellate panel Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) was founded in May 2000 to hear and try to resolve the dispute. The Dispute Settlement Body consisted of a Director General who was the overhead manager of all operation from the time when the hearing started all the way to the end when he was required to give a comprehensive verdict. The panel also a secretary whose responsibility was to take groups minutes for reference and filing. There were also arbitrators and advisory experts who represented who ensured legal and economical frame lines are observed and no violations of them adhere to all through. The Brazil, Korea, Chile, Canada and European Communities also requested to be enjoined with the dispute hearing as it was their rights as enshrined in WTO constitution that any member state is at liberty to be enjoined with a case of interest. The panel came up several findings. Both Plaintiff and Defendant were found with violations of WTO rules. Also, some changes and amendments to some Acts were made. It was from this dispute, that we try extract the strengths of WTO in solving, articulating its mandate and the weakness that will require attention. The research begins with the strengths and weakness of the mechanism.

The WTO has a well-established settlement process. After receiving a complaint from the plaintiff, the Dispute Settlement Body official files it and informs the defendant about the matter. The Dispute Settlement Body further enlightens both parties of the available avenues of resolving their dispute. WTO has two ways of solving disputes. The first method is through a mutual agreement between the plaintiff and Defendant whereby both parties agree on a mutual solution during the bilateral solution. The second way is through a panel and an appellate body whereby a special body is formed by Dispute Settlement Body to hear and resolve the dispute. Under this, the case undergoes three stages: Parties Consultation, Panel and Appellate Body reports adjudication, Implementation of the report findings. It further puts some countermeasures in case the loser of the case fails to adhere to the agreed verdict. In this case, Japan finds it easy to use Second Avenue, through a panel and appellate body. Upon receiving the claimant, Dispute Settlement Body formed a panel and an appellate body which resolve the dispute. The United States is further notified of the dispute ahead. According to Becroft (2012) on 20th March 2000, the process of composing a panel was started; Brazil, Canada, Chile, Korea and European Communities request was accepted. Japan was notified about the panel composition as per its request. On 24th May 2000, the panel was fully formed ready for the task. Within the shortest problem, the panel came up with a report. The report was distributed to all its members to allow transparency. Both plaintiff and defendant were given the verdict and given adequate time to appeal in case not satisfied. Both Japan and The United States request time modifications so that they can adjust on their sides so as to meet the agreed verdict. After everything was agreed on by both parties, implementation process was initiated. Japan’s right concerning authorization of concession and other obligations in relation to Act 22.6 of Dispute Settlement Understanding, to be retained. The United States agreed to comply with Article 21.6 of DSU (Stirk, 2001 p.13).

Secondly, WTO has a well-structured Dispute Settlement Body. The body elects a panel which comprised a Director General, Secretariat, arbitrators, and advisors. The Director-General oversees and ensures that the whole process was carried on as expected and a quality-satisfactory solution had been attained. He or she takes the requests from either the party to the resolution. Japan makes a lot of requests to the Director-General. The body also has a WTO Secretariat who ensures that every minute of the meeting had been captured in and file accordingly (Stirk, 2001 p.15). There is also an advisory member who nourish the panel with restrictions and that may be modified or not modified. The panel also consists of arbitrators from different member states who provide the panel with the legal framework. This makes the panel to be more articulate and maintain high standards while carrying on their obligation. According to the dispute between Japan and United State, the panel is seen having given a satisfactory resolution; this is because both parties are satisfied with the ruling. The panel also allows adjustment such as time to ensure that there is flexibility. This made the parties in dispute to have a feeling of representation within the organization.

Thirdly, WTO has a rule-based system that ensures that disputes are solved according to rules of the organization. WTO derives its judgment conclusion from both prevailing and precedence rules. Such rules are General Agreement on Tariff and Trade, Tariff Act 0f 1930, Annexes among other Anti-dumping agreement laws set by the organization. This ensures clarity, equality, integrity, communication, and prudence of the organization. This improves trust and transparency among the member states. This also aids in the general corporate image. Referring to the dispute, several laws have quoted in making the judgment. The panel quoted Tariff Act of 1930 Section 735 (c) to rule that The United States violated the law for falling to harmonize Marrakesh Agreement and Anti-dumping Agreement in determining rates (Becroft, 2012 p.22). The panel also used Annexes of Anti-dumping agreement to rule against that The United States also violated the laws when applying their rule concerning Japans Nippon, NKK and Kawasaki steel companies.

Fourthly, the WTO has many other departments that help the Dispute Settlement Body to articulate its mandate. They comprise of the council for trade in goods, council for trade in services, council for trade-related intellectual property rights and the committee. Each bodywork with a common goal; making the body to make comprehensive decisions. According to our case, a department such as trade-related intellectual property, the council of trade in goods and the general committee was actively involved in the case. This was because Japan was claiming back it’s right on importing its iron products to The United States where Department of Commerce and International Trade Commission of The United States had violated (Becroft, 2012 p.23). Fifthly, there is liberty and inclusion at giving of the whole dispute solving process. All decision is made of members’ views and perception toward the problem. Interested member states are served with papers concerning the dispute as soon as the panel is formed. After the circulation of the orders, the members are allowed some time so that they can thoroughly go through and scrutinize it. A feedback is expected from each state as it was served. It is from this feedback that the Dispute Settlement Body will form their solution to the dispute. This creates an environment of participation and members feel associated with the group. According to our case, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Korea and European Communities are served with the case documents and a feedback was expected from them (Becroft, 2012 p.22). The panel based their solution on those feedbacks.

Dispute Settlement Body allows time flexibility to its members. This is done in a reasonable time so that it may allow any adjustment to take place. It makes the parties in the dispute have time to make consultations with other related parties within their governments (Becroft, 2012 p.23). This leads to a more comprehensive report. Also, the body allows time adjustment in its implementation program. This can be evidently seen in our case, Japan request more a reasonable time period to be granted so that implementation of recommendations to determine binding arbitration articles. The United States requested permissions on 22nd November 2002 to implement the report found. For example, it had requested modification of time for implementation since it will promote principal aim of dispute settlement. This enabled the disputing nation to have a smooth run. WTO also promotes peace, stability while reducing tension. After resolution by the Dispute Settlement Body panel, both Japan and The United States agreed to abide by the resolution findings (World Trade Organization, 2010 p.26). This reduced the hostility among the two nations thus promoting peaceful coexistence. The economies of both nations and their affiliates also enjoyed a state of stableness since the trade between the two continued as earlier. After the dispute settlement, it is a rule by WTO that a country to comply with the findings before filing an appeal. This reduces tension and fear of unknown among those nations which trade with the one at the bar

WTO also promotes good correlation with other none governmental organization such United Nation, World Health Organization, International Monetary Fund among others. This is because it ensures that harmony has been maintained within the member states (World Trade Organization, 2010 p.26). Disputes concerning trade are well solved without going into war. This ensures that there is a good correlation via the organizations such United Nations Organs. Organizations such as International Monetary Fund, World Bank and African Development Bank find it smooth to disburse their mandate on time since there are good trade relations among nations that had been ensured by this organization. Referring to this case, the dispute between Japan and The United States was resolved without any conflicts, arguments and within the shortest time possible (World Trade Organization, 2010 p.27). A more comprehensive solution was found. This made a state of economic consistency to exist for all involved nations. In the end, all mention organs were able to carry on their business as usual. Unfinished projects were finished without any interruptions.

Despite WTO being a well-designed institution, it also has some problems that make its operation hard to operate and articulate its mandate. One of the problems that emerged via this case was that WTO makes the judgment using a consensus of decision making. This means that WTO bases their verdict over the member’s agreement toward a problem. This makes the less developed member states disadvantages because their opinions are taken lightly (World Trade Organization, 2010 p19). The superpowers countries also take the advantaged of the situation to exercise their superiority thus equality is put on jeopardy.  According to this dispute, the panel circulates the paper to its member states and expect solutions from them. Only Brazil Canada, Korea, Chile and European Communities were enjoined to the case. Each country’s verdict may have been influenced by their relation with either The United States or Japan. Therefore when forming a judgment, WTO could have given a wrong solution. Also, Brazil and Chile being third world communities, their opinion may have been overruled by that of Korea, Canada and European Communities.

The second problem was that Dispute Settlement Body takes long to find a solution. It takes a long process to solve a dispute. The plaintiff raises his claim to the Director-General in writing. Director General notifies the defendant by serving him with a copy of the said dispute. This takes a maximum of sixty days. Any member states who are interested in the case are requested to submit their request on time. A panel which will resolve the dispute is formed. Copies are distributed to members for consultation. The members are expected to give a feedback for implementation after nine months. From there, the implementation process starts. This means that the process takes approximately a year to find a solution. From our case, we can see that the case started with Japan raising their claim on 18th November 1999 and by 7th July 2005, the implementation process was still going on. This means that the process took approximately six years (Krauss & Pempel, 2004 p.9).

Thirdly, member’s states surrender their freedom of judgment to an outside executive body that is WTO. All members are the government who are sovereigns thus they have the liberty to make their own decision. They have legal, economic and parliamentary bodies which are mandated to solve and find a solution. On the other hand, WTO being a multilateral organization has its set rules and regulations for one to join and be a member (Krauss & Pempel, 2004 p.11). One of the rules is that for a state to be a member, it should abide by a resolution made by the Dispute Settlement Body no matter how harsh the decision may be to them. If not satisfied, a member should first abide by the findings and then raises an appeal afterward. This means one has to accept the judgment no matter how hard it may be. Relating to our case, both The United States and Japan lose their rights to make their own judgments to WTO. This resulted in The United States being forced to accept the panel verdict as per WTO agreement. It also continued to report to Dispute Settlement Body concerning the status of the implementation as one way of compliance with the pact. It was agreed that The United States will not seek to block Japan rights to authorization to suspend concessions or any other obligation.

Fourthly, there is lack of clear guidelines that assist in the selection of the dispute panel and processes. The panel to Dispute Settlement Body is selected solely by the Director-General. There are no set procedures that are laid down to be followed by Director General during panel formation since each member has an equal voting power and therefore qualifies to be on the panel. This might be wrong since a panel can consist of parties with a common interest and allied to one dispute party. There is also lack of clear set guideline on to how the process will be articulated to the end especially the duration of how implementation stage should take place. According to our dispute case, Japan requests the director to form a panel to listen to their dispute on 11th February 2000 and on 20th March 2000, the panel was formed. This shows that the Director-General was taking directives from one party Japan in a way (Becroft, 2012 p.8). There were no rules that restricted Japan from doing so. This might have taken a hand in the resolution arrived. Also during the implementation stage, Japan is persistence on making sure. The United States is implementing resolutions given. Japan had even requested the panel to make The United States implement the resolutions without delaying any more. This makes the organization lose its authoritative muscle power since it was seen as being controlled by Japan to make some of its decisions. This was because there were no rules that prohibited Japan from doing so the organization.

The other problem is that the organization's secretariat is too small. The secretariat has a group of six hundred and thirty staff headed by the Director-General. These staffs are not able to handle all the duties on time and as per requirement. Some dispute had to wait for more time to be allocated in order for them to be carried on. This is because the secretariat body would not be able to handle them at the same time. According to our case, the dispute had to wait until the panel select arbitrators and advisers who are not members of the secretariat. Because of this, the case had to delay before resolutions had been made.  This makes the body lack some muscles to articulate its agenda as required.

The organization also suffers from constricting budget that limits it from articulating its duties.  The budget of the organization comes from contributions of member states. Each member’s contribution is calculated on member’s volume of trade. This means that the bigger the volume of trade the higher the contribution. So if a ‘large’ member state fails to remit their contribution, then the organization will suffer financially. By this, a country like the two disputing powerful nations may use that channel to form allies and be defiant of contributions (Krauss & Pempel, 2004 p.9). This will affect the organization extremely. The other problem is that not all contribution goes to Dispute Settlement Body as some are allocated to international trade centre.

Some member states join together forming blocks and acquire one member voting right. This makes some members more superior than others and put in jeopardy the rule of all members have equal voting rights. This is because when one within that group is affected, they will gang up together as a sign of solidarity. This will make the resolution process more difficult due to the imbalance. Such alliances are The Great 20 which comprises Japan, The United States, Germany, China, and Russia among others, The Cotton Four which is formed by Sub-Saharan countries, European Community currently known as European Union and comprises all nations of Europe except Britain, The Association of South East Asia Nations such as Malaysia, Brunei, Cambodia to name least, MERCOSUR, South Common Market like Argentina, Uruguay, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia, Venezuela and Chile, North America Free Trade Agreement like The United States, Canada and Mexico, finally  Cairns Group which are Thailand, Uruguay, Indonesia, South Africa, Argentina among others (Krauss & Pempel, 2004 p.17). In our case, we are having only one block that is interested and that is European Communities but also other blocks may have had a share in the process since some of their parties are represented by certain member states. States such as The United States may have influenced a block such as North America Free Trade Agreement to be interested.

In conclusion, WTO Dispute Settlement Body is more benefit than limitation. This is because of several factors cited out. To start with, Dispute Settlement System is well organized and articulate it mandate very well. Each member nation has a liberty of raising alarm if it feels that the decision made by the system is justifiable. This makes the spirit of inclusivity among member states to coexist among them. The well-structured bodies of the organization also aid in day to day running obligations one of it being dispute solving. They ensure that everything is carried on as per the set rules. The organization also help in promoting peace among the member states and this enables the trade among member states and over other world nations to enjoy smooth flow of their business operation. The time flexibility gives the party in dispute and interested parties to consults more before giving their verdicts so they give a more comprehensive report back to the panel. This makes it easier for the panel to arrive at a strong solution that has equality in its judgment. The process also involves a long way and more time is taken to arrive at a conclusion. This helps in allowing an amendment to be done and thus give a comprehensive statement. The body also makes follow up on to whether its verdicts are being articulated as per the agreement by the parties in dispute. Even though the body exhibits benefits it also showed weakness, the body infringes freedom of states making their own decision. It has reduced sovereign states to robots. States have to abide by its report whether in agreement or not. There is inequality in their decision-making process as some states may gang up to fight a common state. The blocks also make it too hard to arrive at an equality judgment since they appear to control the body in a way. This is because the body uses the member’s reports to form an opinion. This is some of the problems that the organizations have to solve to make it more prudent, integral and practice equality.

















Becroft, R. (2012). The standard of review of WTO dispute settlement: Critique and development. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

Krauss, E. S., & Pempel, T. J. (2004). Beyond bilateralism: U.S.-Japan relations in the new Asia-Pacific. Stanford, Calif: Stanford Univ. Press.

Stirk, J. D. (2001). United States-Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain Hot-Rolled Steel Products from Japan: Possibilities and Predictions for Compliance with the Appellate Body's Report. Law & Pol'y Int'l Bus., 33, 683.

World Trade Organization. (2010). Dispute settlement reports 2008: Volume 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.








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Comparison between Ghana and America

Ghana is an African nation on the West African Gulf of Guinea. It is known for its diversity in culture, wildlife, historical sites and old forts. On the other hand, United States of America is a country made up of 50 states in North America continent. Therefore the two nations have contrasting cultures. The Republic of Ghana derived its name after a medieval West Africa empire that ruled the country. Its history dates back to African Sudanic empires of the western part of Africa. Many more organized and civilized realms did not dissolve themselves such as Ghana, Ashanti, and Akan due to their massive resources. In fact, Ghana fought colonial rule and became successful hence it became the first country in sub-Saharan Africa to withdraw from colonial rule. Ghana is a fantastic country that has struggled through the years to become one of the most notable countries in Africa. It is rich in African culture and a democratic government elected by Ghanaians (Asamoah, p 45).

In terms of society and culture, Ghana is made up of more than 100 ethnic communities. T Moshi-Dagbani and Ga are considered to be significant ethnic communities. The Akan tribe of Ashanti ethnic group is the largest. Mother and maternal ancestry trace the lineage of the ethnic groups. The Ashanti tribe was once known for its wealth and influential leaders. Today the tribe is known for its craft and Kente clothing (Asamoah, p 67).



Family plays a vital role in ensuring order in any given society, but in Ghana, it functions as a source of great bonding, identity, loyalty, and friendship. Family responsibilities take the front row, and the society prioritizes family duties over anything else. An exciting fact among the tribes of Ghana is the cultural variance from other African countries. For instance, The Fanti and Ashanti are connected to the community through women. Mothers are caregivers and wives. Women can bring forth life which helps to extend the clans. Mothers ensure their families are well fed, healthy and safe from any harm (Asamoah, p 110).

Ghana people maintain dignity, honesty and a good reputation among themselves and their families. The whole family unit is affected by any loss of honor. When a member is found on the wrong side of the law or traditions, the reputation of the whole family is normally at stake. To protect their family legacies, family often look out for each other. For the members of a family to protect their image, they have to be more united and harmonious so that they can handle themselves in an acceptable manner (Asamoah, p 232).





Ghana society is based on authority just like any other African society. People are respected based on age, knowledge, wealth or different positions .Elders are perceived as more intelligent authoritative and are recognized than any other group in the society. In a crowd, the elderly will be handled and treated with more care than young people. With respect comes expectations, responsibility and the community expects more from senior people than other groups in the Ghana society. The elders are leaders who give advice and views about different happenings in the nation (Pobee, p238).

Etiquette and customs found in Ghana

Traditional greetings among native people vary from one ethnic group to the other. Foreigners or visitors are usually welcomed with a warm smile and a handshake to make them feel at home and more comfortable. Ghanaians do not force visitors to adapt their customs on arrival. When a Ghanaian native meets another native, they usually shake hands in the usual manner, then curl one another's middle finger. If an individual is not a native or experienced, it is good to stick to the customary handshake to avoid embarrassment or injury because the twist is not done quickly. Christians usually shake hands when they meet the opposite sex .A practicing Muslim will not greet a member of the opposite sex. Ghanaians like to be addressed based on their academic credentials, professions, and their surnames. As assign of respect, men who have attained the age of 30 and above will be referred to as ‘pah-pah' while their woman counter Parts will be called ‘mah-mee'. Ghanaians who have attained the age of 50 and above will be called ‘nah-nah ' (Pobee, p245).


Religious beliefs in Ghana

Religion plays an essential role in the development of Ghana. It impacts almost everything in the day to day lives of an average Ghanaian and the whole family, economic activities, education and other sectors of life. Religion influences beliefs and ethics in Ghana. For example, church marriages are common among Ghanaians due to Christianity. Christianity is the main religion in Ghana with an estimated 72% of the population made up of Christians of different denominations. Islam is the second largest religion in Ghana with an estimated population of 17.6%.Religious tolerance in Ghana is at an all-time high. Although there is no link between ethnicities and modern religion in Ghana because people would instead follow religious beliefs than some traditional ideas that are considered barbaric in today's modern world (Pobee, p 459).

Traditional African beliefs also have an impact on Ghana society because of the relationship it has with various ethnic groups in the country. People freely express their views on supernatural beings such as Ngami, Mew, and Nyame .Some supernatural beings live in rivers, mountains, and forests. Such geographical areas are considered sacred, and people visit such places to offer prayers and to meditate with the gods (Gaines 301).




Religious tolerance

Despite the ever-present rivalry between Christianity and Islam in areas like the Middle East, In Ghana, the two religions co-exist together and do not have any enmity between them. Some Christian holidays such as Christmas and Easter are national holidays celebrated. Muslims are permitted to celebrate and observe their customs .Traditional festivities such as Apoo are recognized and honored in Ghana. Minor religions include Buddhists, Hinduism and atheism .Minor faiths have a right to worship too (Gaines p 56).







Gift giving customs and etiquette

Gratuities are appreciated. The value of a gift is not placed on the price. Awards are valued regardless of their cost. The thought is more vital than the amount or value of the present. If one is invited to supper at a Ghanaian home, one is not expected to carry with them a gift. However, bringing a gift to a child is always seen as a kind gesture as it portrays concern for the whole family. Ghanaians use the right hand or both hands to give gifts. No individual is allowed to gift one present using the left side. The awards should be presented neatly, wrapped in edible paper. Although there is no taboo associated with paper color. The gifts are not opened immediately after being handed over (Gaines p 109).


Leisure and recreational activities for adults, students, and children

Football is one of the most common sports in Ghana. People of all ages enjoy football. The game is trendy in Ghana, and the superb performance at the 2010 world cup which was held in South Africa is enough evidence. Ghana made it to the semifinals. The national team is admired by everyone due it's their sterling performance in global football events (Gaines 179).

Hiking is unique leisure enjoyed by many in the Republic of Ghana. There are a lot of hiking trails available in Ghana that also show the natural aesthetic beauty of the country. Other recreational activities and leisure that one can participate in is fishing, Padua or canoeing at Lake Bosumtwi .fishing is both an economic and recreational activity (Gaines p 56).


The attitude of Ghanaians toward drinking

Ghana is a very conservative society composed of a mixture of staunch Christian believes and religious taboos. The society tries as much as possible to speak against alcoholism and any other form of substance abuse. Alcoholism may be caused by lack of good jobs and finances. Alcohol is associated with irresponsibility and immorality .Nevertheless, alcohol consumption in Ghana is very high. When one walks in residential areas, they can spot small joints and bars where an average man can access cheap liquor. Therefore the conservative society of Ghana frowns upon the act and does not condone it (Asamoah, p 23).


The political system of Ghana

Since it returned to constitutional rule in the year 1992, there has been a stable democratic structural government in place. Ghana has held six successful general elections and has seen two transactions of power from ruling elites to opposition parties in the year 2001 and 2009.Ghana has  a political structure similar to the one in America where the president has executive powers, and after every four years, an election is held (Asamoah, p 33).

Under the conception of separation of powers, a 275 member parliament of the Republic of Ghana has distinct roles to play. The parliament has an active link with the executive part of the government although they are independent of each other. The three parts of the government are meant to govern in a stable, transparent and accountable manner while at the same   time observing human rights and respecting the constitution of the country (Asamoah, p 51).


Comparison with the United States of America

The income disparities is a notable contrast that always exist between a developed country such as America and a third world country like Ghana. Americans earn more than Ghanaians. Most   Ghanaians can survive on less than a dollar per day unlike Americans. Poverty is a concern in Ghana and derails access to better infrastructure. America is different, and the living standard is more modernized than in Ghana as they may (Gaines 92).

Ghana is made from African culture while America consists of various religions who migrated from other places in the world. America has a mixture of cultures that combine to form subcultures, unlike Ghana where the natives may adapt to some of the western traditions such as education and dressing style (Gaines p 78).

In the United States the left-hand does not signify anything negative, but in Ghana, the left hand is not put to use due to the taboos associated with it. Both America n and Ghana use their right side while greeting each other, but Ghanaians avoid using left hand in all social interactions whether picking something with the left hand or gesturing using it. (Gaines p 607).

One of the cultural practices among the Ghanaians is ‘hawking'. These are traders selling their merchandise while walking from street to street. In America, such a method cannot be allowed, and one can be jailed. The different items one can buy at one location is fantastic. Food staffs, doormats and food spices. From mats to fruits such as pineapple, all can be purchased in one place or while traveling (Gaines p 347).

Ghana are very welcoming people .Ghanaian are very social people. A Ghanaian can welcome strangers to his wedding or party. In America, life is very different. People are particular to whom they talk to and who they invite to their social events. It seems that Ghanaians are just loving people (Pobee, p 126).

America is made up of various religions, but Christians and Mormons are the main religions with Islam following closely. Mormons were derived from Christianity, but they differ significantly. Mormons focus on god and study the bible than believing in Christ. Christian is the dominant religion in Ghana followed closely by Muslims and then traditional beliefs. America is well developed than Ghana. It also has a higher gross domestic product than Ghana (Pobee, p 49).

Ghana is a third world country made up of one hundred ethnic groups. Ghanaians are very conservative people and they have adopted t Christians religion with a little bit of traditional beliefs. American society do not have any specific cultural heritage, therefore their customs are not conservative.











Asamoah, Obed Y. The Political History of Ghana (1950-2013): The Experience of a Non-Conformist. , 2014.

Gaines, Kevin K. American Africans in Ghana: Black Expatriates and the Civil Rights Era. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006

Pobee, John S. The Anglican Story in Ghana: From Mission Beginnings to Province of Ghana. Kaneshie-Accra, Ghana: Amanza, 2009


2038 Words  7 Pages

Trajectory of Political Science Subfields- LAW AND POLITICS SUBFIELD





  • Every country is exposed to political change and hence , legal changes and developments


- Includes the various sections discussed in this script


 -The major argument on current changes in laws and politics and arising issues

Implications for future exploration

  • The resulting issues to be studied in future



  • Concluding summary of the major points





A society or nation cannot be immune to the various developments taking place in the global environment.  The legal systems is largely influenced by the political occurrences happening which makes the two aspects quite inter-dependent. The emerging issues in the society are largely being handled politically, but require legal support so that they can be justified. The legal idea of laws may remain static or change as political circumstances change.


The aim of this paper is to evaluate the emerging issues, ideas and even controversies relating to the link between politics and law. It specifically explores how the law transforms under the influence of political decisions or the emerging issues require legal and political solutions. A presentation on the impact of future exploration of globalization as a legal aspect is also discussed.


Law and politics have both a function that is progressive and another one that acts as a safeguard. They both promote or suppress societal relations development while at the same acting as a function that brings justice and order, either separately or together. When confronted with a revolutionary shift in politics, there is inclination of the law to resist such changes, that many a times makes it irrelevant and completely moralistic[1]. On the other hand, there may be an attempt to embrace the change but this comes with a risk of being reduced into unapologetic brute power. This is more likely to occur in a period of increased international relations and globalization.  A collision between law and politics is likely to arise only if the structures provided by a constitution are not right and do not provide full account for the autonomy of the two[2].


 In the early years during the establishment of Critical Legal Studies, a discussion was on-going relating to “rationalism v. irrationalism”. Such appears to have been misleading when related to utility and social order[3].  There has been a common claim in recent years that it is important for legal theory to critically engage in the issue of globalization.  Law is becoming increasingly engrained in heritage management but the inquiry into how law and practice interact has overshadowed the basis issue of whether the law will remain compatible or incompatible with sustained future development[4].  The norms at the international level have rendered law implicit.  It has contoured the contemporary policy formation paradigms after the past socio-politics.  In the 20th century, the legal education in Western worked seemed to be state oriented, positivist and secular and even Universalist in terms of morals[5].  However, the rule of law has remained a constant issue in policy development and practice and over the recent times, international commitments and policy discourse has become quite prominent. While globalization is constantly increasing, the rule of law is gaining international support and has seen various political interventions even though the focus has largely been reforms in justice sector and legal change[6].  There has also been increased interest in understanding the relationship between political sentiments and law. This involves having two understanding; rule of law as an outcome of political efforts and a central aspect in organizational and institutional limitations.


 As major states adopt the rule of law in their governance and in line with the global trend, there has been a major threat to such efforts. Emerging issues such as terrorism have increased the link between law and politics give that such issues require a legal process that is politically installed[7]. For instance, the emergence of ISIS in Syria and Iraq lead to international political cohesions with a call to put in place legal structure to contain the menace.  The International coalition between United States and other governments was political but required justification through the rule of law.  The law has been a common platform whose structures transcend the sovereignty of a country so that its scope has provided legitimacy for the various actions being taken by governments[8]. The link between politics and law in theory continues to dominate much if the jurisprudence scholarship. 

Implications for future exploration

 The emerging issues in the law have been shaped largely by the political environment as aforesaid. The above discussion opens the way for exploring globalization as a legal idea or concept.  A research on increased globalization and implications on law will be critical.  This includes looking into whether globalization transforms the legal field at the domestic and international level. Moreover, the impact of changing political environment on legal pluralism can also be reviewed in future.  Legal pluralism involves a situation where legal systems exist in the same political or social field.


The law of a given sovereign country is constantly under the influence of emerging political interests for dealing with emerging issues. This gives rise to explore globalization as a legal concept in future.




Goldoni, Marco, and Chris McCorkindale. "The three waves of political constitutionalism." (2018).


Sieder, Rachel, Line Schjolden, and Alan Angell, eds. The judicialization of politics in Latin America. Springer, 2016.



Ip, Eric C. "Globalization and the future of the law of the sovereign state." International journal of constitutional law 8, no. 3 (2010): 636-655.


Michaels, Ralf. "Globalization and law: law beyond the state." (2013).


[1] Goldoni, Marco, and Chris McCorkindale. "The three waves of political constitutionalism." (2018).


[2] Sieder, Rachel, Line Schjolden, and Alan Angell, eds. The judicialization of politics in Latin America. Springer, 2016.


[3] Goldoni, Marco, and Chris McCorkindale. "The three waves of political constitutionalism." (2018).


[4] Ip, Eric C. "Globalization and the future of the law of the sovereign state." International journal of constitutional law 8, no. 3 (2010): 636-655.


[5] Ip, Eric C. "Globalization and the future of the law of the sovereign state." International journal of constitutional law 8, no. 3 (2010): 636-655.


[6] [6] Ip, Eric C. "Globalization and the future of the law of the sovereign state." International journal of constitutional law 8, no. 3 (2010): 636-655.


[7] Michaels, Ralf. "Globalization and law: law beyond the state." (2013).


[8] Ip, Eric C. "Globalization and the future of the law of the sovereign state." International journal of constitutional law 8, no. 3 (2010): 636-655.


1090 Words  3 Pages

Democracies, Emerging and Evolving

Chile and Cuba have undergone various political, social and economic changes driven by the change in national leadership and increased globalization.  After the collapse of  state socialism in 1989 in Easter Europe , there was serious contraction of Cuban Economy and hence, the need o refine the model of development that was focused on the stare or even find international community support in building the economy (Krull,3). There was a need for the country to adopt major changes especially in the economy and this would not be successful if its liberation was absent in the expanding globalization.  The realization that the economy was dependant on the global economic forces, and which the country’s elites could not control made the country to begin aligning with the world trends in terms of politics (Krull,12). The country has been creating alliances with others countries in Latin America such as Chile, Caribbean region, European Union and even other third world countries.  The countries international alliances have been undergoing considerable changes recently seen through the unraveling of old alliances and the aforementioned new partnership (Erikson, 411). 

The increased corporation between Cuba, Venezuela and China has seen significant changes in the political landscape of a country that is trying to limit the effects of the action of major enemies like United States.  In fact, its strong relations with China and Venezuela have in the past been contrasted with deteriorating ties with some of its partners.  The Cuba-Venezuela relations have had major impacts on the countries aim of pursuing their idea of democracy, and such an alliance has enable Cuba to challenge the North American idea of democracy (Erikson, 412). These ties have had little impact in pushing increased democracies in the country. When the Presidents Obama and Raul Castro the intention of normalizing their relations, it would be expected that US would use this chance to call for increased democratic space in this Country. There has been reluctance on the part of US to use the leverage it has to call for opening of political space and upholding of civil rights. The Cuban administration has been keen to get more economic advantages and legitimacy without reducing repression or even liberalizing the political atmosphere. However , the political relationship with European Union has attempt to set out some areas of agreement which also covers the need for upholding  principles of democracy and a commitment to human rights (TVEVAD, 12).

International influences had a significant role in re-democratization of Chile after 1982, even though some external forces like those coming from US seemed to hinder democracy.  Chile has had major confrontations with countries like Argentina and Peru, mostly related to boundary issues but has had little bearing on the democratic rule and space in the country. The major influence that have in the past driven the struggle for democratic space in the country have emanated from the major political players in the global Arena (Ortega, 32). Chile was in its worst economic crises by 1982 and this led to massive protest and emergence of organized oppositions to the authoritarian Pinochet regime.  The groups staging these opposition and protest got support from international players. The revival of the democracy was mostly influenced by European diplomacy and a conducive geopolitical global environment, with less influence from US foreign policy. The emerging political opposition provided a platform for international actors to carry out their activities, where as external third parties, they would exert influence by support the hungry population to rise against the oppressive regime and its detractors (Mares & Francisco, 46). The role of external factors was eminent in this case especially from Europe and United States.  The protests involved many groups such as rebel groups, trade unions and industry unions, employers’ association and business organizations, who made the large part of Middle class in the country (Ortega, 34). This indicated that the authoritarian rule would no longer stand the call for democracy.  The major advantage that these protest has was that they were visible on the global arena , where media station in Europe and United States showed the increasing protests and related them to growing negative sentiments against the regime and the financial crisis.

  In addition, the external influence was major experienced through the major opposition parties – Christian Democrat Party and Popular Union, and which received massive financial, political and technical support. Major support to the opposition came in form of technocratic class that provided a link with the international community (Ortega, 34). Since its democratization, the country has sought to be a major player in the international politics even though it has been avoiding diplomatic conflicts beyond the Americas.  With a strong partnership with United States, the democracy of the country has been growing over the last two and half years, which includes respect of law, human rights and development in general (Ortega, 37). As a member of major international organizations, the country has embarked on a road to improved government through rule of law, adherence to international conventions on democratic principles and human rights.

The Internationalized Domestic Politics theory may explain the presence of major global political actors in Chile and Cuba.  The influence of these actors was more pronounced in Chile than in Cuba, especially since US Governments even with its trade embargos was unable to decisively influence the politics of Cuba, since aspects that enabled this approaches in other areas such as aid were not involved. In Chile, however, there influence of international forces was relatively strong to the point of influence the defeat of the country’s authoritarian rule. The Democratic through Convergence can explain the role of external factors in Cuba as a communist country, where changes have not been growing from internal developments but due to collective strategies adopted by the Western develop countries.   While changes in Chile’s democratic space originated from internal dissatisfaction with economy and the regime, changes in Cuba are being championed through diplomacy with international players and other countries.  The System penetration theory can explain the changes occurring in Cuba , where due to the changes in socioeconomic factors , global economy and modernization , the Cuban government has been forced accept changes to sustains its economy and political stability. Moreover, diffusion clearly explains the role of various groups such as trade unions and business association to bring change in the country and shift the country from authoritarian rule to civilian rule.

The changes in the democratic spaces in these countries show that globalization has an inevitable impact on democratization process. In isolated countries, external factors such as global economic changes have more influence democratization while countries with major external ties are likely to be influenced by internal factors but supported by international actors.  In countries with strong private and public institutions, domestic factors are more likely to drive change. This is shown by changes in Chile where financial crises led to rebellion and opposition to the authoritarian rule, while in Cuba, external factors such as modernization has led to change in political policies. Promoting democracy requires internal efforts first, which provides a platform for external actors to exert their influence.

Works cited

Krull, Catherine. Cuba in a Global Context: International Relations, Internationalism, and Transnationalism. University Press of Florida, 2014. 1-24


Erikson, Daniel. "Cuba, China, Venezuela: New Developments." Cuba in Transition 15 (2005): 410-18.


TVEVAD, Jesper. In-depth analysis EU-Cuba relations: a new chapter begins. 2017:12-13 Available at:


Ortega, Alejandro. "International effects on the democratic onset in Chile." Stanford Journal of International Relations 11.2 (2010): 28-39.


Mares, David R., and Francisco Rojas Aravena. The United States and Chile: coming in from the cold. Psychology Press, 2001. 46-47



1277 Words  4 Pages

Reflective Writing


Ron Reynolds

Ron Reynolds, male, was born in 1973 in Jackson, Tennessee to Conrell B. Brown and the late Glenda Purham. Reynolds is the first African American to serve as Texas State House Representative of Fort Bend County. He has served as the House representative for 7 years since 2011, and has been the House Minority Whip and presently is the Texas legislative Black Caucus’s second vice chair (Texas House of Representatives, n.d).  He acquired a Bachelor of Science degree, Doctors of Jurisprudence and an Honorary Doctor of Divinity Degree. Reynolds is a lawyer by profession but is currently involved in community serving programs. As a politician, he is affiliated to Democratic Party. He is a husband to Dr. Jonita Reynolds with who they have three children. As a Christian, he worships at The Church Without Walls (Texas House of Representatives, n.d). He belongs to the Election and Environmental Regulation committees in the House of Representatives. He has authored and sponsored various Bills and has actively been involved in serving his community.  Reynolds performance can be rated as 5 in a scale of 1 to 10. Though he has been involved in authorship and sponsorship of various Bills in the House, he has not been participating well in the key votes and has also been involved in various lawsuits. For instance, in scorecard evaluating performance in the House, he was given a score of 30 percent (Americans for Prosperity, 2015).. In addition, he has been involved in various law suits including violation of barratry law and failure to submit financial disclosures on campaigns. 


Ted Cruz

Ted Cruz, male, was born in 1970 in Calgary, Canada. He has served as in Texas as a junior senator for 5 years.  He has a Bachelors Degree in law and is a lawyer by profession.  Ted is affiliated to the Tea Party which propelled him to the senate seat. He professes Christian faith and is a husband to Heidi Cruz since 2001 and they have two daughters (BIO NEWSLETTER n.d).  He sits in various committees in senate including Commerce, Science and transportation, Judiciary and Rules and Administration committees and Joint Economic Committee. Ted has been able to accomplish quite a number of political milestones in formulation of policies through sponsorship of various bills.  He has little to show for in community leadership in comparison to Ron Reynolds, which means he has not been involved serving the community. In terms of representation, Ted has managed to score 7 in the scale of 1 to 10. The performance can be attributed to the many bills he has sponsored, the fight for repealing of Obamacare and securing of the country’s border.  He has not participated in 216 votes of the overall 1,520 votes, which indicates a 14.2 percent below the 1.3 percent median (GovTruck, n.d).


John Cornyn

John Cornyn, Male, was born in 1952 in Houston Texas. He has a Bachelors of Arts in Journalism, a Law Degree and a Masters of Law Degree and served as a district Judge in 1984. He professes Christian faith and a husband to Sandy Cornyn with whom they had two children. He is affiliated to Republican Party and has served as a senator in Texas for 16 years (US Senate, 2018). He serves in the Senates Finance and Judiciary Committees, Select Intelligence Committee and Caucus on International Narcotics Control.  His success in services spurns over a large period, where he served as a judge and attorney general and has been issued with a Leadership Award due to his dedication to government transparency and oversight issues. He has been an advocate for various issues regarding governance, business, community and international relations. He scores is 9 out of ten. The is attributed to his sponsorship of 23 bills that have been enacted and voting record that is at par with 1.3 percent median (GovTruck, n.d). He has been able to outperform Reynolds and Crux in terms of leadership, community and representation roles.


Political leadership requires one to be involved in many activities relating to policy making, community issues and governance. A good background paves a way for a person to occupy a representative position. Suspicion of poor integrity can be a stumbling block.



Texas House of Representatives,(n.d). Rep. Reynolds, Ron.Biography:  Retrieved from:

Americans for Prosperity, (2015).Texas Legislative Report Card. Retrieved from:

GovTruck, (n.d). Sen. Ted Cruz. Retrieved from: BIO NEWSLETTER (n.d).Ted Cruz Biography. Lawyer, U.S. Senator. Retrieved from: GovTruck, (n.d). Sen. John Cornyn. Retrieved from: US Senate, (2018). John Cornyn .Biography. Retrieved from:





794 Words  2 Pages


Introduction: the need to implement antiISIS strategies for sustainable degradation and the need to follow the new rule of the International Law.

  • S use looser rules in fighting ISIS and this prevents sustainable degradation of ISIS
  • Iran as a director actor is facing tensions
  • ISIS in Syria and Iraq
  • Change of International Law
  • Need considerable efforts to solve the underlying problems
  • Anti-ISIS efforts will maximize protection and safety
  • There is a need for diplomatic and military cooperation
  • Nations should have an international agreement


 The U.S movement should understand the ISIS operations and implement anti-ISIS strategies to obliterate ISIS and more importantly follow the new rule of International Law in combating ISIS in State territory.


 The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria is a jihadist terrorist group that led to the ‘worst humanitarian disaster’ and mass executions. To degrade and destroy the ISIS,  the United Stated  formed an international coalition and forced four-point plan which were based on  use of air strikes, support the local forces, increase the counterterrorism efforts and  to offer  humanitarian  assistance. However, there is a controversy in the international coalition since U.S and Iran exclude some international players who could offer divergent ideologies and address the challenges posed by ISIS. In addition, young people in Southeast Asia are joining the group or the rather the radicalization of young people into violent extremism is high due ideological and cognitive influence. AntiISIS strategies will solve all these challenges and more important they will maximize protection and safety. 


 In this podcast, the general idea is that the implemented plans to combat ISIS are not working effectively since the nature of ISIS is changing and there is a high growth of ISIS extremism. The government cannot have the power to fight back if it does not implement strategies for successful eradication. Thus, the governments as well the societies should not only create strategies which are military in nature but should also implement the antiISIS which needs long-term commitment[1].

ISIS was part the Baathist until the defeat of the army during the invasion of Iraq.  The invasion destroyed the Iraqi army in that members of the army could not participate in U.S government positions and due to this marginalization and subjugation, the Iraqi government established a rebellion and   created a new name ‘ISI’ or Islamic State of Iraq[2].  In 2012, Syria protested the Asadd regime and this led to civil war by 2014. The chaos gave ISIS an opportunity to attack the territory and it changed the name from ISI to ISIS.  ISIS attacked Syria gained financial and military resources which helped the army to attack Syria and Iraq.  Even though the group was empowered by intelligence and security forces of Saddam Hussein’s army, many foreign fighters from the Arab world empowered the group and influenced its military successes[3].  Being a strong group, its goal is to establish a caliphate and the group   imitates the Taliban’s rule since they implement repressive edicts in all religions where they have dominion.  It is also important to note that al-Qaeda disowned the ISIS in that the former aimed at attacking the Western region while ISIS’s interest was on Iraq and Syria.  ISIS and al-Nusra group had different aims   that lead to conflict[4].



  The researchers find that ISIS pose a great threat to both Iran and Iraq and the strategy   that Iran believes can work best is by ‘leading from behind’[5]. This means that Iran will support Iraq with intelligence and weapons and more importantly empower the religion in maintaining   the national integrity and unity.  Iran is known as a sectarian actor not only in Syria but also in the Arab world.  However, Iran is facing challenges in that war events in Iraq affect Iraq due to lack of frontiers. Even though the aim of Iran involvement in Iraq is to combat the enemies and use Iraq as a national security, Iraq’s current borders will increase the regional instability and allow the ISIS to attack the region[6].

Ramakrishna (2017) asserts that the Al Qaeda ideological movement is a threat to the global security and the group has created a countercultural global movement by   forming four distinct dimensions or amorphous groups of people who have terrorism experience. The author states that Southeast Asian Muslims joins the ISIS or what is called ‘radicalization’[7]. He argues that   radicalization  into  ISIS is  a contemporary issue and the    majority of young people who join  ISIS are influenced by  ideological beliefs  that they are  extremists  and for this reason they tend to   form  a unique identity  and to defy the norms.  For example, Cornell, an American man  who  intended to  kill U.S lawmakers argued that  US  army and its allies  oppresses Muslims  and target innocent Muslims[8]. This show that extremism in Southereast Asia is influenced by the ideology that   they use force to maintain political power and thus,   extremists are not harmless but they express violent potentials to fight terrorism.

Implications of the argument

  The Iran’s strategy ‘leading from behind’ need to change sink it will engender its resources distribution as well as economic situation.  In other words, Iran should consider seeking help from the western coalition where it will gain military power[9]. Since the IraI-raq war, Iran  has not been involved  in a war and this means that  there it has a shortage of  resources and war  strategies and its effort in increasing military involvement and ground boots will result to  unbearable burden.  This means that since Tehran is an active participant in founding the ISIS, there should be complementary roles where Iran will offer ground operation and other allies will opera with airstrikes[10]. Iran will also offer technical and financial support in fighting the ISIS.

 The research done by Ramakrishna (2017) offers a solution to the rising tide of Southeast Asia extremists and asserts that there should be strategic and operational efforts. At the strategic level, it is the role of the government to challenge all extremism or rather prevents extremism by distinguishing extremists and non-extremists and helps the nonviolent group Islamist extremists in protecting the nation[11].  In addition, the government should censure extremists especially the Islamists who penetrate in the British University campuses and the university should guard free speech and make sure the extremists do not give toxic message to the audience.  In other words, extremists should not be allowed o exploit and radicalize young people via the social media. The government should consider attitudinal and behavioral indicators and they can also use ‘linguistic makers’ to find out online extremism plan for violent acts[12].

In 2014, the ISIS attacked a large part of the Syria and Iraq territory and posed a great threat in these regions.  The United State  together with  allies from Western and Arab countries  planned on how to attack the ISIS but the cooperation led to controversy  in that  the Iraqi government  wanted to use foreign military action, the Syrian government  objected   and argued that  the air strikes  could violate the international law while U.S argued that the airstrikes  was effective for humanitarian intervention  and to protect the territory  especially where the government is unable to  combat the  ISIS[13].   The legal rationale  was established  on 2014  when  the  U.S Permanent Representative  sent  a letter to the UN and argued that  ISIS use safe havens in Syria to attack  Iraq borders  and  the  region asks for  international efforts  to combat the ISIS, aid the Iraqi forces  in  controlling the borders and more importantly protect the Iraqi citizens[14]

The International Court of Justice disputes the U.S argument by asserting that a State violates the international law by attacking the non-state actors especially when the terrorism is not on territorial State. On territorial State, the region has a right for sovereign equality and international relations since   a state might lack power to combat the terrorists[15]. The Bush Doctrine also condemn the  nations involved in  attacking terrorisms  in other nations  by asserting that  according to the international law,  nations need to have self-defense before the occurrence of an attack. However, even though a state can take a self-defense, the terrorists use weapons which are concealed without warning and this means that    a nation may take anticipatory actions and suffer from mass destruction[16]. This raises an argument that the role of U.S is not to offer defense for emerging threats but its role is to attack the terrorist when the matter is at hand.


            Given that there is controversy on the violation of international law, the Obama administration relies on the doctrine ‘unable and willing’[17]. In addition, U.S has a self-defense and use force to attack the terrorists and in the process, it fights for the whole world.  In addition, due to the ongoing armed conflict, the international law allows U.S to use force against al-Qaeda group.  U.S can also target non-state actors under considerable condition such as imminence of threat and the willingness and ability of the State to combat the actors[18].  U.S  argue that  its forcible response complies with  jus in bello  and it ensures that in attacking the terrorists,  the armed force  should not focus on military objectives, they should not  make the civilian object as the  object of the attack and the attack  should not  affect  the civilian life.

 The debate comes into conclusion that according to the international law, force against terrorism is allowed if the attacked nation is unable to combat the terrorism. The use of force will maximize the possibility of abuse and an important point to consider is that State that use force should target the non-state actors and the military actions must avoid discrimination or rather it should meet the criteria[19].  Given the legal rustication of Obama administration and its doctrine ‘unable and unwilling’, Trump administration has similar plans in attacking the terrorists. This is because, Trump administration has created a comprehensive plan which is based on use of U.S forces to attack ISIS in Raqqa, Syria and Iraq.  It also focuses on cooperation with Kurdish forces and Turkish forces[20]. These plans align with anti-ISIS developed by Obama administration and the use of anti-ISIS strategy will create a safe zone in Syria and Iraq.




Personal implication

On addition to the above implications, I would like to suggest that U.S previous plans to fight the ISIS still are not fully effective since the newcomers in ISIS have strong allies capable of destroying the nations. Thus, U.S should form ISIS strategies which include intensifying efforts such as working with Anonymous in tacking the ISIS’s plans.  In addition, U.S should create a group of Muslim leaders who will offer a sustainable solution.

Summary and conclusion

Realistically, the nature of ISIS is changing and it has more power to attack the territories.  Thus, the government as well the society should focus on the anti-ISIS coalition to fight ISIS. More importantly, the governments should censure all extremism and focus on counterinsurgency strategy and this will maximize protection and safety. On addition, States should adhere to the doctrines of the International Law when combating terrorism in State terrorism. This will help states create self-defense and maximize the possibility of abuse.








ESFANDIARY, DINA, and ARIANE TABATABAI. "Iran's ISIS policy." International Affairs 91, no. 1 (January

2015): 1-15. Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed February 25, 2018).


Ramakrishna, Kumar. 2017. "The Growth of ISIS Extremism in Southeast Asia: Its Ideological and

Cognitive Features--and Possible Policy Responses." New England Journal Of Public Policy 29, no.

1: 1-22. Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed February 25, 2018).


Scharf P. Michael. How the War Against ISIS Changed International Law. CaseWesternReserve Journalof

InternationalLaw 48 (2016)



[1] ESFANDIARY, DINA, and ARIANE TABATABAI. "Iran's ISIS policy." International Affairs 91, no. 1 (January

2015): 1-15. Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed February 25, 2018). Pg 1


[2] Scharf P. Michael. How the War Against ISIS Changed International Law. CaseWesternReserve Journalof InternationalLaw 48 (2016). Pg 6



[3] Ibid, 6

[4] Ibid, 6

[5] Ibid, 14

[6] Ibid, 14

[7] Ramakrishna, Kumar. 2017. "The Growth of ISIS Extremism in Southeast Asia: Its Ideological and

Cognitive Features--and Possible Policy Responses." New England Journal Of Public Policy 29, no.

1: 1-22. Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed February 25, 2018). Pg 3


[8] Ibid, 8

[9] ESFANDIARY, DINA, and ARIANE TABATABAI. "Iran's ISIS policy." International Affairs 91, no. 1 (January

2015): 1-15. Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed February 25, 2018). Pg 8


[10] Ibid 9

[11] Cognitive Features--and Possible Policy Responses." New England Journal Of Public Policy 29, no. 1: 1-22. Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed February 25, 2018). Pg, 14


[12] Ibid, 15

[13]Ibid, 2

[14] Ibid, 3

[15] Ibid, 32

[16] Ibid, 32

[17] Ibid, 43

[18] Ibid, 43

[19] Ibid, 52

[20] Ibid, 52

2131 Words  7 Pages


According to Plato (Flores et al 32), democracy is a political system where there are no laws and people are expected to rule themselves. Whether people are equal or not, they are all given equal rights. However, Plato argues that ordinary people are not in a position to make good judgments and decisions and therefore democracy always result in chaos and anarchy. There are numerous differences as well as similarities between political systems and therefore for one to be able to effectively study political systems, one has to identify the basic institution key arrangements. Democracy criterion of classification of institutional arrangement requires us to distinguish between democratic and the non-democratic political systems. However, using the democratic criterion is not an easy task as it is value labeled and most states regard them as democratic. This paper will, therefore, use the concept of democracy as the central criterion for classifying the political systems.

The constitutional regime is a political system where the leaders obey the laws that have been set by the state and the power of the leaders is effectively limited towards protection of individual rights and liberty as it is defined in the constitution. The government s limited in that it is protected from making arbitrary decisions of a nation (Izquierdo 6). The non-constitutional regime is described by a persistent non-enforcement of the constitution where leaders have unlimited power and have no value for the structured arrangements put in place by the constitution. There is no constitution and people are usually governed by hereditary leaders or other religious leaders that often fails to guarantee the ruled any right (Brooker 60).

Areal distribution of power is an indivisible sovereignty where there is a hierarchical authority and all powers are vested within the central government in a unitary state. However, federation states are where the central government shares power with the regional governments and checks and balances in the constitution are made. These two types of states, however, form the constitutional division of power while the confederation exercises sovereignty through delegation of power to the supernatural central government.

Executive and legislative relations are defined by the relationship between the legislature and the executives. Having a presidential government refers to a government where there is clear distinction between executive and legislative branches. The parliamentary government, on the other hand, refers to the synthesis of executive and legislative functions and structures where people are allowed to elect the legislature (Brooker 60). Hybrid systems, on the other hand, are composed of a prime minister and some of the elected legislature who have the power to enact and implement policies.

Political party systems political systems are divided into two criterions where political parties are classified basing on the number and the relations among the parties and their leading process. In two-party systems, power rotates between the two parties and each one of these parties has a realistic likelihood of establishing a parliamentary governing majority. However, there may be the existence of third parties but they have limited power in influencing the government. In multi-party systems, there are more than two parties in governance and participation from all of the parties is essential in forming the activities of governing (Izquierdo 6). However, in one party system, only one single party in the system and the state does not allow other parties to exist. In states where democracy is not institutionalized, only single parties are allowed to take governance. No party systems involve a type of non-democracy where there are no organized parties while the governmental powers are vested in the hands of the royal families.

Work cited

       Top of Form

Flores, Imer B, and Kenneth E. Himma. Law, Liberty, and the Rule of Law. Dordrecht: Springer, 2013. Print.

            Izquierdo. R. A. Rethinking Presidential Constructions of Constitutional Regimes: The Inverse Dynamics of Leadership and Historical Context. Stanford University, 2011. Bottom of Form


Brooker P. Non-Democratic Regimes: Second Edition. Macmillan Inernational Higher education, 2009.


657 Words  2 Pages
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