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How would you go about advising an athlete on individualizing macronutrient presсrіption for weight loss? What factors would you take into consideration

33 Words  1 Pages

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Imagine that a friend tells you about their idea to start a sports therapy clinic which they plan to operate as a sole proprietorship. What benefits and risks would you advise your friend to be aware of?

48 Words  1 Pages

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Once you have read the module chapter and viewed each video. Read each of the scenario's below and provide a critical analysis to each situation. Do not provide 1-2 senetnce responses just providing your feelings. Each response should be justified and supported by researched based content learned within the module or from outside sources. Please site sources at the conclusion of response. Attach your response as word document.

Scenario #1: In a tackling technique known in football as "clotheslining," a player's head is stopped while the rest of his body continues in motion. This could cause paralysis or even death. Describe anatomically what happens in the cervical spine and how this might have catastrophic results.

Scenario # 2: Excessive weight gain, possibly a pregnancy, or other causes may shift one's center of gravity forward. This could cause the lumbar spine to develop an excessive curvature to counteract the shift.
a. In which direction would the lumbar spine curve?
b. What would this curvature be called?

Scenario # 3: Lying supine , draw your thighs up to your chest.
a. What movement occured in your lumbar spine
b. What movement occured in your hip joints?
c. What movement occured in your pelvis? 

218 Words  1 Pages

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Detailed Description:
The final document should be between 3-6 pages in length.
(Just know.... You all are way more concerned about the document length than I am... I’m looking for you to address the issues related to the assignment, which can be done effectively at various lengths)
Goal of the assignment: To demonstrate a working knowledge of the key pillars of persuasive rhetoric. A successful submission will show how rhetoric frames argumentation. The author should be able to craft arguments using different aspects of rhetorical appeals.
How to Complete: You will select a topic from current political discourse. You have a lot of freedom to write about something interesting to you, BUT your topic should be relevant/newsworthy, should lend itself to this assignment (not all topics do!), and should clear the “who cares” bar... meaning, don’t pick a topic that is overly niche or narrowly focused. Write about something in the news, something that actually matters, etc. If you’re afraid that your topic doesn’t meet that standard, contact the prof and ask.
You will find an article about your selected topic and unwrap it in a paragraph or two. What is your topic? Why is it relevant? What are the significant issues attached to it? You’re not expected to be super deep here, you just want to give your reader a brief introduction to the subject you’ve selected.
After you’ve explained your topic, your goal is to argue FOR it using the three modes of rhetorical persuasion. Think about writing one page for each mode. It could look something like:
Page 1 – Introduction, then Section 1- Summary of the paper and background of topic. “Funding and building Dog Parks: here’s what you need to know”
Page 2- Section 2 Dog Parks and Ethos. A page or two arguing for dog parks using ethos based rhetorical appeals.

Page 3 Section 3 Dog Parks and Pathos. A Page or two arguing for dog parks using pathos based rhetorical appeals.
Page 4 Section 4 Dog Parks and Logos. A page or two arguing for dog parks using logos based rhetorical appeals.
Page 5 Conclusion. A paragraph or two explaining what the take-aways of the assignment. What does arguing from different modes of rhetoric do for us? Is each mode always appropriate for a particular topic? Was one of the modes better suited for your topic than another? Basically... make this assignment matter. Give me the substantive stuff and explain what I’m after here.
Assignment Specific Grade Information:
I grade your assignments with the A-F scale in mind. Here’s what I’m looking for in terms of emphasis:
25% - General Readability
- Complete paragraphs
- “Clean” document
- Sentence flow and grammar
- Citations (present and properly formatted in APA style)
-Assignment is formatted for easy readability
-It is clear you’ve read assignment directions (Trust me, it’s clear when you haven’t)
25% - Logic, Argument Strength, Research
-Have you selected “good” arguments in support of the topic?
-Is your analysis in the intro and conclusion sound/persuasive?
-Do you demonstrate an accurate understanding of each mode of rhetoric?
50% - Meets Assignment Directions
-Does your submission have a clear topic with a clear stance?
-Does the submission offer compelling analysis for how the topic fits it into each mode of rhetoric?
-Is the author repetitive? Does each section of the paper work? Is each section given proper focus/care? -Is there genuine effort and thought? Or... are you mailing it in?

General Rubric:
Assignment is complete and demonstrates rigorous application and understanding of the assignment directions. Submission follows all assignment directions and does so meaningfully. Submission meets length requirements, APA style requirements, and contains few readability errors. To receive an A, the submission must incorporate interesting analysis, complete understanding of the assignment goals, and demonstrate an ability to develop concepts beyond their in-class iterations.
Submission meets the assignment directions, is properly formatted, edited, and provides layered analysis that incorporates many elements from our classroom discussions. It is clear from this submission that effort was put into developing key ideas and synthesizing those ideas for readability and proper application. Submissions receiving B’s are good- they do what they need to do and they intelligently dissect the core ideas.
Assignment is mostly complete, but lacks effort and rigor. Explanations/analysis are surface level and fail to meaningfully engage the assignment directions. Assignment contains several grammar and spelling errors and is not formatted for easy readability. It’s not that assignments receiving C’s are bad, but they only do the bare minimum. The submission fails to develop ideas and omits an understanding of what the assignment is aiming to accomplish.
Assignment is missing major components from assignment directions. The submission demonstrates a lack of understanding and fails to work through those difficulties in a meaningful way. Assignment errs toward summary and away from analysis/explanation/synthesis. The submission is improperly formatted and contains numerous readability issues. D’s are probably the result of rushed and/or lazy work... maybe they approximate coverage of the assignment directions, but there is probably no there, there.
Assignment is substantially incomplete and lacks any demonstration of rigor/engagement with the material. Explanations and analysis are absent and the submission suffers from substantial readability issues. Submission does not demonstrate an understanding of the directions and fails to work through those issues. In short, the assignment is a total bummer to read- it is excessively rushed and/or lazy and makes no effort to develop coherent positions on the course concepts.

925 Words  3 Pages

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Defensive & Offensive patterns over the duration of a match and season: An analysis of the 2013/2014 English Premier League and Spanish La Liga

1.    The aim of this study is to expand the understanding of offensive and defensive key performance indicators (KPIS) in football from two different professional leagues and to demonstrate whether the KPIS can show a consistent pattern in the overall outcome of the game.

2.    To investigate whether there is a consistent defensive & offensive pattern in football matches that will determine the end result of the football match.
3.    To investigate where the critical incidents took place and whether there is any pattern or effect on the outcome of the game.
4.    To investigate the differences between two professional football leagues and draw comparisons between them.

The actual defensive variables that will be measured are the number of Ball recoveries in a match. Ball recoveries is when a player wins the ball back when it’s gone loose or where the ball has been played directly to them. Number of successful & unsuccessful Tackles will be taken into consideration as well. A tackle is defined as where a player connects with the ball in ground challenge where he successfully takes the ball away from the man in possession. All tackles are really a successful event. A Tackle Won is deemed to be where the tackler or one of his team-mates regains possession as a result of the challenge, or that the ball goes out of play. Interceptions, this is where a player intentionally intercepts a pass by moving into the line of the intended ball Lastly number of aerial duels won is among the dependent variable. Duels are termed as a 50-50 contest between two players of opposing sides in the match. For every duel won there is a corresponding duel lost depending on the outcome of the duel. An aerial duel however Is when two players challenge in the air against each other. The player that wins the ball is deemed to have won the duel. When more than two players are involved the player closest to the duel winner is given an Aerial Duel lost (Opta Sports, 2013).

The offensive variables are number of passes, a pass is an intended ball played by one player to another. The percentage of pass completion will also be a measurable variable, this is a simple formula where Successful passes are divided by Total attempted passes in whichever combination of passes is selected, and this however excludes crosses. Number of attacking third passes is another variable considered, this is the number of passes but limited to the oppositions final third. The percentage of possession will also be measured in each match analysed. This is the amount of time a team possesses the ball for the duration of the game (Opta Sports, 2013).

Above is the variables I will be looking at in my Dissertation, data will come from a iPhone application called FourFourTwo Football Stats Zone and I will need 2 pages for a Methodology and 2 pages for the Literature Review please include a detailed Rationale for the reason for the study with references as well within the Lit review. For the Methods I will be mainly using IBM SPSS statistics 19 and above and any other Microsoft Applications (Word, Excel etc.) So means of the variables of the matches won (you decide why and the number of wins backed up with references) for all the variables will be gathered.

in the uploaded material there's a few comments to help you.

609 Words  2 Pages


Critical issues in sports sociology

Sports play various roles in today’s society. Other than entertainment, people have grown to rely on sports for employment and also as a reflection of the morals and ethics shared by people in different communities. Athletes, their teams, and the organizations they represent are held in the same regard as politicians, celebrities, and influential people in society. Their conduct, morals, and beliefs are therefore expected to reflect the morals upheld by society and the entire ethical community. The position that sports hold in society can therefore enable them to contribute to changes in public understanding of important social issues like racism, unemployment, and gender inequality among others.

Sports can help break stereotypes and negative perceptions that people have of different races and ethnic groups. The majority, if not all teams and sports organizations recruit athletes based on their performance and contribution to the team. As a result, sports teams are comprised of team members from different backgrounds with diverse cultures and beliefs. The team members also come from different races to form a functional team (Ekholm, 2016). Other than team members, sports organizations employ staff from diverse backgrounds. Their approach to embracing diversity can help people break from stereotypes that result in oppression and discrimination of others in the community. A team made up of African Americans, whites, Latinos and other races allow people to see past their differences and break stereotypes that suggest some races work harder than others (Ekholm, 2016). Success for African American athletes also breaks stereotypes like African Americans being prone to crime as it presents a different image for members of the African American community.

Also, sports create opportunities for people from diverse backgrounds to work together towards achieving a common goal. Despite the various stereotypes that exist in society, teams comprising diverse players continue to enjoy success in their fields. This communicates to society that African Americans can work alongside Whites, Latinos, Asians, and people from other races because success is not dependent on race or culture (Woods, 2020). Sporting events can therefore act as showcase events where people’s differences are set aside and athletes, staff, and spectators from different ethnic backgrounds come together to enjoy sports. Such events can also create awareness of the need to end vices like racism, gender discrimination, and other differences that are used to discriminate against minorities.

The policies and codes of conduct can also be used to promote policies and laws that encourage people to embrace diversity and discourage issues like racism and gender discrimination. Different sports teams and organizations maintain strict moral and ethical standards (Coakley, 2003). All players and members of staff are expected to conduct themselves morally and maintain positive ethical conduct both on and off the field. Athletes are expected to portray themselves as role models and maintain the positive image that their team is associated with. Such codes of conduct can be emulated by schools, government organizations, and different institutions to encourage their stakeholders to maintain good morals (Coakley, 2003). Sporting teams can educate other organizations and further create guidelines for other organizations to emulate. The example set by sporting organizations can provide tried and tested approaches that seek to end social injustices and further help people to understand the impact that social issues have on society.

Issues relating to unemployment can also be resolved through the intervention of sports. The attitude that people have towards specific races greatly affects the willingness of employers to hire individuals from certain backgrounds. Organizations that share the misconception that African Americans are more prone to crime than whites are more likely to hire whites and discriminate against candidates from other races (Mertzman, 2016). Sporting events can however reshape the attitudes that people have towards different races by showcasing their talents, commitment to excellence, and how their role contributes to the overall growth and success of the team. This in turn helps to create a positive image that helps employers to form unbiased opinions about candidates despite their different backgrounds.

The involvement of individuals from different ethnic backgrounds can also help people to embrace diversity in the workplace. Most teams involved in sports are made up of athletes and employees from different ethical backgrounds. The approaches that the teams employ to remain successful despite these differences can be used by different organizations as a way to enhance diversity and work together despite the differences that exist (Rodriguez, 2017). Sporting events also act as a platform to showcase the special skills and abilities of each player. This in turn helps people to appreciate the achievement made by different athletes regardless of their ethnic background. The success that athletes enjoy in their respective fields helps people to break away from stereotypes that portray people as being prone to crime, violent, or lazy. The positive image that sports create helps to create awareness of the harm that issues like racism and gender discrimination have on the victim and thus helps to eradicate them from society.

Sports can also help to create awareness on the importance of education and encourage other organizations to help promote education even in poverty-stricken areas.  Different sporting organizations offer a scholarship to athletes who have talent but lack the means to access good quality education. To qualify and retain the scholarship, individuals are expected to maintain good grades, portray moral conduct, and act as good role models in society (Sheppard, 2020). The emphasis on good grades helps individuals to understand the importance of education in a person’s life and how achieving success in other fields should never come at the expense of attending school.

Sports organizations that offer scholarships to students can also encourage the government and individuals to help those living in poverty secure education. Creating awareness on the importance of good quality education and access to programs that seek to help those living in poverty can help raise the not well off above the poverty line. Through sports, organizations and well-wishers can contribute funds to build schools and improve those already operational in poverty-stricken areas (Sheppard, 2020). Sports can then be used as a tool to encourage people to enroll not only to gain an education but also to get promising positions in top teams in the community and also at an international level. The exposure can also help to get the government and charity organizations involved and help initiate programs and policies that seek to offer education opportunities to individuals from poor backgrounds.

The influence that sports have in society can also be used to create awareness on social issues that are not common in the public eye. Sports events like football and rugby are watched by people from different parts of the world. Their popularity has made sporting events a lucrative platform for businesses that seek to advertise their products to the sports community and fans (Guridy, 2021). Similarly, issues like corruption, gender inequality, diseases, and other social issues can be showcased during sporting events. Information regarding their cause and effects and also how to eradicate such issues can be shared through these platforms as a call to action. Spectators and other stakeholders in turn learn about common social issues and also some that may not be common in society (Guridy, 2021). The awareness created can help get other people involved in the fight to end such issues and also encourage the victims to report the issues and seek help.

Other than influence, sports organizations can have a direct role in starting schools and other organizations that seek to help the poor, orphans, and other victims of the issues that trouble society. Sports academies can help individuals from poor backgrounds to improve their skills in sports and also start schools that help the same individuals in academics (Coakley, 2003). The ethics they learn in school combined with the morals and code of conduct upheld by athletes will help the individuals grow into respectable members of society. Their experiences are also likely to discourage the individuals from engaging in any misconduct or discriminate against others who face the same challenges they did (Ekholm, 2016). The education gained will help athletes to secure employment not only through sports but also in different fields. Those who do not make it in sports, therefore, have a chance for a better future and can raise themselves out of poverty without relying on sports alone.

Donations can also be made to schools and charity organizations serving in poverty-stricken places. Stereotypes and common misconceptions about people from different aces and cultural backgrounds also contribute to how resources are divided in society. Communities associated with African Americans for instance have lesser educational and career opportunities compared to those dominated by whites. Schools in such environments, therefore, lack basic resources and students are forces to make the most of what they have (Rodriguez, 2017). The quality of education they receive is therefore limited and this greatly limits their exposure to the opportunities that a good education offers. Donations made from sports organizations can help to equip schools with supplies and equipment and also recruit and educate teachers on how to offer the best quality of education. Students will in turn gain skills and knowledge that can be implemented in real-life settings, secure employment, and raise themselves out of poverty.

Sporting organizations can also create a better understanding of the issues that exist in society by leading by example. The sporting industry has grown and it employs a lot of people across the globe. Other than athletes, the industry employs coaches, team doctors, counselors, fitness experts, and other professionals (Sheppard, 2020). The industry can therefore embrace diversity engage in positive employer-employee conduct and other activities that promote positive social behaviors. The sports industry can also assist other organizations to develop a culture that focuses on addressing issues that exist in society. Helping to resolve some of the issues that trouble society should be considered as part of accomplishing an organization's goals and objectives (|Sheppard, 2020). Getting other organizations and the government involved will create more awareness on social issues, the injustices attributed to them, their effect on the victims, and also measures taken to resolve them.

The popularity of athletes that are treated like celebrities can also help to communicate the importance of addressing social issues and the role that individuals, groups, and the government play in resolving them. The sports community can design advertisements, videos, and other forms of mass communication addressing the social issues that exist in society as well as what can be done to resolve them (Sheppard, 2020). The audience is likely to heed the call to action made by athletes they respect and therefore have a bigger impact during implementation. The athletes selected should be a reflection of the image the organization is trying to portray and should maintain good ethical behavior. It is also important to encourage the athletes to seek out more innovative ways to identify issues in society as a way of giving back to society.

           Majority of the issues that exist in society have developed over time and will require a lot of intervention before they are resolved. The different policies and movements that have been started by organizations and the government require support from individuals and major institutions like the sports industry. The popularity of sports has created a platform with a wide reach especially because some sporting events are watched by viewers from different parts of the world. Through sports, an issue such as racism can be addressed and people from different parts of the world can unite to bring an end to such vices in society. Commenting about social issues that exist in remote parts of the world can also help to create awareness and get the right people involved and help resolve it where possible. The sports industry can also act as a role model for other organizations by setting a positive example. Instead of just focusing on profit and personal growth, the sports industry should encourage its stakeholders to dedicate their resources and time towards eradicating some of the issues that exist in society. The goal should therefore be to create awareness and also create a call to action that encourages individuals, organizations, and the government to address issues that exist in society and come up with different ways to resolve them.









Coakley, J. J., & Coakley, J. J. (2003). Sports in society: Issues and controversies.            New York: McGraw-Hill Education.

Ekholm D, (2016) “Sports as a means of responding to social problems” retrieved             from,

Guridy, F. A. (2021). The sports revolution: How Texas changed the culture of      American athletics. University of Texas Press

Mertzman, R. A. (2016). Exploring sports and society: The essential companion. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt.

Rodriguez D, (2017) “Athletes leading social change through sports” Peace and    Sports, retrieved from,          social-change-through-sports/

Sheppard, S. N. (2020). Sporting blackness: Race, embodiment, and critical muscle          memory on screen. University of California Press

WOODS, R. O. N. B. U. T. L. E. R. B. N. A. L. A. N. I. (2020). SOCIAL ISSUES IN         SPORT. S.l.: HUMAN KINETICS.


2183 Words  7 Pages


Concussions in sports

Over 1.4 million people in the United States are hospitalized every year with traumatic brain injury and over 57 million on a global scale suffer from issues related to traumatic brain injury. Also, 20 percent of the patients that suffer from traumatic brain injury are as a result of concussions suffered from sporting injuries (Cantu et al 133). According to the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, there are over 1.6 million treated cases and 3.8 million untreated concussion cases that are related to sports in the United States every year (Cantu et al 133). As a result, more research has sought to identify how concussions occur among athletes, their effects, and measures that can be taken to reduce their occurrence as well as helping the patients manage their condition. 

Concussions refer to mild traumatic injuries to the brain that pose various health risks to the patient if left untreated or in the occurrence of more trauma to the brain. They are common in different types of sports such as rugby, American football, and boxing to mention a few. The high number of athletes that have concussions is greatly attributed to the lack of sufficient information regarding concussions and how they affect athletes (Cantu et al 135). Furthermore, all athletes are at risk of having a concussion regardless of the role they play or what age the traumatic brain injury occurs. According to Hartl et al (170), concussions expose athletes to various health risks other than traumatic brain injury. An athlete who loses consciousness for over thirty minutes after the traumatic brain injury is at risk of contracting Alzheimer’s disease. if left untreated for more than two hours, amyloid proteins begin to develop and this exposes the athlete to more health risks the longer the concussion remains untreated. While early treatment may help to limit the effect that concussions have on athletes, there is also the issue of repeated traumatic brain injuries (Hartl et al 170). Athletes in high contact sports like American football and soccer are constantly at risk of getting concussions. While some of the concussions that occur during such games are mild and the athletes require little time to recover, repeated head trauma, even if it does not cause severe brain injury, exposes the athletes to various psychological and cognitive issues (Hartl et al 171). Despite this, however, athletes continue to participate in sports and get multiple concussions which attribute to the deteriorating state of their health especially after they finish their career. The tendency of players returning to the field too soon after a concussion has greatly contributed to the various health issues that are displayed by ex-football players and other athletes. 

            American football is responsible for about 250000 concussions every year with 20 percent of athletes in high school football experiencing at least one concussion every year (Cantu et al 134). Research by the Sports medicine research laboratory at the University of North Carolina revealed that 888 athletes out of the 17549 who participated in the study had experienced at least one concussion in a season and that 131 of them had a concussion the following year (Cantu et al 134). The study also revealed that athletes in Division III and high school were more likely to get concussions compared to athletes in Division I and II. While the severity of the concussion may differ across age groups and different sports, the likelihood of the concussions reoccurring means that all athletes are at risk of the serious health issues attributed to concussions and traumatic brain injuries. 

The frequency of concussions in sports combined with the health risks that such injuries expose athletes to has led to the development of different measures to try and control their occurrence and guide athletes on what steps to take. In 2007 for example, The National Football League’s policy was implemented to enable medical professionals to examine players who got injured during games on the field instead of waiting till the individual could get to a hospital (Hudson 29). The policy employed the use of a side-line concussion exam where athletes who had sustained injuries to the head were required to perform a series of tests that monitored their balance, thinking, and level of concentration after the trauma. Assessment tests were also introduced and athletes were expected to fill symptoms checklists; undergo a neurological exam, balance assessment, and cognitive evaluation before being allowed back to the field after having a concussion. Players that were allowed back to the field after a concussion were also to be monitored closely to determine if they were fit to continue playing or required more treatment. 

Other measures that have been put in place to protect athletes from concussions is the return to play process that utilizes five steps that seek to ease the athlete back into the field after sustaining an injury. After a concussion, the first step is rest and recovery. The athlete is given time from duty and instructed to rest to speed up the recovery process. The time allowed for rest and recovery depends on the nature of the injury as well as how fast the individual takes to recover (LaFond 1). After rest and recovery, the athlete moves to the second step which is light aerobic exercise. The activities in the second step help the athlete to regain some functioning capability after the injury. The third step is continued aerobic exercise where the activities are a bit more strenuous and help the athlete to regain strength and muscle control. The fourth stage is the football-specific activities where the athletes engage in mild sporting training that emulate the activities that go on in the field during a real game (LaFond 1). The activities are however less strenuous and held the individual to adjust to the field after the concussion. Finally, the individual moves to the final stage, full football activity where the patient is allowed to participate in competitive games. The individual can be eased into the matches as a substitute to limit the time spend doing strenuous activities until fully healed. 

The measures put in place to prevent athletes from going back to the field after a concussion are intended to help the athlete and facilitate faster recovery. However, there are occurrences where the athletes or their coaches opt to overlook the safety measures and continue to play even with traumatic brain injuries. Since the effects of a concussion take long to develop, some athletes may fail to reveal the intensity of their injuries in an attempt to keep playing. This is especially common in major games such as finals or when trying to gain the attention of recruiters during games. In such cases, the athlete may withhold information about the nature of the injury sustained during a previous game or in-game from the medical personnel and coach. Some may even continue playing without seeking in-field medical assistance to prevent the team doctors from assessing the nature of their injury (Goldberg 387). On the side of the coach, the decision may be made to keep the injured player in play especially when the injury or concussion is deemed mild. The coach may be relying on the injured player to make important calls or score goals that will lead the team to victory. In some games, the contribution from one player could determine whether the team wins or loses and this may prompt the coach to keep such individuals on the field even after getting a concussion (Goldberg 388). Although some concussions are not severe, the risk that recurring concussions pose to athletes makes such decisions too risky as the coach or team doctor may not be aware of the dangers the new concussion may pose for the athlete in the long run. 

The lack of sufficient information regarding concussions has greatly contributed to the lack of seriousness by team doctors and coaches when dealing with injured athletes. The effects are however more severe for younger players compared to adults because they take longer periods to recover. When an athlete gets a concussion, the negative effects that they will experience are dependent on the treatment method used and how long the individual goes without getting another concussion (Cantu et al 138). In the case of adults, the effects may not be as severe especially if enough time is taken between one concussion and the next. If the individual is given enough time to recover, the state of their health makes them resistant to some of the medical complications attributed to concussions. In the case of young athletes, however, the long period taken before recovery places them at a higher risk because they are more likely to encounter another concussion immediately after, or even before they recover from the previous one. Physical sports like American football and soccer expose the athletes to constant risks and are therefore more likely to be affected by concussions. 

There is the common misconception that the athlete is fully recovered from the concussion once they are allowed back on the field. While the treatments used to play a major role in helping the player to heal from the injury and return to the field, coaches, athletes, and other stakeholders must learn to view concussions as challenges that affect more than the individual’s ability to perform in their respective sports (McKeever & Schatz 9). Concussions can also affect people’s cognitive function, school life, and even their social relationships. While the recovery would suggest that the player is fit to return to the field, concussions may also expose the players to risks that affect their brain function and how they process information. For young athletes, concussions may make it difficult for the individual to keep up with other aspects of their life such as schoolwork. The inability to process information may make it difficult for the athlete to grasp information given during lectures and this could negatively impact their school performance (Fong 1). Impaired brain functions may also affect how the individual interacts with friends, their moods, and reaction to events and this will ultimately harm their social life. Assessment of the impact that concussion has on athletes should therefore be extended to all aspects of their life such as school and social life rather than limiting it to how the athlete performs on the field. 

To achieve this, caregivers, coaches, and parents should try to understand the signs and symptoms associated with concussions as well as how to ensure that enough recovery time is given to athletes before they are allowed back on the field. While there are a lot of symptoms attributed to concussions, some appear immediately after the injury while others take longer periods to develop. Symptoms that take longer to develop are likely to cause more harm if the athlete is allowed back on the field and encounters another injury (Fong 1). While the damage may not affect their ability to play, some long-term effects like memory loss may intensify the more the player gets injured and cause serious problems in the long run. Instead of approaching concussions as a challenge that limits the players functioning capability on the field, there is a need for more emphasis on other effects that impair other aspects of the individual’s life in general. Some of the common effects of concussions include drowsiness; chronic headaches; memory loss; difficulty in speaking; depression; and disrupted sleeping patterns. 

Concussions that athlete encounter during their time as professionals continue to affect their lives even after they retire. While some concussions have short recovery periods, repeated concussions cause major problems and may even lead to death in the long run. Some athletes have been diagnosed with neurological disorders like chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson's disease. some concussions, especially when repetitive also affect the player’s motor skills and cause movement disorders that make it difficult to perform simple tasks such as walking or running (Meehan 47). Football players who return to the field with impaired sensory-motor function after suffering from a concussion are more at risk of getting musculoskeletal injuries that could disrupt their careers as athletes. According to Meehan (23), 14 percent of deaths among athletes younger than 21 years old are attributed to trauma-related injuries sustained through sports. In football, 93 percent of deaths related to trauma sustained from sporting injuries involved trauma to the head or neck. Furthermore, football players that have had 3 or more concussions are more likely to suffer a concussion, thereby making the risk of repeat concussions more intense for players that have already been injured. This is especially because repeat concussions have a 91.7 percent more chance of sustaining another injury within 10 days of the previous concussion (Cantu et al 133). The frequency in which these concussions reoccur poses athletes at a higher risk because, while some of the concussions may be mild, the short period between injuries exposes the individual to more risks that damage the brain and could affect the patient in different ways including extending the recovery period and how long the symptoms last. 



The American Academy of Paediatrics advises coaches and team doctors to ensure that athletes, especially the young, be evaluated and properly examined to determine if they are ready to return to the field after a concussion. Doctors responsible for clearing the athletes must be trained on the best approaches to manage the patient’s condition and assess their level of recovery before allowing the patient back on the field (NRC 17). The information will help to ensure that the players are given enough time to recover and thereby reduce the impact that another concussion will have if it occurs. There is also the need for more research on the effects that concussions have on athletes both on and off the field. While most injuries will affect the athlete’s ability to play, concussions also interfere with other aspects of the athlete’s life. Young players who are under-recovery for instance miss out on school work and social life (Cantu et al 133). While recovery will make it easier to get back in the field, re-occurrence could affect the athlete’s academic performance, cognitive function, and even how they communicate. Recovery should therefore be structured such that it focuses on the athlete’s overall health rather than their ability to go back to the field. 


Athletes, like other human beings, deserve to work in safe and ideal working environments. Concerning physical sports, relevant stakeholders have a responsibility to ensure that the athletes are protected from most, if not all, health risks that are associated with their profession. Since contact sports expose athletes to various types of injuries that can result in concussions, there is a need for new protective measures to reduce the frequency of such injuries and their effects. Coaches, athletes, and other stakeholders must learn how to protect players from challenges that arise from concussions. Other than promoting fair play, there is also a need to educate the relevant parties on the impact that concussions have on the individual’s overall health and also how to go about limiting the re-occurrence of concussions. This will ensure that all the parties involved have enough information to protect themselves from such injuries and seek help whenever injured to reduce the effect that concussions will have in the long run. 
















Work cited

Cantu, Robert, Chin, Lawrence,  Saffary, Roya“Sports Medicine: Concussions in Sports.” American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, vol. 6, no. 2, Mar. 2012, pp. 133–       140, doi:10.1177/1559827611411649.

Daneshvar, Daniel H et al. “The epidemiology of sport-related concussion.” Clinics in sports             medicine vol. 30,1 (2011): 1-17, vii. doi:10.1016/j.csm.2010.08.006

Fong, Alina, “What you need to know about TBI symptoms and treatment” Cognitive fx, 2020, retrieved from,             long-term-effects-and-treatment

Goldberg, D.S. Concussions, Professional Sports, and Conflicts of Interest: Why the National      Football League’s Current Policies are Bad for Its (Players’) Health. HEC    Forum 20, 337–355 (2008).

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LaFond, Teresa. “Sports concussions: How to handle physical, mental and emotional        recovery” Cognitive fx, retrieved from,      concussions-physical-mental-and-emotional-recovery

McCrea, Heather J et al. “Concussion in sports.” Sports health vol. 5,2 (2013): 160-4.             doi:10.1177/1941738112462203

McKeever, Catherine and Schatz, Philip “Current Issues in the Identification, Assessment,           and Management of Concussions in Sports-Related Injuries” Applied             Neuropsychology, 2003, DOI: 10.1207/S15324826AN1001_2

Meehan, William P. Kids, Sports, and Concussion: A Guide for Coaches and Parents. Santa        Barbara, Calif: Praeger, 2011. Internet resource.

National Research Council, Sport related concussions in youth: Improving the science,     changing the culture, National Academies press





2772 Words  10 Pages


Personal Position on Participating in Recreational Activities


 Recreational activity is defined as any outdoor activity that is done with the aim of exercising through sports, dancing, and camping among other activities that are done during one’s spare time. Recreational activities greatly enhance the physical and mental health and the general well-being of an individual. For an individual, recreational activities help in their development and growth, enhances their self-esteem and self-reliance, and since it is a way of having fun it, therefore, reduces stress. This makes it important for recreational activities to be introduced in schools. In the community, they help in connecting families, strengthens social bonding, reduces isolation, and promote strong communities. Economically, recreational activities reduce the cost of healthcare, and also reduce crime. Recreational activities are important to every individual, regardless of their position in life because, despite the fun and happiness experienced through them, they help us maintain our health and intellectual functioning. 


Participating in physical activity has been revealed to have physical and mental health benefits among the youth and children. It has been related to academic accomplishments and improved concentration in school. Engaging in physical activity every day or an hour for the children has been noted to bring these benefits (Allison et al. 2018). Children and youths spend most of their time in school and it is therefore important for schools to provide opportunities where they can indulge in physical activity which includes even the students with special needs. Self-efficacy is associated with physical activity implementation in schools. However, it is a challenge for all the children to take part in physical activity regularly and this is shown by a notable decline when children get older and also among females. Schools should implement policies that are in favor of all ages and gender so that everyone can benefit from physical activity. To enhance physical and health education in schools, some of the schools have adopted daily physical activity policies.

Physical activity improves the heart’s health, helps in maintaining body weight, and builds strong bones and muscles in kids. Kids need to be active for their brains to develop and to maintain their health. Research shows that physical activity in childhood is necessary for a healthy brain and leads to regulation of the brain, thinking and learning, self-control, and the ability to solve problems. It also helps in the growth of the brain tissue, managing stressful situations, improves a kid’s self-esteem, and helps them be more focused. Studies show that students who exercise before a test have revealed to have stronger brain functioning compared to those that do not exercise (Tremblay, Barnes & Vanderloo, 2018). This shows that when the body does not move enough, the brain fails to function as it should. Being physically active helps in boosting memory in children and youth, including children with brain disabilities. Parts of the brain that are devoted to memory and learning are great in active children compared to those that are not. Active kids tend to be creative and come up with innovative ideas. They are more focused and tend to pay attention for a longer time and this spears to be consistent for all the children, the youth, and even in those that have attention deficit hyperactivity disorders. Physical activity releases hormones that benefit the children and the youth to manage depression-related symptoms. Children with brain disabilities are more exposed to mental health issues and for them, being active is important. Research shows that physical activity helps to lower feelings of anxiety in children and the youth. It is an effective tool in improving social and academic stress in young people and also helps them recover faster from stressful situations. Engaging in dance and sports is effective for children and youth.

Physical activity includes sports which in the community is used for social interaction, prevention of crime, and reduction of risks. Sports which is recreational activity bring people and societies together, emphasizing similar capabilities and bringing together social and racial division. Sports create a platform where individuals learn different skills such as self-control, self-confidence, and management (Hartmann & Kwauk, 2011). It teaches principles such as being tolerant, cooperative, and respectful to people. It teaches the value of one’s effort, managing victory as well as defeat. Sport is associated with these and other positive aspects making it a powerful vehicle that drives individuals to understand the importance of recreational activities. The United Nations holds the belief that sports are set to accomplish goals such as getting rid of extreme poverty and achieve environmental sustainability and universal education. Sport has been viewed as a development tool in the international community. Through social relations, sports contribute to essential differences and renovations in societal life.

Sport is said to be an important tool in growth because engaging in sports is known to instill life skills such as self-esteem, self-reliance, and self-control. It also helps individuals in social knowledge, morals, and management abilities that people require to take part effectively in contemporary social life. Most of this happens through competition, and respecting rules but education is also important since the skills, qualities, and knowledge that are essential for sports and competition require attention (Hartmann & Kwauk, 2011). Achieving self-development goals through education is said to positively allow the growth of dynamic individuals and societies. Sport- based intervention programs focus on risk prevention and social intervention for disempowered youth. When targeted at marginalized people, these intervention programs help to equip them with self-improvement and self-management skills. Through sports programs, disadvantaged individuals are educated into becoming upright citizens. By linking communities, sports build access to resources, statistics, social networks, and economic prospects.

Counter Argument

Participating in sports can help students develop confidence, discipline, and healthy self-image. However, the self-confidence developed through sports sometimes contributes to individuals forming an athletic identity which sometimes consumes them. This prevents student-athletes from getting other social identities and elements that are needed to traverse through school and the community (James, 2005). Taking part in sports can also make athletes over-optimistic based on their belief in the merit system in the name of being a winner. There are personal and material benefits that are made from sports but for them to be recognized, the athletes need to identify the limitations and liabilities to then transform absurd expectations of what sports can do for them. Such expectations can function at the expense of success in other parts of life. Therefore, participating in sports can be constructive and destructive, could be healthy or harmful and this could be determined by the way the athletes comprehend and negotiate the athletic, educational, and other social elements that they face. There is a widening gap in terms of social, economic, and cultural inequality among the athletes making it difficult for some individuals to take part in sporting and recreational activities.

Despite sports being marketed as an actual growth tool, there is not much that has been done to hypothesize, shape, and arrange the progress field. The implementation methodologies that have been developed are not reliable and there is no clarity on which programs work (Hartmann & Kwauk, 2011). Much of the beliefs about the impact of sports are from heartfelt histories, and suggestive images of people and the community’s transformation that is often delivered by the people who run these programs. Because of the scarce funding and resources, the mission of the programs could easily drift from the social involvement mechanisms and focus on mitigating their sports programs. This changes the whole idea of sports as a developmental activity for people.

Recreational activities are a source of happiness and some such as dance, music, and gymnastics have been introduced in the school curriculum for students. According to Noddings (2003), students fail in school because they are forced to work on what they hate and are not allowed to work on what they might like. Music and gymnastics which are part of recreational activities should not be taught in school because they do not make any contribution to society. It is argued that each individual is naturally different and therefore education should be made differently to fit everyone. Education should be tailored according to the capabilities and talent of the students and should not be generalized. This is because students who seek careers that require knowledge and skills that are not the same as what is in the curriculum are not given a fair chance since they are not able to explore what they want. It is not fair for a student who is interested in gymnastics to be put in the same class with another student who is interested in another activity. For some reason, the one who has other interests will perform poorly, not because they are incapable but because they are interested in another activity. This makes this particular student unhappy in an area that he is supposed to enjoy, relax, and obtain happiness. Sadly, this may cause the student to abandon what they would have loved and enjoyed doing because they were not given a chance to it when they could. Just as women are encouraged to take courses in mathematics and sciences, every student should be encouraged to engage in whatever recreational activity they want by adjusting the school curriculum to fit everyone’s interests. This will help to improve a student’s academic performance, self-worth, and overall happiness.

Recreational activities are important to every individual, regardless of their position in life because, despite the fun and happiness experienced through them, they help us maintain our health and intellectual functioning. They should be fitted in the school’s curriculum to fit each child’s interest to make them more effective. When it is incorporated into the child’s daily living, even academic performance and development is improved. For children with special needs, regular recreational activities will help to boost their health and concentration. Physical activity such as sports helps in social interactions, reduces crime, and can be a source of income. Programs that offer these opportunities should be able to acquire enough resources and funding because they promote the children and youth’s well-being in society.













Allison, K. R., Philipneri, A. N., Vu-Nguyen, K., Manson, H. E., Dwyer, J. J., Hobin, E., ... & Li,

  1. (2018). School and classroom effects on Daily Physical Activity (DPA) policy implementation fidelity in Ontario classrooms: a multi-level analysis. BMC public health, 18(1), 802.

Hartmann, D., & Kwauk, C. (2011). Sport and development: An overview, critique, and

reconstruction. Journal of sport and social issues, 35(3), 284-305.

James, C. E. (2005). Race in play: Understanding the socio-cultural worlds of student athletes.


Canadian Scholars’ Press.


Noddings, N. (2003). Happiness and Education, Cambridge University Press, 2003. ProQuest

Ebook Central,


Tremblay, M., Barnes, J., & Vanderloo, L. (2018). The brain+ body equation: Canadian kids

need to move more to boost their brain health.




1799 Words  6 Pages

Specific Sport Disabled Athletes Participate In

Sitting volleyball is managed by similar regulations which regulate able-bodied sports with only a few notable variances. The sport was first introduced in Netherlands in 1956. The game was presented in 1976 Paralympic tournaments in Canada. In addition, the sport consists of a blend of volleyball and stizball. All the players are to be seated through the entire playing session. Before the sitting volleyball, standing volleyball was included in Paralympic games in 1976 as a demonstration sport (Zerger, 2008). Later on, sitting volleyball was made part of Paralympic programme in 1980s.  Currently, sitting volleyball is played across more than 70 nations. In 2005, sitting volleyball contest took place in Nebraska. During this 2005 contest, three teams took part in the disabled competition while one team took part in able-bodied contest. From this point onward, sitting volleyball created a space in sport tournaments all over the world. After Nebraska, all other countries followed suite and formed their own sitting volleyball competitions. Each year the sport increase in size as more people seek to participate in the games. Not only did sitting volley provide variety for disabled athletes but it also gave the opportunity for able-bodied athletes the chance to be compared with disabled athletes as it is open to more people and its restrictions are easily adhered to during the games. Even though it began as rehabilitation activity, the game grew beyond anyone’s expectations. The team sport only need includes continuous motions and persistent quick actions. As a extensively competitive game, sitting volleyball entry into worldwide gaming scenes might be considered late but its impression and ability to grab the attention of the fans remained undisputed all over the world.

Description of the Sitting Volleyball

A net divides the two teams. On each side of the net lies six athletes. A team gets a point every time they ground the ball onto the opponent’s side. In sitting volleyball, all the players need to be quick, exhibit strength and endurance. More so, scoring skills depend on the capability to think tactically and hastily. More than 10,000 disabled sportsmen and women in 75 nations hence sitting volleyball is an international sport with stiff competition. Each one of the teams is only permitted three ball touches and a block before the ball is crossed over to the opponent’s side. The main attack move is setting and then spiking. During a set and spike motion, a participant feeds the ball to a fellow team member before the ball is accurately served on the other side of the net. Each session contains five sets. The winning team has to garner 25 points on a first come first come basis. This translates into 15 points in one set and two points ahead of the other opposing team (Charalampos, Silva, & Kudlacek, 2015). The regulations were derived from able-bodied volleyball with only few changes here and there. The sitting version needs a small court and a lowered net for both women and men. One of the most important rule during the game, the players are to be in sitting positon. In the particular game, a player is considered seated if the torso is aligned between the buttocks and shoulders. The buttocks should be in contact with the floor throughout the game. However, if the players are struggling, their buttocks can lift a bit from the ground. Hence lifting the buttock region is only accepted during a defensive action. The players are allowed to move back and forth on the court while using their arms as sliding devices without distorting the sitting posture. The essence of the game is using tactics to attack and defend against the other team. Serving ball skills might be developed as a key tool for attacking the opponents are seeking a better hitting position. Players have to be accurate and aim at the opponent side of the net. Thus, each team has to move with quicks succession in order to ensure that they attain the 25 points required to win the entire game. Each team has a team member whose specialty in defending the entire team from the attacks from the opposing team. The defensive player is commonly known as libero and only plays the attacking parts of the game. The libero is strategically placed during the game and his or her kits are different from the rest of the team players. The libero is key even though other team member are required to defend the entire team. When compared to standing volleyball, the sitting version is a faster sport due to the small court size and the lowered net which facilitates faster attacks, spikes and serving motions to be initiated at a close proximity. Sitting volleyball’s scoring system allows each player to score a point for the team hence the sport moves speedily and makes it easier for each team to attain the required 25 points. The fifth set only requires 15 points with two points more than the opposing team (Vute, 2009). Due to its popularity, in international competitions such as Tokyo 2020, eight teams would participate in the tournaments. Moreover, in sitting volleyball, players can block serves from the opponents but one cheek should remain grounded as the player serves the ball. In addition, the players should not leave the court during the entire game. Hence while making contact with the ball, standing or even moving, all are done within the court’s perimeter. A player is only allowed to move out of the court under two conditions- during defensive actions or making a move for the ball. A part from those scenarios, the players should remain in the court at all times.

 Sitting volleyball was created and advanced for players with lower extremity injuries, for example, amputees, joint injuries etc. as stated earlier, the sport varies from volley in terms of contestants posture (Hasanbegović et al., 2011). Sitting volleyball was designated for disabled athletes since the 1980s. Additionally, experts claim that the game can be used to gauge and analyze future sporting actions for the purposes of preparation and coaching techniques.

            The sitting positon in sitting volley is one of the greatest challenge an athlete encounters while playing the sport. The players are only allowed to use their arms to move about the court. The sitting volleyball relies on minor muscles such as the hands. During the game, the hands have to overcome the force of inertia so that one can move around the court. Even though the size of the court and height are altered, the game is hard and requires one to channel in his or her physical strength (Hasanbegović et al., 2011). Some changes are also made in the gym so as to develop the pivotal points of a player. Furthermore, the sitting regulations are guided by the boundary lines. The centerline separates the court into the sections. Each section is 6 by 5 meters in terms of size. On the men’s game, the net measures 1.15m for men and 1m for female players. Pertaining the zone outlines, the attack lines appear parallel to centerlines and are situated 2m from the centerline midpoint. The service zone. Thus, the ability of the players to score entirely depends on the manner in which they adhere to the regulations and how they are able to master the guidelines around the court. Most of the times, the rapid pace of the game only relies on how one responds to each question and the intensity of the game. For example, some teams might find that they are good at defensive mechanisms while the opposing side might be good at serving. Nevertheless, tactics the players use from the start to the end of the game determine the result as half of the points in the game are attributed to chance and the ability to come up with the right combination of strategies at the right time during the game.

            A key fact to take not of is that the positioning of each athlete depends on their bottom positions or placing. This implies that the limbs or hands should be in the free zone. In sitting volleyball, a player’s position is defined as one’s torso or the area between the buttocks and the shoulders. A player is allowed to make contact with the opponent’s centerline (Katalin, 2008). In fact the eligibility of the athletes depends on whether they are disabled or not. Only disabled athletes can compete on an international stage as long as they comply with the classification procedures. Most of the athletes are amputees (DePauw, & Gavron, 2005). Moreover, only two players are allowed to have minimal impairment, however minimal impairment cannot only the athletes to take part in the standing version of the game.

Specificities of the Athletes Who Can Take Part in Sitting Volleyball

Majority of the athletes who participate in sitting volleyball are incapacitated from the legs downwards. The rules of the game are simplified to make it for the disabled athlete to easily attain them and compete favorably without straining most of the other body parts. Thus, the game considers mechanisms which prevent the athletes from extremely injuring other body parts during the game (DePauw, & Gavron, 2005). As time goes by, caution may be applied in terms of the abilities of the athletes competing in the games. Therefore, all the athletes taking part in the sport have to ensure that they have all been training prior to the match and they do not have any injuries at the beginning of the competition. In the meantime, the coach has to ensure that all the rules are adhered to and that each athlete was taking part in the training sessions and other mandated off court regulations as required by Paralympics governing bodies. Thus, most game are preceded with warm ups so as to avoid unaccepted injuries in the lower bodies. For most part, the players are usually in their best shape since they use their arms to move around due to their disability.

Description of Opportunities a Conditioning Coach Can Provide To Sitting Coach Athletes

 The conditioning coach ensures that an athletes’ strength and conditioning is maintained out and in the court. This way, an athlete’s performance improves while movement skills are sharpened.  Conditioning coach designs training strategies based on acceptable scientific concepts, oversees training periods, assesses athletes, sustains athlete registers and teachers any other special things based on the needs of the an athlete. The interaction between the a conditioning coach and sitting volleyball players gives the player the opportunity to focus on vital aspects of the game while taking care of their body (Katalin, 2008). More so, a conditioning coach is not allowed to make any assumptions hence he or she prevents injuries from occurring from a timely basis due to the ability to conduct the a better enhance routine for the people involved in the making of the decisions and retaining a balance equilibrium between the coaching patterns and establishing steady movement and even a healthy lifestyle. Therefore, the conditioning coaches tend to keep up with the mechanisms driving or influencing the performance and general wellbeing of the athletes and once a an athlete achieves a certain goal, then the coach can then draft a better way of dealing with the  physicality that comes with nature of the sitting volleyball. More so, in case of an injury, the life of the athlete is not severely interrupted due to the people in simpler terms, a conditioning coach helps an athlete live a balanced lifestyle as he or she gets the chance to easily harness energy and ability to perform and live a fulfilled life as a sportsperson. Therefore the intention of a conditioning coach is always to ensuring that the athlete is fit in and out of the court.

 Step 2

Overview of the Paper

 Sitting volleyball is a seated version of standing volleyball. Two teams made up of six members each compete against each other. Through the game, each team member’s buttocks remain in contact with the floor. Each team can only touch the ball three times before crossing it over to the other side of the net (Vute, 2009). In terms of scoring, one match has five sets with the first four settings containing 25 points. The court is 10m by 6m and is subdivided into two sections. The sport was first introduced in Canada in the 1980 Paralympic tournaments. Men began the competitions before the women category was added later in 2005. The general ideas of sitting volleyball is the same as the conventional volleyball as the court has a front and behind section. However, the strategies might vary as the sitting volleyball’s court is smaller and the net is lowered. Some of the skills needed to succeed in this sport are striking, serving, blocking and defensive skills.

One Lesson Plan

            The grade level will be 4-6 minutes and the entire duration is 20 minutes long. The first lesson will entail how to hold the ball and all the players will be introduced to the fundamental rules of the game (Zerger, 2008). All athletes will be allowed to pass the ball over the net, not for scoring. Thus, the athletes should focus on retaining on air as the first lesson while pasting the ball over the net with a partner. Another one should be concentrating on the ball or keeping the eyes on the ball while remaining seated. This should take at least five minutes.










Charalampos, S., Silva, C. F., & Kudlacek, M. (2015). When sitting becomes sport: Life stories in sitting volleyball. European Journal of Adapted Physical Activity, 8(1), 30-44.

DePauw, K. P., & Gavron, S. J. (2005). Disability sport. Human Kinetics.

Hasanbegović, S., Ahmetović, S., & Dautbasic, S. (2011). Effects of programmed training on motor abilities of persons with movement impairment in sitting volleyball. Homo Sporticus, 13(1), 68-71.

Katalin, K. (2008). Injury-and sport-specific training for sportsman with disability-sitting volleyball players (Doctoral dissertation, Doctoral dissertation, Semmelweis University).

Vute, R. (2009). Teaching and coaching volleyball for the disabled. Ljubljana

Zerger, M. M. (2008). A study of movement in sitting-volleyball.

2353 Words  8 Pages


The Origin and Evolution of Basketball


  1. Introduction


  1. "There is nothing new under the sun". Gulick made this statement while he recognized the need to invent a new game.  Dr. Gulick and other members held a seminar and after extensive discussion, they came up with the idea of basket game-an interesting game and easy to play.
  2. Thesis statement: Basketball is a unique sport that was born in 1891 by James Naismith on Springfield as a safe and indoor recreation game that would bring entertainment. 


  1. Body paragraph
  2. Was basketball born or invented?
  • This is the controversy surrounding the basketball where supporters rely on the thirteen rules to argue that the game was born while other professional historians argue that the game was invented.
  • Sotheby's vice president reported to the New York Times that basketball did not exist until James Naismith, a Canadian student remembered his childhood memory of a game known as 'Duck on a Rock’ and turned it into a new game with thirteen rules known as 'basketball'.


  1. Basketball was not born
  • Despite the fact James Naismith  introduced  the thirteen  rules,  he lacked pure intellect but  rather he conducted trial and error which is  inaccurate
  • If basketball was born, then there should be growth and change



  1. Weakness with the system of exercise


  • In 1891, directors of the Springfield training school were dissatisfied by a system of exercises that has need established by R.J Roberts.
  • The system was based on body-building work and its major purpose was to promote physique, health, and vigor.
  • However, the system did not meet the interest of the participants. The participants were not happy with the light and heavy apparatus but rather, they wanted stunt activities.
  • In the 17th century, many students were involved in track and football. However, the games were not placed during the winter season and so the athletic clubs could start introducing gymnastics. 
  • The community leaders compared football and gymnastics and found that college students wanted gymnastics because it was a life lesson and a life-long friendship.
  • Yes, it is the toughest game but young men wanted the feeling of exhilaration and learn the credible life lessons


  1. From soccer ball vs basketball
  • Originally, soccer balls were played in the 1950s until in 1891 when Nai-smith introduced a new game. Naismith was a coach at the University of Kansas and Basketball was played for the first time at Hamline University
  • By the 1920s, teams from the United States played basketball in Toronto, and in 1949, the National Basketball Association was formed.
  • By the 1950s, the professionals had gained much interest in basketball and by 1959, coaches and all people who participated in the development of the game started to meet in Springfield.
  • In 1967, the American Basketball Associated was formed and destabilized the National Basketball Association
  • In 1976, the National Basketball Associated became more powerful and it became the best professional league.


  1. The modern era
  • Today, basketball is played worldwide and unlike in the past, the player has regained new skills and tricks. Basketball is a social game where social groups play the game for recreational purposes and they put less concern on winning the game
  1. Conclusion 
  • Today, basketball is popular and participants play the game for entertainment events.
  • Basketball is popular in the whole world and the game is played by all ages for recreational and fun.
  • New skills and format have evolved and participants have developed new skills
  • Regardless of myths and controversies surrounding the origin of the game, basketball provides lifelong enjoyment.



















Springfield College. (2020). Where basketball was invented: The history of basketball


Sathya, P., Ramakrishnan. (2016). A Research Article Basketball Basketball. International Journal of Therapies & Rehabilitation, 10(5), 1-7.


Colás, Y. (2016). Our Myth of Creation: The Politics of Narrating Basketball's Origin. Journal of Basketball Documentaries. Journal of Sport and Social Issues41(6), 447-461.






639 Words  2 Pages

 Return to Play Protocol for Sports Injuries


The Return to Play Protocol for Ankle Injuries and Achilles Tendonitis in Basketball

The development and implementation of return to play strategies is of importance to all sports stakeholders across the spectrum of training and competition.  The successful development of injury prevention strategies requires a multidisciplinary approach that includes strength and conditioning coaches who will play an important role in the process.  When taking into consideration sports injuries the role of SC coaches extends beyond observing exercises in addition to prescribing training to facilitating the development of a robust and resilient athlete.  The scope of their work should include providing a broad overview of injury prevention processes as well as working to promote the wellbeing and safety of the athlete. In basketball strength and conditioning, coaches play important roles including overseeing all the physical aspects, monitoring the development of players as well as monitoring the nutrition and recovery programs of players during injury recovery allowing the players to maximize their performance whilst maintaining their health all year round.

As basketball players defy the force of gravity on the playing field they are prone to some of the most common injuries to include Achilles tendonitis and ankle sprains. In basketball, ankle sprains are common and severe.  According to an Australian study, ankle sprains account for the most missed shots by players (McKay, Goldie, Payne, 2001).  The NBA season is one of the most famous and important basketball seasons, according to statistics recorded by Herzog, Mack, Dreyer, Wikstrom, Padua, Kocher, Marshall, 2019 there were approximately 796 ankle sprains among 389 players and 2340 unique NBA player seasons reported in the league from 2013-2014 through 2016-2017. The risk of incurring an ankle sprain was at 25.8%. Ankle sprains affect about 26% of NBA players each season and account for a large number of missed NBA games at an aggregate.  With an increased number of young players and players with a history of ankle sprains it is important to develop ankle injuries management, rehabilitation and return to play programs.

Achilles tendonitis is also one of the most common injuries in basketball, tendons are the tissues that connect the muscles to the bones, and the Achilles tendon is one of the largest and strongest tendons in the human body. They are responsible for connecting the heel to the calf muscles, therefore these muscles are involved in activities to include standing, moving, and jumping. Achilles tendonitis is likely to develop from basketball due to the sprinting, jumping and pivoting that is involved in this popular sports (McKay, et al., 2001). Achilles tendonitis means the inflammation of the tendons that is as a result of tiny tears in the Achilles tendons. A tear of the Achilles' tendons is likely to have devastating effects on the life of a player, for instance, Kevin Durant’s career took a turn after suffering from a tear of the Achilles tendons in 2018 and did not come back to the court for a year. Also, legendary basketball player Kobe Bryant suffered from Achilles tendon tear in March 2013 at age 34 (McKay, et al., 2001). Elton Brand also suffered from the same in August 2007 at the age of 28, and after returning to the field he claimed that he was a little bit slower after the injury.


Ankle injuries are prevalent in almost all sports but there is a predominance in basketball, in this sports players engage both their feet while jumping and landing and at times players land off-balance with a twisting action. The ankle is flexible enough to allow various motions as well as strong enough to bear the weight of the entire body but it can still be injured. Ankle sprains develop from sudden blows and twists, they mainly affect the outside ligaments. They also occur when the foot suddenly turns under the leg thus causing a stretching effect on the ligaments (McKay, et al., 2001). The seriousness of the sprain depends on the amount of ligament tearing, a sprain can either be described as mild, moderate, or severe. A mild sprain only occurs with minimal force with only a slight tearing of the ligaments, a moderate sprain occurs when the ligaments are partially torn while a severe sprain occurs when the ligaments are completely torn. A moderate or severe ankle sprain should be taken seriously as improper treatment could result in a chronically unstable ankle that would be prone to further injuries and in a serious event limit a player’s ability.

Ankle sprains are some of the most common injuries and most severe that are sustained by basketball players. Ankle sprains are common occurrences, therefore it is important to understand the risk factors associated with ankle injuries before SC coaches can develop preventive strategies to prevent ankle sprains (McKay, et al., 2001). Studies have previously been conducted in laboratories while paying special attention to the sporting environment as well as biochemical assessment.  Laboratory studies have commonly examined the effectiveness of variables to include ankle tapes, braces, and cut of shoe performance to include restriction of postural sway, and sporting activities to include jumping, pivoting, and running. Also, laboratory studies have focused on personal muscle activity and peroneal reaction time and how they influence ankle sprains (McKay, et al., 2001).  There are three most common ankle sprain predictors according to an Australian study; a history of an ankle injury, the availability of air cells in the heels, and stretching during warm-up (McKay, et al., 2001). A previous occurrence of an ankle injury is the most common predictor of ankle sprains.  Basketball players who had previously suffered from ankle injuries are five times more likely to suffer from ankle sprains while compared to players who have never suffered from ankle injuries. According to that study, three quarters (70%) of basketball players with ankle sprains had reported a previous ankle injury.  

The second most predictor of ankle sprains is the presence of air cells in heels of shoes worn by the players, players wearing shoes with air cells are four times likely to suffer from an ankle sprain while compared to their counterparts who were not wearing shoes without air cells (McKay, et al., 2001). Stretching during warm-up is the third strongest predictor of ankle sprains according to the Australian study. Players who fail to complete the general stretching program as part of their warm-up routine are two times likely to suffer from ankle sprains.  Jumping and landing are sporting activities often performed by basketball players therefore 45% of ankle sprains are sustained during landing while 30% of ankles sprains are sustained during sharp twists and pivoting (McKay, et al., 2001). Cutting and changing directions are an integral part of basketball and they involve sharp twists, twist, and turning injuries are sustained while weight bearing on the court surface (McKay, et al., 2001). The risk of ankle injuries is not related to factors that players cannot alter to include age, height, and sex. Also, changeable factors to include the player’s weight, hours spent on training, number of games played a week, the position of the player on the court, and the quarter of the game played are not related to the occurrence of ankle sprains.

Achilles tendonitis results from stress and the overuse of affected Achilles tendon, tendonitis is indicated by symptoms to include inflammation and irritation. Basketball increases the intensity and the duration of physical activities and most especially at the beginning of a basketball season and this can create a lot of stress on the tendon. Calf muscles also strain a lot during basketball activity and this is likely to result in stress and irritation of the tendons. Also, directional changes in the sport can irritate the tendons (Richie & Izadi, 2015). Lastly, improper jumping and landing techniques can contribute to tendon stress. The most common symptoms of tendonitis that can be spotted in players include swelling and inflammation along the back of the heel, pain along the Achilles tendon as well as stiffness along the tendon (Amin, McCullough, Mills, Jones, Cerynik, Rosneck, & Parker, 2016). Noteworthy, a player can exhibit no sign of Achilles tendonitis, nevertheless it important to spot the most common signs that include pain, swelling, the lack of ability to stand on the toes and the injured leg, a popping sound when the injury occurs and pain while pushing the leg forward while walking.  

Athletic endeavor has increased the rate of Achilles tendon injuries. The treatment of Achilles tendonitis is similar to that of many sports injuries, the application of ice packs each day assists in reducing discomfort as well as assists with the healing process. For players, it is advisable to reduce physical activity to allow the injury to heal quickly. When the tendon has completely healed and the athlete can begin rehabilitation of the heel and tendon to ensure that they are fully healed (Siu, Ling, Fung, Pak, & Yung, 2020). An Achilles tendon rupture is a career-changing injury to any basketball player. According to a study conducted by Siu, Ling, Fung, Pak, & Yung, (2020) most elite athletes tendon rapture undergo surgical repairs and about 80% of players are ultimately able to play again.  There are many tendon repairing surgical techniques that have evolved as well as post-rehabilitation protocols. However, there is controversy on which tendon repair method is superior and which rehabilitation protocol is the best (Siu, R., Ling,  Fung, Pak, & Yung, 2020).   An Achilles tendon rupture is detrimental to the performance of an NBA player, studies have revealed that players injured after a long career in the NBA show reduced efficiency after returning to the court. Also, players that suffer from a rapture of the tendon are likely to be more seasoned therefore they have undergone more wear and tear over the course of their career.

 The risk factors that are associated with Achilles injuries include changes in the training schedule of the athlete such as taking part in plyometric exercises that demand explosive movements to include box jumps. Tight or weak calf muscles are another risk factor for Achilles tendonitis, these muscles can be overstretched thus damaging the tissues (Chinn, & Hertel, 2010).  Excessive pronation which is the rolling inward on the foot whilst running or walking is also a risk factor. Lastly, the intake of fluoroquinolone antibiotics to include gemifloxacin puts a player at a temporary risk of suffering from a tendon injury. A player is at risk of developing chronic tendinopathy after suffering from numerous tears as well as when players are unable or unwilling to take adequate rest after a tendon rupture.           

 Lateral ankle sprains are defined by the excessive inversion and plantar flexion of the reafoot on the tibia (Chinn, & Hertel, 2010). While treating an athlete for lateral ankle sprains the severity of the ligament damage is responsible for determining the type of treatment. Lateral sprains are also divided into three grades, grade one, grade two, and grade three depending on the extent of the injury. In grade one there is minimal stretching of the ligament accompanied by little or no pain. Subsequently, after the initial management for pain and swelling in grade one sprain, rehabilitation of the athlete can begin immediately (Chinn, & Hertel, 2010). In grade two sprains there is some tearing of the ligament that is accompanied by a moderate instability at the ankle. The pain is moderate and in most occasions immobilization is required for a few days.  Grade three sprains are defined by the complete rapture of the ligament that is accompanied by the total loss of stability at the joint (Chinn, & Hertel, 2010). Also, this grade is defined by pain and swelling, and for about two weeks weight bearing is not tolerable. 

 The rehabilitation expectations include regaining full-motion capabilities, neuromuscular coordination, and strength. Open chain range of motion and isometrics are an example of activities that athletes can engage in but only those that are none weight-bearing (Chinn, & Hertel, 2010). During the early rehabilitation of lateral sprains towel stretches and wobble boards are examples of motions that can be introduced since they are tolerable.  Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion motion can be improved through activities to include stationary biking, however, it must be done in a controlled environment whilst ensuring that the athlete is engaging in cardiovascular workouts.  Joint mobilization is another rehabilitation technique that is used to assist in dorsiflexion.

Once a player tolerates weight-bearing, the middle stage of rehabilitation is started. Exercises aimed at enhancing neuromuscular control are introduced at this stage. Players suffering from lateral ankle injuries can be required to complete activities that involve the throwing and catching of weight balls as well as perform one leg squats while also performing single-limb balance and reaching exercise. Having one’s range of motion backs is important, therefore, the player should continue with wobble board training while paying special attention to the heel cord stretching (Chinn, & Hertel, 2010). Figure one below is an illustration of single-limb standing that is effective in the rehabilitation of lateral ankle sprains.  


Figure 1; Single Limb Standing

Restoring neuromuscular strength is important as ankle sprains do not only cause damage to the ligaments but also to them mechanoreceptors that are located within the ligaments and the retinacula that are found around the ankle joint. They provide information to the central nervous system about joint movement.  Therefore, an effective rehabilitation program should ensure the incorporation of a wide range of exercises and programs that are aimed at restoring neuromuscular control. Regaining muscular strength is also an important component of neuromuscular control and also vital for proper movement patterns when an athlete returns to sport (Chinn, & Hertel, 2010). Once evaluation, treatment, and rehabilitation of an injury have been completed the strength and conditioning coach can ultimately decide on whether the player is ready to return to the sport.

            Once the swelling and pain are controlled, exercises aimed at increasing strength can be initiated. It’s important to pay attention to dorsiflexion and plantarflexion strength, weight-bearing calf raise and squats are good at the beginning (Chinn, & Hertel, 2010). As the ligament continues to heal it is important to ensure that inversion and eversion strengthening is tolerable.  During middle stage rehabilitation it is paramount for the athlete to be re-educated on the proper mechanics of walking as well as other functional activities. Moving forward functional rehabilitation exercises such as jogging and walking can be introduced. Once the player can perform these simple exercises without a problem then jumps, hops and skips can be introduced.  The player should also be encouraged to perform lateral movements in addition to shuffling (Chinn, & Hertel, 2010).  As the ligament continues to heal and the player becomes more comfortable him/her can begin to exercise while wearing typical shoes for that sport.

On most occasions, players and coaches believe that lateral ankle sprains are not serious and players can return to their sporting activities fast, but this is not always the case. Every stakeholder must understand the risk posed by ankle sprains and the chances of recurrent sprains (Chinn, & Hertel, 2010). The importance of letting the ligament heal as well as regaining full range motion, balance, and strength should be prioritized. Prophylactic support can be offered to provide mechanical stability. However, it is offered depending on individual preference as well as the budget of the athlete.  According to a substantial amount of research taping and bracing minimize the risk of a player suffering from ankle sprain again.  Braces are cost-effective and provide the player with proprioceptive stimulation while taping is designed to fit the requirements of specific athletes and instabilities.

To determine the player's ability to return to play SC coaches have to utilize both quantitative and qualitative data that have been availed over time. Despite the strides that have been made in the treatment and rehabilitation of injuries there are no evidence-based guidelines that can be used to clear a player to RTP following an ankle sprain makes this challenging (Clanton, Matheny, Jarvis, & Jeronimus, 2012). There are various foot and ankle scoring systems however none of them have been validated to assist in the making of RTP decisions. The World Health Organization dictates that assessments of an athlete’s readiness should be evaluated in terms of function. The tests already available determine balance, muscular stabilization, as well as coordination at the ankle joint. These tests include the Dorsiflexion Lunge Test that is for functional testing as well as the Agility T-Test that tests for Agility.  

The dorsiflexion lunge test is described as a weight-bearing test that is conducted by placing the player’s foot perpendicular to a wall and lunging the knee towards the wall. This test is necessary because dorsiflexion is necessary for a range of motions (Clanton, Matheny, Jarvis, & Jeronimus, 2012). During this test, the foot is gradually moved in a sequence far from the wall until the player can be able to achieve total dorsiflexion. The heel needs to remain on the floor throughout the process. In addition, the subtler joint should remain locked. The distance from the wall to the foot should be less than 9cm and the tibial shaft angle should be less than 350 (Clanton, Matheny, Jarvis, & Jeronimus, 2012). Both the intra and interrater reliability have been ascertained. The below image is an illustration of the test.


   Figure 2;   the dorsiflexion lunge test that evaluates the range of motion.

            The agility T-test measures the movement of a player in multiple directions.  Agility is the player’s ability to change direction rapidly. Agility is a necessity for field sports for a variety of reasons to include neuromuscular control as well as the overall performance of the player. Ankle sprains often reduce the agility of a player. During the test, the player must navigate a T-shaped course for effective results the horizontal and longitudinal arms are 10 yds each (Clanton, Matheny, Jarvis, & Jeronimus, 2012). To complete the test the player will sprint from the base of the longitudinal arm to the center of the horizontal arm. Then while forward the player is required to sidestep to the end of the horizontal arm while ensuring he/she does not cross feet and continues to the other end.  To successfully complete the test the player sidesteps back to the center of the horizontal arm and runs back down the longitudinal limb to the starting point (Clanton, Matheny, Jarvis, & Jeronimus, 2012).  The duration of time that an athlete should take to complete the test is 8.9 to 13. 5 seconds (Clanton, Matheny, Jarvis, & Jeronimus, 2012). The reliability of this test has been ascertained.

Figure 3; the agility T-test                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    

            The recovery process from Achilles tendonitis is a slow process that depends on the extent of the damage done to the tendons. The first step of treatment includes wearing a heel cup that ensures less stress is placed on the area thus making the player comfortable. During the initial stage of treatment rest and activity, modification is very important. It is important for the strength and conditioning coach to emphasize to the injured player on the importance of allowing the tendon to recover completely. Also, at the initial stage cross friction massage is introduced to allow the tendon to heal (Chinn, & Hertel, 2010).  At this stage massage that generates friction in the damaged area is introduced with a focus on breaking down adhesion as well as ensuring the proper flow of blood to the area. At this stage, the stretching of the gastrocnemius soleus complex should be tolerable.  Towel stretching as indicated below in figure 4 and slant board stretching should be part of everyday exercises (Chinn, & Hertel, 2010). As the player continues to regain motion and stability he or she can get rid of the heel cup to ensure that the muscles and tendons do not develop adaptive shortening. At the beginning of the rehabilitation program, coaches should ensure that they incorporate progressive strengthening exercises to include toe raise and resistive tubing. As the pain and inflammation subsidies, the player can start engaging in activities to include machine weight, lunges as well as basketball-related exercises. For most athletes suffering from Achilles tendonitis, eccentric exercises are very beneficial and vital for the complete healing of the tendons (Chinn, & Hertel, 2010).  As rehabilitation continues it is important to evaluate the player`s foot structure and gait mechanics for purposes of orthotic benefits since in most occasions Achilles tendonitis results from the over-pronation which is an abnormality that can be addressed through foot orthoses.



            Once the player has regained a range of motion, endurance and strength he or she should slowly progress into more vigorous activities to include walking and jogging.  The player should also ensure that work out is done on a flat surface most of the time. Walking and jogging should begin with slow mini- bursts of speed to ensure that the tendons can handle the pressure and stress applied as the exercises are aimed at increasing the amount of stress then tendons can handle.  Once the tendons can tolerate enough stress and the overall endurance has been increased running and sprinting can be introduced (Chinn, & Hertel, 2010). Once the SC coach is certain that the player has regained full range of motion and strength the player can be allowed back to the court. It indicates that the player has regained endurance in the involved limb he/ she should be able to complete full practice sessions without pain. Throughout the rehabilitation program, it is important to emphasize Achilles tendonitis will not go away without the proper required treatment and enough rest.

            Educating the player is necessary as one needs to be knowledgeable of the risks of Achilles tendonitis. Activities to include lack of proper sports shoes, lack or rest and flexibility puts the player puts the player at risk of Achilles tendonitis (Chinn, & Hertel, 2010). Hill workouts are responsible for increasing the pressure and strain applied to the Achilles tendons, to ensure that the body has ample time to heal  hill work outs should only be done  once a week. It is vital to evaluate any foot injury. Similarly, the lack of flexibility is a major cause of Achilles tendonitis and it is important to emphasize the importance of stretching often. With a focus on providing prophylactic support it is important to use the heel cup to reduce tension and the stress placed on the Achilles tendons. However, as the player regains flexibility the heel cup (Chinn, & Hertel, 2010). The players can opt to use special tapes that assist in reducing the stress placed on the Achilles tendon.  

 Irrespective of the treatment and rehabilitation path taken the most crucial part is returning the player to the court while ensuring that there is a low risk of reinjures. Inadequate rehabilitation and returning to the court prior to full recovery of the tendons is a risk that can be mitigated by appropriate guidance on how to return to sport (Grävare Silbernagel, & Crossley, 2015). It is important for the SC coach to ensure that the return to play process is gradual and controlled progress as this will provide the player with the maximum time to recover.  The resumption of activities to include running and jumping is only recommended when the pain and swelling have both subsided.  For a player that had suffered from Achilles tendonitis, he/she is not allowed in court for a minimum of 12 weeks of exercise (Grävare Silbernagel, & Crossley, 2015).  Factors to include the tendon injury, tendon recovery and pain and symptoms should be put under consideration while returning to play.  



            The strengths and conditioning coaches play an important role in ensuring the successful recovery of athletes following an injury. The above discussion entails the return to play protocol for two of the most common injuries in basketball; Achilles tendonitis and ankle sprains. As players strive to defy the force of gravity in the court they are bound to suffer from these injuries. Over the years there is recorded evidence on the seriousness of these two injuries as they are career-threatening if not treated effectively. Achilles tendonitis occurs when the tendons which are the strongest muscles in the body are stressed by activities to include jumping as well as standing.  Ankle sprains are some of the most common injuries as well as most severe in the sport, they occur when stress is applied to them ligaments causing a tear.  Lateral ankle sprains are the most common ankle sprains while treating athletes for ankle sprains the severity of the damage determines the type of treatment. The rehabilitation expectations of lateral ankle sprains include regaining agility as well as strength. The treatment of Achilles tendonitis is slow as tendons take a relatively long time to heal. The initial step of treatment includes wearing a heel cup. Activities such as towel stretching should be tolerable. As treatment and rehabilitation continue activities to include jumping and running can be introduced. All in all, ankle sprains and Achilles tendonitis are serious injuries in basketball and the successful return of players in the court depends on the collaboration of different stakeholders to include Strength and conditioning coaches in the treatment and rehabilitation of players.

















Amin, N. H., McCullough, K. C., Mills, G. L., Jones, M. H., Cerynik, D. L., Rosneck, J., &          Parker, R. D.        (2016). the impact and functional outcomes of Achilles tendon pathology   in National Basketball Association players. Clinical research on foot &      ankle4(3).

Chinn, L., & Hertel, J. (2010). Rehabilitation of ankle and foot injuries in athletes. Clinics in        sports medicine29(1), 157

Clanton, T. O., Matheny, L. M., Jarvis, H. C., & Jeronimus, A. B. (2012). Return to play in          athletes following ankle injuries. Sports Health4(6), 471-474.

Grävare Silbernagel, K., & Crossley, K. M. (2015). A proposed return-to-sport program for          patients with             midportion Achilles tendinopathy: rationale and implementation. journal   of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy45(11), 876-886.

 Herzog, M. M., Mack, C. D., Dreyer, N. A., Wikstrom, E. A., Padua, D. A., Kocher, M. S., ... &             Marshall, S. W. (2019). Ankle Sprains in the National Basketball association, 2013-2014 through 2016-2017. The American journal of sports medicine, 47(11), 2651-2658.

McKay, G. D., Goldie, P. A., Payne, W. R., & Oakes, B. W. (2001). Ankle injuries in basketball:             injury rate and risk factors. British journal of sports medicine, 35(2), 103-108.

Richie, D & Izadi, F., (2015). Return to Play After an Ankle Sprain. Clinics in podiatric   medicine and surgery. 32. 195-215. 10.1016/j.cpm.2014.11.003. H. C., & Jarvis   Jeronimus, A. B. (22).

Siu, R., Ling, S. K., Fung, N., Pak, N., & Yung, P. S. (2020). Prognosis of elite basketball            players after an Achilles tendon rupture. Asia-Pacific Journal of Sports Medicine,          Arthroscopy,   Rehabilitation and Technology21, 5-10.






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Sport events


 Sports are beneficial to the individual and the community. Participants enjoy social connections, self-esteem, psychosocial health, and positive development. The sports sector also creates safe communities, promotes social inclusion, and nation’s pride and unity. However, sport is influenced by many factors such as socioeconomic status, age, and more. Individuals from diverse communities in Australia are joining the sports sector and they have contributed to social cohesion. However, these individuals are struggling with barriers to participation and it is the high time the sporting organization and government recognize these barriers and make sport an inclusive activity.

Key community values and organizational philosophy


 First, it is important to understand that community view sports events as a way of building strong and safer communities. Therefore, community values participation, or in other words, everyone should participate in the events to increase the levels of physical activity. As a result, the individuals and communities will benefit from mental health, physical health, cost reduction for health problems, and increase community cohesion (Australia, 2018). Also, participation increases social connectivity and the coordinated action would lead to social efficiency.

 Integration and inclusion

 Sports organizations should give all people including disabled people an opportunity to enjoy the sport. Integration means creating a sports environment for people with disabilities and inclusion means allowing people with disabilities to mingle with the general population with a strong focus of  having social and personal benefits (Australia, 2018). Everyone should participate in sport regardless of cultural background, gender, and other personal characteristics. There should be no discrimination and harassment and everyone should develop a sense of belonging.


 Sports events should recognize people from all cultures and respect their rights.  In other words, there should be a respect for diversity and all people should have the right to cultural expression (Australia, 2018).  All cultures should have dignity and value and no group should be discriminated based on clothing, beliefs, sports and game, and more.


 Research in barriers to participation has found that some people do not engage in sport due to factors such as unemployment, language, physical condition, low income, and more (Australia, 2018). The community wants all people including the minority group to participate in sport. Women should also have an equal chance and they should not be restricted based on gendered cultural expectations.


 Players need skill performances and enough operating hours to produce quality in terms of enjoyment and satisfaction. Spectators want quality games to enrich their lives and develop a social experience. Spectators also conduct post-consumption events and they may develop positive or negative perceptions (Australia, 2018). Therefore, the sports service should be of high quality.


 The role of flexibility is to enhance performance. Players need power and strength to participate. Flexibility also allows the players to gain mental and physical fitness which lower the risk of back pain and other health problems. 

Community profile

 In Australia, cricket is a way of life; meaning that cricket is a national sport that is played by all Australians. There is a junior cricket program and half-a million of youth have been enrolled in the program. Cricket is also a national school strategy and some schools have incorporated cricket in school as an extracurricular activity (Oliver, 2006).  Children find the game enjoyable and meaningful. Cricket is also played by indigenous people and it is used as a strategy to promote individual and community well-being. Indigenous people have participated in international levels. Cricket Australia look forward to strengthening the Indigenous communities (Oliver, 2006). Several cricket representatives are working to identify the barriers to participation. Some of the barriers to participation include lack of information, lack of finances, and geographical diversity. The cricket representatives are using a holistic approach to address the barriers and also to provide sports training to the community (Oliver, 2006). Cricket Australia is also partnering with the Australian Government to create a united game and promote diversity.

Review existing provisions

            Australia has diverse playing fields. They are in good quality and they offer enjoyment and positive experiences. In general, Sports Australia provides support to the sports athletes and all participants to ensure that they not only succeed in the competitive landscape but they also achieve equality, quality, and effectiveness (Oliver, 2006). Sports Australia also provides the sports sector with Sporting Schools Program to encourage the schools to promote health and education. Currently, Australia has won many awards for contributing greatly to sport and recreation (Oliver, 2006). Thus, sport in Australia is effective given that all Australians are involved in sports activities. 

Determination of needs

 First, it is important to note that sport in Australia is considered an important factor that Australians cannot do without. Millions of Australians participate in sports events and the activities have contributed to individual and economic benefits. This indicates that more Australians will join the sports events, and the individual as well as the community will benefit from healthy lives and also the economy will enjoy a significant income (May, 2020).  For the sports sector to achieve these goals, there is a need for technology and practices, physical literacy, improved access, and increase participation. In general, the following are the community and organizational needs;

  • The community and sports organization need coaching to help the players develop a positive attitude and gain motivation (May, 2020). Coaching will also provide technical, physical, and social skills. Since people of all ages are joining sports activities, coaching will address the need of every player and promote an inclusive community.
  • The higher participation or entry-level into the sports sector is an indication that individuals are gaining a higher level of satisfaction. Thus, there is a need for management support to sustain participation and satisfaction, and more importantly maintain the inclusive culture (May, 2020). A research survey reported that parents allow their children to join sports events as sports promote well-being, and increase personal satisfaction. Therefore, the sports sector needs support for sustainability.
  • Role models- the sports sector is full of people from diverse backgrounds. Some are experts whereas others are disabled people, women, children, and other individuals who are not physically active compared to high profile athletes (May, 2020). Therefore, role models will play a significant role in shaping behaviors, providing motivation, and increasing participation.
  • It is also important to address the socio-economic factors that put barriers to participation. Individual from poor backgrounds, minorities, children, and other factors limit the participation (May, 2020). To support equity and inclusion, the government should address these issues and ensure that all people regardless of age, gender, and other characteristics have equal access.  
  • Changing the role of sport; It is important to understand the wants and needs of the community and align them with the community values (May, 2020).


 Development proposal

  • To meet the above needs, the Australian government should work with the national sporting organizations to come up with a strategic analysis of the growth and sustenance (Australia, 2018)
  • The sporting organization should use digital technology to meet the individual needs who are in different geographical areas. Since many people have joined the sports sector, the sporting organization should be digitally ready to share knowledge and interact with potential participants using digital technologies. 
  • Training and development- coaches and instructors play a significant role in the sports sector. These people need professional development for them to continue improving the sports sector.
  • The Australian government should boost the economy to achieve the goal of sustainability (Australia, 2018). Note that for the sport sector to be internationally competitive and achieve this goal, the government should support in the areas of development and innovation.



 Australians have recognized the benefits of sports and they have made sport part of life.   Individuals as well as the community have realized that sports improve mental and physical health, promote social development, and social cohesion. Almost all Australians have embraced the sport. Thus, there is strong participation in the sports sector and this indicates that the sporting organization should identify the needs of the diverse cultures since the future holds greater pressure. The sporting organization should note that there are people who are underrepresented in the sports sector. To allow everyone to enjoy the broader benefits, the organization should collaborate with the government to identify the needs to establish a strategic plan to promote equal access to physical recreation.  




May Christine. (2020). Sport Participation in Australia.


Oliver, P. (2006). What's the score? A survey of cultural diversity and racism in Australian

sport. Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, Sydney.



Australia, S. (2018). Sport 2030: Participation, performance, integrity, industry. Australian

Government, Canberra.


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Psychological Skills Training Program To Enhance Sports Performance


 Based on the information gathered, the athlete that I have analyzed is a footballer player who is struggling to deliver high performance. The football player needs to develop a functional athletic behavior. Note that sports psychologists play an important role in ensuring that athletes perform optimally, or in other words, they deliver 100% performance. Factors such as negative outcome expectations, lack of attentional focus, negative emotions, irreverent thoughts, and more, hinder athletes from achieving functional athletic behavior. For example, from the interview, the football player was easily annoyed, he could not control his emotions, he could not focus, and he was unable to pay attention. From the case study, the athlete needs psychological skill training to help increase performance. Before introducing the psychological skills training (PST), it is important to understand that PST is all about the practice of mental skills to enhance performance. The mental practice will increase enjoyment, confidence, and self-satisfaction and, as a result, enhance performance. Therefore, the psychological skills training involved setting goals and evaluation to achieve the desired outcomes. In other words, the training involved learning skills to complete a specific task. An important point to note is that athletes need psychological skills such as attention, motivation, motor control, self-awareness, self-confidence, coping skills, and many more. Thus, the purpose of psychological techniques is to improve the above skills. The mental skills training techniques from the sport psychologist's view involve a combination of basic techniques. The purpose of this paper is to conduct a critical analysis of each technique and how the skills training program will enhance sports performance.




 The role of imagery in motivation

 Imagery skills are justified because athletes need motor actions and the skills aid self-regulation behaviors (Taylor & Wilson, 2005, p. 121).  After assessing the athlete's strengths and weaknesses, I have learned that the athlete needs the imagery skills. The purpose of the skills is to help the footballer player imagine or incorporate all senses while executing the task. The reason why I select the imagery skill in improving the athlete's sports performance is that; it enhances physical skills (Taylor & Wilson, 2005, p. 121). Note that the football player participates in the competition, and during the competition, the player was frustrated and annoyed. In week one, the athlete needs to learn about mental imagery through observation and practice. The image will help him apply the skill and improve the overall competitive performance. From the interview, it is apparent that during competitive performance, mistakes are inevitable. The imagery skill will help the athlete identify the errors and correct them. Rather than dwelling on the mistake, the imagery skill will help in building confidence and stay away from anxiety (Taylor & Wilson, 2005, p. 121).

Therefore, in the training program, the athlete needs imagery skills, and it is good to introduce external imagery and external imagery. First, the athlete should use external imagery by watching a videotape. The latter will allow him to see how he was performing the task, and the internal imagery will help asses himself while doing the task. For example, after watching the videotape and identifying the mistakes, he should use the internal imagery to correct the errors (Taylor & Wilson, 2005, p. 122). Another reason why the athlete needs to improve the mental skills using imagery is that it will enhance perceptual skills. From the interview, I have learned that the athlete was unable to control his emotions. However, the athlete needs thinking skills, decisions making skills, and reading skills. Rather than dwelling on the emotions, the athlete should avoid distractions, and focus.

In general, the athlete has a weakness in competitive strategies. Imagery skills will help him learn new competitive strategies and apply tactical information. Since problems are inevitable, imagery will help him learn new attacking strategies that will enhance competitive advantage (Morris et al, 2005, p.6). An athlete will not only improve physical skills and perpetual skills; he will also improve psychologically. Since the athlete fears that he will lose the goals, the imagery skills will enhance the psychological skill. This means that the athlete will imagine successful performance, and as a result, the athlete will increase confidence and motivation (Morris et al, 2005, p.6). Another way the athlete will improve psychologically is through gaining mental skills. Imagery will provide mental skills that will improve focus, emotions, and interpersonal skills.

In the training program, week one will offer imagery skills and allow the athlete to gain the power of imagination. The main goal of the program is to help the athlete recall experiences mentally. In other words, before starting the task, the athlete should have a mental episode such as creating a vivid image of the spectators, opponents, among other features (Taylor & Wilson, 2008, p.71). Such experiences can help the athlete prepare himself and, more importantly, build confidence and maintain skill level. The author states that imagery provides both positive and negative images. In the training program, the athlete will be taught to avoid negative imagery since they increase anxiety and reduce focus. It is important to rely on positive imagery to gain confidence and get motivated to add extra effort (Morris et al, 2005, p.5). In general, imagery is a way of gaining personal improvement. There is evidence that sport psychologists employ the technique of imagery since the imagery skills help the athlete improve performance than an athlete who did not have the skills at all.


 The role of Goal-setting in enhancing motivation

 According to the goal setting theory, goal setting allow the athletes to focus in goal-related activities, put higher efforts toward achieving the goals, become persistence in tasks, and implement task-relevant strategies (Shephard & ÅStrand, 2000, p.455).  For the second week, the psychological skills training program will offer goal setting.   First, it is important to note that for an athlete to enhance performance, he must set goals that will enable him you maintain attention and improve motivation (Shephard & ÅStrand, 2000, p.455). Goal setting is a psychological training technique, and the athlete needs to set outcome goals, performance goals, and process goals. The purpose of outcome goals is to analyses the result; performance goals mean improving, and process goal means analyzing the aspects of a competitor and learn the task-relevant cues (Shephard & ÅStrand, 2000, p.455). The authors assert that goal setting is important as it enables the athletes to gain motivation and increase performance. For example, when an athlete sets goals, he or she focuses on the goals and increase effort and set strategies to achieve the goals. From the case study, the athlete needs to set goal to eliminate fear and anxiety and overcome the challenge. The program involves setting a goal-setting system where the athlete will analyze his limitations and focus on what he could do better (Shephard & ÅStrand, 2000, p.456). The athlete will set goals and set a specific time for accomplishment and will start working to achieve the goals. In working toward the goals, I believe that the athlete will improve physical skills and confidence. During the training, I would advise the athlete to set both long-term and short-term goals. Short-term goals will provide skill acquisition and will help work toward long-term goals. I believe that as the athlete accomplish short-term goals, he will be in a position to move forward towards long-term goals.

An athlete wants many things in sports, but it is important to select the most important goal and implement strategies to achieve them. In week 2, we will train the athlete to concentrate on performance goals and process goals. The importance of performance goals is that the athlete will focus on his performance and increase performance compared to last season. Process goals are also important as they will enable the athlete to learn skills and apply them to execute a performance. In goal setting, the training session will teach the athlete how to set measurable goals (Papaioannou & Hackfort, 2014, p.350). An athlete needs to know that a measurable goal is one of the principles of goal setting, and this means that goals must be specific and must be achieved within given time. Secondly, the goals but be realistic. The athlete will set attainable goals or, in other words, goals that not too easy or too difficult.  From the case study, the athlete focuses too much on competition. This is a weakness in that it is not advisable to concentrate on competition only, but it is important to set goals concerning the daily practices. Competition goals are important, but the athlete should first focus on process goals or strategies that will help in winning (Papaioannou & Hackfort, 2014, p.350). Automatically, goals for practice will help set and achieve goals for performance. Another important point in this program is that the athlete should differentiate between individual and team goals. Both play a role in performing the task, but athlete only focus on team goals. Note that for an athlete to help the team achieve success, he must develop personal goals as long as they contribute to team goals.





Self-talk as a cognitive therapy in  thoughts regulation.


 Self-talk is a cognitive therapy that play role in influencing feelings and behaviors.  In sport context, athletes have an inner voice that can affect the self-esteem and self-worth. However, when one has a self-talk, he or she express feelings that changes the thoughts and behaviors (Craighead & Nemeroff, 2004, p.936). In the third week, the psychological skills training program will offer training on self-talk. From the cause study, the athlete had negative self-talk. However, it is important to have a positive-self talk in order to gain self-confidence. In week 3, the athlete will take some minutes alone and think about the good performance and believe that he is a capable player. This dialogue with oneself is very important in the athlete will develop a positive attitude and develop positive self-esteem (Craighead & Nemeroff, 2004, p.936). During the training, the dialogue will enable the athlete to gain awareness of self-statements and, more important, focus on the present movement. We will advise the athlete to have a positive thought to gain self-confidence. Note that athletic is a cognitive behavior, and therefore cognitive intervention technique would play a great role in improving performance (Craighead & Nemeroff, 2004, p.936). For example, before starting the event, the athlete should feel powerful, great, among other self-talk statements. I believe that a self-talk is an instructional tool that helps the athlete focus on attention. In specific, overt self-talk is important in that the athlete verbalizes the statements and eventually gains self-motivation. The program will maintain focus on training the athlete to avoid self-talk that is associated with self-doubting and worries and focus on positive thoughts (Craighead & Nemeroff, 2004, p.936). Note that positive thoughts will lead to positive mood and emotions and hence improve performance. In the training program, will train the athlete to be optimistic, rational, appraise problems, alleviate stress, and more.

Physical Relaxation Techniques

 The role of physical relaxation techniques in improving mental calmness


Athletes experience competition stress and anxiety. In other words, they execute their tasks in a stressful nature and a competitive environment.  Therefore, a form of stress management is needed to help the athlete reduce the anxiety and anger (Tenenbaum & Eklund, 2007, p. 298).  The role of different forms of physical relaxation strategies is to reduce muscular tension, relax skeletal muscle, and reduce external distractions. Week 4 will offer relaxation training techniques such as breathing and muscular tension to help him gain coordinated muscular effort. This technique, together with self-talk, imagery, and others, will help the athlete gain cognitive readiness and address the stressors in the external environment. From the case study, it is evident that the athlete needs physical energy before starting the event (Tenenbaum & Eklund, 2007, p. 298). This physical energy will come from relaxation. The psychological training programs will help the athlete to manage anxiety and enhance the performance. The relaxation will also help the athlete reduce muscle tension, and a relaxed body and mind will lead to a positive feeling state. Note that many athletes suffer from anxiety, and it affects the sport's competition as it decreases performance (Tenenbaum & Eklund, 2007, p. 298). Research suggests that athletes who use relaxation techniques gain self-confidence, and reduce anxiety and stress. In week 4, the athlete will use Progressive Muscle Relaxation that targets the reduction of muscle tension, and deep breathing to reduce the level of anxiety and perform well during the competition. During the training, the athlete will also learn that rather than taking drugs to combat stress, relaxation techniques enhance performance.

Pre-Performance Routines

 The role of Pre-performance Routines in enhancing the preparation for performance

Prior to starting the events, athletes need mental and physical preparedness.  As stated above, athletes experience anxiety and the levels of anxiety need to be controlled so that the athlete can gain focus attention, enhance confidence, and gain psychological and physiological readiness.  Therefore, athlete need pre-performance routines to achieve optimal performance (Tenenbaum & Eklund, 2007, p. 298). In week 5, the psychological skills training will provide a pre-performance routine to help the athlete gain a sense of control. First, the athlete will do the same thing consistently; second, he should develop a simple phrase to guide in doing the task, and finally, he should try to main the same routine. The purpose of a performance routine is to help the athlete adjust to the environment and avoid distractions (Moran Aidan & Toner John, 2017, p.227). The routine also plays an important role in alleviating anxiety and helping the athlete gain confidence in the forthcoming competition. Note that the overall aim of learning psychological skills is to increase performance. A pre-performance mental routine is also a skill that the athlete needs before entering into the filed.  In other words, the athlete needs tactical preparation that involves shifting from irrelevant thoughts to relevant thoughts (Moran Aidan & Toner John, 2017, p.227). A pre-performance routine will allow the athlete to concentrate on effective things that will enhance performance and lead to success. Even though other mental techniques such as imagery and self-talk need to be practiced before starting the competition, pre-performance means that the athlete should find a cognitive behavior and stick on that behavior regularly. Note that the goal of the pre-performance routine is to increase attention and plan on the performance act (Moran Aidan & Toner John, 2017, p.227). In week 4, the athlete will choose actions to do on a daily basis such as bouncing the ball.  Research state that this pre-performance activity improve concentrations and help them focus on relevant information. Note that before starting the task, it is important to avoid negative thoughts and actions and focus on the present moment to enhance performance. However, a pre-performance routine is flawed in that the athlete should review the routines regularly. They will develop too much control which will then lead to disruption of motor processes,


 Physical activity in the adult is associated with psychological benefits such as an increase of well-being and self-confidence. Besides, older adults who engage in physical activities improve the cognitive function through enhanced neurotransmitter activity. Therefore, participants need to join physical activity programs to gain physical competence and psychological well-being. Sports psychologists offer different intervention techniques to improve sports performance. These interventions are individualized and community-based, and they have a common goal of enhancing sports performance. The paper has shown that athletes need to set attainable goals; they need to use imagery, physical relaxation techniques, self-talk, and others to influence mental health.











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