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Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

Students will attend a western art music performance of their choice and write a 2.5 to 3.5-page (800-1000 words) report (double-spaced, 12 point times or times new roman font). The paper should contain information regarding the performance as well as your own observations and analysis of the performance. If the paper is too short, you will NOT receive full credit. 
Section 1:Your first paragraph should provide the necessary information about the performance (time, location, etc.)

-Where and when it occurred?
-Who performed?
Who attended?
-What type of venue did it take place in?
-What was the occasion?
-Pay attention to how the performers interact with one another and with the audience, and how the audience responds to the music (dancing, socializing, sitting quietly). Consider the following questions:
-How do the performers address the audience? 
- When does the audience applaud (after the piece, during the piece, not at all) and why? 

Section 2: You should write a few paragraphs describing the actual musical performance in detail. This is the most important part of the report. Please be sure mention the title, composer and era of all pieces played and describe at least 3 pieces in detail, being sure to answer the following questions:
-What era was it from?
-Instrumentation? (If different from other pieces)
-Any soloists?
-Musical Texture?
-Dynamic contrasts?
-Have we studied this piece in class? If not, does it remind you of anything we have learned in class (what specific piece(s) and why)? 
-Is it sacred/secular? (What is the music used for)?
-How long was the piece (approximately)?

Section 3:Your final two paragraphs should contain your opinions about the performance 
-Was it good, excellent, sub-par? Why?

296 Words  1 Pages

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

Music is a universal and unifying language.’ To what extent do you agree?

25 Words  1 Pages

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

Choose one of the discussion topics below:

1. Provide details of what motivated Coltrane's "Alabama". How does the performance of this piece reflect the sentiment behind the events of the time?

2. Share and summarize research that connects brass band traditions of West Africa with New Orleans brass bands.  Can you find traces of second line music that function similarly in any other cultures of the world? 

3. Introduce at least two other musical examples of responsorial form (i.e. "call and response") from other world cultures, in comparison to the "Rosie" selection here.

4. Give some detail as to the important work of Alan Lomax during the 20th century.

5.  Discuss the differences you hear between the two versions of Amazing Grace presented here. Give some background on each of the church congregations.

145 Words  1 Pages

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

The research question is:
'… 1945 represents a shift in music… the widespread hopes for a new social order, and therefore a new culture- demanded not just reconstruction by a an alternative paradigm…' (Paul Griffiths)

Choose a post-1945 work which represents 'an alternative paradigm'.

Your essay must place the piece in historical context and analyze the work in detail using appropriate methodology.

73 Words  1 Pages

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

Deconstruction or reconstruction: does arranging hasten artistic 'death' or can it bring 'reincarnation' to the original piece? Discuss with reference to one classical piece and one jazz piece or pop music (total 4 piece)

45 Words  1 Pages


Earth Song as a Text

Michael Jackson’s Earth Song short version video is a text that when ‘read, interpreted, evaluated and understood can convey more persuasively the importance of respecting and conserving the environment. Earth Song is a wake-up call to address the negative impact of human activities on the world especially through disrupting the normal functioning of nature. The song also has a spiritual undertone that urges the listeners to heed spiritual responsibility as it alludes to religious figures such as Abraham. The song, like its name suggests, is about how humans ought to care for the earth but are instead destroying it and changing it to a hellish scene similar to those depicted in the video of the song. After showing the effects of human activities, the song through the video shows that something can be done about it to reverse the damage until a paradise-like place is a result. It addresses issues like industrial pollution, the human tendency to violence and a lot of other relevant social issues that need urgent and adequate addressing. The song is a call to action a cry for help on behalf of the earth or rather the natural environment that is being increasingly violated.

Earth Song summarizes the story of how human activities have been impacting the earth it was designed to impress on its audience on the need to change behavior and think about the environment and future generations. The video begins with green natural scenery and starts to transform into hellish deforested scenes with fires, deserts and lots of death and destruction (Jackson & Brandt, 2009). Near the start of the video, a clip of robust jungle life is invaded by a bulldozer and next to the result of this intrusion is seen as a leafless, wasteland where tree stumps and dead trunks are what remains of a formerly forested area (Jackson & Brandt, 2009). The song features aboriginal communities who mournfully watch as trees are felled and later are seen on their knees in a lamentation position bewailing the loss of their way of life which is directly dependent on the environment. Thus this song is a text that utilizes logos to point out the facts on the impact of human activities on the earth and what can be done to undo the damage.

The song appeals to morals and ethics as it addresses issues such as war, violence and uses spiritual authority to urge its listeners to do something about the problems it addresses. It appeals to the listener’s conscience by asking them whether they’ve ever stopped to consider all the innocents who have perished in wars, and describes all the pain and suffering prevalent as crying earth and weeping shores(Jackson & Brandt, 2009). This song is better able to reach people who don’t have time to read about the environment and inform them about the importance of caring for the environment (Jackson & Brandt, 2009). The song critiques human activities that are solely motivated by greed for gain at any cost even environmental destruction and urges the importance of taking care of the environment to continue reaping the benefits that earth has to offer. Thus the song appeals to the audience through ethos by appealing to the moral duty and responsibility of its listeners to make a change for the better when it comes to matters of taking care of our planet and its resources

The video of the song shows elephants that have been killed for their ivory, fires that are decimating forests due to human negligence and other impacts of nefarious actions by human beings. This is designed to elicit sympathy for the animals which undergo the depicted suffering at the hands of humans (Jackson & Brandt, 2009). The music, the lyrics and the video of the song are concerted to create an effect on the listener that appeals to the emotions and feelings that they ought to be proactive in their role as stewards of the environment (Jackson & Brandt, 2009). The refrain is especially emotional and the tempo of the song changes to one in which the gravity of the issues that are addressed is felt by the audience. Thus, this song is a text that utilizes pathos in its efforts to communicate the importance of respecting nature.

As the song ends the incredible potential can be achieved when humanity unites in reversing the damage. Clips are shown in the music video that reveals the reverse of the destruction, trees that had been cut are brought back to stand and green jungles are restored(Jackson & Brandt, 2009). Also, animals that were dead are brought back to life the lyrics talk about regaining the trust of elephants. The song at this point asks a rhetorical question of whether humans should care about any of the issues it addresses. Therefore, this song is a text form that has a multilayered impact on the literacy of its audience on various social, environmental and moral issues addressed in it.

The song manages to pack in under seven minutes a wide variety of issues from industrial pollution, the human tendency to violence and destruction in a bid to influence these conditions for the better of humanity. The song talks about the negative impact war and other forms of violence have on the innocent and urge the listener to do what they can to make a difference (Jackson & Brandt, 2009). It shows how wrong it is to neglect nature through carelessness, greed and by being indifferent to the responsibilities accorded to humans as the only sentient species on earth. It calls upon the different entities, organizations and individuals to work together to find ways to make the world a better place through sustainability initiatives and proper utilization of the available resources. The song argues about the importance of considering human beings from all walks of life, even those communities like the aborigines who live traditionally.

Earth song is an epic text that describes the impact of human activities on the earth and challenges its audience by appealing to them to care about the effects of their actions on the environment and the earth. The song’s video, lyrics and music work together to paint a vivid picture that contrasts the prevailing condition with the condition that ought to be. The song issues warning about the consequences of violating the moral duty of not destroying the environment. It also has an emotional appeal to redress the injustices visited upon animals and defenseless, or vulnerable people in society. The possibility of restoring the balance between humans is included as the reward of heeding the message of the song. In a few minutes, the song expresses a message that can reach many people and urge upon them the need for proactive protection of the environment. Thus, the song is a text that can increase the literacy of its audience on various issues affecting society including environmental pollution, environmental destruction and what can be done to mitigate the impact of these problems.













Jackson, M., & Brandt, N. (2009, October 02). Earth Song. Retrieved from

1185 Words  4 Pages




“Exploring the effectiveness of music therapy as part of nursing care for patients living with dementia”


People living with dementia undergo various psychological challenges in life. Therefore, it is crucial to make interventions that could make their lives better. Music therapy is perceived as one of the major interventions that can help the patients as part of the nursing care. Therefore, caregivers face various music-based interventions that could fit their patients to deliver the best results. The major options music therapy, forming groups to sing as well as listening to various music genres to boost their psychological well-being (Bunn, Lynch, Goodman, Sharpe, Walshe, Preston and Froggatt, 2018). In this case, music therapy is explored further in this study as a major intervention among dementia patients based on its stimulating aspect.

According to The American Music Therapy Association, it involves a clinical way of using music geared toward achieving a certain goal with the help of a credentialed professional. In this case, dementia patients require the music therapeutic relationship that addresses their needs physically, emotionally, cognitively, and socially (Carrion, Folkvord, Anastasiadou and Aymerich, 2018). The significance of having a professional therapist is to assess the strengths, needs of every dementia patient, and decide the most suitable musical routine or song choice (Weise, Jakob, Töpfer and Wilz, 2018). As a result, the patients can be helped through new and dedicated music creation that addresses their situation. Alternatively, the patients will be required to sing along, make some moves as they listen. As a result, the patients achieve stronger abilities that will help them in daily life through better communication and overcoming difficulties when expressing themselves using words. The effectiveness of music therapy facilitates rehabilitation, motivation, and trigger movement during the treatment sessions (Osman, Tischler and Schneider, 2016). Further, it leads to emotional support to all stakeholders related to the patient as feelings expression is eased.

Studies reveal that music acts as a stimulating medium and it is accessible in various means. Therefore, dementia patients can use it alone, in the company of their family or caregivers (Schneider, 2018). As a result, most care homes hosting dementia patients and families have adopted music listening, singing, and dancing as part of their daily activities. It is also clear that modern societies recognize music as part of life, which makes it a universal language that can be enjoyed by people of all ages and backgrounds (Werner, Wosch, and Gold, 2017). Music tends to stick in mind despite other distractions to cognitive functionality.

Notably, the effectiveness of music therapy has not been exhausted in the current studies because the theoretical framework of dementia care is limited. The available studies have not elaborated strong theoretical frameworks to elaborate on the degree of effectiveness based on the best method and necessity of music therapy towards benefiting the psychological well-being of dementia patients. Therefore, this study will consolidate current studies to determine if the studies have identified a sustainable theoretical model for incorporating music therapy as part of caring for people living with dementia (Henskens, Nauta, st, and Scherder, 2018). The presence of different findings and results from studies is not enough if they cannot address the effectiveness of music therapy as a tool to be used by nursing caregivers dealing with dementia patients.

Therefore, this study will engage people living with dementia and their nursing caregivers directly to understand their social life and how they relate with the people around them. There are many dynamics of life exhibited by these patients, which can be physical, emotional, or social (Smallfield and Heckenlaible, 2017). For example, it will be significant to understand if music therapy can address all these aspects or it should be targeting either personality, physicality, social, or biological healing. In addition, the impact of music has to be targeted to certain patients' such as psychosocial factors.

According to Alzheimer's Research UK (2021), The latest study revealed that people living with dementia in the world are approximately 50 million. This is very saddening and measures should be taken to prevent the prevalence. It is further projected that the population suffering from Dementia may triple by the year 2050. These are not just mere statistics and there is a need to address the issue in totality. The cases of people already living with the problem are important to ensure the society is catered for (Froggatt, Patel, Perez Algorta, Bunn, Burnside, Coast . . . Walshe, 2018). Therefore, the study will be crucial for the people already affected to ensure the damage is reduced significantly, as the patients undergo musical therapy. It will not only help the patients but also the caregivers and the members of their families.

Aims and Objectives

  1. To investigate the aspect of music therapy and its value to people living with dementia.
  2. To explore the understanding and perspectives of nursing caregivers, families, and professional music therapists on the effectiveness of music to patients living with dementia.
  3. To create a comparison and connections found between psychosocial factors and the findings derived from the study findings to determine the suitable music therapy theoretical model that can help patients living with dementia.


The secondary sources used in this study were searched systematically using the keywords. The sources used in the literature review revolved around major keywords that made it easy to retrieve the relevant materials. As a result, the keywords yielded a variety of sources that were subject to appraisal. In this study, the keywords included Therapy, Music Therapy, Mental health, Dementia, and Nursing care for Dementia patients. All these terms are readily available in medical databases hence the preferred search engines included, BMJ, Medline, British Nursing Index (BNI), CINAHL, and Google Scholar. Priority was given to BMJ, BMI, and CINAHL. The first two databases are majorly based on the United Kingdom Journals whereas the  CINAHL  was critical in getting specialized peer-reviewed journals in many nursing topics. The studies chosen for this study were limited to 5 years old limit to ensure the contents were up-to-date and relevant to the research topic.  Other factors considered in the search process were the references used in each journal before the appraisal. However, time limitation a problem, and a critical review process was preferred. The table below summarizes the 10 sources used in the study in which most were British journals.



Type of






Data Collection

Key Findings




Bunn et al. (2018)

BMC Geriatrics


Reviewing Namaste Care and other multisensory interventions



N= 85 papers

And 27  Stakeholders


Literature and stakeholder interviews for a realist review

  Intervention triggers feelings of familiarity, reassurance, engagement, and connection

Adequate papers for literature review and interview for firsthand information

The time limit in interviewing the 27 stakeholders


Carrion et al. (2018)

 Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities


 Identify the effects of Music Therapy on patients with both learning difficulties and Dementia

 Selective  10-reality orientation

25-skills training

12-mixed trials



Systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

Stimulation of cognitive functions among people with dementia by skills training or a mix of reality orientation and skills training is effective in improving cognitive functioning

The combination of the trials and training yielded some results that can be used in making some correlations.

The findings were inconclusive


Froggatt  et al. (2018)

 BMJ open


Evaluating the quality of life, care, and dying experienced by these people is variable


N=3 participant groups

Controlled randomized trial

Semi-structured interviews 

Music Therapy became more accepted the longer staff were exposed to it

Music therapy aided patients

Staff sometimes struggled to explain Music Therapy

Results are concurrent with similar studies


Aims could be more clearly defined

Small sample size

The questionnaire included non-nursing staff.


Harmer,  & Orrell, (2008

 Aging Ment Health





To  explore concepts of meaningful activity, as defined by older people with dementia living in care homes, staff and family carers


17-residents15-staff 8- family carers  3-care homes


focus groups  

People with dementia staff and carers had differing views about what made activities meaningful. 

Identifies various means of getting data using focus groups.

The sample size was inadequate


Henskens et al. (2018)

Clinical Interventions In Aging 


evaluate the effect of three-movement stimulating interventions on QoL and ADL performance in NH residents with dementia



a parallel randomized controlled trial


ADL training can improve QoL

Use of the randomized trials reduced bias

Lack of additional data collection methods


Osman et al. (2016)

Dementia (London)






Identify  suitable psychosocial interventions to help manage the condition, enhance well-being, and to provide support for caregivers





semi-structured interviews 

 Social inclusiveness and improvements in relationships, memory, and mood were found to be especially important to participants.

The use of interviews ensured the collection of current first-hand information on the nb topic

20 participants is a small sample size given the topic has been exhausted before. 


Schneider (2018)

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 

Systematic reviews

Arts as a Medium for Care and Self-Care in Dementia: Arguments and Evidence




(5 service users, 4 Nurses)



There is more recognition of the contribution of the arts to the quality of life of people living with dementia

Use of different studies to review and apply on the topic


Lack of primary research.



Smallfield & Heckenlaible, (2017).

Am J Occup Ther






To describe the evidence for the effectiveness of interventions for adults with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related neurocognitive disorders



N= 52 


Articles review

Occupational therapy practitioners should integrate daily occupations, physical exercise, and error-reduction technique.

A good 

No usage of statistical power to justify findings



Weise et al. (2018)

 BMC Geriatrics



To determine whether an individualized music intervention can improve the quality of life for PwD living in a nursing home



N=320 (Staff)

N= 194 (Nurse)

Randomized controlled trial


 Listening to individualized music constitutes a promising non-pharmacological intervention for PwD Therapy than MDT staff.


The randomized trials reduced possibilities of bias during the observation

Observing the patients for a long period of the intended 6 weeks follow up.


Werner,  et al. (2017)

Aging & Mental Health


To  determine the effects of music therapy in dementia homes


N= 117 

Randomized  interactive groups


Focus groups

The level of depressive symptoms improved significantly more in those assigned to music therapy   

Is the only Randomized controlled trial among the apprised articles


The method of assessment was not easily repeatable.








References list

Alzheimer’s Research UK, 2021,  Dementia Statistics hub: Global prevalence, [Online]    Available at: <           prevalence/#:~:text=Globally%2C%20the%20numbers%20of%20people,2050%2C%20a            %20204%25%20increase> [Accessed 11 Jan. 2021]

Bunn, F., Lynch, J., Goodman, C., Sharpe, R., Walshe, C., Preston, N., & Froggatt, K., 2018.       Improving living and dying for people with advanced dementia living in care homes: A          realist review of namaste care and other multisensory interventions. BMC       Geriatrics, 18(1), pp. 303-303. doi:10.1186/s12877-018-0995-9


Carrion, C., Folkvord, F., Anastasiadou, D. & Aymerich, M., 2018. Cognitive therapy for             dementia patients: A systematic review. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive    Disorders, 46(1-2), pp. 1-26. doi:10.1159/000490851


Froggatt, K., Patel, S., Perez Algorta, G., Bunn, F., Burnside, G., Coast, J., . . . Walshe, C.,           2018. Namaste care in nursing care homes for people with advanced dementia: Protocol for a feasibility randomised controlled trial. BMJ Open, 8(11), e026531-e026531.           doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2018-026531


Harmer, B., & Orrell, M., 2008. What is meaningful activity for people with dementia living in    care homes? A comparison of the views of older people with dementia, staff and family             carers. Aging & Mental Health, 12(5), pp.548–558. doi:10.1080/13607860802343019


Henskens, M., Nauta, I. M., st, K. T., & Scherder, E. J. A., 2018. The effects of movement           stimulation on activities of daily living performance and quality of life in nursing home           residents with dementia: A randomized controlled trial. Clinical Interventions in           Aging, 13, pp.805-817. doi:10.2147/CIA.S160031


Osman, S. E., Tischler, V., & Schneider, J., 2016. ‘Singing for the brain’: A qualitative study       exploring the health and well-being benefits of singing for people with dementia and their    carers. Dementia (London, England), 15(6), pp. 1326-1339.        doi:10.1177/1471301214556291


Schneider, J., 2018. The arts as a medium for care and self-care in dementia: Arguments and             evidence. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(6),      pp. 1151. doi:10.3390/ijerph15061151


Smallfield, S. & Heckenlaible, C., 2017. Effectiveness of occupational therapy interventions to    enhance occupational performance for adults with alzheimer's disease and related major     neurocognitive disorders: A systematic review. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 71(5), 7105180010p1-7105180010p9. doi:10.5014/ajot.2017.024752


Weise, L., Jakob, E., Töpfer, N. F. & Wilz, G., 2018. Study protocol: Individualized music for     people with dementia - improvement of quality of life and social participation for people          with dementia in institutional care. BMC Geriatrics, 18(1), pp. 313-313.        doi:10.1186/s12877-   018-1000-3


Werner, J., Wosch, T., & Gold, C., 2017. Effectiveness of group music therapy versus      recreational group singing for depressive symptoms of elderly nursing home residents:            Pragmatic trial. Aging & Mental Health, 21(2), pp. 147-155.    doi:10.1080/13607863.2015.1093599


2226 Words  8 Pages

Music in the News


 Music has transcended time and human existence. The art and craft of making music have shaped the entire human communities and gave hope to millions of people. The rate at which music integrates into important human events is alarming. Even presidential candidates use music to usher them into the campaigning podium. With time, music keeps growing, and new genres keep on emerging or expanding their horizons hence making the music industry a multibillion industry with key benefactors in the international economies worldwide (Doyne, Shannon, 2020). Therefore, this emerging phenomenon explains the underlying reasons contributing to music's presence in the daily news outlet. This paper will discuss The Grammys as an important music event that has shaped the entire world and given rise to new musical perspectives. 

Significance of the Music Event

 The Grammys is one of the largest musical events in the entire world. It brings people from different places together.  The 49th Grammy Awards was watched widely and with anticipation due to its prominence and ability to attract an audience from various backgrounds. As it is well known, music is a universal language hence the ability to unite people. The event brings famous musical figures together to hand over awards to deserving musicians. More so, the Grammys offer a platform for international artists to perform and share their music with the rest of the world (Doyne, Shannon, 2020). Also, it invites artists as guests so that they can take part in the event. The event aims to appreciate the success of artists from all over the globe. Winners are usually presented with gilded gramophone as a depiction of their win. The annual event houses entertainers from all over the world, and presentations are made to award the most deserving musicians—the consistency of awarding musicians once each year presents musicians with awards in different categories. The competitive nature of the highest priced and respected Grammy Awards makes musicians more visible to all music lovers. Therefore, Grammys has the ability to influence music around the world due to the selection of artists who perform at this event and how the musicians are awarded. It is without a doubt that the event pulls attention from millions of people. Gauging by the reaction people normally have towards this event, many musicians usually bank on the event as a career progressive award that opens up more gates than they would have ever known (Martin, & Dixon, 2018). In terms of coverage, the Grammys is covered by different media outlets. It is normally showcased in the news for different reasons- the master of ceremony, the event's location, and the most famous nominees. In terms of messages, the Grammys winners get to speak and echo their values to the entire world.

 Immediately after Grammy nominations, album sales usually rise due to the demand and outreach of Grammy nominees all over the entire world. The chance to perform and even usher in the event brings in millions to the location where the event is hosted hence an appealing short-term investment for towns worldwide (Martin, & Dixon, 2018). For the subsequent years, Grammy acts as a launching pad to more musicians as they sing their heart out and get the chance to capture more than one audience at a single night. Similarly, the platform is used to advocate for human rights and bring awareness to bad things in society, such as sex trafficking and kidnapping.


 Music feeds the human soul, and the Grammy has been an event that shapes and influences how people listen to music in this day and age. For example, it supports streaming sites and chooses some of its nominee from the streaming numbers. Not only does this event enjoy music, but it also tries to unveil the impact a certain musician has had on the communities over the years. Additionally, setting apart time to celebrate quality music gives instills the continuity music has had over the years and how it is growing each year due to the celebration of music and its producers (Martin, & Dixon, 2018). With passing years, the crowds grow larger due to the variety of music bands and performances showcased at the event. Some of the music genres showcased on the Grammys are folk, metal hip hop, among others.


This event offers more than a musical opening to the musicians in attendance; it also offers advertisers a chance to promote certain products and inspire freedom rights to its audience. Throughout the event, the audience gets a chance to buy some of the merchandise presented to them and listen to the latest albums. Also, the Grammy's role is to remind people of the importance of music to the entire world and how it can be used to address societal issues. Even though ancient days when music events would influence the dress code are far gone, the Grammys concentrates on the music's messages and how relevant the music is to people and society as a whole.  Also some of the musicians give their price money to charity as a way o serving and giving back to the community.




Di‐Luvi, G. C. (2019). How does it make you feel?. Significance, 16(3), 26-29.

Doyne, Shannon (2020). "Do The Grammy Awards Represent The Best In Music Today?". Nytimes.Com, 2020,

Martin, C., & Dixon, S. K. B. (2018). And the award goes to….

900 Words  3 Pages


Musical tempo on the brain

  Literature review

 Music is a source of entertainment and individuals can communicate effectively and express emotions. Entrainment to music is a highly complex activity, and this means that individuals need performance and coordination (Daly, 2014). Brain structures play a significant role in neural entrainment and this means that it is important to understand the function of the human brain. However, little is known about the neural mechanism or how the tempo of the beat induces emotions. The article by Darl et al (2014) sought to explore how musical tempo influence body movements and brain activity. In particular, the authors explore the phenomena of entrapment to music in the activity of neurons. The literature review finds that there is a correlation between the neural and tempo. An important point to note is that variations of tempo determine brain activity. For example, event-related desynchronization is associated with decreased brain activity whereas event-related synchronization is associated with increased brain activity (Daly, 2014).Tempo play a significant role in influencing emotions. After exploring how tempo evokes emotion in the brain, the authors find that tempo varies hence different emotions. For instance, a fast tempo is associated with positive emotions while a slow tempo is associated with negative emotions. Thus, tempo determines music-evoked emotion and that said, the musical tempo has different emotional states. On the same note, individuals' electroencephalogram tests show that the tempo of the music is associated with neural changes. For instance, a high tempo of the music has positive emotions and hence strong neural activities whereas a low music tempo has negative emotions hence a decrease in neural activities. Up to this point, the beat is the cornerstone of music since when listening to the music, individuals perceive the beat for optimal body movement. In general, the temporal structure determines the rhythms of the brain hence different emotional experiences. 





















 Daly, I., Hallowell, J., Hwang, F., Kirke, A., Malik, A., Roesch, E., ... & Nasuto, S. J. (2014,

August). Changes in music tempo entrain movement related brain activity. In 2014 36th

Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and

Biology Society (pp. 4595-4598). IEEE.





















































359 Words  1 Pages


Mamady Keita’s Music


Mamady Keita’s performances focus more on the drumming and dancing which set the whole mood for the performances. The percussionists bring a new interesting sound to the performance making it unique. The drummers and dancers are dressed in African costumes that fit the whole scene. The coordination from all the drummers makes the performance very interesting and entertaining. Keita’s performances are so captivating through the unpredictable rhythms and the drums that the drummers hold strategically between the knees and look so comfortable doing it. The fusing of the drumbeats, the singing, and how they look at each other while performing shows that they are enjoying the performance and are passionate about it. You can tell the change of emotions in the performance by how they drum and their facial expressions.

The energy from the singers and the drummers during the performances is intriguing and is passed on to the audience. The audience is engaged from the beginning of the performance. Through their acts, one can connect and enjoy the performance. The soloist in the second performance has a melodious and sharp voice that steals the audience’s and everyone else’s attention. She sets the mood for the whole performance by her voice and her dancing. Connecting to Malady’s performance is easy because the rhythms are precise, the sound is clear, the singers, dancers, and drummers are also engaging making one feel connected to the performance. The flow of the rhythm in his performances is effortless. You can hear the high and low pitches from the drummers which are unique. The tones in the drumming sound are clear producing a melodic sound throughout the performances.

            The Tam Tam Mandingue Djembe Academy is an international school that was founded by the world-renowned drummer Mamady Keita. It is a school of the traditional West African drumming whose mission is to preserve and pass on Mandigue cultural art forms precisely those of drumming and dancing (TTM Djembe Academy 2020). The cultural art is a tool that is used to promote tolerance, understanding, equality, and peace internationally. The Djembe is a drum that speaks the language of love and unity and the masters maintain that it does see any discrimination such as racial, gender among others but only sees our hearts. The Djembe is said to teach us about ourselves and has no borders since it is meant for everyone.

Drumming in the school is not just about the drum but using it to create community, joy, and celebration. Other than preserving tradition, drumming helps to build bridges of human understanding, harmony, and living healthy, fun lives. Drumming does not distinguish anyone’s religion, gender, race, social background among other characteristics. The school’s objective is to create an experience of drumming that is powerful, musical, one that enables one to express themselves and can also be accessed. The school offers programs such as rhythms school programs, community classes, and workshops. The teachers in the Mandigue School are certified professors who have earned Keita’s certification and have personally been commissioned by the founder of the school (TTM Djembe Academy 2020). The professors too have shown their respect for each culture and their commitment to serve the world. The school also offers programs and opportunities for certified instructors which enables them to deeply and powerfully connect to drumming in a manner that they can naturally share it with other people.

Mamady Keita is the grandmaster of the djembe and is also known and respected for being the best djembe player worldwide.  He was born in Northeast of Guinea and showed his ability to drum as soon as he started crawling. He would show his abilities by hitting his mother’s pots and pans and when his mother realized this talent, she had a small djembe made for him (TTM Djembe Academy 2020). At 7 years of age, he was taken to the master drummer from their village and was formally initiated as a djembe player. It was there that he was taught about his culture, traditions, and secrets of Mandigue. Mamady’s hands were treated with an extract from a secret plant so that they do not get sore or stiff while he is playing the djembe.

By the time he was 12 years old, he was an accomplished djembe player since he had played on most of the occasions in his village. He was naturally gifted and this allowed him to pull a big sound of the djembe even with his small size. Mamady Keita is considered as the world’s highly praised West African drummer and has visited many countries internationally since he was 16 years old. He was bestowed with a gold medal when he was 19 years old for being the best drummer (TTM Djembe Academy 2020). He then released a book and several CDs which were a success. He became a popular teacher and founded his international drumming school which at this time has 17 branches in Europe, Japan and in the U.S. this has enabled him to pass on his djembe skills to other people and give them opportunities to embrace different cultures through drumming and dancing.











TTM Djembe Academy (2020). Sharing the joy of the djembe tradition. Spreading the message of unity, connection, and harmony. Retrieved from


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                                                            Analysis of the evolution of musical styles



            Each composer is usually classified just within a certain timeframe when he or she lived as well as the traits of the music he or she had composed.  From each period, music has been regarded as being one of the defining characteristics that are used for dedifferentiating one period from another. Despite that, it is evident that different musical pieces of a single period will keep on varying from one another (Hoffer 223).  The first three periods (baroque, romantic, and 20th century), are considered to be an overarching time because it had been practiced within 1600-1900.

            Nevertheless, it is evident that the classical period mainly falls between the romantic and the baroque periods. What this implies is the fact that classical music is has a clear and lighter texture as compared to Baroque music. Considering its complexity, they are homophobic since there us the use of clear tune lines over subsidiary chordal accompaniments.  Moreover, there is the use of style gallant to emphasize light elegance in the place of romantic and baroque's dignified impressive and serious grandeur.  Contrast and variety just within a particular piece, therefore, becomes more and more pronounced as the orchestra increases in power, range, and size.

            Moreover, there is the replacement of the harpsichord as the primary keyboard instrument of the fortepiano or piano. Although harpsichord functions by the plucking of the strings using quills, there is the use of the hammers covered with leathers to strike the strings of the piano. Whenever the keys are compressed, it enables the performer to play softer or louder. Therefore, it can be suggested that the voice of playing the harpsichord does not alter the sound. During this period, instrumental music for example was regarded as being one of the most important pieces by the classical period music composers. Some of the instrumental music that was played includes a string quartet, symphony, sonata, as well as solo concerto which mostly feature a single virtuoso performer. During this period, vocal music, for instance, opera (staged dramatic pieces for orchestra and singers), choral works, and songs for a piano and singer (particularly the works of Schubert) were extremely important.

Baroque (1600-1750)

            The baroque style or period was as a result of the renaissance music period. It was later followed by the classical era with some of the musical characteristics such as the gallant style to make the transition from baroque to the classical period. Ideally, this period markets the beginning of the evolution of classical music. During this period, music was developed just from the renaissance music into what was perceived to be tonal music. Such a transition is also felt and embraced up-to-date. Primarily, the baroque music is characterized by its polyphonic texture (Bober et al 2). What this implies is that such musical piece consists of more than two independent melodic voices.

            On the other hand, baroque music is largely known because of the continuous use of counterpoint. Ideally, such counterpoints are extremely complicated musical ideas. In simpler terms, counterpoints use various independent and different files which sound harmoniously whenever they are being played all together (Max Camp 117). The main characteristics of baroque music include

1) Polyphonic texture which consists of various melodic lines in several voices

2) Unification of the mood in that every single piece features a solo emotion for instance a certain piece that induces happiness will remain to be happy.

3) The continuity of rhythm which implies that its rhythmic patterns will have to be repeated throughout each piece.

4) Repetition of the same melody in which such repetition will have to be distinct although not lyrical.

5) The presence of terraced dynamics which implies that the change in dynamics will have to change suddenly.

6) Ornamentation in which there is the use of fast notes to decorate and flourish main notes.

7) Little utilization of instruments especially the use of the harpsichord.

            Considering the above characteristics, it can be deduced that the baroque period enhanced the establishment of similar practice tonality. The reason for that is because is one of the approaches that were utilized to write in which a musical piece was base on a certain key. What this implies is the fact that that harmony will continue to utilized extensively particularly in classical and pop music. During the commencement of the baroque period, professional musical pieces were anticipated to be consummated by accompaniment lines and single melodic lines. On the other hand, the majority of the baroque concerts were extremely escorted with basso continuo groups. The main trait, in this case, was the dance suite (Bober et al 3). Whenever each piece of the dance suite was played, they had the propensity of inspiring real dance music. The same dance suite was designated purely for listening and not for accompanying the moves of the dancers.

Classical (1750-1830)

            The majority of the musical pieces that were created within the classical period had greatly moved from the baroque era. The reason for that is because they kept on emphasizing the polyphonic texture. The same characteristic was also based on its single melodic compartments.  As a result of that, there was the establishment of little musical texture with a more clarified melody (Meyer & Kirsten 511). The main characteristics of this musical piece include

1) The presence of a solo melody having numerous compartments. In this case, one voice had the potential of carrying the main melody whilst another voice playing a simple but complex line that had the propensity of supporting the same melody. 

2) It has relatively large and different keys, dynamics, rhythms, and melodies

3) More contrast in every musical piece

4) The presence of clear and shorter melodies unlike those in baroque musical pieces

5) Relaying more emphasis on the majority of the instrumental music

6) Fundamental composition forms, for instance, string quartet, concerto, symphony, and sonata (Kjelland 40)

Romantic (1830-1920)

            Romantic musical pieces are perceived as being one of the stylistic movements of the western classical music of the nineteenth century. Such an era can be said to be the romantic period. During this period, romantic music was closely associated with the concept of romanticism. The romanticism period consisted of the literacy and artistic movements that in return transpired to become prominent within the European nations between the years 1800 to 1910. During this time, romantic artists embarked on creating musical pieces that were extremely programmatic, emotional, dramatic, and individualistic (Bauer 16). Such a scenario reflected wider trends within the romantic literature movements, philosophy, art, and poetry. Romantic music was frequently inspired ostensibly by non-musical stimuli, for instance, plastic arts, poetry, nature, and literature. The majority of the music that was composed was characterized with great expression and compassion as compared to earlier periods. It can be deduced that romantic musical pieces displayed an expansion of forms such as instrumentation and keys of the music (Kjelland 40).   The main characteristic of romantic music include

1) A free form as well as a more individual expression of feelings or emotions

2) A clear emphasis o the themes and the lyrical melodies of the music

3)  A more modulation or alteration of keys to unexpected keys.  The effect of this is that it difficult for the listener to anticipate what is likely to transpire in the next musical piece

4) More scales and chromaticism as compared to previous musical pieces

5) The presence of greater variety in rhythm, dynamics, and pitch

6) Little conventional chord progressions

7) Program musical note in which more pieces has the propensity of being inspired by artistic and/or literary sources

8) Relaying a huge emphasis on patriotism. What this implies is the fact that the majority of the composers had the potential of infusing cultural dances and/or songs into their musical works

Modern (1920-present)

            The vast majority were conspicuous in differentiating between classical music into the modern era as well as in the preceding era in changing musical tones. Despite that the majority of the musical pieces of the common practice era were extremely tonal, it can be deduced that much of the modern music remains to be much tonal. Ideally, the modern classical period can be subdivided into 20th and 21st-century contemporary classic music (Kjelland 40).

            For the 20th century modern classical music, it can be argued that varied greatly because it does not have any dominant musical style. Moreover, there is the use of dissonance. For the case of 21st-century modern classic music, it can be argued that it has a vast variety of musical styles including experimentation and minimalism. It contains various influences for instance the significance of technological advancements.  The majority of modern classical music is composed based on what each film scores.








Work cited

Bauer, Helen, and Deborah Voigt. Verdi for Kids: His Life and Music : with 21 Activities. , 2013. Print.

Bober, Jonathan, Piero Boccardo, and Franco Boggero. A Superb Baroque: Art in Genoa, 1600-1750. , 2020. Print.

Hoffer, Charles R. Music Listening Today. Belmont, CA: Schirmer Cengage Learning, 2009. Print.

Kjelland, James. Strictly Strings: Orchestra Companion, Violin. Place of publication not identified: Alfred Pub Co, 1996. Print.

Max Camp. Teaching Piano – Softcover. Alfred Music, 2012. Print

Meyer, Stephen C, and Kirsten Yri. The Oxford Handbook of Music and Medievalism. , 2020. Print.



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Cultural products

The song ‘Born this way’ by Lady Gaga (2011) supports Adorno’s argument that cultural products that are produced by the cultural industry are equivalent as it lives up to the six characteristics, he uses to describe cultural products. The song predictable in that it addresses issues that are relevant in society and is greatly influenced by the artist’s perception. Lady Gaga is renowned for her support of the LGBT community and advocates for people to be themselves, even if it means being different. The song is predictable as it supports the artist’s ideologies as well as current trends that were in the industry when the song was released (Davisson, 2013). Being a song, repetition is common as different scenes recur on stage and lyrics from the chorus are repeated regularly. In addition, the song is a repetition of the opinions that people have in society such as the need to protect people’s rights regardless of their sexual preference.

The song further conforms to Adorno’s classification as the song is formulaic and made to meet a specific standard. Being a superstar, Lady Gaga’s music has a standard that it is expected to meet and the quality of the song and video have to abide to this standard. In addition, the video follows the artist’s formula in regards to choreography, video and makeup (Davisson, 2013). The song portrays a lot of sexuality from both genders and this conforms to the type of songs that were being released during its time. the ubiquitous nature has to do with the topic it covers. People from different parts of the world have different opinions regarding homosexuality. The song is therefore popular not only in the U.S but different parts of the world as it addresses an international issue.

Marvin Gaye’s ‘What’s going on’ (1971) on the other hand goes contrary to what Adorno uses to classify cultural products as the song portrayed the ‘real’ American culture during the Vietnam war. Unlike the most of his songs, Marvin Gaye opted to do a different song especially because his brother was a soldier in the Vietnam war during its composition. The deviation from the norm makes the song unpredictable. The song further deviates from repetition as it calls for an end to war during a time where the country was at war with Vietnam. According to Adorno, cultural products are equivalent and mirror what is popular in a community. The song however went against what was popular, which was winning the war, to focusing on the negative impacts of war instead.

The song further breaks from the norm as it fails to gain the ubiquitous nature Adorno talks about. The song focuses on the Vietnam war which mostly affected people in the two countries but not other parts of the world. It also went against the standards associated with music from the artist as it deviated from his common genre which was romance (Barnhill, 2019). Although there are cases of repetition, the song itself is unique in that it talks about the Vietnam war and not any other war.

Adorno’s belief that cultural products are all equivalent is wrong as it treats all cultural products as serving the same purpose. While it is true that most cultural products can be classified to the six characteristics discussed, they are not ideal for making the claim especially because of the products that deviate from these characteristics. All art has the potential to call people to action and bring about change. The art may however have a different impact depending on how it is received. The variations are therefore as a result of how people perceive the cultural product itself.






Barnhill J, (2019) "Marvin Gaye's What's Going On and the Civil Rights Movement: A    History and Analysis" Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 234.

Davisson, A. L. (2013). Lady Gaga and the remaking of celebrity culture. Jefferson, N.C:            McFarland.

Gaga L, (2011) “Born this way” Interscope Records

Gaye M, (1971) “What’s going on” Tamla

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The Legend: Frank Sinatra

Francis Albert Sinatra, a renowned American singer, actor and producer was born on December 12, 1915 in Hoboken, New Jersey’s ( Editors, np). From a very tender age Frank was aware of his musical talents but little did he know that he would be among the musicians that would decorate the 20th century. Frank was inspired to follow in the footsteps of Bing Crosby. His musical journey began while in high school he went an extra mile to book local club performances in addition to joining the school’s glee club that promoted young musicians. He collaborated with Harry James to release many records including “All or Nothing at All.” 1943 marked the beginning of his success in the music industry when he signed with Columbia Records as a solo artist ( Editors, np). Columbia Records released the “All or Nothing at All” album that sold worldwide and was rated second best on the Billboard.  Frank has been nominated and won various awards to include an Academy Award and the Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor.

 The years that followed after 1943 saw him rise to fame, in 1951 he performed in Las Vegas marking his first of many public performances. He subsequently composed and released his. first album “The Voice of Frank Sinatra” which was a huge success with millions of copies being bought online. It is at the Paramount Theatre in New York where he made his first movie debut on December 30, 1942 where he appeared in “Sinatramania” (( Editors, np). In 1944, Frank returned to Paramount Theatre, his return was subsequently followed by a raucous that occurred after 35,000 fans were denied entrance into the theatre (All Movie, np). The chaos that followed that uneventful day saw the day renamed to Columbus Day Riot.  Frank was restricted from serving in World War ll. Sinatra was not fit to serve in the war as a result of a punctured ear drum. The years that followed after the war started were of great loneliness for him.

Frank was perhaps among the first vocalists of the late 20th century to develop the unique ability to communicate with listeners via the use of music and lyrics that were presented simultaneously. Frank can be considered as one of the most significant icons in the music industry in the 20th century. Sinatra was in a band for two consecutive years before deciding to go solo ( Editors, np). It is between the period of 1943 and 1946 that his career blossomed, his huge success in music earned him the nickname “the voice and the Sultan of Swoon.” ( Editors, np). In 1945 he won an award for featuring in “The House I live in” which was a short film that was used to campaign against racial and religious discrimination. His fame might have been short lived especially in the years that followed after the war after. Despite this in 1953, he reentered the music industry and subsequently won an Oscar after successfully playing the role of Maggio in the movie “From Here to Eternity” ( Editors, np). The late 1950s saw Sinatra introduce a Jazzier musical sense in his voice.

 In the years to come Frank rose to fame again and continuously enjoyed success in both industries. In 1955, he was nominated for his outstanding performance in “The Man with the Golden Arm”. During the lowest time in his music and movie career Frank had left Capitol and established his own record label by the name Reprise ( Editors, np). To further and advance his acting career he founded and established a film production company, Artanis in close collaboration with the Warner Bros production studios. Sinatra enjoyed a successful musical and movie career in the 1960s. in 1973 he returned back to the musical scenes following a brief retirement and released the album “Ol’ Blue Eye Is Back” ( Editors, np). The 1970s saw him become more engaged in the political scenes. Previously he had campaigned for the reelection of Roosevelt in 1944 and in 1960 for election of John Kennedy and after winning he supervised the president’s inaugural gala. Sinatra’s friendship with the president went sour after Sinatra decided to switch sided from a Democrat to a republican.

Frank tied the knot with his longtime girlfriend Nancy Bartato in 1939 and sired three children together, they later divorced in the 1940s. In the early 1950s Sinatra married his second wife Ava Gardner but the marriage did not last long ( Editors, np). Shortly after the divorce Sinatra married his third wife, Mia Furrow, this marriage too was short lived and Sinatra married his fourth and last wife, Barbara Blakely Marx whom he stayed with until the time of his death. He weathered may turbulent storms in his career, at one point he was accused of utilizing mob ties to further and advance his career but such claims had no hold and never affected his popularity. In 1955 Sinatra performed in Palm Desert Marriott Ballroom in California and this marked his last musical performance marking the end of a career that had span for over 50 years.

On May 14, 1998 at 82 years Frank died from a heart attack. Artists to include Michael Jackson and the Beatles succeeded him and continued in his musical footsteps.  In his lifetime the renowned artists suffered from many health complications and among them High blood pressure and cancer of the bladder.  The universe was one icon less but his music was going to live forever in the hearts of his fans. On may 20th a send of funeral was held in California to commemorate the life of the singer, fans and mourners from around the world gathered to pay their last respects to the fallen icon.

In conclusion, Frank Sinatra was an iconic and legendary musician and movie star. He rose to fame during the pre-world war II period. He was not drafted to serve in the war since he was physically unfit. He collaborated with Harry James to release the All or Nothing at All record that marked the beginning of a successful musical career.  In 1942 he made his debut in the movie industry. In the years that followed he rose to fame both in the music and movie industry. He received many nomination and awards during his lifetime.  In 1998 Sinatra passed away living behind a legacy that would live forever.











Works Cited

A&E Networks Television. “Frank Sinatra Biography”.2017. Retrieved from;   

All Movie “Frank Sinatra: Biography, Movie Highlights and Photos.” N.d Retrieved from;    Editors. “Frank Sinatra Biography.” 2014Retrieved from;






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