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Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

Having read the "Transcending Net Neutrality: Ten Steps Toward an Open Internet" and "SOPA and PIPA What Went Wrong" papers, write the Net Neutrality paper.
The paper is to reflect your opinions on the concepts and your experiences with content-based broadband throttling and your experiences with piracy protection (Yes, they are related.)
Include research that supports your experiences.
You all have experience with broadband speeds and piracy protection. Do you suspect your Internet speeds have been reduced at any time? Are you aware of any annoying piracy protections?
What are your opinions on each?

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 Adverse impact of internet on teenagers

The uses of the internet for modern society are many and range from communication, military uses besides being used to track and report in health care activities among other issues. However, there are many dangers prevalent on the internet for all users although teenagers are the group that is most vulnerable to these dangers. Internet should be used with a lot of care to ensure that its benefits are not superseded by the potential harm that may threaten teenagers and ultimately future generations. Teenagers are more impressionable than adults and are at a development stage where they develop values and conceptions about various issues this makes them very vulnerable to dangers that exist on the internet. Stress, depression, and mental health issues among teenagers are closely associated with the unsupervised use of internet resources that may lead to them accessing harmful material such as pornography and disturbing violence. Teenagers who face problems on the internet are often reluctant to share these problems with adults who are responsible to care for them resulting in a downward spiral of depression, and mental ill-health. This paper examines more closely the reality of the dangers to which teenagers are vulnerable that arise from their interaction with the internet.

Teenagers who use the internet excessively tend to do so at the expense of other important aspects of life such as developing social skills, exercising, and developing talents in other fields. The many promises heralded by the internet call for responsibility to ensure that the current teenagers and future parents will survive the technological transitions that are taking the world by surprise. Education opportunities enhanced by the internet such as precocity and cognitive development may be offset by dangers especially if teenagers use the internet outside a well-designed framework that considers their abilities and stage of development. Information overload is also a constant danger that may overwhelm teenagers and unchecked could lead to frustration and discouragement that may cause young people to give up on their interests and passions. Online games and social media have dangers that must be monitored to ensure teenagers are safe from harm such as addiction, depression, and the adoption of dangerous habits such as stealing.

Technology has long been praised to be the highlight of modern existence, internet is almost synonymous with technology as it has a plethora of uses ranging from communication activities, healthcare, entertainment to military applications. The internet is one of the unique defining features of this era because it has revolutionized how people communicate, how they travel, how they learn and a deeper examination may reveal most activities carried nowadays are associated with the internet either directly or indirectly. The internet is saturated with exciting opportunities which make life more interesting for most people especially teenagers. If a teenager were to time-travel from the past century to the present, they would be in a state of perpetual amazement, marveling from one curiosity to another, at things people no longer notice. Although the internet has many benefits for teenagers, it is also permeated with serious dangers that may or may not be necessitating the scrutiny of besides what the internet does for them, what it does to them.

The most significant issue with the internet is that teenagers have sudden access to all manner of information without the corresponding wisdom and experience necessary to navigate it safely. Most teenagers are overwhelmed by the internet and have no one to guide them on how to utilize it positively and this predicament often results in one too many bad choices. Parents, guardians, and caretakers also need to be educated on how to provide effective guidance to younger people as they are often also confused on how to address the issue without appearing dictatorial to teenagers (Ghosh 2). Some of how the internet is harmful to teenagers are through compromising their development of moral values, distracting them from education, and disrupting or preventing the proper formation of lasting and wholesome relationships.

The significance of the internet in modern lives cannot be overstressed, people who communicate using the internet can save a lot of time and resources that would otherwise be expended. But just like a hammer, fire, or any other contrivance made by human ingenuity, the internet can be misused resulting in harm for self and others. Teenagers have difficulty prioritizing their activities and end up sacrificing other important aspects of their lives such as excelling academically, maintaining a healthy exercise routine to create more time for the more exciting activities they enjoy on the internet. There is also the problem of lack of sufficient oversight and supervision which makes the convenience with which the internet can be accessed have an unintended consequence, for example, early exposure to adult content. This combined with conflicting advice on ethical and moral standards available on the internet end up bringing more confusion to teenagers.

The teenage age is one permeated by transition and is a stage of human development where people begin to discover themselves and make decisions that often affect them for the rest of their lives. Teenagers are very vulnerable to ideas on the internet at this stage because they try to identify with what they perceive to be popular with their peers. The internet is also rife with dangerous people who exploit the vulnerability of unsuspecting and trusting teenagers with many ending up as victims of various tragedies that are perpetrated through the use of the internet. Teenagers may also be exploited by cybercriminals who may identify them as a weak link to further their criminal activities such as theft, fraud, and kidnapping.  Teenagers deserve protection from a myriad of dangers that lurk on the internet from their caretakers, teachers, and the government which should put more effective measures in place to protect them.


One of the adverse impacts of the internet on teenagers is that it is the leading cause of mental disorders in younger people as a result of exposure to a lot of information that is difficult for them to cope with. Most teenagers who end up accessing harmful websites often begin with the best of intentions but unfortunately, this may result in untold harm. For example, teenagers may access the internet to obtain material for studying but may end up clicking on inappropriate catchy adverts whenever they are not adequately protected by parental safeguards (Taher & Mohd 3). Some of the websites thus visited prompt teenagers to become sexually hyperactive without the right guidance which leads to confusion, low self-esteem and eventually makes them be disturbed mentally. These teenagers are also at heightened risk of sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDs which makes their lives more miserable making them bear the consequences for the rest of their lives.

Most of the time, parents, guardians, or caretakers are often unavailable a condition that is compounded by being away for work, and when at home being preoccupied with their online lives at the neglecting quality time with younger people. Teenagers who face problems on the internet are reluctant to share them with adults and become more reclusive, feel depressed, and have low self-esteem (Mchugh 1171). Internet addiction is thus prevalent in people of different age groups but more evident in teenagers. The average teenager also spends more time than older generations on the internet and is more conversant with it making it awkward for parents and guardians to offer them sound advice as they feel they don’t have enough knowledge to be credible (Yusuf 401). They, therefore, feel helpless and end up doing almost nothing to protect their kids from these dangers.

Teenagers also lose various skills and abilities such as socializing, regularly exercising physically, resulting in a myriad of lifestyle-related illnesses such as obesity and heart disease. Young people often spend the majority of their waking time on the internet which can be conveniently accessed through various platforms such as desktop computers, laptops, and handheld devices. The activities available on the internet such as watching movies, playing games, social media activities all take a lot of time leaving too little for direct human contact. Preference of cyberspace to real space leads to minimized exercising which increases health risk and reduces the ability of the body to maintain immunity against various illnesses. Such illnesses that were traditionally believed to affect older people such as diabetes are becoming more common among teenagers.


The internet carries the promise of many wonderful advances from enabling the internet of things, artificial intelligence, and possibly a post-scarcity society. However, research is needed to ensure that the internet is used responsibly to ensure that there will be future generations left to enjoy these advances. Parents should make proactive efforts to be conversant with the internet to offer the needed guidance to their children. The government should also implement policies that will transform education to include courses that inform teenagers through guidance and counseling activities on how to be safe on the internet. Teachers, parents, and guardians should also ensure that they provide enough support, encouragement, and guidance to teenagers while leading them to exercise physically more often.


At the convenience of a few mouse clicks, or a few taps on a touch screen most people especially teenagers can obtain information quickly. The internet provides better opportunities for teenagers to develop their cognitive abilities, add on knowledge and obtain a variety of skills and abilities. Although the internet has all these benefits, it is also full of negative effects that may range from false news, cyberbullying, and information overload. Social media platforms are often the arenas where cyberbullying happens with little regard to how it impacts the victims of such abuse who often end up being depressed in extreme cases suicidal (Dyer 6). Thus, the dangers of the internet to teenagers may vary in severity with varying significance that may range from almost harmless to fatal consequences.

Information overload is also a problem for teenagers who when unsupervised may end up attempting to learn about things beyond their ability which impacts their motivation to learn negatively and cause them to give up entirely on learning. Internet usage may in this manner, result in poor performance instead of the expected improvement that is attributed to the supplementing role it has on the learning processes. Further research is needed to provide the way forward on how protective measures for teenagers on the internet can keep up with the rapid changes experienced within the internet (Zilka 322). If teenagers use the internet in a more supervised and moderated environment, many of the potential dangers that may threaten them may be significantly reduced or altogether avoided. For teenagers to reap the benefits of the internet, precautions should be taken to ensure that it is used positively and a balance is maintained between social, physical, and mental development.

The internet is saturated with online games which are accessible to most teenagers due to the improved internet bandwidth and advanced software. Although games are often attributed with a lot of exciting adventures, offer opportunities for teamwork educators and parents should know the dangers that these games may pose. Games are highly addictive and without proper parental guidance, these addictions almost always result in harm for the teenagers who play them. Most games also have upgrades that can be bought with real money and may introduce harmful financial habits to teenagers who may resort to stealing from their parents or other people to meet the cost of the game perks. Thus, internet games are a major avenue through which various forms of harm including manipulation can befall teenagers. Game addiction may also have other fatal consequences such as becoming suicidal because of the inability of distinguishing the game environment from reality. The best protection from internet games is for parents, teachers, and guardians to ensure that teenagers have adequate supervision when playing online games. Social media is very popular with teenagers. This is because these platforms provide a convenient way for people to connect around the world (Lareki 396). The content that dominates social media changes continuously and tends towards hateful, violent, or sexual extremes.

The internet is a tool that has to be used with care to increase the benefit and minimize the hazards to meet the various purposes of the user. Online games and social media have perils that must be scrutinized to ensure teenagers are safe from harm such as addiction, depression, and the adoption of dangerous habits such as theft (Liu 4).

While the internet has many benefits for adolescents, it is also saturated with serious threats that may or may not be demanding the scrutiny of besides what the internet does for them, what it does to them. Insufficient supervision of teenagers using the internet increases the risk of them becoming prey to various criminals who manipulate them and often harm them to meet their nefarious schemes (Wisniewski 3920). Some of how the internet is harmful to teenagers are through retarding the development of moral values, disrupting education, and upsetting or preventing the proper formation of enduring and healthy relationships.

In conclusion, some of the dangers prevalent on the internet for teenagers include exposure to pornography, introduction to active sex life without the proper guidance which may lead to complications in social, emotional, and mental aspects of their lives. Parents and guardians often feel they are not equipped to adequately help teenagers who they feel are more knowledgeable about the internet than them in most cases. Teenagers who experience problems on the internet are reluctant to share their problems with their care providers and end up being overwhelmed by these problems and occasionally end up being harmed irreversibly. Teenagers also face the risks of poor physical health as a result of refraining from exercising often, these may result in issues such as obesity, and various easily preventable health complications such as heart disease and diabetes. Parents, teachers, and guardians should also be aware of dangers presented by internet games and social media and come up with contingencies to protect the youth by ensuring that these activities are carried out responsibly.






Works cited

Dyer, Tobbi. “The Effects of Social Media on Children.” Dalhousie Journal of Interdisciplinary Management, vol. 14, 2018, doi:10.5931/djim.v14i0.7855.

Ghosh, Arup Kumar, et al. “A Matter of Control or Safety?” Proceedings of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 2018, doi:10.1145/3173574.3173768.

Lareki, Arkaitz, et al. “Teenagers Perception of Risk Behaviors Regarding Digital Technologies.” Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 68, 2017, pp. 395–402., doi:10.1016/j.chb.2016.12.004.

Liu, Hui-Ching, et al. “Self-Harm and Its Association with Internet Addiction and Internet Exposure to Suicidal Thought in Adolescents.” Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, vol. 116, no. 3, 2017, pp. 153–160., doi:10.1016/j.jfma.2016.03.010.

Mchugh, Bridget Christine, et al. “When Social Media Traumatizes Teens.” Internet Research, vol. 28, no. 5, 2018, pp. 1169–1188., doi:10.1108/intr-02-2017-0077.

Taher, Taslim, and Mohd Adam Bin Suhaimi. “Risks and Harm on the Internet among the Teenagers in Bangladesh.” 2016 4th International Conference on Cyber and IT Service Management, 2016, doi:10.1109/citsm.2016.7577463.

Wisniewski, Pamela, et al. “Dear Diary.” Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 2016, doi:10.1145/2858036.2858317.

Yusuf, Muhamad, et al. “Digital Parenting to Children Using The Internet.” Pedagogik Journal of Islamic Elementary School, vol. 3, no. 1, 2020, pp. 1–14., doi:10.24256/pijies.v3i1.1277.

Zilka, Gila Cohen. “Awareness of ESafety and Potential Online Dangers among Children and Teenagers.” Proceedings of the 2017 InSITE Conference, 2017, doi:10.28945/3683.

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Internet use in society


People have become dependent on the internet for everyday functions like communication, learning and entertainment. Its use in different aspects of human life has created an environment where the average individual employs its use in different functions on a daily basis. Despite its popularity, there are concerns over the security risks that it poses as well as its overall impact on society and how people interact with one another. The concerns are attributed to vices such as cyber bullying, cybercrime and other vices that would not have existed without the intervention of the internet. Although there are various risks to using the internet, it remains beneficial to human beings as it promotes effective communication; facilitates every day tasks; and assists in gaining and sharing of knowledge, information and ideas.


The internet has been in use since the 1960s but due to its complicated nature during that time, it was mostly used by government researchers to share information. It was not until Robert Khan and Vint Cerf successfully  developed an interconnected network that enabled millions of computers to communicate with each other in a span of seconds that people started to fully benefit from the use of internet technology. Its use also evolved from research and communication to include performing activities like grocery shopping, setting reminders and alarms, entertainment and other uses that sought to make life easier for human beings (Haddon et al 13). Its efficiency and popularity however sparked a lot of controversy especially because of the negative impact that it had on society when used for destructive reasons. Despite this however, the internet remains beneficial as it greatly enhances the effectiveness and efficiency of communication. The internet is also important because it makes it easier to perform every day tasks like shopping, making appointments, getting directions and other uses that employ the use of computer technology. Lastly, the interconnected network offers vast access to information and this makes it easier to gain knowledge as well as share information and ideas.

One major benefit of using the internet has to do with enhancing the ease and efficiency of communication among individuals and organizations. Before the introduction of the internet, people heavily relied on face to face communication as well as the use of letters and the telephone. Although the methods used allow people to communicate, they were limited in that people either had to overcome geographic barriers and wait long duration of time before exchanging their messages (Faust et al 35). The efficiency of communication was also limited as the mediums used only allowed or audio or written text. With the introduction of the internet however, communication occurs across different geographic boundaries and in different formats including videos and live chats. According to Mur (1) “Many Americans use the Internet to stay in touch with friends and family or to make new friends through chat rooms”. People no longer have to move physically or wait long periods to communicate as they can do so through platforms such as social media and online chat rooms. “Online dating makes it easy for busy or isolated people to meet others with similar interests” (Mur 1). The advantage is that people can balance their work and personal lives even with busy schedules because interactions can occur online.

The Internet's intervention in facilitating every day tasks is another example of the benefits of using internet technology on a daily basis. A good example of this is the use of the internet to conduct research on possible houses to rent or for business premises. “Twenty years ago, this was all about legwork, but thankfully we now have the internet to make our lives much easier” (Jacobs 1). People can now use the internet to research about houses on sale, their locations and other details that will aid in their purchase decisions. The internet is further beneficial in that it offers more variety compared to conducted searches in person. When looking to buy a house, the potential homeowner can “google a suburb to discover the median prices for both houses and apartments… plus, there will be any number of comparable properties in the area” (Jacobs 1). The internet offers variety thereby helping the user to make more informed decisions not only when looking to buy a home but also when making other purchases online. The ease in which people get to conduct daily functions like shopping, buying commodities and conducting research makes the internet more advantageous over traditional methods of performing daily functions like making physical visits to shops, malls and other business premises.

The internet further helps people to acquire information and share ideas. According to Michael W. Lynch (1) “… Majority of  Americans like the internet because it makes life easier”. There exists a lot of publications, videos, audio and guidelines that explain different phenomenon that exist in society. The internet acts as a library where the user only has to log in and key in commands that help to retrieve specific information about the topic of interest. Students and teachers can use the internet to learn more about the topics being taught in school as well as offer extra reading material to increase their knowledge (Haddon 23). Business people can also use the internet to learn about their career, any opportunities present and also learn new skills to make them more competent at their job. People have grown to view the internet  “not as a "shopping mall," as many cyber-critics have whined, but as a "library"--if not a giant adult bookstore” (Lynch 1). the platform created not only allows people to read, but also publish documents that assist others to acquire more information and further share their ideas with the world.


Counter argument

An argument can be made that the internet is damaging to society as it can be addictive and negatively affect how people perceive life. According to a research by Pew Research Center, 24% of youngsters between 13 and 17 years are constantly connected to Internet and 56% of them several times a day” (Calvete et al 2). The time in which people spend online exposes them to issues like cyberbullying thereby placing more at risk compared to bullying in a real life setting. Calvete et al (2) further argue that the risks that are attributed to the internet cause more harm because they cause “a set of psycho-social problems that are characteristic of Internet, initiated and maintained in an online context that has a mutual and bidirectional relationship with the individual’s off-line reality” (Calvete et al 2). The dependency on the internet makes it harder for people to connect on the outside world. The ease in communication and interaction that is made possible through the internet also makes it harder for people to interact on a persona level. Although the internet has improved communication, the frequency in which people substitute physical interactions with internet communication has created a form of dependency where relationships online appear more fulfilling than face to face interactions. People thereby result to relying on the internet interactions and this has negatively affected human interactions. It also exposes users to issues like cyber bullying because the internet serves as a real world with its own vices.


The advantages attributed to the internet far outweigh the risks that the user is exposed to. While too much use of the internet can create addiction that makes it hard for users to identify with the real world, there are measures that can be taken to reduce the likelihood of the user becoming addicted. One approach would be for parents and guardians to regulate how long children spend online. Adults can set reminders and alarms to inform them when they have been online for too long in order to allow for breaks. Internet service providers and social media platforms can also inform internet users about healthy internet behaviour to discourage usage that will likely result in addiction (Haddon 12). With such measures, internet users of all ages will be able to regulate how much time they spend online so as to allow face to face interactions and engagement with people in the real world.


The internet has a lot of advantages that are beneficial to users especially because it makes performing day to day activities easier. The platform created has helped people to communicate across geographic borders in an instant. The information shared over the web has also created a basis of reference where people can research and gain knowledge about developments that occur in society. While its use does expose its users to issues like cyber bullying and online addiction, there are measures that can be taken to reduce the intensity, and frequency in which the negative attributes occur. Despite the existence of such challenges however, the internet continues to be beneficial to its users and the advantages and opportunities it creates are a testament of the positive impact that the internet continues to have in different communities across the globe.






Work cited

Jacobs, Nicole. "Know your market." Age [Melbourne, Australia], 23 Mar. 2019, p.          14. Gale In Context: Opposing Viewpoints,               xid=77a1c475. Accessed 30 Apr. 2021.

Livingstone, Sonia M, Leslie Haddon, and Anke Gorzig. Children, Risk and Safety on      the Internet: Research and Policy Challenges in Comparative Perspective.         Bristol, UK: Policy Press, 2012. Internet resource.

Lynch, Michael W. "Survey Says." Reason, vol. 33, no. 5, Oct. 2001, p. 15. Gale In          Context: Opposing Viewpoints,      d=ad3e9005. Accessed 30 Apr. 2021.

Machimbarrena, Juan M et al. “Internet Risks: An Overview of Victimization in    Cyberbullying, Cyber Dating Abuse, Sexting, Online Grooming and           Problematic Internet Use.” International journal of environmental research          and public health vol. 15,11 2471. 5 Nov. 2018, doi:10.3390/ijerph15112471

Mur, Cindy. "Introduction to Does the Internet Benefit Society?: At Issue." Does the         Internet Benefit Society?, edited by Cindy Mur, Greenhaven Press, 2005. At            Issue. Gale In Context: Opposing Viewpoints,            &xid=cbf6d183. Accessed 30 Apr. 2021.

Potenza, Marc N, Kyle A. Faust, and David Faust. The Oxford Handbook of Digital          Technologies and Mental Health. , 2020. Print.

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How changing from Copper cables to fiber optics and VoIP maximized profit for AT& T Company


  AT&T Telecommunication Corporation changed from copper cables to fiber optics and VoIP to provide quality services to the customers and maximize profit. Switching to fiber optics guaranteed an increase in profit margin because of the better services. Fiber optical communications has transformed the AT&T telecommunication corporation. Fiber optics is hailed for consistent reliability over years for Ethernet backbone infrastructure, general data networking and high speed internet. Fiber optics has become increasingly popular because of the demand for IP based devices such as IP cameras, VoIP phones and video conferencing units which requires an increase in bandwidth to support internet protocol communication. Fiber optic is capable of supporting bandwidth intensive devices because of its massive throughput abilities. Even though fiber optics is costly that copper cables the benefits are tremendous (Brodkin, 2019).

Fiber optics guarantees secure communication. It is considered one of the safest means of communication. The cabling construction makes it difficult to intercept communication. A “light leakage” will be caused whenever anybody tries to access the glass cable because degradation in communications will be noticed. Fiber optic cabling is also resistant to external forces that might easily degrade copper cabling. Fiber optic cabling is also highly recommended for industrial facilities where controllers, large motors and air conditioners are regularly starting and stopping. Radio frequency interference and electrometric interference from the equipment can result to loss of data which then increases latency on packet streams in the network. Other than that fiber-optic cabling has a very high speed when compared to the former copper cabling. A bandwidth speed of more than 10 gigabit per strand can be supported by a small diameter glass fiber. It is worth noting that copper cabling can equally support such speeds however it would require multitudes of category 6 large diameter cables aggregated together to match up the speeds of one fiber strand( Brodkin,2019).

Fiber cable is the ideal point to point hardline long distance communications. In the case of traditional copper cabling long distance communication is restricted by the 328 feet limit hence requires another equipment to extend the signal. Again attenuation usually sets in towards the maximum reach for copper cables causing a decrease in speeds on gigabit transmissions. Fiber cables are therefore very superior and relatively cheap for long distance connectivity with the ability to reach 10 gigabytes and above of speed at over 40 kilometers in length. When an organization relies on copper cable based internet, there are several factors that cause outages. For instance severe weather conditions, temperature fluctuations and moisture can distort connectivity. In addition, worn out copper cables can cause a fire outbreak because it carries electric current. Copper cables may also cause interference of radio and electronic signals which hampers reliability. Copper wires are operated by the telephone company technicians who might mistake it by fiddling with wrong wires. Therefore fiber is the most appropriate since it is not dependent on the phone company, it has its own equipment and termination points (Brodkin, 2020).

Despite the fact that organizational information technology varies drastically, the benefits associated with fiber-optic internet are making businesses to easily prefer it over others as the best mode for data transmission. Companies that invest in fiber always find that the bandwidth potential, total cost of ownership and speed gains are evident. Hence AT &T Corporation has increased its customer base and maximized profit by providing quality services through fiber optics and Voice over internet protocol (Sky,2020).

AT&T evolved from manufacturing receivers to offering broadband transmission services. Years later it generated cellular mobile systems. AT&T’s history is embedded in creativeness and innovation. Its most recent development nurtures its strategic management because it places the company atop the most crucial chapter of the telecommunication industry. VOIP technology has been instrumental in changing AT&T managerial operations as a global company. Copper wires and receivers have been removed from the equation and replaced with better machinery (Johnson et al., 2004). Calls can be made from anywhere and at any given time via internet and other computerized networks. VOIP innovation facilitates the conversion of one’s voice into digital signals thus enabling communication through internet enabled devices better known as data-driven equipment. In other simpler terms, communication can be done over the internet. The use of VOIP over the years has proven effective as it facilitates traditional telephones conversations to take place through the internet. Packet-switch VOIP changes speech waves into packets hence creating an electronic envelope. VOIP packets are then conveyed through VOIP friendly systems such as the LAN. Due to VOIP-packet designs, information is transmitted over other networks to support and improve communication requirements (Ruiz, 2000). Additionally, conventional VOIP facilities enables accessibility to enhanced applications that can possibly assist workforce hand more workload. VOIP solutions directed at commercial operations have gradually changed into cohesive communication services which handle all forms of communication as separate entities. Therefore, all communication needs can be handled through handsets and including telephone receivers. AT&T is known to have implemented IP telephony to safeguard stakeholders’ interests. It is vital to note that VOIP services provide opening for generating revenue but come with extra challenges such as downtime. Users can access seamless telecommunications facilities at all times. Service providers use dependable high-performance systems in order to meet the consumers’ needs and assure clients quality performance and reliability. Converging voice and internet has forced most of the service providers such as AT&T to provide quality and accessible services to satisfy customer needs. High quality communication services comes with cost effective prices which endear telecommunication companies to the market. The usage of quality services to operate and meet consumer communication needs has been an uphill task because of the shift in demand. For instance, numerous traffic categories are vital aspects for combining voice and data system. Nevertheless, is the network systems have to be fully functional and reliable. In the meantime people have to access VOIP through their personal IP addresses.

Bundling telecommunication services to customers has risen due to the intensifying competition between telecommunication companies. AT&T business principle enabled them to handle high-value commercial operations, control competition and cater to the rising demands among other things. Similarly, the union of the digital economy and the telecommunication industry has quicken service delivery and customer adoption to high-end products and services such as digital cable television and even streaming sites. Although AT&T has positioned itself to capture a larger consumer base, by delivering quality telecommunication services, the American demographics are shifting in favor young people who are shaping the digital economy through their diverse demands (Whitlock, 2005). Young mobile consumers are interested with the non-technical aspects of telecommunication hence forcing AT&T to rebrand itself. Unlike the older generation who hail AT&T as a giant telecommunication agency, the younger generation are more inclined towards the services offered. Thus, AT&T has been forced to promote its services and brand name to the younger generation.  Therefore, the best approach of appealing to the younger generation is through bundling telecommunication services. For example offering, landline facilities, cable television and wireless internet services such as broadband internet in one bundle enables the company to capture each and every aspect of the market in one setting. Similarly, customer items ought to be priced fairly so that more potential customers can be interested in the packages offered (Minoli, 2011). More so, experts predict that taxation will reduce profit margins but expand the telecommunication network necessities and framework due to the rising demand. In the recent times demand for data has risen hence forcing telecommunication companies to come up with creative ways of meeting the rising demand. An average consumer purchases more than one service. In the telecommunication industry pricing is key in picking a service provider. If a bundle service is offered at a more affordable or competitive rate, then the service providers capture a more market niche than the rest of the competitors. AT&T over the years has bene key in increasing its market niche and providing telecommunications services at a competitive price than the rest of the telecommunication agencies. For instance, some time back AT&T had to introduce a new service after some interval in order to remain relevant and ensure that customer are retained. Normally, could not meet all the market needs and the company was forced to merge with other telecommunication companies offering complementary services in order to widen the outreach within the market.

Internet telephony provides a proper way of creating affordable services whenever one wants to make long distance calls due to fiber optic connection. There is no doubt that cable and fiber are both steadfast due to the gigabit speed. However, fiber is considered to be better due to the sustenance and well-equipped and tangible ways of catering to the needs of the people. Fiber optic are more advantageous in the telecommunication industry because they bring about numerous changes to the business. As a result of the emergence of better technical aspects of technology, more, AT&T was forced to come up with various ways of delivering services and coming up with better upgrades within months of thorough work. Fiber optics connectivity has been more advantageous to AT&T due to its storage facilities and VOIP designed company (Dubi, & Muniyandi, 2019). VOIP is instrumental in fusing internet and conventional business communication. In this point in time, most companies relies on effective communication to make decisions and come up with durable strategies for both internal and external strategic management. In the meantime, people comply with most of the adequate communication that has been found to be effective whenever dealing with wider audience because of the increased productivity and enhanced uptime. Also, the speed has reduced the redundancy of some of the managerial operations. During high demand time period, the consumer use more internet and come up with business and ensure that each operation is running smoothly. Furthermore, there is a strong connection between communication and high performance because the delivery of the final product is done in a more efficient manner as compared to before. In terms of customer relation services AT&T was forced to use cloud access services to avoid down time and ensure that most of the software services are more representative than before.












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Ruiz, E. D. (2000). The bundling of telecommunications services in the consumer market: recommendations for AT&T in the face of intense competition with WorldCom and the RBOCs (Doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology).

Whitlock, M. (2005). Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP) And One University Application. Review of Business Information Systems (RBIS), 9(4), 1-6.

Minoli, D. (2011). Voice over IPv6: architectures for next generation VoIP networks. Elsevier.

Dubi, I. K. Y., & Muniyandi, R. C. (2019). Performance Investigation of VoIP Over Mobile WiMAX Networks through OPNET Simulation. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED COMPUTER SCIENCE AND APPLICATIONS, 10(1), 148-152.

Brodkin, J. (2019, June 17). AT&T cuts another 1,800 jobs as it finishes fiber-Internet buildout. Ars Technica.

Brodkin, J. A. T. (2020, October 7). AT&T’s DSL Phaseout Is Leaving Poor, Rural Users Behind. Wired.

Sky, B. (2020, December 11). POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service) is going away. What’s your plan for the future? Broad Sky Networks.

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The article examines the illusion internet creates around its users. Based on the article's evidence, 60% of the internet is filled with fake content meant to dupe users into generating traffic. Since 2013, analysts have claimed that half of the users on internet platforms such as YouTube are bots pretending to be real people. With no time, YouTube systems themselves could not differentiate between actual traffic and fake traffic (Read np). Even highly regarded technology companies such as Facebook could not verify their data sources. The entrenched falsehood generated around the virtual world has hindered progress in the extensively used platforms. This paper will carry out a rhetorical analysis of ‘how much of the internet is fake? Turns out, a lot of it, actually’ through logos and ethos rhetorical strategy.

Rhetorical Analysis

 The author opens up the article with factual research to support his solid argument. This way, he pulls the reader's attention into the article's contents and later reveals his intention to prove his argument. Citing sources such as the Justice Department‘s unsealed records and quoting the number of money people lost due to internet fraudulence generates interest and retains the reader's interest in finding out more about the article. For example, according to the Justice Department, advertisers lost %36 million in fraudulent digital operations. The article employs factual data to convince the reader of the argument being pushed across. Without further convincing, a reader can easily believe the author and go along with his main idea (Read np). Apart from using factual information, the author digs deeper into how the internet operates to bring out a desired effect on the reader- digital advertisers usually want to meet two requirements- people clicking at the advertisements premium subscriptions. Hence, the author employs logic to pursue the reader that the information presented is accurate and actual.

After presenting verified information on the topic, the author’s article goes ahead to set the stage for describing the situation at hand and its perceived origins. For instance, advertisement platforms are programmed to pick up information from premium users and then use it to generate a personalized advertisement. At the same time, hackers can use the information to gain entry into financial banking systems. Developing a particular interest in the narratives makes the facts real and indisputable. For instance, duping investors into believing that they were increasing their consumer base, but in reality, they were being fed a lie.  In the introductory part of the article, one cannot tell what is real and what is fake because of how the author articulates issues (Read np). Furthermore, a person can fake cookies while masquerading as a human. The author did an exemplary job providing evidence from which the reader could draw parallels with real-life issues, which helped the reader relate with more of the named incidences.

As the article dives deeper into the subject matter to come up with unique persuasive facts, the author begins to appeal to the inductive reasoning of the reader to define the rhetoric. As commonly known, the rising usage of the internet has, without a doubt, advantageous to the entire world due to the improvement of communication and delivery of information at a fast pace than before (Read np). To create a consistent argument and appeal to the inductive reasoning of the user, the author lays bare the facts and then uses the rhetorical questions for the reader to fill in the gaps that might be left unsaid. This way, the author leaves room for debate and makes the reader participate in the discussion at hand. Besides, the reader presents the information in a way that needs the reader to compare relatable issues. For example, while going through the article, the reader might think of related matters or bring up facts on other platforms. The use of a factual statement to make an argument brings out a contrast between reality and illusion. For instance, using years to pinpoint the stated facts to an actual timeline brings out the underlying urgent issues and relevance of the information presented. More so, the author ensures that he narrates the articles all possible scenarios, hence building up the item's inductive reasoning rhetoric. In short, the author exhaustively avoids the use of opinion so that he can appeal to the reader's reasonable judgment and solidify the argument into a persuasive message.

 Apart from unique, rare facts, the author's ethos appeals coupled with statistics and logical flow of creative ideas, make the article easy to read and capture information without hindrance. Also, he ensures that he gives instances of the progress made on the internet fraudulence (Read np). For example, YouTube had to develop a new system that could detect the difference between human-generated traffic and bot-generated traffic to get rid of the fraudulent cases. Consequently, he uses hope to give a reason to fight the people who make use of fraud to make money or rob other honest internet users. Defining right from the wrong ad picking a side is one way of using ethos to persuade the reader that the article is not just tabling interesting facts but pushing forward an actionable solution to the persistent problem. Thus, the article's objective informs the reader and advises him or her to take hid of the information to not fall into the hands of evil internet users. In simpler terms, the author writes the article ethically while appealing to the reader’s principles. Hence the author appeals to the reader’s emotions and sense of security. In the end, the reader believes the article's content while, in hindsight remaining informed.


 In the end section, the author calls for action. He makes use of subtitles to highlight all his points and bring the listener closer to his sentiments; hence he makes use of logos through deductive reasoning. Everyone has a role to play in the current society. The internet centrally caters to humans' needs and has completely changed how people socialize and conduct business daily. Nevertheless, nothing is perfect is in this world. The internet has come with both a negative and positive side. The positive side of the internet has been seen through cyberbullying and the entire society's ineptness to control internet content around different age groups. In the long run, fraudsters have found it convenient to rob the public through other age groups. Also, most sources from the internet are unverified hence cannot be used to make accurate decisions. People tend to believe what they hear or what seem pleasing to them. For instance, the accessibility nature of the internet makes information penetrate different levels of the society and cater to selective opinions without verification of accountability from the viewers.



Work cited

Read, Max. "How Much Of The Internet Is Fake?". Intelligencer, 2020,


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Video Games Do Not Cause Violence

Many parents fight against video and computer games meant for children. They claim that they do not understand technology. Many argue that children will transform into the violent characters in the videos. Research that can give a rational elucidation about the blame in the commencement of tragic occurrences is understandable. When people act violently, the natural response is to question the reason behind it. Unfortunately, that similar impulse can cause a quick judgment and wrong blame. In the wake of the latest increasing mass shootings, some policymakers and political leaders have suggested banning video games following the thought that they result in real-world violence. Any scientific evidence does not back the idea (Szycik et al. 737). The available research shows that violent video games have reduced violent activities. Also, the evidence that people committing crimes play violent video games is not illustrative enough to ascertain that the particular person used to watch “Sesame Street” or put on sneakers. Other researches have shown that video games reduce stress and in some case are likely to limit the crime rate. Besides, video games are played by a varied cross-section of the public. Video games do not cause violence among children or young teenagers.

Christopher Ferguson provides evidence that indicates that video games are not responsible for individual violence and that any person claiming that they do destroy people who play or watch them is based on minimal information. Ferguson states that moral panic, like those associated with mass shootings, encourages psychotherapists to make considerable noise on the topic to gain financial aids or prestige. In 2011, in a case revolving around violent behaviors and violent video games, the Supreme Court ruled made a ruling against California law aiming to control the sale of violent video games to below 16 years-old children in 7-2 decision. In the view of the majority, the court indicated, concerning the study on violence on a video game, that “The investigations have been disallowed by every judge or jury to consider them and with positive reason.” The Supreme Court supported that aggressive video games are free from restrictions in line with the First Amendment as do children and evidence from different researches have no convincing evidence that video games immorally harm children.

The case outcome might have seemed incredible for many who believed fervently that video games were detrimental to minors. Scholars had been guaranteeing us that media violence had an impact on us nearly as dramatic as misuse of drugs like excessive smoking on the cancer of the lungs or that media violence attributes to almost half of all the homicide incidences in the United States (DeLisi et al. 135). In truth, some academicians had suggested while giving stun warning that scientific professionals were moving for a trustable crisis sometimes because of the exaggerated arguments. The reason is open, as the Supreme Court truthfully saw it that the existing evidence of the video games in correlation to violent crimes in the society lacks strengths and is inconsistent. In most cases, they are based on investigations that use questionable research methodologies (Szycik et al. 737). Therefore, the studies are taken as an unusual way of indicating that academicians seem to have pushed their data, knowingly or unknowingly. The Supreme Court view was reflective of the review of the Sweden and Australia governments, all of which occurred nearly the same period. Clinicians and study of researchers have now supported the idea that there is a lack of agreement among professionals on the consequences of media violence on the community. According to Van Looy (127), only 10.1 percent of experts accepted that digital games on violent are a menace for society. Someone should look at the other 89.9 percent experts who never welcomed this idea.

Graph showing survey outcomes of scholars on the effect of media violence on society

An investigation from multiple labs is making it observable that the consequence of video games playoff on children’s aggression is small. Expansive research done in German equally have not disclosed the correlation between increasing violent crimes and violent video games. Other investigations, on the contrary, have revealed that any new release of fierce video games associates with an instant reduction in violent crimes in society. It is in line with a complete decline in youth violence happening in the period, as evident in this graph showing the development of violent video games from 1996 to 2011 EMA (Ferguson 57). As it shows, the dark red line shows the increasing consumption of violent video games. Also, the blue line indicates the reduction of violence among young adult populations.

A graph showing a reduction in violence among youths as video game violence consumption rises

The evidence presented in this graph is not to reveal that no investigation discovered any end product of the violent video games on youths, but that the result was insignificant. For example, a study carried out in Canada unearthed that playing an intense video game is only connected to almost a half a percent growth in an increase in youth aggression at a later time. Another similar outcome is visible in Dartmouth’s study on violent crime among violent video game players.  Asking youth if they play aggressive video games and whether they participate in violent crimes or conducts is a tense question to receive the right unbiased response. The research found out that people who involve in violent video games have their aggression increased but roughly with half percent (Hartmann et al. 318). There is a dissimilarity between practical and statistical significance. Scholars have usually appeared ignorant of the problem.

Scholars have said that evil or the good of a video game only means the quality of action within the virtual scenario. Virtual crime is not evil though it is in the aspect of the game, as interpreted by other players or passive characters. The immoral and immoral actions in video games do not possess any true ethical meaning; however, from the view of Aristotelian theory, it can still be meaningful in changing human behavior. In two cases, the Singer utilization of Columbine Shooting and the Lee Boyd Malvo case of Carneal and Chalmers, the two occurrences, video games, are found to be not significant.


In one study by Kühn et al. (127), the researcher tested probable impacts of a person playing GTA V, which is a fierce cinematic game. The investigator sets to play the game for two months with the use of a control cohort who acted as a non-aggressive video game. All the people were tested before and after the commencement of the violent video game, which was social life supportive game Sims 3, including a passive control group. The participants were tested again after the video for a long period of response and subsequently in follow-ups of two months duration gap (Kühn et al. 134). Even though the researcher did the tests with the aid of battery having questionnaires and analyses of computerized character to assess the variables of aggressiveness, anxiety, mood, interpersonal competencies, and empathy of the participants, as well as the executive control group, there were no observations of any detrimental consequences in response to video game playing. Only three assessments of the 208 participants revealed a weighty association trend that answers the hypothesis (DeLisi et al. 137). Because at least ten essential impacts would be anticipated entirely by chance, it was concluded that a person performing vehement video games does not relate to harmful, aggressive conduct in society.

Many studies show an individual to have an increased aggressiveness in behavior or thoughts and reduced moral behaviors, the impacts are short-lived. Nevertheless, the correlation, if any, is usually insignificant and not long-lasting. Due to these findings of the reaction of violence after a short period, the association between violent crimes and playing brutal videos is not very useful in being a representative of the population. Research papers showing longer tracing intervals are essential and can be highly relevant. However, no matter the significant representative correlation, it is necessary to avoid children from violent video games. It is because children tend to value more what they learn in their childhood ages and make them part of their life as they grow old. If so, it would appropriate under parental guidance.


Przybylski et al.  (1) Investigated whether teenagers who play video games develop aggressive behavior than those who do not. The outcome did support the hypothesis that video game contributes to aggressive behaviors. The authors say that almost all teenagers engage in a video game and the general public have created an assumption that video game has negative effects (Przybylski et al, 1). Despite the argument from opponents of video games that they cause mass-shooting events, researchers who support video games argue that it is important to recognize the social and cognitive benefits of video games.  In the study, British adolescents who played violent video games were recruited.  The psychosocial functioning of the adolescents was assessed to evaluate the aggression and prosocial behaviors.  Both confirmatory and exploratory models were employed to evaluate whether violent games contribute to aggressive behavior (Przybylski et al, 2). The findings showed no relationship between violent video games and aggressive behaviors.  The present research finds that researchers ask the video players to rate the violence in video games and their aggressive behaviors.  Thus, the participants rate the game violent level and their aggression level.  This is known as self-reporting biases which inflate the relationship between self-aggression and violence in gaming (Przybylski et al, 2).  However, this study used a fair and sensitive test and had a greater confidence in interpreting the results.  The article recommends that the policy-makers and researchers should adhere to openness and rigor in trying to understand the effect of technology, in particular video games in people's lives. There is confirmatory evidence that video games do not contribute to aggressive behaviors.

 Markey et al (1) assert that many correlational studies provide a sound argument that violent video games contribute to violence in our societies.  Not only correlational studies but researchers and lawmakers insist that violent video games are the main factor that causes violence in the 'real world'.  For example, the media reported that the shooting that occurred at Columbine High School was as a result of violent video games.  The media also reported that the perpetrators in Virginia Tech shooting were video game players.  After these tragedies, about 5,000 articles were published and reported that violent act is contributed by violent video games (Markey et al. 5).  However, it is important to note that the correlational studies use bias in that they use the method of questionnaires where the participants are asked to rate their aggression level and compare to video game violence.   Apart from self-reporting,   other experimental studies measure the aggression levels between video game players and non-video game players.  Note that those played violent video games caused noise blasts and this affected the opponents and increased aggression.  This methodology is flawed in that the studies focus on minor forms of aggression. These forms of aggression differ from aggression in the 'real world'.  In the current study, the authors measured violent crime rates such as homicide and aggravated assaults.  There was a simple correlation between these crimes and video game sales (Markey et al. 5).  The results showed that there was no link between video games sales and serious crimes.  Despite the claim by correlation studies, the media, and researchers that violent video games are the cause of aggravated assaults and homicides, the current study finds no evidence to support the claim.  Focusing on the sales of video games annually, there was no relation between the sales and the increase in violent crimes.   Surprisingly,   after the sales of video games, there was a reduction in aggravated assaults. When the M-rated video games were released,   there was a reduction in homicides (Markey et al. 7). 

The article states that the reduction in crimes while the video games were being played is because when adolescents play video games, they show aggression in the virtual world but not in the real world.  In other words, rather than showing aggressive behaviors physically, they just feel angry and control their aggression.  Another explanation is that aggressive individuals are more likely to play violent games so that as they are playing, they will express aggression.   In other words, aggressive individuals do not commit violence in the streets but they like watching the popular video games to decrease their aggression (Markey et al. 7).  This is known as the catharsis effect which states that in normal life, people experience traumatic events that can influence to act violently.  However, people tend to view aggression such as tragic plays and violent video games to release emotions and prevent themselves from engaging in negative behaviors.

According to Dana Foundation, the media, researchers, and lawmakers blame video game for the real world violence.   These individuals are influenced by the present studies that argue there is a correlation between video games and aggression.  However, other studies have done comprehensive research on video games and violence and have found no evidence.   For example, in 2011, Justice Saule Alito gave a concurring opinion and said that the goal of the video game is to kill, rape, chop, and set on fires, among other violent acts (Boffer, 1). However, there is no evidence that video games lead to violent acts. People rely on the research studies that contain flaws in methodology.  The American Medical Association reported that video games are associated with gambling addition but it affirmed that there is no evidence about the report and therefore, the council should consult the American Psychiatric Associating before reporting that video game addiction (Boffer, 1). The American Psychiatric Association reported that there is a   correlation between violent video games and antisocial behaviors such as biting, threats, insults, and form of aggression. However, it reported that there is no evidence that video games contributed to lethal violence. The National Center for Health Research reported that there is no clear evidence that playing violent video games is associated with aggression (Boffer, 1).  The organization recommended that the studies that report the hypothesis need to have a large sample size to derive more accurate results and eliminate errors.   However, it is important to note that video game is a factor that can lead to aggressive behaviors but it is important to consider all other factors and stop blaming violent video games.


 Politicians, medial, and lawmakers blame video games for aggressive behaviors that cause violence.  Many studies have reported a correlation between violent video games and violence.  However, the research paper finds that there is no enough evidence to support these claims. Contrary to the assumption, some researchers have found that playing video games is normal and not all adolescents who play video games engage in violent acts. Individuals who are aggressive tend to play the games to feel relieved. This means that rather than staying on the street committing crimes, they opt to play the game as a way of controlling their emotions. Therefore, the studies and research are flawed and it is recommended that scientists should address the issue using a critical eye rather than attention-getting desired. Scientists, lawmakers, politics, and other parties need to be careful not to report the negative effect of a video game using assumption, rather, the conclusion should be based on evidence-based research to provide enough evidence.





















Works Cited

DeLisi, Matt, Michael G. Vaughn, Douglas A. Gentile, Craig A. Anderson, and Jeffrey J. Shook.

″Violent video games, delinquency, and youth violence: New evidence.″ Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice 11, no. 2 (2013): 132-142.

Ferguson, Christopher J. "Violent video games and the Supreme Court: Lessons for the scientific

community in the wake of Brown v. Entertainment Merchants Association." American Psychologist 68.2 (2013): 57.

 Hartmann, Tilo, K. Maja Krakowiak, and Mina Tsay-Vogel. ″How violent video games communicate violence: A literature review and content analysis of moral disengagement factors.″ Communication Monographs 81.3 (2014): 310-332.

Kühn, Simone, et al. "Does playing violent video games cause aggression? A longitudinal intervention study." Molecular psychiatry 24.8 (2019): 1220-1234.Schulzke, Marcus. ″Defending the morality of violent video games.″ Ethics and Information Technology 12.2 (2010): 127-138.

Szycik, Gregor R., Bahram Mohammadi, Maria Hake, Jonas Kneer, Amir Samii, Thomas F. Münte, and Bert T. Te Wildt. ″Excessive users of violent video games do not show emotional desensitization: an fMRI study.″ Brain imaging and behavior 11, no. 3 (2017): 736-743.


Przybylski, Andrew K., and Netta Weinstein. "Violent video game engagement is not associated

with adolescents' aggressive behaviour: evidence from a registered report." Royal Society

open science 6.2 (2019): 171474.



Markey, Patrick M., Charlotte N. Markey, and Juliana E. French. "Violent video games and real-

world violence: Rhetoric versus data." Psychology of Popular Media Culture4.4 (2015):



Boffer Philip. "Do violent video games lead to violence?." Dana Foundation (2019).











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Cyberbullying in Girls

Cyberbullying refers to the self-willed and recurred harm inflicted through computers, mobile phones, and other electronic devices, especially over the internet, SMS, instant messages, and email (Hinduja et al, 2014). Cyberbullying has been greatly fostered by the exponential growth of social media platforms, where people post and comment on posts, and share photos and videos. The perpetrators, mostly boys prey on the victim’s posts, mostly girls, comments, or photos and videos shared either on their wall or sent privately through direct messages and may use them as leverage to demand favors against the victim’s will. Cyberbullies then publicly share the victim’s explicit content across social media platforms as a form of retaliation, or with the intent of intimidating the victim by having her social media friends troll her over the incident, and this may be persuasive and long-lasting. Cyberbullying takes many forms including gossip, harassment, posts or emails, flaming, body-shaming, and impersonation, whereby a cyberbully fakes their social media profile impersonating the victim then posts/sends intimidating content to evoke their friends to ridicule them. it is mostly gendered and sexualized and spotlights girls making boys invisible. (Mishna, et al. 2020). Cyberbullying subjects’ girls to violent acts to include harassment, abuse, violence, and discrimination, which in extreme cases result in physical bullying (Mishna, et al. 2020). Girls are more targeted by cyberbullying than boys and they experience more severe effects than boys. they experience, low self-esteem, depression, isolation and in some cases commit suicide.

Cyberbullying has been on the rise. and the prevalence of girls’ victimization is 3 times higher than boys (Nixon, 2014). Girls from tweenies, teenagers, and young adults mostly report being victims of spread rumors and lies, stalking, harassment and threats (Snell & Englander, 2010). On many occasions, girls’ cyberbullying involves publicizing their explicit pictures privately shared with the bully, who are mostly friendly and seem harmless before the bullying. After having these photos, they demand favors like visits and sex and threaten to post their photos if they do not comply. In 2012, Amanda Todd, a 15-year old Canadian student, shared her never-ending story of the harm cyberbullying brought into her life. In 7th grade, she sent a picture of her boobs to a boy she met online and later he demanded to have sex with her, he knew Amanda’s address, friends and family, from stalking, and threatened to share the photo of her boobs if she turned him down. The bully publicized Amanda’s explicit photos making her subject to anxiety, major depression, and panic disorder, she lost friends, hopped from school to school but it never got better, she harmed herself and attempted suicide multiple times, and she hanged herself about 5 weeks after sharing her story (Dean, 2012). Amanda’s traumatic story should serve as a warning and educate the world on the negative impacts of cyberbullying.

            Cyberbullying venues are numerous. Myspace, texting, Twitter, IMing, Facebook, and emails are the most common and easily accessible venues (Favela, 2010). Girls are more drawn to this bullying because they aren’t concerned with developing physical dominance, they’re oriented on relational aggression like rumors and exclusion, and they rely on language aggression which is conducive to online platforms (Fovela, 2010).

Cyberbullying causes depression in girls. Girls are naturally more emotional than boys which makes them more vulnerable. Cyberbullying subject girls to drastic changes in moods and emotions and make them feel frustrated and helpless. This builds up stress that leads to depression, which in several instances lead to suicide. Depression affects the girls’ social lives and develop into dangerous stigmas, isolation and harmful shame from peers. They’re often humiliated by their peers driving them into isolation that intensifies their feeling of worthlessness and they often begin using substance and alcohol. Research establishes that about 24% of bullied teens drink alcohol after the incident, 15% smoke marijuana, and 12% use tobacco by tenth grade majorly due to depression (Rapaport, 2017). Reliance on drugs leads to further deteriorated health as smoking adversely affects respiratory health, alcohol affects the liver, and they generally worsen the manifested mental health effects. Cyberbullying pushed girls to the edge of depression that is more than often manifested through substance abuse.

            Cyberbullying victims have low self-esteem and often feel useless and unworthy. Online bullying, especially on social media platforms, reach to numerous people, keeps spreading and cannot be stopped or undone (Fovela, 2010). This makes the victim be ridiculed online, in their schools, by their friends and walkers by, they lack friends and peace. Cyberbullying in girls often involves revealing explicit content and body shaming. Taking an instance of body shaming, the victimized girl will be ridiculed over her body by her friends and even people close to them making her hate herself and feel valueless. This makes her lose courage and have low self-esteem. Low self-esteem among girls results in retaliatory behavior like starving to cut weight if she was body-shamed for being fat and hating certain parts of their body. Furthermore, it leads to loss of interest in school, and life in general, and contributes to self-harm and suicidal thoughts.

Cyberbullied girls tend to isolate themselves from their peers, close friends, and at times even parents. Social isolation among victims can be caused by the need to distance from everyone due to the fear of being humiliated and/or the need to keep the instance private which makes them suffer in silence. A study on the effects of cyberbullying and social anxiety and withdrawal established that girls have significantly more social anxiety than boys (Coelho & Romao, 2018). Social isolation is often coupled with emotional isolation since cyberbullying creates feelings of intense shame and embarrassment that the victims don’t want to talk about it with anyone thus stay away from everyone. Victimized girls are also afraid that the bully will retaliate thus maintain a low profile by staying alone in school and at home. Social isolation intensifies low self-esteem and depression; however, victims feel the pressure to remain quiet and cut themselves off social groups that may humiliate or question them about the bullying incident. Moreover, isolation leads to higher levels of stress and inflammation, dementia, low self-esteem, depression and posttraumatic stress (PTSD).

            Cyberbullying is closely associated with suicidal thoughts amongst victims, especially girls.

Research posits that while boys are more involved in physical bullying as victims or offenders, girls are more involved in online bullying. After being cyberbullied, boys are more likely to bully their peers while girls tend to partake in indirect and relational forms of aggression (Hinduja & Patchin, 2018).

Girls are more susceptible to maladaptive emotional problems including anger, self-pity, and depression, and due to anonymity and range of cyberbullying, it causes hopelessness and helplessness. In a 2015 study, about 17% of cyberbullied teenagers considered attempting suicide, 14% planned, and 8% attempted suicide and for these attempts, girls were more involved than boys (Hinduja & Patchin, 2018). Therefore, cyberbullying causes suicidal thoughts to the victimized girls and they tend to attempt or succeed at it more than boys.

            In conclusion, girls are more likely to be affected by cyberbullying and experience more severe effects than boys. They are mostly cyberbullied by people close to them who seemed harmless before the incident and after being bullied, girls tend to dissociate themselves socially from their friends and family. This results in emotional and social isolation that intensifies stress and low self-esteem and they begin feeling lonely, helpless and hopeless. It also makes them embarrassed and humiliated and often develop suicidal thoughts and may end up committing suicide. Girls are more adversely affected by cyberbullying and effective measures must be formulated to reduce its prevalence. Cyberbullying inflicts lasting emotional and physical health issues. It has been blamed for several health effects including depression, anxiety and suicidal behavior among girls. With a focus on curbing cyber bullying it recommendable to encourage girls to speak to adults to include parents and guardians in case they are being bullied online. It is also recommendable for women and young girls to stand up against bullies instead of just watching men and boys bully their fellow women on social media platforms.














Chan, H. C., & Wong, D. S. (2019). Traditional school bullying and cyberbullying perpetration: Examining the psychosocial characteristics of Hong Kong male and female adolescents.          Youth & Society, 51(1), 3-29. Retrieved 9 April 2020 from               Traditional_School_Bullying_and_Cyberbullying_Perpetration_Examining_the_Psychos            ocial_Characteristics_of_Hong_Kong_Male_and_Female_Adolescents/links/5e1ea1f245            851536bfe64a16/Traditional-School-Bullying-and-Cyberbullying-Perpetration-      Examining-the-Psychosocial-Characteristics-of-Hong-Kong-Male-and-Female-       Adolescents.pdf

Coelho, V. A., & Romao, A. M. (2018). The relation between social anxiety, social withdrawal    and (cyber) bullying roles: A multilevel analysis. Computers in Human Behavior, 86,   218-226. Retrieved 9 April 2020 from

Favela, L. O. (2010). Female cyberbullying: Causes and prevention strategies. Inquiries Journal, 2(11). Retrieved 9 April 2020 from             cyberbullying-causes-and-prevention-strategies

Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2019). Connecting adolescent suicide to the severity of bullying     and cyberbullying. Journal of school violence, 18(3), 333-346. Retrieved 9 April 2020             from              de_to_the_Severity_of_Bullying_and_Cyberbullying

Mishna, F., Schwan, K. J., Birze, A., Van Wert, M., Lacombe-Duncan, A., McInroy, L., & Attar- Schwartz, S. (2018). Gendered and sexualized bullying and cyber bullying: Spotlighting            girls and making boys invisible. Youth & Society, 0044118X18757150. Retrieved 9          April 2020 from

Dean, M., (2012). The Story of Amanda Todd. Retrieved 9 April 2020 from;   

Nixon, C. L. (2014). Current perspectives: the impact of cyberbullying on adolescent health.        Adolescent health, medicine and therapeutics, 5, 143. Retrieved 9 April 2020 from   

Rapaport, L. (2017). Bullied Teens More Likely to Smoke, Drink and Use Drugs. Retrieved 9      April 2020 from        drink-and-use-drugs

Snell, P. A., & Englander, E. (2010). Cyberbullying victimization and behaviors among girls:      Applying research findings in the field. Journal of Social Sciences. Retrieved 9 April            2020 from


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Cyberbullying Questions

Q1- What is the definition of Cyberbullying?

A1- the use of electronic communication to bully a person, typically by sending messages of an intimidating or threatening nature.

A2-self-willed and recurred harm inflicted through computers, mobile phones, and other electronic devices, especially over the internet, SMS, instant messages, and email.

A3-An aggressive and intentional act or behavior that is carried out by a group of individuals using electronic device and ends up harming another party.

Q2- What are the types of Cyberbullying?


  1. Harassment

It involves the bully sending offensive and malicious messages to an individual or a group and is often repeated multiple times. Cyberstalking is one form of harassment that involves continual threatening and rude messages, and can lead to physical harassment in the real, offline world.

  1. Flaming

Flaming is similar to harassment, but it refers to an online fight exchanged via emails, instant messaging or chat rooms. It is a type of public bullying that often directs harsh languages, or images to a specific person.

  1. Exclusion

Exclusion is the act of intentionally singling out and leaving a person out from an online group such as chats and sites. The group then subsequently leave malicious comments and harass the one they singled out.

  1. Outing

Outing is when a bully shares personal and private information, pictures, or videos about someone publicly. A person is “outed” when his information has been disseminated throughout the internet.

  1. Masquerading

Masquerading is a situation where a bully creates a fake identity to harass someone anonymously. In addition to creating a fake identity, the bully can impersonate someone else to send malicious messages to the victim.

Q3- why is there cyberbullying?

A1- There are many causes for Cyberbullying to occur. One cause of cyberbullying is when students use technology to harm others. When the students use the computer, they may use it to harm another student in which this results in cyberbullying.

A2- Cyberbullies Believe the Victim Deserves It, for instance one mean girl at school might get cyberbullied online by her fellow students with the intentions of shaming her.

A3- Cyberbullies Are Power Hungry, cyber bullies want to fee like they hold the power to control others and make them bend to their will.

A4- Cyberbullies Lack Empathy, those who intentionally prey on others on social media platforms believe that it is not a big deal and they have little or no remorse for their actions.


Q4- who are the victims of cyberbullying?

A1- Anyone can be a victim of cyberbullying, however in most occasion teenagers and young girls are more susceptible to cyberbullying.

A2-At times cyberbullies generally target someone and sometime they pick victims they do not know based on their gender, race and sexual orientation.

Q5- What are the symptoms of cyberbullying?


  1. stomach-aches or other physical ailments.
  2. The stress of bullying also can cause stress-related conditions like stomach ulcers and skin conditions.
  3. cyberbullied may experience changes in eating habits like skipping meals or binge eating.
  4. Low self-esteem.
  5. Withdrawal from family and spending a lot of time alone.
  6. Reluctance to let parents or other family members anywhere near their mobiles, laptops
  7. -fear.
  8. low self-esteem.
  9. Struggle academically for students.

Q6- How can someone get Cyberbullied sexually and what could it lead to?

A1- Taking unflattering pictures of a person and spreading them through cell phones or the Internet Sexting or circulating sexually suggestive pictures or messages about a person Cyber bullying can be very damaging to adolescents and teens. It can lead to anxiety, depression, and even in extreme cases suicide.


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Challenges in the Cybersecurity Workforce

The issues of cybersecurity in the United States have been on the rise with various challenges facing the sector in the workforce. This has resulted in billions of losses per year, with also another problem being the state-sponsored hacking groups, which pose another significant threat to the security of firms. Globally, it is estimated that there will be about 1.9 million positions for cybersecurity personnel, which will not be filled by 2020 (Morris). In the United States, individuals who are competent enough to provide the services to prevent the issues of malicious threats are unavailable, with more than 200,000 jobs unfilled today (Morris). Some of its main problems are the concerns to do with industrial productivity and national security, which are greatly affected by the threats posed by cybersecurity issues. This paper will discuss the challenges mainly at the state level and ways that could be utilized t addressed them.

The main challenge facing the state level in cybersecurity is getting the individuals who will take the jobs to protect the personal information stored by the state. Besides, It is worth to note that the federal, like both the local and state governments, hold data for millions of individuals, and they depend on internet and information communication technologies to offer services to the citizens (Poremba). For example, to maintain critical infrastructure as public utilities, to make sure that first responders receive the data they need in crisis situations and share information across states and federal networks. Therefore, digital investment, protection of cyberinfrastructure, and establishment of approaches that are comprehensive are crucial to help in increasing the readiness and resilience to tackle issues that may arise.

Causes of Shortage of Workers

This is caused by various factors that contribute to it, which include educational, socio-cultural, economic, political, and technological issues, which have an impact on the qualification of the workers for the job. The issues of salary have contributed it the challenges faced by the state in securing competent workers because those in the private sector are paid more than those in the public sector. Besides, some of the studies that have been carried out indicate that recruiting and keeping individuals with experience in cybersecurity is among the biggest challenges that are commonly encountered. Also, in a survey that was done by Deloitte-NASCIO on cybersecurity, the majority of the respondents claimed that the main barrier to attraction on individuals in the working environment is the issue of salaries, which does not match those offered by the private sector (Bergal). For instance, the data provided by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics shows that the annual salary for the cybersecurity working in state government was approximately $76000, while those in the private industry earned $95000 (Bergal). This was is a huge difference that cannot be closely related.

Furthermore, politics also plays a significant role in the workforce employed in the public sector. This is because of the job and salary insecurity that is present in the sector contributed by the failure of the Senate to come into an understanding, which then complicates issues of workers on whether they will be paid or not in case it is shut down by the government (Bergal). Besides, some of the officials in the Senate have stated that the government cannot compete with the pay offered by the private sector in either the top end or entry-level of the scale. Additionally, the issue of job security in the federal governments has been called into question because of budget cuts, pay freezes, and the inability of the president and the congress to agree on the 2014 fiscal funding (Bergal). This uncertainty thus steers away some of the potential and competent employees from the public sector to the private ones.

Apart from that, the public sector also has more barriers than they are in the private sector. For example, to be employed by the government, one of the requirements is the secret clearance, which is not the case in the private sector. Together with that, the position also requires an individual who has lived and worked in the country for a minimum period of five years. These barriers are some of the least important things that are required by the private sector, and they also prevent other competent workers from applying for jobs, which then results in a crisis in the workforce. This is highly contributed by the least number of an individual meeting the requirements set.

The National Association of State Personnel Executives estimated that the state government could lose the workers, but the issue of shortage has not been experienced by the majority of the states in the United States. However, there are several factors that have been linked by the Council of State Governments survey to combine with the labor conditions that that are currently experienced and could result in a crisis (Poremba). These factors include the budget problems, rates of employee retirement, and the current composition of the state workforce. Besides, the estimates for the future rates of retirements are higher, which then shows that a shortage of workforce might become a big challenge facing not only the states but also all the sectors. These values are calculated with consideration of the composition of the current workforce and other determinants such as age and the years of service of the present workers.

Besides, the average age for the workers both in private and the public sector is steady with some of the states such as New Jersey, North Dakota, Montana, Iowa, and Kansas estimated to experience a massive shortage of the workforce in 10 years. Currently, the United States workforce is majorly comprised of the baby boomers generation, with the national average age of the state government workforce falling within the center of the group age range (Coulson, Megan, and Vincent). Furthermore, the composition of the present employees is a contributing factor to the shortage in the workforce in cybersecurity. Although the individuals working gain institutional knowledge and experience, the significant part of the workforce from this group eventually seeks retirement, which then leaves the less trained workforce to tackle the job (Crumpler and James). The current data reported on the average years of service by the workers in the state governments shows the impending shortage of employees who will be available. Therefore, it is a concern that needs to be addressed earlier.

Also, budget cuts contribute to the shortage of workers in cybersecurity because of the limitations of hiring it causes. For instance, mandatory hiring limitations have been enforced by 27 states or have established an outright hiring freeze, which then has a significant impact on the recruiting and retaining process of cybersecurity employees by the human resource departments (Crumpler and James). This contributes to the shortage because the hiring of new employees is not done with the aging workforce seeking retirement. Therefore, the issues of the shortage of the cybersecurity workforce in the state workforce are a result of various factors that contributes to it.

Addressing the Challenges

The shortage of workforce in the state cybersecurity positions is a great concern that needs to be addressed to prevent the issues of national security and economic growth it affects. This can only be done by getting more qualified individuals to fill the cybersecurity job in the government in the future. The issue of the individuals who will work efficiently and deliver the protection required in the cybersecurity will need collaboration with other stakeholders such as the institutions offering the programs. This will ensure that the individuals are thought and are well informed on various strategies that can be applied in dealing with different issues that may arise in the field. Besides, the establishment of initiatives that are determined to identify and train individuals to take up the roles as scholars of the cybersecurity will be an excellent opportunity to develop a pool of personnel who will be available for the job.

The state government should also work to mentor the individuals already in the workforce to improve their skills and knowledge on the current issues facing the field. This is because an informed individual will be in a better position to deal with the challenges that arise on the issue than their counterparts. Therefore, the provision of training services for the workers is a strategy that will promote it (Bergal). Besides, the state government can focus on providing their workers with an opportunity to develop their skills through further studies to improve their competency. This improves their readiness and capability to deal with issues as they arise.

Furthermore, the issue of salaries should also be addressed to help in maintaining and attracting more competent employees to work for the government. Although salary cannot be the only thing that attracts employees, it plays a major role in creating an opportunity for the workers to further their education and other important training that improves their skills. Cybersecurity employees in the United States are paid a salary starting from $25,000 in a year, with few individuals getting more than $100,000 per year (Bergal). The issue with workers who have the competency and enough skills for the job is that they want an exciting and challenging environment that will help in the development of their careers.

Besides, the majority of the individuals who have enough experience, knowledge, and skills know their worth, and therefore, offering good pay with benefits will be the best strategies to attract and retain them. For them to maintain the competency in data protection, it will be necessary to offer pay that is more than half or even twice with is paid to other individuals performing different It roles. Also, offering compensation to employees who are able to identify and fix security flaws will serve as a motivation that will encourage the workers to deliver the best they can in their service (Corrin). With this, the issues of malicious threats will be significantly managed with the protection of data will be the priority

Apart from that, the budgeting for the cybersecurity is an issue that must be highly considered to maintain the level of security that will be required. This is because the hiring of workers will depend on it. The issue of limitation of the budgetary allocation reduces the capability of the state to hire competent, experienced, knowledgeable, and skilled cybersecurity workers, thus leaving it to a less talented workforce, which is increases the chances for an attack because of the vulnerability attached to it (Henry). Therefore, the budget allocation for cybersecurity should be increased, and its limitations lifted to provide an opportunity for a better workforce that will take the lead in providing the services and protecting people’s information.

Furthermore, the labor conditions that are set by the state governments for individuals seeking cybersecurity jobs should be revised to help in addressing the issues of shortage. Besides, recruits have the potential to grow and be the best. Therefore, the states should focus on ways they can be improved to meet the need they look for.


In conclusion, one of the significant issues facing the cybersecurity workforce at the state level is the issue of getting competent and enough employees to work for the state. The federal and state government have a lot of information about individuals that need to be protected because of issues such as economic growth and national security. Therefore, the employment of competent workers is required to promote it. However, various barriers prevent the recruitment and attraction of competent workers to state jobs. This includes salary, labor conditions, shortage of competent workers, and inadequate budgetary allocation to facilitate the hiring process, among others. This can be addressed through collaboration with institutions offering the services to establish initiatives that promote a better workforce, increasing budgetary allocation, and offering better salaries.



Works cited

Bergal, Jenni. “Hiring Cybersecurity Staff Is Hard for States.” Itbusinessedge, 2015,

Corrin, Amber. “Is There a Cybersecurity Workforce Crisis?” FCW, 2013,

Coulson, Tony, Megan Mason, and Vincent Nestler. "Cyber Capability Planning and the Need for an Expanded Cybersecurity Workforce." Communications of the IIMA 16.2 (2018): 2.

Crumpler, William, and James A. Lewis. "The Cybersecurity Workforce Gap." Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC.[Online]. Available: https://www. csis. org/analysis/cybersecurityworkforce-gap (2019).

Henry, Adam P. "Mastering the Cyber Security Skills Crisis." (2017).

Morris, Susan. "Addressing The Cybersecurity Workforce Shortage: It’S A State Of Emergency - Training Industry". Training Industry, 2017, Accessed 30 Nov 2019.

Poremba, Sue Marquette. “State Governments Failing in Cybersecurity.” Itbusinessedge, 2015,

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                         Managing Network Security Through Policies

  • Analyze the importance of having acceptable use policies, remote access policies, and network security control policies. Choose one acceptable use policy, remote access policy, or network security control policy and give three reasons why you believe this policy is an effective way to manage network security.  

            Acceptable use policies (AUP) is perceived to a document that stipulates the practices and constraints that a user must comply with so as to be given the permission of accessing an organization’s internet or network. The AUP policies include certain rules, the consequences of breaking those rules, as well as the details regarding the philosophy of the organization for granting access. Remote access policies are the set of rules and requirements that are primarily designed for the purpose of minimizing potential exposure to damages, for instance, loss of data, internal systems, and intellectual property that arises for the illegal use of a company’s resources (Von & Von, 2009). Network security control policies is typically a formal document that is used for the purpose of outlining the procedures, guidelines, and principles that aid in enforcing, managing, as well as maintaining computer network security.

            Encryption policy – with this policy, it means that the general access to personal data will have to be strictly controlled through encryption, for instance strong pass phrases and VPN (virtual private networks). The reason as to why this is best strategy is because it ensures that protection to computer network against unauthorized processes that have the potential of breaching its security (Vallabhaneni, 2019). 

  • Assess the risks and threats that may occur if these policies are underdeveloped or unavailable. Recommend three technical appliances that may be used to implement a network security function within your assessment and justify your recommendations. 

            The several damages that may arise in case these policies are unavailable or underdeveloped. They include loss of company’s confidential or sensitive data, damage to the company’s decisive internal systems, damage to public image, and increase in financial liabilities as a result of these losses. Some of the technical appliances that can be used include the use of VPNs (virtual private networks), password/s, and Third Party agreement. The reason for recommending these technical appliances is because they ensure that the general access to computer network will be strictly limited to authorized individuals who desire to prevent their data from illegal access (Frye, 2007). 

                                    Developing Personnel Security

  • Determine three reasons why an organization should define the boundaries of control, identify personnel security functions based on risks, and manage change within the work force. Select what you believe to be the most important reason and explain why.

            In the process of formulating rules and regulations that define the organization’s boundaries, it means that it becomes possible for workers, stakeholders, and the company itself to understand the kind of data or records that is vital to the wellbeing of the company as well as the external and internal forces that has the potential of affecting them (Dan & Arthur, 2011). Another reason is that becomes possible for the organization to have the ability of creating better policies that take into consideration processes, assets, as well as the manner in which workers access data or files on (Von & Von, 2009). Another reason is that it will facilitate the evaluation of security measures, whether physical or computer network-related as well as the anticipated potential solutions  

  • Propose three activities that could be performed by the Human Resources Department to screen and hire personnel effectively. Choose one activity you proposed and justify how it would support personnel security functions.

Identification of the existing position as well as evaluating need

Developing vacancy description

Developing the recruitment plan

            As much as the above three activities are concerned, the Identification of the existing position as well as evaluating need is crucial because it will enable the HR department to align all the staff skill sets to the organizations goals and initiatives. As a result of that, the evaluation of the tasks to be executed will improve the ability of recognizing potential risks and refrain from any form of insecure behaviors. This will in return enhance the enforcement of policies that will continue to support personnel security functions (Dan & Arthur, 2011).










Dan, & Arthur, C. (2011). Cybersecurity: The Essential Body Of Knowledge. Cengage Learning, 2011

Frye, D. W. (2007). Network Security Policies and Procedures. Boston, MA : Springer Science+Business Media

VALLABHANENI. (2019). WILEY CIAEXCEL EXAM REVIEW 2019, PART 3: Business knowledge for internal auditing (wiley cia exam ... review series). Place of publication not identified: JOHN WILEY & Sons.

Von, S. S. H., & Von, S. R. (2009). Information security governance. New York, NY: Springer.




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Children should not be allowed to use the Internet

The use of Internet has tremendously increased. The quantity of internet users had reached 1.858 billion from 394 million from the year 2000 upto 2009. 43.6% of people globally could easily access the internet. Young kids were not left out by technological developments. Children use the internet to play games and search for different topics. Studies reveal that over 80% of American youngsters own phones, at the age of 12. The benefits of using internet have blinded many parents that they assume the permanent danger it expose young children to. The social media content brings the wider world closer to children, something unhealthy for a child’s growth. This paper strives to convince parents on the damaging consequences of using the internet on young children and the reasons why they should be prohibited from accessing the internet.

Addiction is a major problems connected with children access to the internet. Parents have not paid the necessary attention to internet addiction as an emerging issue in the community. The internet gives kids to a total new experience full of fun and entertainment. The information found on the internet is more interesting than the interactions in their families (Killen 29). It is important for parents to pay attention to symptoms to recognize when their kids are internet addicts. First, children with internet addiction are highly irritable. Second, they do not sleep in order to use the internet, and lastly, they lose trace of time when using the net. If this is unrestrained, children may find the internet to be more important than those people in their life.

Additionally, children lose the value of socialization. Lack of socialization is dangerous to a child’s future. Online friend suddenly become more important than their own families (Grossbart & Sanford 23). Research shows that majority of children in America spend a lot of time in their bedrooms using the internet. Eventually, there emerges a wide gap between parent and their children because children prefer talking to their online friends than their own families. Therefore, parents should deny their children access to the internet because lack of social skills may affect their relationships in future.

The internet exposes a child to cyberbullying. Cyberbullying negatively affects a child’s self-esteem.  Parents are not aware of the kind of people their children interact with on the internet (Livingstone et al 9). Children who have experienced cyberbullying losses their power, and they do not have confidence to fight the cruel internet community. Also bullying can cause anxiety and depression in a youngster, a problem which can persist through their adulthood. Children who have been bullied in most cases turn out to be drug addicts and suicidal if they are not taken through therapy.

Another issue of the internet is poor academic performance. Having access to the internet makes children to abandon their academic commitments. They forget to attend to attend to their school work because they are too busy chatting on the internet. Also, social media affect children’s behavior in academic institutions. Additionally, some kids turn into online discussion. This affects children as they cannot fully focus because they are tempted to login into other sites. A research carried out in Carnell University revealed that learners who never used the internet had a good performance than those who accessed the internet (Lenard et al 33). Therefore, denying internet access to children increases their academic concentration.

The internet has enhanced moral decay in young children. Social media increase indiscipline and make kids more aggressive because of the content watched on social media platforms. Kids get the notion that violence is not a big issue in their surroundings from watching action movies (Lapsley 12). Also watching this movies have increased killing cases as the internet gives people ideas on ways to kill a person, and they think that, like in most movies, they will go unpunished.

Finally, the use of internet increases sedentary lifestyle. When using their phone, children often prefer their own privacy in their rooms. They do not go outside to play with their folks, and they avoid doing any work (Grossbart & Sanford 34). Furthermore, they indulge in unhealthy foods, which is risky to their health due to increased body cholesterol. Sedentary lifestyle exposes kids to lifestyle diseases such as diabetes and cancer. Additionally, spending a lot of time seated can risk a child getting neck and eyesight problems. Thus, parents should eradicate their children’s internet to prevent health problems which result from poor lifestyle choices.  

In conclusion, the internet poses many harmful effects to children born in the era of technology, although it may have some benefits to the society. Children get exposed to inappropriate content, which psychologically affects them. Therefore, it is advisable for all parents to prohibit their youngsters from accessing the internet till they reach the legal and gain ability to differentiate between wrong and right. This will make children more responsible citizens in the society.




Works Cited

Grossbart, Sanford, et al. "Socialization aspects of parents, children, and the Internet." ACR

            North American Advances (2002). PRINT.

Killen, Melanie. "Social and moral development in early childhood." Handbook of moral

            behavior and development. Psychology Press, 2014. 137-160. PRINT.

Lapsley, Daniel K. Moral psychology. Routledge, 2018. PRINT.       

Livingstone, Sonia M, Leslie Haddon, and Anke Görzig. Children, Risk and Safety on the

            Internet: Research and Policy Challenges in Comparative Perspective. Bristol, UK:

            Policy Press, 2012. PRINT.

Lenard, Amanda, Maya Simon, and Mike Graziano. "The Internet and Education: Findings of

            the Pew Internet & American Life Project." (2001). PRINT.


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Cyber terrorism is the use of the internet to intimate or coerce the civilian population with political or social objectives. Cyberterrorism is an issue of concern in the modern world since individuals and terrorists’ organizations are using the internet to cause physical threats. It is important to note that due to the proliferation of advancing tactical techniques and technology such as the Internet of Things, there is an increase of networking group that are using these computer systems to cause cyber terrorists to attack. This is an issue that requires protective security measures to undermine cyber capabilities and prevent physical damage. Cyberterrorism is causing massive loss of life and environmental damage. Recent research and studies have shown that the existing terrorists’ organization will use the advantaged Internet technology to complete their mission. Thus, it is predicted that due to the use of computer and Internet technology, it will be difficult to detect and defend attacks. Thus, it is high time to come up with security measures to prevent cyber terrorism. The Internet has created cyberspace where terrorists exchange information to cause physical threats to individuals, organizations and national as a whole with economic and political motivations.

  Chen, Jarvis & Macdonald, (2014) asserts that in the United Kingdom, cyber-attacks by terrorists cause higher risk.  Cyber-terrorists target areas like nuclear power stations, government organizations, and military organizations, among other organizations using the Internet and computer technology (Chen, Jarvis & Macdonald, 2014). Thus, the issue requires national security legislators to pay attention to cybersecurity issues. It should develop cyber policies to protect state networks and secure the homeland. The author adds that political hacktivists are using the websites of the government to protests political issues. Thus, the threat of cyberterrorism is brought by terrorists' organizations and the hacktivists and both have a common motivate which is a political motive (Chen, Jarvis & Macdonald, 2014). The term cyber-attack is ambiguous since some terrorists group uses conventional military offensives, others use computer technology to steal sensitive national security, and others use computer technology to derive bank account details (Chen, Jarvis & Macdonald, 2014).The author  examines the cyber-attacks that  quality as cyber-terrorist and  in conducting the research,  he finds that  the Commonwealth nations  have a common definition of  cyberterrorism  since they  assert that cyberterrorism is as an act that  uses the electronic system  to intimidate  the public and causes  a serious damage to the public  and property   with political  or religious motive.

 Focusing on of cyberterrorism, Chen, Jarvis & Macdonald, (2014) assert the term was invented in the 1980s but after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the security professionals paid attention to the cybersecurity threats and found different types of risks such as cyber-warfare, cyber-crime, and cyberterrorism among other cyber threats. During this period, there was a high growth of the Internet and this made the security experts predict that the terrorist groups would use the Internet to cause more damage (Chen, Jarvis & Macdonald, 2014).  Since this period, the term cyberterrorism is widely used and scholars find that terrorists are using the Internet and computer technology such as web mapping programmer to conduct an attack. It is also important to understand that cyberterrorism is a contingent decision where the terrorists have political interest and agendas toward causing political violence (Chen, Jarvis & Macdonald, 2014).   Blakemore (2016) adds that cyberspace is the environment for all human interaction and online activities including cyberterrorism, and cybercrime. In other words, cyberspace is a World Wide Web where communication and information sharing takes place. However, the cyberspace is changing not only in communication and information but also how people interact with each other (Blakemore, 2016).  Today, everyone can access the cyberspace and create an application without sanction.  Users are also enjoying low cost and convenience and this indicates that in the future, people will rely on the technology in real life.

Today, cyberterrorism a serious crime and the activity will rise given that various cyberterrorism activities go unreported and this makes it difficult to measure the cybercrime.  The police are unable to gather accurate data due to the fact that the victims fail to report the matter to the police and they end up reporting to the providing company (Blakemore, 2016). The victims do not understand to whom they should report the incidence.  Another challenge is that the security forces are unable to investigate all the reported cases and the problems end up being underestimated.  It is also important to understand that cyberterrorism is widespread in that terrorists use global communication systems and this makes it difficult to detect cyberterrorists (Blakemore, 2016). For example, in 2007 and 2008, there were £53 billion online fraud worldwide and 3.6million criminal acts respectively.  Note that these the cybercrime activities are underreported and the figures are just a tip of the iceberg. The world spends almost one trillion dollars annuals in cybercrime and UK alone spends £27bn annually (Blakemore, 2016).   Moslemzadeh & Tehrani, (2017) adds that due to the growth of Information technology, terrorist are able to access and use deadly weapons and technology. For this reason, the public need to be safeguarded to avoid the devastating consequences brought by cyberterrorism (Moslemzadeh & Tehrani, 2017).  Cyber terrorists have changed their methods in that in the past, the hackers had ‘hacker's ethics' which restricted them from sharing information and causing harm to the data. However, due to the new technology, cyberterrorism is a serious crime since the terrorists have advanced their political agenda and are causing a great national and international threat (Moslemzadeh & Tehrani, 2017).  Cyber-terrorist no longer uses intelligence-tracking methods but they use Brute Force and Netbots to conduct the attack.


Responses to cyber terrorism

  Recent studies and researches have realized that terrorists use science and technology to conduct cyberterrorism. Thus, science and technology approaches should be implemented to counter-terrorism and destroy new terrorist activities. Almost all organizations including military organizations, government organizations, and industries, among others face the threat of cyber terrorists (Janczewski & Colarik, 2008)  Company defense will not be the best approach to prevent cyberterrorism but rather, a wider cooperation is of great importance. First, there should be a cooperation of group organization such as Internet service providers. The group would work together in controlling the Internet system and eliminate wider system responses.  Second, there should be coordination between national and international law. The coordination should restrict hacking and come up with global security arrangements (Janczewski & Colarik, 2008). All countries worldwide should combine efforts and come up with initiatives toward maintaining information technology security.



 The research has discussed the issue of cyberterrorism- the act of using Internet technology with political or economic ideologies to cause intimidation and significant damage to individual, public or environment. Terrorists are individual actors or group where the participants focus on targets and use modern techniques to cause a physical attack. The research paper has reported that to reduce cyberterrorism threats, the Internet service providers and the national and international security organizations should combine efforts to hide computer systems and develop laws concerning criminal sanction.





Blakemore Brian. (2016). Policing Cyber Hate, Cyber Threats and Cyber Terrorism. Routledge


 In Chen, T. M., In Jarvis, L., & In Macdonald, S. (2014). Cyberterrorism: Understanding,

Assessment, and response. Springer


In Janczewski, L., & In Colarik, A. M. (2008). Cyber warfare and cyber terrorism. Idea Group



Moslemzadeh P. Tehrani. (2017). Cyberterrorism: The Legal And Enforcement Issues. World



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