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Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

Write a paper about one of the topics listed below.  The paper must be 4 double-spaced pages.  You must use and cite at least four different reference sources.  References should come from books, journal articles, or government documents.  Use MLA format with parenthetical references at the end of sentences and a bibliography at the end of the paper.  The bibliography is not to be included as part of the paper's length.  The paper must be submitted in two forms.  A hard copy must be submitted in class on the due date.  A copy of the paper must also be submitted through the Blackboard website for this class.  Papers that are not submitted via both methods will receive no points.

•    The eruption of Krakatoa in 1883
•    The Alaskan earthquake of 1964
•    The Indonesian tsunami of 2004
•    The Japanese tsunami of 2011
•    Global warming and polar bears
•    Coral Reefs and global warming
•    Threats to manatees in the Everglades
•    Desertification in Africa
•    Depletion of the Oglala Aquifer in the Great Plains
•    Air pollution in China

193 Words  1 Pages

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

This is not a traditional question though. Here is the subject: you have a friend who does not
believe in anthropogenic climate change. This person simply cannot believe that humans have
had such a wide reach on the world’s environment, let alone the climate. And to highlight their
position, they state they just saw a report that the area around Atlanta was actually cooling in
long term trends. Also, the Arctic Vortex this past winter in the Northeast of the U.S. provides
evidence that climate change is false and/or naturally occurring. Lastly, their senator has given
several speeches on the subject and has vehemently opposed climate change, and has urged all of
his constituents (including your friend) to oppose the idea that humans can cause climate change.
It is your job to convince your friend that climate change is not only very real, but also primarily
human induced. You do not need to address this essay directly to your friend (but you may do so
if it helps you structure your argument). You will need to bring all of your knowledge of global
change to bear on this essay. Because this is your only written question, I expect about 1000-
1200 words. Here is a helpful hint on how to structure your answer:
1. You should first discuss the basics of climate change (greenhouse gases, weather vs.
climate, carbon cycle, etc.).
2. Second, you should discuss what you learned in previous modules on past global change,
social change, and environmental change. You should mention all of the big themes we
covered, and be concise. 
3. Lastly, circle back to climate change and discuss empirical evidence for climate change.
You may also want to address their ‘facts’ and how authoritative facts do not necessarily
invalidate anthropogenic climate change (The Sagan readings are essential here).
Of course, feel free to answer in any way you like. The above points are just suggestions and
answering in this format does not guarantee you any specific grade. Often times, the best grades
are those where the student takes risks (but adequately addresses all the basics too). Essentially,
I want to know how well you have synthesized this class. Address the generalities of global
change while supporting it with specific facts about various aspects of global change that were
covered throughout the course. Plus, don’t forget that your friend is dealing with certain facts
they believe invalidates climate change, you will want to address this through what you learned
from the Sagan readings. And, don’t forget to address those social changes too. 

follow the instruction carefully and write the essay.

447 Words  1 Pages

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

The United States and Canada have a lot in common, particularly in terms of overlapping popular culture. As well, the United States and Canada are very close in terms of trade (especially after NAFTA), migration, and shared security concerns. However, a large part of Canadian identity revolves around what makes them different from Americans.
The purpose of this assignment is to get you thinking about what makes Canada and the United States different from each other. For this assignment you will write 2 papers. The first paper will answer the question, “What makes Canada different from the United States?” The second paper will answer the question, “What makes the United States different from Canada?” Each paper should be 2 pages single spaced with 12 point font and 1-inch margins. The title of the paper should be at the top of the page, and student and class information should be in the header of the paper. In-text sourcing (i.e., author, date) should be used, and an addition page can be used for listing your full references. As such, each paper will be 3 pages in total (2 for text, 1 for bibliography).

203 Words  1 Pages

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

I have been given the task of tracking the production of Steel from an Economic geographical standpoint in a historical context. Where and why did steel aggregate within the towns in which it did within america?, Where is steel production located today and what factors influenced steel production moving to different regions in the world. 

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The solution to Slow or Reverse Desertification

Part 1: Desertification

Some human activities have led to desertification. According to National, Geographic humans are the drivers to the transformation of drylands into deserts. They contribute to this by making formerly arable drylands into non-arable drylands. Population increase is a major cause associated with the rise in global temperatures, which have been found to raise the vulnerability of the planet to desertification. People are associated with land degradation in areas with low rainfall, which make about forty percent of the world’s terrestrial surface. These human activities need a solution to make these non-arable drylands productive.

Many bodies are in the race to seek solutions for desertification. These are the strategies that have been deployed to reverse desertification. According to the urban farm, some recommended solutions have been reasoned to work out. One of these solutions includes storm-water management, which entails human efforts and strategies that can be implemented to harvest enough water that can be used for irrigation. This harvested water can be utilized in activating a germination response in latent seeds and increase the growth of established vegetation. Additionally, people in the drylands should embark on holistic management to address both wild and domesticated grazing animals, who have proved to be a major cause of desertification. In order to achieve this humans are advised to do the right grazing, apply nitrogen sourced from animals, and hooves gently when tilling the land. This would ensure the regrowth of grass.

Groundwater pumping has been found to cause loss of water below the surface for agricultural and municipal uses, making smaller streams dry up. In Arizona, two major river systems have been greatly impacted by groundwater pumping. These two river systems are the San Pedro River in southern Arizona and the Verde River in northern Arizona. Of the two rivers San Pedro, which flows north toward Tucson from the Mexican border, is the most visible example of the impact of groundwater pumping in reducing river water levels. The decline of the water levels has impacted the lives of people and animals kept due to continued drought, also putting into danger some species.

Part 2: Local Conditions

In order to answer this question, my area of selection is California. In this state, it had a draught experience that lasted for 376 weeks. The draught began on December 27th, 2011, and ended on March 5th, 2019. During this draught experience, the most intense drought occurred on July 29th, 2014, affecting over half of the California land. This report was published by the U.S Drought Monitor (USDM), whose role is releasing draught maps, which is done every Thursday, depicting areas in the US that are currently in drought. The drought ended in the year 2019, thus the area is not currently in drought.

However, the intensity of drought varies from time to time and in place. Draught can either be moderate, severe, extreme, or exceptional. In this context, we will differentiate between extreme and exceptional drought. Starting with extreme drought is a condition characterized by livestock needing supplementary foods and horses sold. During extreme droughts, little pasture is left and there are difficulties in maintaining organic meat requirements. Also, federal water is inadequate to meet irrigation contracts, thus extracting supplemental groundwater becomes expensive. On the other hand, characteristics of exceptional draughts are much intense, these include fields being left fallow, vegetation yields decrease, and honey harvest is small. Besides, during this draught fire outbreaks are common and very costly, with many recreational activities being adversely affected.

According to the U.S Drought Monitor (USDM) report of March 18th, 2021, some regions in the United States experience droughts. Some of these regions experience abnormal drought, others moderate drought, others severe drought, extreme to exceptional drought. Some areas experiencing moderate drought include northern New York, Vermont, and Hampshire, Ohio. Other areas that experience drought includes the Virgin Islands, eastern Mainland Alaska, and Texas.


Blasiak, R. (2012). Reversing Desertification with Livestock. ourworld. unu. edu, n-a.






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Geologic Events in the History of Great Falls National Park



The great falls national park is situated in Virginia where beautiful nature and history exist. It is a series of rivers and waterfalls into the Potomac River and runs past, high wall cliffs, and jagged rocks. The rushing whitewater and the jagged rocks of the great falls make it one of the most distinct natural scenes in the area. The great falls of the Potomac, the Mather Gorge, and the National park provide great opportunities for outdoor amusement and also as a research place for nature studies.

 Metagreywacke and mica schist are types of muddy sandstone that have been transfigured by pressure and heat into a hard metamorphic rock Reed, (Sigafoos & Fisher 1980). Before metamorphosis took place, the mica-schist were mudstones and the metagreywacke were beds of muddy sandstone. The noticeable layers are the original layers where the mud and the sand were settled on the bottom of the sea. The rocks have gone through history since they were formed and with time younger sediments assembled above them and they became extremely buried. As the rocks were folded, they were revolved to the edge and were intruded by granite. There was a great change that took place after the emplacement of the granite. 

According to Reed, Sigafoos & Fisher (1980), the earth’s crust ceased moving down and started to rise slowly again, carrying the rocks of the great Falls towards the surface of the earth where they are situated today. Before metamorphosis took place, the schists were mudstones or shales and the metagraywackes were beds of muddy sandstone. The muddy sandstones and the schists were accumulated at the bottom of an ancient ocean. After metamorphosis, the mudstone and the shale were classified into metamorphic gneiss which was formed from chunky deposits of muddy sandstone which contained boulders, quartz, pebbles among other rocks. They were accumulated by huge submarine landslides that gushed through the steep side of the trough.

The overlapping rocks were eroded as the crust rose and the remains were taken westward where it assembled as sedimentary deposits. Due to erosion, the temperatures in the rocks at the great falls went down gradually and the rocks became cracked as they cooled. The straight fractures that cut across the layers of the rocks are called joints (Reed, Sigafoos & Fisher 1980). The most visible joins are almost vertical and form a right angle to the rock layers. The rock is broken into blocks by the joints which makes it easier for the river to quarry away from the firm layers. Across some of the cracks, a different type of molten rock material rose and froze to form the sheets of another rock. Later on, there was moving along the fractures breaking and crushing the rocks along them and displaced the rocks on either side. The sections where such movements have taken place are called faults. The river follows the fault section because the crushed rock along it is easily eroded than the rocks that are not broken. 

Potholes which are circular holes in the ground were caused by pebbles and cobbles that were formed by whirling currents when the water was flowing at this level (Reed, Sigafoos & Fisher 1980). The river smoothened and polished all the rocks in that area at that time. Although there are extreme floods sometimes and reaches this level, the potholes existed much earlier. 

This was even before the formation of the great falls and cutting of gorge. The general shapes of the exposed surface are rounded but all the surfaces of the rock have been made rough by erosion since they were smoothened by the river. Several pebbles that were left by the river can still be seen in the potholes. Large potholes are visible at the present level of the river and other small ones at the top of the cliffs.

There are many pebbles, cobbles, and boulders along the trail that remained behind when the river flowed at this level. They are unique in the area of the Great Falls and the Mather Gorge (Geology 2015). The boulder is the largest and is made up of a dark, heavy igneous rock that is called a diabase. The boulder is extremely large such that it cannot even be moved by the heaviest flood. History is still uncertain of what could have moved it. If it could have been because of the violent floods when the cutting of Mather Gorge happened or perhaps it floated with entangled logs. 


The geologic events in the history of the Great of Great Falls National Park were directed

by the forces within the earth that led to the gathering of residues, compression, and folding. Mather Gorge and the Great Falls exist because of the metamorphic rocks that are resistant to erosion. The rocks formed from sandstones and mudstones and were the earliest to form. The raptures in the rock along the Mather Gorge reveal the past motion along fault lines. The former Potomac River bed is evidenced by circular boulders and polished surfaces and well-formed potholes. Boulders were the largest and were carried from their origin by heavy floods.











Geology (2015) Great Falls: National Park Service Retrieved from https:// www.nps .gov/ grfa/


Reed C.J, Sigafoos S.R, &Fisher W.G (1980) The Geologic Story of Great Falls and the Potomac

River Gorge Retrieved from


908 Words  3 Pages

 National Geographic Student Expedition to Thailand

The kingdom of Thailand is an intoxicating land with magnificent mountains, jungle-clad islands, pristine beaches, and majestic temples. It also has a mix of the colorful religious festivals, ancient cultural traditions, bustling cities, and fragrant cuisine that will probably excite the senses. I went on a trip through the national geographic for mentoring and leadership, and later I taught for two weeks. Some of the things that I never took for granted during my journey was issues dealing with time management, being flexible with my schedule, and being confident. This paper will discuss my experiences during the expedition and what I learned from it.

During the period, we stayed in the huts, which were well built with enough comfort for a common man. It was not easy though to get there because of the distance we were forced to travel daily. Walking two miles was not a joke, it was a reality which I never believed in before, but I got used to it as time passed. Besides, there was neither cell, Wi-Fi, AC, or even hot water to shower with. Before the experience, my thinking was different from what I saw, but I still believe that it was worth it.

However, we were able to pair with other students for three days, where we shared our experiences, asked questions, and compare the lives we lived and the one they have in the kingdom. From them, I was able to learn that some liked, others hated with another group wishing to stay even longer. My life there was like the opposite of what I was exposed to before. So, what I heard and read about places having different weather, and living conditions were real.

For seven hours each day, I was to walk for a long distance, teach one lesson then playing followed and after that, another lesson followed before stepping back again to help the family. The first teaching experience turned my expectation because of the challenges in the English language. I was also easily aggravated when the students did not understand what I was trying to address. Some of the problems I got were handling rowdy students, translation, and creation of a flexible backup plan or other activities. Others included the timing of lessons and helping in developing lesson plans.

Apart from that, there were differences that I noticed during the expedition. For example, I saw houses that had no windows or doors, individuals wearing torn clothes, the absence of sanitary, and unavailability of iced drinks. These things were not common at home. Some of the individuals had lice, their hands were dirty, and soap was not used frequently as it is back at home.

However, the trip was a great one with so many things to learn from. From the culture of the people, appreciation even for small items was highly practiced. This also involved going across the street with friend and families. I also learned that people are different though we have some common similarities as a human being. Besides, culture is the center of everything that runs in us as people; therefore, understanding the uniqueness of each individual is the starting point for appreciating the complexity of the creation.

In conclusion, Thailand is a vast geographical area with a unique culture. It is a place with so many experiences and lessons that can be learned from it. From my expedition, I believe that I am not the same again. I am better.




583 Words  2 Pages

 Part 1

  1. Windshield Survey and description of the selected community
    • What time of the day and using what means of transportation did you survey your community?

It is 12 o’clock. I used motorbike as the means of transportation

  • What are your community's:
    Geographical boundaries?

Manteca California is located at latitude 37.80 and longitude -121.22
         b. Characteristics of people on the street?

The majority of the people found on the Manteca Street consist of veterans and other foreign born persons.
         c. Appearance of housing, stores, and street environments?

 The Manteca City has decent housing units and stores which is also coupled with tidy street environments.
         d. Availability of necessary services (groceries, healthcare)?

All over the city, there are various facilities, for instance groceries and healthcare institutions that offer necessary services to people living within the city and to those who come as visitors.
         e. Availability of public transportation?

 Throughout the city of Manteca, there are several means of transportation raging from bicycles, motorbikes, cars, buses, and so on. All these means of transportation is available at anytime anywhere
         f. Overall "feel" of the community?

Living in the city of Manteca is overwhelming taking into consideration the availability of the necessary basic needs and other recreational facilities. The people of Manteca city are also social and ready to help anybody regardless of his or her ethnicity.

  1. Use appropriate sources such as city or county government websites to gather statistical data for your community. Please look at types of household (e.g., single person, family), employment, major causes of morbidity (illness) and mortality (death), and any other statistical information you find relevant and informative. Cite the source of your data

     In Manteca city, married families occupy 56.2% of the housing units, with single persons occupying 19.8% of the housing unity (male 6.7% and female 13.1&). Non family members occupy 24.1% percent of the entire housing units located within the city boundaries. On the other hand, the main causes of morbidity and mortality rates in the city include things like lung cancer, diabetes, and obesity, lack of access to healthcare, and poor nutrition. The rate of employment is about 55.6% and the unemployment rate is 10.1%. This totals to 62% percent of the workforce participation (, 2019). 

  1. Differentiate between existing community-based and community-oriented nursing practice roles in your community and describe at least one core public health nursing function that is performed

     In the city of Manteca, the role of community based nursing entail incorporating evidence based studies that are aimed at providing healthcare based on evidence and science. In so doing, the idea here involve determining the socioeconomic and cultural requirements of the community (Stanthope  & Lancaster, 2014). On the other hand, the objective of community-oriented nursing practice entails enhancing health education; health promotion, ailment prevention, as well as coordinating health for all the members of the Manteca community.  

  1. Identify one each of primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of prevention interventions performed by nurses or health care professionals in your community

Primary- the prevention intervention performed by nurses at this level involves immunization against communicable ailments, educating the community about healthy eating habits, and controlling the use of dangerous products.

Secondary – at this level, the prevention intervention performed by nurses involve the provision of regular examinations and screening tests to individuals for the purpose of detecting diseases as well as encouraging the use of personal strategies that can aid in preventing injuries. This also will take into account the implementation of programs that revives the community to their original health status

Tertiary – at this level, the prevention intervention performed by nurses involve softening the impacts of the ongoing diseases or injury that induces a long lasting effects. This in return has the ability of improving the quality of their life as well as the community’s life expectancy (Lundy & Janes, 2009). 

  1. Using Healthy People 2020 health goals and objectives as a framework, analyze your community for physical and psychosocial health needs. Describe at least 2 health needs based on Healthy People 2020 goals.
  2. a) With the Healthy People 2020, its objective to the people of Manteca city involves the attainment of high quality and longer lives that is free of preventable ailments, premature deaths, disabilities, and injuries
  3. b) Establishment of physical and social environment that aid in promoting good health for all the residents of Manteca city (Institute of Medicine, 2011). 
  4. Describe how at least one of the following ethical principles (autonomy, social justice, non malfeasance, and beneficence) can be applied to nursing care of vulnerable populations in your community.

     In nursing, the application of autonomy necessitates the need of ensuring that nurses have gained competency in their field as well as having the audacity to take charge is any situation in which they are responsible. This is to imply that they need to have freedom of making concrete clinical judgments in any situation (Stanthope  & Lancaster, 2014).

Part 2

  1. Windshield Survey and description of the selected community. 
    • When and how did you survey the community?

My survey was conducted on Wednesday 1st 2019 at 12 o’clock. I used a motorbike as the best means maneuvering around the city.

  • Description should include community's geographical boundaries; characteristics of people on the street; appearance of housing, stores, and street environments; availability of necessary services (groceries, health care); public transportation; overall feel of the community.

          Manteca California is located at latitude 37.80 and longitude -121.22. The Manteca City has decent housing units and stores which is also coupled with tidy street environments. All over the city, there are various facilities, for instance, groceries and healthcare institutions that offer essential services to people living within the city and to those who come as visitors. Throughout the city of Manteca, there are several means of transportation raging from bicycles, motorbikes, cars, buses, and so on. All these means of transportation is available at anytime anywhere.

  1. At least one key informant interview.
    • Meet with at least one community member who will support your assessment. Conduct a focused conversation about your community problem for which the key informant may have particular insight. For example, if the community problem you are looking at is the lack of after-school programs in a school district, your key informants could be a teacher, school principal, school district superintendent, or parent.

         Lack of after-school programs- during my interview with the school principal, it was evident that the majority of the children lack the opportunity of accessing after-school programs just because of the lack of finances. Another reason for that is because after-school facilities are located far away from their area of residence which makes parents to be more concerned about the safety of their children.  Likewise, although some parents cannot manage to afford the fees charged, it becomes impossible for some schools within the community to open for longer times as well as transform their facilities into offering after-school programs. The lack of lack of necessary resources required to sustain the provision of after-school programs also hinders children from accessing such activities (Armstrong & Schmidt, 2013). 

  • Summarize each interview in one paragraph, providing the name and qualifications or role of the key informant as it relates to your community problem.  

         The role of the school principal entails the provision of strategic directions and guidelines in the school system.  Ideally, he takes the responsibility of developing standardized teaching curriculum, assessing the availability of teaching methods, monitoring the academic excellence of students, encouraging parent participation, revising policies and procedures, administering the budget, hiring and evaluating staff performance and overseeing teaching facilities (Phillips et al., 2003).

  1. Identify statistical data appropriate to the selected community.

Community healthcare management

  1. Interpretation of statistical data for the specific community with comparisons to regional data.
    • How does local data demonstrate that there is a problem in the community?

         Taking into consideration the local data, one of factors that can be used to demonstrate the lack of after-school programs is the underdevelopment of facilities that enhances the provision of these programs. Some facilities, such as community parks, libraries, community centers are few and over-utilized hence leaving no room for such activities. Evidence contained in the local data also suggests that the lack of after-school programs is the parental notion that such programs offer too much inflexibility within the life of a child. Moreover, the need for assisting parents at home with various tasks, especially household chores, also hinders children from accessing these programs (Armstrong & Schmidt, 2013). 

  • Does the data show that your community problem also exists on a larger (state or national) level? What implications does this have for problem identification and intervention?

         According to the data collected, it is evident that this problem ultimately persists on a national level. The implication of this is that such programs can either be conducted inside or outside the school setting. Furthermore, what was noted is the fact that after-school program have the potential of improving the test scores of students, homework completion, improve the academic attitude of learners, and so on. Despite that, the failure of the community to understand the importance of these programs is the one that has limited the extensive utilization of its capabilities within the community.

  1. Statement of a population nursing diagnosis/problem using the Community Health Nursing Diagnosis structure introduced in Module 1. (5 points)

     As much as Manteca Health Nursing Diagnosis structure is concerned, what was noted is the fact that the role of ailment diagnosis within the community entail incorporating evidence based studies that are aimed at providing healthcare based on evidence and science. Ideally, the idea here involves determining the socioeconomic and cultural requirements of the community. In the process of improving their diagnostic structure, the prevention intervention that is in return performed by nurses involve the provision of regular examinations and screening tests to individuals for the purpose of detecting diseases as well as encouraging the use of personal strategies that can aid in preventing the occurrences of similar diseases (Hitchcock et al., 2003).

  1. Using evidence-based research, develop a population-based, public health nursing intervention plan. 
    • Base your intervention on at least one research study. What do the findings in the literature suggest as possible solutions for your community problem?

          One of the solution for this problem entail depending on nurses to assist in educating people on how to prevent diseases before they occur through adhering to the existing evidence based disease control policies.  To make that success, this will have to take into account the need of implementing other programs that will reduce the spread of disease. Likewise, the prevention intervention performed by nurses involve coming up with clinical healthcare means that has ability of improving the quality of their life as well as the community’s life expectancy (Holzemer & Klainberg, 2013). 





















Armstrong, L., & Schmidt, C. A. (2013). Great afterschool programs and spaces that wow!. St. Paul, MN : Redleaf Press (2019). Manteca, California (CA 95336, 95337) profile: population, maps, real estate, averages, homes, statistics, relocation, travel, jobs, hospitals, schools, crime, moving, houses, news, sex offenders. [online] Available at: [Accessed 23 May 2019].

Hitchcock, J. E., Schubert, P. E., & Thomas, S. A. (2003). Community health nursing: Caring in action. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson/Delmar Learning.

Holzemer, S. P., & Klainberg, M. B. (2013). Community health nursing: An alliance for health. Jones & Bartlett Learning

Institute of Medicine. (2011). Leading health indicators for healthy people 2020: Letter report. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press.

Lundy, K. S., & Janes, S. (2009). Community health nursing: Caring for the public's health. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Phillips, S., Renihan, P. J., Raham, H., & Society for the Advancement of Excellence in Education. (2003). The role of the school principal: Present status and future challenges in managing effective schools. Kelowna, B.C: Society for the Advancement of Excellence in Education.

Stanthope M. & Lancaster, J. (2014). Foundations of nursing in the community: Community-oriented practice. (4th Edition). St. Louis, MO:  Elsevier  Saunders.







2003 Words  7 Pages

Hurricane Irma

            Hurricane Irma has been recorded as the strongest storm on record to exist in the open Atlantic region. The Hurricane was formed on August 30th, 2017 and dissipated on September 13,2017.  Hurricane Irma left a trail of destruction in the Caribbean where it killed at least 37 people.  The storm moved up through Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina where it killed at least 12 people. It is estimated that the hurricane affected an estimated number of 1.2 million people. The Caribbean islands suffered much of the damage where the storm left Barbuda nearly inhabitable. In the US Miami and Jacksonville suffered from flooding and were left without power. Another impact of the hurricane were the torrential rains that took place in Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina (Issa, Ramadugu, Mulay, Hamilton, Siegel, Harrison, & Boehmer, 2018).

            The local, states and federal government responded to the impact of this hurricane with equal enthusiasm. The federal government, state and local governments in conjunction to the US department of Homeland security worked together in the efforts to address the immediate needs of the survivors.  The Effort of these three is supported by the visit made by president Donald J. Trump to Florida in order to meet with governor Rick Scott and the survivors, the president was joined by Vice president Mike Pence and Elaine Duke who was the acting secretary of Homeland security. Federal, states and local elected officials also joined the president in his visit (Willison, Singer, Creary, & Greer, 2019). This visit shows well enough that the local, states and federal government joined efforts in order to deal with the impact of the hurricane. Efforts provided by the National response framework included, searches that were done in the Caribbean and the US mainland by Urban Search & Rescue which saved lots of lives, the department of energy worked to restore power in the areas that had been left without power and federal efforts that included bringing the American Red Cross on board to focus on the safety of the victims, food, and shelter. These efforts were suitable in dealing with the disaster that has been brought around by Irma.



















Willison, C. E., Singer, P. M., Creary, M. S., & Greer, S. L. (2019). Quantifying inequities in US             federal response to hurricane disaster in Texas and Florida compared with Puerto Rico. BMJ global health4(1), e001191.

Issa, A., Ramadugu, K., Mulay, P., Hamilton, J., Siegel, V., Harrison, C., ... & Boehmer, T.          (2018). Deaths Related to Hurricane Irma—Florida, Georgia, and North Carolina, September 4–October 10, 2017. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report67(30), 829.


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            The West without Water: What Past Floods, Droughts, and Other Climatic Clues Tell Us about Tomorrow

  1. The history of the earth

            Archaeologists excavate clues that were left behind by prehistoric societies. These clues include things like chipped stones, beads, bones, bits of broken pottery, and so on. They do so through sifting or filtering through olden garbage as well as other remains that can give clues about their daily lives. As a result of systematically sifting through as well as scrutinizing the preserved prehistoric remains, it becomes possible for archaeologist to deduce more about the ancient civilization, rises and falls, and their daily lives. Likewise, paleoclimatologists always desire to learn about the climatic history of the earth, including patterns of warm and cold, wet and dry seasons, so on. To do so, they search for clues that are buried in trees, corals, fossils, glaciers, and sediments preserved in oceans, marshes, and lakes (Fagan 2).

  1. The Holocene period

            In the modern time, people are living in a relatively cool periods that are perceived to have commenced about forty million years ago. Throughout this period, the earth continued to become more and more cool and icy, ending in the Quaternary Period (Pleistocene and Holocene period), a dance of decades ago. Historical research indicates that the most recent glacial period managed to reach its maximum extent after a duration of about 20 thousand years that have passed, a period termed as the Last Glacial Maximum (Fagan 17). During this period, the average world temperature was about 1.8o F which is relatively lower as compared to the modern global temperatures.

            Currently, the world is in a relatively warmer interglacial period that is dubbed as the Holocene epoch which started about 11 thousand years ago. The ancient lakebeds in the American West enable paleoclimatologists clues concerning the prehistoric climate, including the overall decrease in precipitation, and in trajectories, spatial variations, and rates, in change at the start and the end. On the other hand, during the Mid Holocene period, the climatic conditions of the American West shifted from cooler to warmer and drier conditions (Fagan 18). To the big lakes like the Owens Lake, the changes which occurred within Owens Valley had a profound impact to the disappearance of these lakes. As a result of climatic changes (dry conditions), these rivers started to receive little precipitations hence making its water volume to fluctuate. As time went by, they all dried up leaving flat sediments composed of evaporated minerals, silt, and clay (Fagan 31).

            The climatic upheaval accompanied with extended drought forced people to depart their ancestral terrain in search of food and water, particularly in the Great Britain now termed as southeastern California. Inland areas were the ones that was highly affected, and as a result of that, evidences obtained by archaeologists suggests that thousands of people were forced to migrate to the coast. The reason for that is because it offered plentiful food, more moisture, and cooler climate (Fagan 20). Along the coastline, the steady rise in sea level succeeding the previous ice age started to slow down after the massive inflow of waters from melting ice.

  1. The neoglaciation: The returning of ice

            During the mid-Holocene period, the warm and dry conditions gradually paved way to cool and wet conditions dubbed as the Neoglaciation. Although it did not have a clear demarcate beginning, it settled unevenly throughout the Northern Hemisphere with some considerable local variations. In Europe, especially in the Swiss and Australian Alps and southern Norway, the beginning of this cooler climatic condition had started over 4-5 thousand years ago, taking into account the dating of the sediments and glacial moraines that were eroded by glaciers as well as transported by water melting from glaciers (Fagan 44).

            The sediments, silts and clays that were transported into San Francisco Bay from its watershed, carry carried with them chemical and mineral fingerprints of the area of origin. In the process of carrying them to S.F Bay, the majority of largest particles had settled to the underneath the estuary while lighter and finer particles were transported to the surrounding marshes which in return formed progressively accumulating layers. On the other hand, the northern regions of the watershed were drained by the Sacramento River thus transporting sediments (silts and clays) from the northern parts of the Sierra Nevada and the southern Cascades. The sediments of the southern parts of the watershed were also drained by the San Joaquin River (Fagan 48).

            Therefore, to paleoclimatologists, the general composition of these sediments acts as valuable fingerprints for detecting the area of their origin. Moreover, from the northern to the southern regions of the watershed, the changing proportions of these sediments aid in providing detailed information concerning how the climatic conditions of the northern and southern California could have changed for decades. It, therefore, implies that these changes assist in showing that the medieval droughts were ultimately experienced all over the watershed of the S.F estuary although not at the same period.

  1. The Great Medieval Drought

            The cooler and the moist climatic conditions of the Neoglacial era came to an end during the late Holocene. The climate had started changing to drier and warmer conditions about 185o years that had passed and persisted for a period of at least thousand years. Despite that the fact that the trend of the climatic conditions of the contemporary western U.S was heading to dryness, conditions continued to become more and more variable. For instance, prolonged drought conditions were later intermingled with gradual excursions of intense wetness. The paleoclimatic statistics that was captured for about 1800 years that have passed contain several examples and indicators of such climatic variations (Fagan 53).

            During The Little Ice Age, the prolonged droughts of the medieval climate anomaly finally came closer at around 1400 AD. For duration of about 150 years after this period, an extreme flood was something that was unusual. In California, for instance, people who were residing around San Francisco Bay and in the wider Central Valley could have witnessed irregular rainfall patterns for decades. During this time, winters could have failed to produce huge storms that fed the mountain snowpack and fill lakes. Around the San Francisco Bay, mounded villages remained empty for several years since the start of the drought. Moreover, early in summer, the creeks that used to flow into the marshlands also dried up thus leaving people with no choice but to travel for long distances in search of freshwater. For those whose camps were located inland, they were forced to do long journey to mudflats to collect muscles as well as other shellfish. The majority of the native population greatly suffered to death although some managed to adapt to the prevailing dry conditions (Fagan 72).

            Later, the weather started changing and for those who managed to adapt with it noticed wet season accompanied by cold storms which later poured rain in the coastal region, in the lower mountainous regions, and in the Central Valley. Winters, also started bringing cooler storms than it used to be. Elsewhere around the world, especially in Europe, canals and rivers started freezing and in Alaska, New Zealand, central and northern Europe valley glaciers grew larger in thickness. Summer temperatures also decreased considerably in Europe hence resulting to crop failures in Switzerland, Norway, and Scotland which in return caused widespread famine. In California, the storms that had originated from the tropical regions of the Pacific ended op delivering plentiful warm rainfall that caused huge flooding within the region. The rapidly melting snow and the rain increased the swelling of rivers and small creeks into ranging torrents, tearing soils and vegetation found in the mountain regions, as well as turning the Central Valley of California into immense inland sea (Fagan 73).  

            Therefore, we can depict that there are two lessons learned from the Little Ice Age. The first one is that climate change does not necessarily come in an easy or gentle stage. It always comes in rapid shifts from one period to another. This shifts are something that is beyond human understanding because its directions are also far beyond human control. Secondly, climate will always have its way of changing regimes and its sway in human occurrences. This then implies that the Little Ice Age is typically a record of human susceptibility to climatic changes.       

  1. Cycles and oscillations resulting to climatic changes

            For million years that have passed, forces lying within the earth are the ones perceived to be causing climate change. In the process of moving tectonic plates, the same process ends up building mountains and spreading water bodies apart (Fagan 84). For instance, in shallow tropical seas, for millions of years, tiny polyps have managed to build brilliant coral reefs. Such an ecosystem is amongst the richest and magnificent communities of species that have survived for millions of years that have passed. Moreover, the recent coral reefs that have been probed by paleoclimatic scientists offers evidence regarding the ancient behaviors of the ocean-atmosphere phenomenon termed as the ENSO (El Nino-Southern Oscillation). The failing of the trade wings during this event causes the western Pacific Ocean waters to drift eastwards, warming water which in return warms shallow coral reefs (Fagan 86).

            Furthermore, the information regarding the strength of the PDO (Pacific Decadal Oscillation) suggest that whenever it is in a cool or negative phase, the ocean surface temperatures are relatively cooler and when it is in a warm or positive phase, it means that the ocean water is typically warmer than average. The cool or negative phase indicates the sea conditions during the Holocene period when the waters of the Pacific coast used to be cooler. During this period, conditions were in the Pacific Northwest were wetter as well as drier in the interior western and southwest North America. Conversely, the Neoglacial wet conditions that later followed is found to have corresponded with PDO when in the warm (positive) phase (Fagan 87).

            In the late Holocene era, the cool (negative) phase of the PDO was marked by prolonged extreme droughts. The connections that existed between the two can be deduced from the tree-ring information. Such information suggests that Northwest was wet while Southwest was dry at that time. Another important factor is the sunspot cycles. 





















1714 Words  6 Pages


Florida red tides are extremely concentrated blooms of tiny algae that arise yearly near Florida shorelines. Sometimes the microscopic algae occur along the Gulf coastlines. Various species of the microalgae blooms or red tides grow everywhere around the world, sometimes known as algal blooms because they discolor water (Hoagland et al, 145). For example if the color of the micro algae is blue, the algal bloom will cause a blue discoloration on water. This paper will discuss risk perceptions associated with the red algae in Florida, health risks of red algae on Florida, regularity, period, and severity of the occurrence of the red algae, effect of the algae and how it influences ecology wellbeing in Florida.

 Causes of red tides in Florida and some of its characteristics

 Red tides in Florida are regular occurrence instigated through thick combination of singular cells or various species belonging to unicellular bacteria (Hoagland et al, 146). Covers of stained water, dead aquatic organisms, and respirational nuisances in the atmosphere regularly characterize red tides.

Even a strong natural disaster such as a hurricane is not strong enough to displace toxic red algae from Florida coastlines (Hoagland et al, 147). When a natural disaster struck the shores of Florida, some experts thought it would carry with it the red tides but to everyone’s amazement, the red algae remain intact. More so, red tides are harmful as they kill fish and discharge trails of neurotoxins, which affect everything within a 155 miles radius.

As stated earlier, Florida red tides occur after an extreme growth of algae species known as Karenia brevis (McHugh 623). The algae generate neurotoxins, which as mentioned above makes marine environ inhabitable and irritates eyes and respiratory lungs of humans living the shorelines. In fact, red tides come from offshore and winds carry them closer to the coastlines. Thus, when the conditions are optimum, the red tides thrive, later evolving into poisonous flotilla, mostly during late summer and sometimes fall.

 Health risk of red tide in Florida

 Years of research reveals that red tides that form on the coastline of Florida poison fish which can then be fatal to human beings when they consume fish with concentrated toxins (McHugh 627). Even though there is still limited information on effect of red tides on human health after ecological exposure to red tide toxins, experts have outlines and assessed impact of toxins after inhalation. Furthermore, some scientific studies on recreational beachgoers unveiled a substantial increment in documented higher and lower respirational symptoms but no vital variances in spirometry examination limits throughout the exposure periods ( in the presence of red tides). Therefore, after comparing spirometry data and respiratory symptoms gathered during unexposed period (in the absence of red tides) one could conclude red tides affect breathing patterns of human beings. Thus, to some extent, exposure to red tides leads to respiratory challenges among human beings.

In some instances, red tides may die and decompose releasing toxins, which kill shellfish and birds. In addition, the decaying process reduces oxygen in water hence initiating suffocation or even death of marine life (Backer 1049). Thus, no man can utilize water with red tides as the algal blooms block sunlight from reaching the bottom of the water, slows water motion thus poisons the conditions of the water.

 Nutrition pollution from manmade tasks worsens the red tide challenges consequently leading to severe conditions (Wolny 49). Sometimes humans are to blame for the condition because some of the manmade activities such as agriculture produce excess minerals, which wash downstream hence supporting algal bloom growth. Regulating use of fertilizers may reduce growth of algal blooms, which solely rely on nourishment from various land sources.

The first thing one takes note of is the pungent smell. It is not a smell to be precise but a whiff that triggers an itchy effect on the nose which then quickly moves to the throat area and leaves one with a sweltering effect on the lungs (Zanchett, and Eduardo 1897) (Philips 889). It is a normal phenomenon seeing dead sea organisms littering the coastline of Florida. Other marine life washes on the beach and destroys the aesthetic value of the coastline areas. The smell affects human health humans respiratory systems are built to breath fresh air.

Risk perceptions linked to red tide

In the recent past, various approved literature detailed present held insights on Florida red tides. Some surveys exposed unreliable and inexact Florida red tides information between residents and tourists. When asked regarding where individuals retrieve information from, most people preferred, internet as the best source of information (Harrison 829). Another study assessed perceptions of people concerning Florida red tide and found that females and elder people linked the red tide algal bloom to health risks, persistent respiratory challenges, and food poisoning. Since scientists conducted the two researches, there has been a noteworthy scientific progress in the systematic insights of human health impacts ranging from deadly aerosols to other pathogens. In terms of perceptions, people associate red tides with asthma and try their best to minimize the effects through use of clean water, free from red tide.

Regularity, period, and severity of the occurrence of the red algae

In Florida, red tides normally encompass Karenia brevis, which generates neurotoxins, which in turn destroy nerve cells and eradicate aquatic life at one go (Herfort 89). It is vital to note that shellfish feed on karenia brevis hence when a human being eats shellfish, it may have highly dangerous effect on the person’s body. On the other hand, individuals may breathe in toxins released into the atmosphere via sea spray hence leading to irritations, swollen eyes, gasping for air and chest tension.

Florida red tides usually have societal and traditional impacts on the local residents living in the state (Harrison 830). Generally, red tides may result into the destruction of entertainment and marketable opportunities consequently disorganizing cultural norms, reduces resources, and causes conflict among community members. In the end, it leads to stress on the communities and family in general. In fact, red tides in Florida imply stress for community members who rely on the coastal areas for a living, recreational purposes, and professional functions. For instance, beachgoers don’t have a place to go when the authorities close down the beaches.

Red tides may affect the Florida economy. The presence of red tides interrupts daily activities such as going to work and increases the utilization of medical facilities due to respiratory and digestive sickness, which normally increases with increases in the presence of red tide in Florida. In other words, people end up spending money on medication (McHugh 627). During red tides seasons, hospitalizations rise with an estimated 54% among coastal occupants. Red tides have a negative influence on tourism due to stained and discolored water with foul-smelling dead aquatic creatures thus pushes tourist away. When red tides affect tourism, employment brought about by the tourism sector takes a downward trend leaving people unemployed.

In addition, red tides have a damaging effect on flora, fauna, and natural surroundings in Florida. Currently, red tides kill an estimated 300 sea turtles annually in four Florida counties. Conservation organizations took note of the number of aquatic creature deaths and initiated efforts to slow down the impact of the algal bloom (Hoagland et al, 137). Taking note of the number of dead animals assists conservationists save endangered species and formulates conservation strategies based on the existing numbers. In the end, the animals do not just die but a conservation body somewhere balances the numbers through replacement.

 The animals, chemicals, and physical science sometimes triggered red tides In Florida even before humans intensified manmade activities in Florida. However, manmade aspects play a minor role in the progression and increase of red tides in Florida (Backer 1050). Humans participate in the occurrence of red tides due to increment in the natural ecosystems in both land and water sections. High amounts of nutrients lead to an upsurge in external temperatures and alter other surrounding environmental safeguards. Dumping leftovers and chemical fertilizers into water bodies also dictates the rate of growth of the red tides in Florida.

 In summary, red tides are natural occurrence caused by extremely high concentration of algal blooms, which is simply large assemblage of aquatic organisms such as protozoa and single cell algae. Red tides result into discolored water, release of toxins into water, foul smelling environs respiratory challenges such as chest tensions. Some animals such as shellfish ingest poisonous red tides and humans should keep away from consuming such fish.




Works cited

Backer, Lorraine, et al. "Cyanobacteria and algae blooms: review of health and environmental data from the harmful algal bloom-related illness surveillance system (HABISS) 2007–2011." Toxins 7.4 (2015): 1048-1064.

Herfort, Lydie, et al. "Myrionecta rubra population genetic diversity and its cryptophyte chloroplast specificity in recurrent red tides in the Columbia River estuary." Aquatic Microbial Ecology 62.1 (2011): 85-97.

Hoagland, Porter, et al. "The human health effects of Florida Red Tide (FRT) blooms: an expanded analysis." Environment international 68 (2014): 144-153.

McHugh, Katherine A., et al. "Severe Karenia brevis red tides influence juvenile bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) behavior in Sarasota Bay, Florida." Marine Mammal Science 27.3 (2011): 622-643.

Philips, Edward J., et al. "From red tides to green and brown tides: bloom dynamics in a restricted subtropical lagoon under shifting climatic conditions." Estuaries and Coasts 38.3 (2015): 886-904.

Wolny, Jennifer L., et al. "Monitoring the 2007 Florida east coast Karenia brevis (Dinophyceae) red tide and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) event." Algae 30.1 (2015): 49.

Zanchett, Giliane, and Eduardo Oliveira-Filho. "Cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins: from impacts on aquatic ecosystems and human health to anticarcinogenic effects." Toxins 5.10 (2013): 1896-1917.

Harrison, P. J., et al. "Geographical distribution of red and green Noctiluca scintillans." Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology 29.4 (2011): 807-831.





1644 Words  5 Pages

 Dating the Rocks of the Grand Canyon



  1. Introduction

This is a comparative essay with a purpose to explain the difference between the old-Earth and young-Earth viewpoints on the dating of the rock layers of the Grand Canyon. The Canyon is located in Arizona, and it has two sides, the North and South sides which have been named as Rims. People have different views, and there has never been a scientific method to calculate the actual age of the Earth, but there are calculations which are used to estimate its age.

      To arrive at the calculation, there must be certain assumptions such as the beginning and the speed at which materials increase or decrease over a period of time. For example, before calculations are done in radioisotope dating of rocks, it is necessary to assume the amount of the radioisotope present when the rock formed and also no isotope were gained or lost and rate of isotope decay has remained constant.

The young-earth creationist belief that the earth was created by God 6000-10000 years ago in just six days by showing that the geological records the scientific details of early history are supported in the bible. On the other hand, the old earth creationism also believes that God created both the earth and the universe. Both beliefs in the book of Genesis in the bible but they interpret differently through the old earth creationism tries to bring in the issue of cosmology and other theories of evolution. This essay will explain both the young earth creationism and the old earth creationism with regards to the dating of the layers of rocks in the Grand Canyon.

The origin of the canyon is still mysterious, but some reasonable explanations are likely to be correct concerning the source of the canyon. John Wesley Powell assumed the origin of the canyon was by antecedence. It has been explained that there was previously flowing water before the period of uplift, then during the uplift, the process was slow that the river was able to erode down against the rising landscape. He was convinced that the river was able to maintain its course for tens of millions of years ago it is also important to keep in mind that all these events were unobserved and thus the scientist is trying to study things that might have occurred in the past. There is no scientific proof of the history views, creation or evolution or for the old and the young earth or the Noah’s flood

  1. Old-Earth Secular View

The old earth creationism beliefs that God miraculously created the universe out from nothing, and also created life from no life and then he progressed and supernaturally created new species of life. They believe the surface of the was formed through rapid catastrophic processes and slow processes radioisotope dating has to some extent demonstrated the old earth viewpoint that showed moderate and slow processes overages (Levin & King, 2016). The fossils documented a rise in complexity with time with simple creatures being found at the bottom and the more complex ones found at the top, this shows the evidence of the old earth view. In this creationism, the earth is believed to be about 4.5 billion years old based on carbon dating, geological time scale, and other methods.

The description of the Grand Canyon layers of the rocks which include the Colorado River which runs at the bottom of the inner gorge with flats on each side consisting of the sandstone layers(Levin & King, 2016).. There are also rocks which have changed due to heat in the Vishnu Complex. These rocks are at the lowest layers and are very steep and narrow. The old-earth seculars usually explore these areas to find evidence concerning the age of the earth.

Old earth creationist agrees with scientific estimates of the age of the universe, the humanity and the Earth itself and on the other hand, they reject claims of the modern evolutionary theorist which respect biological evolution.



III.    Young-Earth View

The young-Earth creationism beliefs that God created the universe directly in six days literal days and it states that the earth is young. The young earth creationist estimates the age of the earth to be between 6000-10000 years old. They also believe in the flood that spread globally during the day of Noah as it is in the bible (Hill, 2016). It is also believed in this that the earth was a single continent before the occurrence of the flood.

The positions of the young earth creationist come from the direct interpretation of the Bible in the book of Genesis. They also keep the creation of the plants, animals and the sun in the biblical sequence

The Grand Canyon rocks are interpreted to have been laid down by flood during the time of Noah while the Kaibab was laid down a few months after. The Tapeats is said to be present before the flood (Whitmore, 2017). The place was then uplifted in the late year of blood while the trapped water curved the canyon as it drained off the continents.

In the Grand Canyon, most of its sentiments which lied horizontally in water and after uplifting took place, they remained horizontal. The Beverly deformed the sediments at the sides of the plateau while in other areas, it left them at a vertical. Today the Tapeats are extremely hard and previously it was bent from horizontal to vertical which means that during deformation the sentiments were soft and it has not yet had enough time to harden (Whitmore, 2017). The fact is, it only takes a hundred years for sediments to turn into a sandstone under high pressure and enough cementation. Therefore, the Tapeats were not 480 million years during the period of uplifts; it took a short period when the sediments were still soft.

The old-earth creationist may propose a scenario of flowage at a high pressure which is unlikely but after all the evidence fits the young-earth idea.

  1. Comparison of the viewpoints

Both the old-earth and the young-earth creationist agree that God created all the things on the earth; they also believe in the literal universe creation from nothing. However, they differ in the interpretation of the first 11 chapters in the book of Genesis in the bible. Both of them also state that they should not have blind faith and they should also have a correct understanding of the word of god and religion. They also reject the claim that random mutation and the act of natural selection can adequately meet the threshold to account for life complexity.

  1. Contract of the viewpoints

The young-earth creationist interprets the bible in a traditional view. It views it to mean six literal days which equates to 144 literal hours. While on the other side, the old earth creationist interprets the scripture and believe that the Earth, the universe and all the forms of life in it including the human beings were created billions of years ago and not within the span of 10000 years ago as stated by the young-earth creationist. They interpret the six days as something called ‘day-ages or epochs’.it is one of the areas the two groups profoundly disagree.










  1. Conclusion

The purpose for this was a comparative essay to give explanations on the old-earth as well as the young-earth and give both similarities and contract concerning both the viewpoints. Both groups agree on most of the things, but they have a big difference in the way they interpret the book of Genesis in the bible.

The other thing is that one of the group believe that the earth and universe with everything in it is less than 10000 years old will the other thinks it is about 4.5 billion years but of the groups believe that God created the earth and the universe from nothing




Hill, C. A. (2016). How the Book, Can Noah’s Flood Explain the Grand Canyon?, Came to Be. Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith, 68(2), 125-131.

Levin, H. L., & King Jr, D. T. (2016). The Earth Through Time, Binder Ready Version. John Wiley & Sons.

Whitmore, J. H. (2017). How the Coconino Sandstone of the Grand Canyon supports Young-Earth Creation and a Global Flood.








1372 Words  4 Pages


Hard Stabilization and Beach Erosion


Hard stabilisation is the human-made measure like putting up of structures to control erosion which is a result of powerful forces eroding the shoreline structures carrying the sand down the cost.  The beach is highly surrounded by strong winds and waves resulting in erosion hence disrupting the aesthetic beauty brought by the shore and altering the natural ecosystem.

Methods of Hard Stabilization

There many techniques used in hard stabilisation chosen according to the geographical location of the beach and the level of erosion that takes place. The metros include construction of groin, seawalls, breakwaters revetment and jetties. 

Construction of Groin

A groin is a solid standardisation structure built at a right angle to the shore in to maintain or widen the beaches by trapping sand moving down the coast because of natural actions of waves and currents. However, groins have a limitation since the trapping of sediment on the uplift side results in accretion of shoreline causing erosion on the downdrift side caused by an interruption in longshore transport.  Groins are readily available in     New Jersey at the sea beach.

Sea Walls

A sea wall is an erected embankment that preventing the sea from eroding or encroaching the land area. The primary purpose of a sea wall is to give protection to areas of habitation by humans, conservations and the leisure activities from the actions caused by tides waves and tsunamis.  The construction of sea walls is expensive and requires timely maintenance without which the wall might fall from continues erosion caused by the powerful waves. The sea walls can be found in many areas across the United States like along the Charlotte County Seawalls and Duncan seawalls Dock –Boat lift in Sarasota, Florida


Backwater is a barrier constructed into the sea to protect the harbour from facing forces associated with waves thereby reducing soil erosion. The breakwaters may also be small structures that are designed to offer protection to gently sloping beaches placed in relatively shallow waters. Breakwaters can be found in California along Alamitos Bay. 


A revetment is made out of planks laid against frames and placed on banks to absorb the energy of incoming water.  The concrete revetments are common in the Mississippi River to control the erosion.


A jetty is a structure projecting from land into the sea onto which boats can be moored or dock protecting erosion by not allowing water from the land as seen along the Great Salt Lake in Utah state. More so, the jetties offer protection to the shoreline by acting as barriers against erosion caused by currents, tides and waves. The accumulation of sand causes erosion due to the creation of downshifting. In most instances, the solution is to build another jetty making the process endless.   

465 Words  1 Pages

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