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Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

How can the United States lessen its dependence on fossil fuels

1000 1750 words
Cite 3 credible sources
Avoid pronoun "I"
•    Thesis statement that asks the audience to take a course of action or adopt a particular position
•    Explanation of the problem and what causes the problem
•    Detailed description of the proposed solution
•    Notes about the feasibility of the solution
•    Explanation of the outcome or consequences of the proposed solution
•    Be clear about the problem and provide background information that leads to the thesis. The thesis should convey the problem, solution, and feasibility of the solution or how it will work.

118 Words  1 Pages

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

Environmental ethics is the discipline in philosophy that studies the moral relationship of human beings to, and also the value and moral status of, the environment and its non-human contents. This entry covers: (1) the challenge of environmental ethics to the anthropocentrism (i.e., human-centeredness) embedded in traditional western ethical thinking; (2) the early development of the discipline in the 1960s and 1970s; (3) the connection of deep ecology, feminist environmental ethics, animism and social ecology to politics;

89 Words  1 Pages

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
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Air Quality- Many human activities result in air pollution, including emissions from vehicles and power plants, negatively impacting human health and economic efficiency. Scientists are analyzing policies to monitor and improve air quality since such regulations first came to pass.How else can we ensure that there will be clean air to breathe for generations to come? Include each of the Sub-Topics: Clean Air Act, Clean Power Plan

79 Words  1 Pages

182 Words  1 Pages

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

Design your own social media hashtag campaign to raise awareness of environmental problems, environmental racism, and/or environmental justice issues and to encourage change related to these issues using the planning questions below. 

Assignment Directions
This week, you are required to create a new hashtag campaign. In order to prepare for this assignment, review the following questions.

Remember This

What are at least two environmental issues you are passionate about or connect to? Why are these issues important?
What is a social media hashtag campaign you have been influenced by and why?
What are possible hashtags you might use for your campaign? List a four to five possibilities, and state your favorite.
What would be the purpose of your campaign?
Who would be your intended audience and why?
What would you hope to achieve with your campaign? How might this campaign influence thought or action in real life? Describe at least two goals.
What is the final title of your hashtag campaign?
Assignment Deliverables
Present a summary of your own Hashtag Campaign. This may be in any one of the following formats:

A written APA-styled paper (three to four pages double-spaced, not counting the cover page and reference page)

209 Words  1 Pages

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

This assignment tasks you with choosing a controversial* topic, taking an arguable position on it, supporting that position with a variety of research, and addressing counterarguments. The purpose of the paper is to persuade an interested—but undecided and skeptical—general (non-expert) audience to agree with your position on the topic while demonstrating that you have researched it thoroughly and thought about the consequences.

2000-2500 words (8-10 pages)
Takes a clear, arguable stance on a relevant, controversial topic with at least 3 “sides”
Topic/Question fits the CORNR criteria (Controversial, Open-ended, Researchable, Narrow, and Relevant)
Cites at least 7 secondary sources (at least 3 academic/professional)
Argues both for the side you support and against the opposing sides (counterarguments)
Your thesis should contain a central claim (your position) as well as several (at least 3) reasons your audience should agree with that claim 
Example thesis: “The US should invest in more nuclear power plants because they create jobs, are better for the environment than coal plants, and are more energy-efficient than solar and wind power.”
The central claim here is that the US should invest in more nuclear powerplants—that’s what the author is trying to convince the audience to believe
The reasons why the author believes the central claim are that the plants create jobs, are better for the environment, and are more energy-efficient—they’re the “why” behind the main claim
Demonstrates thought about repercussions of the argument (the “real world” consequences)
MLA format with a works cited page (not included in the page/word count)
Written in a formal but straightforward style—well-edited, polished, and proofread

273 Words  1 Pages

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

Federal and State Adaptation of Cultural Heritage in North Carolina
You are the climate adaptation expert on the North Carolina Climate Adaptation Task Force and have been approached by the Governor to write a memo describing climate vulnerability and solutions for adaptation of cultural and historical resources, particularly in states that have coastal resources. Coastally-located cultural resources, such as historic buildings and structures, archeological sites, cultural landscapes, ethnographic resources, and museum collections are the record of the human experience and can connect one generation to the next. The state is faced with persistent sea level rise, subsidence, erosion, flooding, and storm surge, damaging many cultural heritage sites under state and federal protection. While the Governor needs to understand how to adapt cultural resources to climate impacts, you recognize that there may be too many resources to protect. This means the state will need to prioritize some resources over others – but how?

Both the state and the National Park Service (NPS) are charged with preserving cultural resources so that they can be enjoyed by present and future generations. The NPS recognizes climate change as “the greatest threat to the integrity of our national parks that we have ever experienced”.* In response, the NPS has taken an active role in addressing the risks from climate change. Indeed, in 2014 the NPS signed Climate Change and Stewardship of Cultural Resources,** a policy memorandum outlining the NPS position on responding to climate change and its potential effects on cultural resources, emphasizing the stewardship, and preservation program mandates. This memorandum includes the following major points:

-        Cultural resources are primary sources of data regarding human interactions with environmental change; and changing climates affect the preservation and maintenance of cultural resources;

-        As the cultural resources often cannot change or have capacity to respond with the environment around them, a focus for climate change adaptation shifts to the states and federal systems for management and planning;

-        Prioritize climate adaptation according to vulnerability and historical significance of cultural resource, and;

-        Cultural resources hold an essential role in climate change communication.
Considering the four points above, identify one example of a cultural resource that is vulnerable to climate change in the United States and describe the implications for preservation. Should the resource be preserved over others? How should the governor prioritize the resource over other resources? Express your critical opinion about the adaptive capacity of the cultural resource: Does the cultural resource as socio-economic system have the capacity to respond to climate change impacts? Does the resource depend exclusively on human management? Identify at least one alternative approach for prioritizing adaptation of cultural resources.

This memo should be between 800-1200 words, including footnotes and references.

7 Scholarly Sources in addition to the ones below.

*National Park Service, “National Park Service Climate Change Response Strategy” (2010)(Page 1) available:

** National Park Service. "NPS Policy Memorandum 14-02, Climate Change and Stewardship of Cultural Resources." Available at:

See also: National Park Service, “Cultural Resources Climate Change Strategy” (2017).

526 Words  1 Pages

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

This paper is about the study of harms against humanity and nonhuman animals from a ecological perspective. Also will talk about how to manage any waste our society produces. This is for a green criminology course.

47 Words  1 Pages

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

Students will write a paper that analyzes a specific aspect of climate change and its impacts and effects on society

It will examine this as a social-ecological system with cross-scale interactions and incorporate the knowledge that we are acquiring in class in your analysis.  The report may cover it from the perspective of specific groups of people, take a local/regional/national/international perspective, focus on specific effects, focus on adaptation efforts, whatever.  There is a great deal of flexibility from this perspective. This is an analysis, so critical thought, cogent and coherent arguments, and personal insights only when building from evidence collected through research. 

Draw on what we have learned and discussed in this class – feedback loops, emergent outcomes, aspects of resilience, etc.  Your paper should have an introduction where you describe the specific system of interest, what the relevant issues/themes are, and who the key actors are.  You will then discuss and analyze the system.  You have a great deal of self-guided flexibility in this.  

Your write-up should be evidence-based, not opinion.  Present your analysis of what you find across a variety of sources.  Where evidence is weak or non-existent, acknowledge that and fill in the gaps with logic and reasoned argumentation.  Identify the holes in your argument and suggest what future information could help bolster your case.  Acknowledge that the problem is complex and that there is room for multiple stakeholders’ perspectives. In short, use your critical thinking skills and clear written communication.

Students are expected to use at least 8 academic cites (Wikipedia can be used, but it doesn’t count for one of the citations).  Should be double-spaced with 12 point Times New Roman font (excluding references).  See the rubrics in the syllabus for guidance about grading criteria.  This will help you to understand the points from which I will be assessing the papers.

317 Words  1 Pages

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

What would happen if we didn't have farmers or ranchers?

21 Words  1 Pages

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

The most important reason to care about e-waste is

20 Words  1 Pages


Environment Control Measures Through Policies.



The policies and strategies in controlling the environment and advertisement strategies that help in the same are standard. In the attempt to control environmental pollution, countries like France have devised policies that control pollution cases. The prices on the goods involved in using unrecycled material plastic packaging are charged high prices in the taxes (Prata, et al. 2019). They have also imposed bans on the companies and businesses that use plastic cutlery and plates made of plastic. Some countries like Spain have devised ways to control pollution by reducing air pollution cases through fuel decomposition. In this attempt, they have advocated for the policies on using cars where they have areas.  The policies and regulations have a positive effect as the cases of pollution have reduced in the countries that have imposed the measures as the community also understands the practice's need.

The advertisement on the food has been reduced by the government policies in various countries to protect the children from cases of obesity as a strategy prevention measure. The case is represented statutory measures that restrict food advertisement and marketing as unhealthy food marketing. The food advertisement is restricted for children to ensure they practice healthy food uptakes and behaviours that can lead to cases of obesity as an influence from an advertisement of unhealthy foods (Taillie, et al. 2019). The policies have taken root in sixteen countries where the advertisement on food is not made during the children program to reduce the exposure. The setting is more effective in school, where the restrictions can best take place as the environment is easy to control. In exposure reduction, the food marketing design is used as the most effective means to control the media's food advertisement all over to reduce and enable healthy food marketing.

The policy's development in protecting children in Canada and Sweden, and Norway has been an issue. The advertisement made to attract children under the age of twelve years is considered illegal in the country (Veloso, Hildebrand, & Sresnewsky, 2017).  To reduce the advertisement effects on the children, the government has put on the policy to ensure that children are not exposed to unhealthy adverts. The policy has been influential in controlling foods and other substance adverts that are directly advertised for the children, like toys that are done to attract children. The cases have been influential in controlling these activities, especially on the television's peak hours, which has shown an effect in controlling materials that can harm the children in all ways.

In controlling the consumption that harms the human, they are taxed high price to discourage consumption. Cases on the advertisement are directed to high taxes to ensure that they do not advertise the commodity on the television. The adverts' charges are meant to subsidize the things that the government wants to encourage in their consumption and discourage those that the government wan less (Rehm, et al. 2020). High price taxation is taxed for the food substances and beverages that are destructive to humans and the environment. The advertisement is meant to restrict alcohol consumption with minimum consumption age where the underage is restricted. The policies are responsible for restricting driving after alcohol consumption to show the alcohol's effect on one’s state of mind, where the punishment includes imprisonment and car confiscation.

 The control of society and the content that the people are exposed to should be regulated to ensure a healthy environment. Imposing the policy is the only way the community can practice the measures on both the environment and the people's food and drinks. To protect the children from harmful advertisement, the government has the right to protect the next generation from extinction from junk foods.



Prata, J. C., Silva, A. L. P., Da Costa, J. P., Mouneyrac, C., Walker, T. R., Duarte, A. C., & Rocha-Santos, T. (2019). Solutions and integrated strategies for the control and mitigation of plastic and microplastic pollution. International journal of environmental research and public health16(13), 2411.

Rehm, J., Manthey, J., Lange, S., Badaras, R., Zurlyte, I., Passmore, J., ... & Štelemėkas, M. (2020). Alcohol control policy and changes in alcohol‐related traffic harm. Addiction115(4), 655-665.

Taillie, L. S., Busey, E., Stoltze, F. M., & Dillman Carpentier, F. R. (2019). Governmental policies to reduce unhealthy food marketing to children. Nutrition reviews77(11), 787-816.

Veloso, A. R., Hildebrand, D., & Sresnewsky, K. B. G. B. (2017). Online advertising disclaimers in unregulated markets: use of disclaimers by multinational and local companies in the Brazilian toy industry. International Journal of Advertising36(6), 893-909.

760 Words  2 Pages


Hurricanes and climate change

Climate change is a prolonged alteration in universal or local climate patterns. It is a major variation of average weather conditions such as conditions becoming warmer, colder, or even drier overtime. Climate change is caused by both natural processes and human activities. Compared to other years, this year has experienced the most hurricanes. A hurricane is a kind of storm referred to as a tropical cyclone that forms over tropical or subtropical seawaters. Hurricanes are a result of climate change caused by the contribution of human activity to global warming and due to the temperature changes in the ocean.

 According to Pidwirny (29), a hurricane is driven by the latent heat energy that results from precipitation. For them to form and progress, they have to be provided with a continuous supply of warm moist air for the progression to take place. Air from the surface that can produce a hurricane is present over oceans that have a temperature that is more than 26.5 degrees Celsius. Hurricanes can be very destructive when it hits the land. They form over warm tropical oceans mainly during the summer and fall seasons. Additional moisture and latent heat energy increase the power and number of storms taking place.

Hurricanes have become stronger globally during the past four decades and research shows that climate change has a great impact on making the storms more destructive and intense. Warming has increased the probability of a hurricane developing and studies show that as the world warms, hurricanes and other tropical cyclones are bound to become stronger. Warmer water provides more energy which is responsible for fuelling these hurricanes. Climate simulations have exhibited an upsurge in tougher hurricanes as warming continues. Both natural processes and human activity have been associated with increased hurricanes. The oceans have absorbed almost all of the extra energy that is generated by global warming. Human activities causing global warming create conditions that escalate the probabilities of life-threatening weather. Hurricanes have become intense due to the rise of ocean temperatures. The altitudes of the sea are rising as the oceans warm and the seawater experiences an expansion (Van Schaik et al. 3). When the expansion is joined with the land melt –built ice, the universal normal sea level rises. The growing population density in the coastlines also plays a part in the increased destructive potential of hurricanes. Too many people living along the coast have caused an incline in the exposure of populations and homes to extreme hurricanes throughout the years and this year not being an exception.

 One of the changes that are clear in the weather globally is the increased frequency of extreme precipitation events. Warm air holds more moisture increasing the amount of water available for storms to dump up as rain. Global warming has been identified as a key factor that causes increasing hurricane rainfall rates. With global warming and increased global temperatures, tropical cyclones around the world are getting major storm intensities. Scientists have identified climate change to be the cause of increased hurricanes. Increased greenhouse gases have contributed to increased hurricane activity. Recent Atlantic hurricanes that have occurred this year have undergone periods of rapid intensification before making landfall. Studies have shown an increase in Atlantic hurricane intensification throughout the years (Shultz et al. 1). This trend can only be explained by including human activity climate change as a contributing cause. Recent studies show that heavy rainfall which causes hurricanes to be very destructive is more likely to be caused by human activity warming. Warm oceanic temperatures are one of the main aspects that build up the development of a hurricane. The escalating of warm humid air from the sea causes a storm to be powered. Global warming has increased the cause and rate of hurricanes occurring. Greater levels of precipitation, higher wind speeds resulting from the warming world, increase the chances of hurricanes becoming more intense. The 2020 Atlantic hurricane season has set a new record and the warm ocean water caused by climate change is fuelling the hurricane record. Below is a picture from climate central that shows how climate change causes hurricanes.

Greenhouses are important to life on earth; plants rely on carbon dioxide gas which is a significant greenhouse gas that largely contributes to global warming. The greenhouse gas helps to maintain the surface of the earth and seas at temperatures that allow life to grow on the earth. However as greenhouses continue to increase, they inhibit more energy reaching the planet from reverting into space. The earth engrosses the sun rays energy and reemits it as high temperature (Armstrong et al 8). When this heat bumps into the greenhouse gases, the molecule absorbs the heat from the surface of the earth, it vibrates, and releases heat. This heat can follow any direction, up to the universe or down in the direction of the planet. Some heat emits out of space and some cause warming of the air, seas, and land surfaces. When people start altering the stability of the gases in the air, precisely by accelerating the concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, there is an increased heat emission which includes heat that heads back to the surface of the earth. This causes the warming of the air, oceans, and land surfaces. This warming causes hurricanes and this shows that human activity is associated with climate change which has resulted in the many hurricanes being experienced today.

Research shows that the total gas emissions from greenhouses have been increasing throughout the years. Gas emissions from human actions such as burning fuels by a higher percent each year which has caused tremendous changes over multiple years. The current rate of warming is higher than it has ever been experienced (Armstrong et al 11). Temperatures are rising faster over land in the Northern region than over the ocean in the south. Observations, experiments, research evidence, and measurements have shown that the recent weather pattern changes fit the predictions of greenhouse gas climate change simulations. The greenhouse gases emitted through human activity are responsible for climate change. Part of the carbon dioxide gases produced by humans is absorbed by the ocean, making the waters more acidic (Armstrong et al 13). It also causes the rising of ocean temperatures, melting of ice, and rising sea levels.

Climate change has been associated with the changes in the Atlantic hurricane actions, causing storms to be more vicious. Anthropogenic climate change intensifies storm hazards through the warm sea and air temperatures, oceanic heat rise, and increased atmospheric humidity (Shultz et al. 1). Atlantic hurricanes have become resilient, wetter, and slower moving in the past and there is a possibility that this is from the contribution of human activities. Because of the continued contribution of human actions to climate change, oceanic levels will not drawback, the normal universal temperatures will not decrease and hence the hurricane exposures will continue being extreme. Due to the continued climate change, hurricanes will continue increasing in number and becoming more destructive mostly in states that are geographically vulnerable to warm Atlantic Ocean latitudes where hurricanes form and progress.

According to NOAA Headquarters (1), climate change has been influencing the areas in which these hurricanes occur. This observed geographical pattern cannot only be explained by natural variability. A research that was conducted used climate prototypes to assess whether greenhouse gases, human-made vaporizers which include particulate pollutants, and volcanic explosions had an impact on where the hurricanes were hitting. Greenhouse gases are the cause of the warming of the higher air and the sea. Participate pollution and other vaporizers help to develop clouds and redirect sunshine away from the planet which causes cooling. The decrease in particulate pollution because of pollution regulating strategies might intensify the warming of the sea by permitting the absorption of more sunlight by the sea. Volcanic eruptions have changed the areas where hurricanes have occurred. Research shows that climate models show decreases in tropical cyclones towards the end of the 21st century. The decreases are shown in most regions except in the Central Pacific Ocean, including Hawaii, where the tropical activity is expected to increase. However, despite the projected decline in tropical cyclones, many of these cyclones will become more severe because the rising sea temperatures fuel the intensity and destructiveness of tropical storms.

In every area of the globe where hurricanes form, the maximum continued winds tend to be becoming tougher. This may be happening because of the planet-warming which may be fuelling the increase. Over the decades, research has shown changes in the behavior of hurricanes. In 2014, there was an identification of poleward migrations of hurricanes where the tropical cyclones were heading farther north and south which exposed the previously coastal populations that were less affected to greater risk (University of Wisconsin-Madison 1). In 2018, research showed that the hurricanes were moving slowly across the land because of changes in the climate of the earth. The consequences to this are more flood dangers as hurricanes linger over more regions for a long period. Research shows that these hurricanes have become tougher both regionally and globally which is constant with prospects of the way hurricanes react to a warming sphere. This is clear evidence that global warming has influenced the hurricanes and made them stronger over the years and this year being the worst hit.

Hurricanes are a result of climate change which is either fuelled by human activities or natural processes. Increased humidity and latent heat energy increase the toughness and number of storms taking place. Warming which is a result of climate change has increased the probability of hurricanes and which are more destructive. Greenhouse gases that cause global warming cause climate change. With global warming and increased global temperatures, tropical cyclones around the world are getting major storm intensities due to the increase in greenhouses over the years Human- activity warming has also had an impact on climate change hence fuelling recent hurricanes.







Works Cited

“CLIMATE CHANGE SCIENCE: The Facts.” Communicating Climate Change: A Guide for

Educators, by Anne K. Armstrong et al., Cornell University Press, ITHACA; LONDON, 2018, pp. 7–20. JSTOR, Accessed 16 Oct. 2020.

NOAA Headquarters. "Climate change has been influencing where tropical cyclones rage."

ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 4 May 2020. <>.

Pidwirny, Michael. Chapter 8: Thunderstorms, Mid-Latitude Cyclones and Hurricanes: Single...


 Our Planet Earth Publishing, 2020.

Shultz, James M., et al. "Double environmental injustice—climate change, Hurricane Dorian,

and the Bahamas." New England Journal of Medicine 382.1 (2020): 1-3.

University of Wisconsin-Madison. "Long-term data show hurricanes are getting stronger."

ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 18 May 2020. <>.

Van Schaik, Louise, et al. Introduction. Clingendael Institute, 2020, pp. 3–5, Ready for Take-

off?: Military Responses to Climate Change, Accessed 16 Oct. 2020.



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