Edudorm Facebook

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

Additionally, the review of the journal article is an evaluation of the article's strengths, weaknesses, and validity. It is used to inform of the article’s value through your explanation, interpretation, and analysis. As you do this, ask the major questions that are central to the review process:

What is the purpose of this article?
Why is it important to investigate or examine the subject of the article?
How are the authors carrying out the task? Are their methods and comments appropriate and adequate to the task?
What do they claim to have found out? Are the findings clearly stated?
How does this advance knowledge in the field?
Hint: These would make really good section titles for your paper.

Your work should consist of:

Introduction (this will have a well-defined purpose statement in your intro paragraph that provides guidance to the reader about what you are going to cover in your paper)
Body (feel free to use sub-headings if necessary)
Conclusion (this wraps up the key points of your work and brings your paper to a logical conclusion)
Technical Requirements

Your paper must be at a minimum of 5 pages (the Title and Reference pages do not count towards the minimum limit).
A peer reviewed journal article should be used.
Type in Times New Roman, 12 point and double space.
Students will follow the current APA Style as the sole citation and reference style used in written work submitted as part of coursework. 
Points will be deducted for the use of Wikipedia or encyclopedic type sources. It is highly advised to utilize books, peer-reviewed journals, articles, archived documents, etc.
All submissions will be graded using the assignment rubric.

288 Words  1 Pages

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

The Planet Earth video …the in-text citation would be (BBC 2016) BBC Worldwide. 2016. Planet Earth II: Cities. 

Video about 45min 
Writing Prompts:

- Why, given all of the potential negative impacts, do wild animals inhabit cities?

-How does an urban environment impact the population growth rate of a species? Discuss K (carrying capacity) r (intrinsic reproductive rate) and N (population size) in your answer
- In what ways does an urban habitat impact the foraging ecology of a species? This might include prey availability, diet, foraging behavior, or travel and handling time. 

- What are some factors that improve the survivorship of an animal population in an urban area? Conversely, what are some factors that reduce survivorship in the same population?

Describe a positive interspecific interaction between humans and an animal in an urban environment. How does each species benefit?

- Describe a negative interspecific interaction between humans and an animal in an urban environment. How might this interaction be mitigated or managed?

- Compare and contrast the behavior, distribution, or ecology of a species highlighted in the video to that of Eastern gray squirrels in the Boston Public Garden.

Choose at least one case study that is highlighted in the video. Conduct library research and find at least THREE sources of primary or secondary literature that helps you better understand the ecology of this/these species. Just like for your squirrel project presentations and lab report – you might find literature that educates you about the biology, behavior, or ecology of the species in a “natural” or “wild” habitat vs. an urban setting. 

Write a 2-4 page (1000-2000 word) paper that addresses at least two of the following writing prompts. Students may address more than one prompt in their paper but should organize their writing in order to link and smoothly transition between multiple arguments.

Include a Literature Cited section (3 sources minimum, not including the Planet Earth video). Please utilize the following formats. List all of your sources alphabetically by the first author’s last name. You may not cite websites

Each paragraph should have a topic sentence, followed by supporting sentences, and ending with a concluding sentence

You should only reference primary and secondary sources for this paper. These include scientific journal articles, books, dissertations and theses. Websites are not acceptable
• Do not use direct quotes. Paraphrase and cite references in text as indicated below. You may also use this format: Wilson et al. (2015) reported that

425 Words  1 Pages

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

The focus of this question is on negligence and intentional torts.    I am in how you apply the law to the facts to support your conclusion.  Base your answer only on the facts provided.  

Roberto, visiting Maryland from New Jersey, was shopping at Nordstrom's, a Washington State corporation, when he was stopped by a security guard who accused him of stealing a pair of shoes that he had stashed in his briefcase.  When the guard called the manager, Roberto explained that he had previously bought the shoes at Payless Shoes and was comparing prices.  He said that if they followed him to the Payless Shoe Store, they would find the shoebox in the trash.  He also said that if they looked at the Payless Shoes' website, they would find that identical style for sale.  The manager refused both requests and Roberto was unable to show a receipt which he claimed, was also in the trash.  He was taken to the stockroom where he was handcuffed to  large metal container until police arrived.  The manager filed a complaint against him, but charges were dropped when the security guard failed to appear to testify.
Roberto sues the store.  

What did he claim?  What defenses does Nordstrom have, if any?

218 Words  1 Pages

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

Industrial and mechanical maintenance informal report.
This is an English writing final project.
The aim of the report is to understand the concept and show the value and importance of mechanical maintenance.
Report audience is semi-educated people. 
Report requirements are as follow:
1.Title page with a picture.
2.Table of contents.
4.Introduction (brief background and an indication of the structure of the rest of the report)
5. The min body:
  1. Industrial maintenance. 
  1.1 Objectives of maintenance.
  1.2 Role of maintenance in the industry.
    1.2.1 Advantages of maintenance
    1.2.2 Disadvantages of maintenance.
  2.Maintenance principles.
  2.1 Preventive maintenance
  2.2 Predictive maintenance
  2.3 Unscheduled maintenance.
  3. Mechanical systems maintenance.
  3.1 Bearings
  3.2 Couplings.
  3.3 Pullers.
  3.4 Shafts.
  3.5 Lubricants.
(feel free to be creative and add what you have that fit for the aim of the report)
a summary which emphasizes the main idea of the report.
7. Appendices (if available).
(use visual aid  fingers, pictures etc.).

Thank you.

192 Words  1 Pages

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:
- treatment of wastewater history 
-water reuse 
-different uses of waste water 
-different uses of treated waste water 
-talk about concrete ( every content - mixture process and types - mixture designs)
- usage of treated wastewater in concrete

50 Words  1 Pages


Steel Metal



Part B.

After discovering that steel is the most preferred metal for engineering, I am more than curious to know about the various types of steel and how each of these types is made, and the modification steel has to undergo as well as establish the various reasons engineers prefer steel to other metals.  I have discovered that there are more than 3000 different grades of steel, the grade of steel is determined by the amount of carbon and all the other alloys in the steel metal and the way that the steel has been processed (Baufield, 2019). I have also learned that steel is graded as a way of classification and there are four types of steel metal Carbon, Alloy, Stainless, and Tool.

 I have gathered that carbon steel is the most produced type of steel and accounts for 90% of the steel produced.  This type of steel has traces of other elements besides the two most prominent elements of steel, iron, and carbon (Baufield, 2019).  This type of metal is further subdivided into three subgroups based on the carbon in the metal, these sub-groups are; low carbon steels which have about 0.3% of carbon, medium carbon steel which has a slightly higher amount of carbon that ranges from 0.3% to 0.6%, the last subgroup of carbon steel, high carbon steel has a slightly higher percentage of carbon that is above 0.6% (Baufield, 2019). I have also learned that most carbon steel metals contain Manganese.  The low carbon steel is the most used metal from the three subgroups. The most unique thing about steel from this subgroup is that it is not hardened by heat instead its hardened state is achieved through cold work (Baufield, 2019). Carbon steel has relatively low strength, despite this, they have a high ductility that makes them the most preferred for machining, welding and they come at a relatively low cost.  

In most occasion, high strength and low alloy steel fall under the classification of low-carbon steels, however, they contain other elements to include, copper, molybdenum, nickel, and vanadium (In Chinese Society for Metals (CSM), & In Chinese Academy of Engineering (CAE), 2016). The high strength of these metals is achieved through heat treatment. They also have a high ductility which makes them formable and machinable. After comparing these metals to low carbon steel, I found out they are slightly more resistant to corrosion than low carbon steels. In the automobile industry low carbon steel is used to make body (Matmatch, n.d).

Medium carbon steel has mechanical properties that are improved via heat treatment.  These type of carbon metals also has a martensitic microstructure. Heat treatment of these metals can only be done on very thin sections of the metals (Matmatch, n.d).  When hardened, medium-carbon steel has greater strength than low carbon steels, however, I discovered that these strengths come at the expense of ductility and toughness.  Since these metals have high strengths and are resistant to wear, this type of carbon steel is used to make rail tracks, machinery parts, train wheels, and crankshafts (Matmatch, n.d). High Carbon steel is the hardest and toughest of the carbon steel metals, these metals also have the lowest ductility. I have learned that from the three subgroups of carbon metals they are the most hardened and tempered.  High carbon steel is used to make cutting tools and high strength wires.

            The second classification of steel metal that I am interested in exploring is the alloy steel metal.   Alloy steel metals have alloy elements to include nickel, copper, chromium, and aluminum (Tuttle, 2018).  From what I have gathered these other elements are added to the steel composition to increase the strength, hardness, toughness and wear resistance of the carbon steel metal (Tuttle, 2018).  Allow steel metals are further subdivided into low alloy steel and high alloy steel. I have also gathered that the most accepted boundary between low and high allow steel is 5% (Tuttle, 2018). I feel like it is important to clarify that in the oil and gas sector alloy steel used is low allow steel.  The difference between carbon steel and allow steel is the additional chromium and vanadium that is added in alloy steel (Tuttle, 2018).

            The Carbon metal is alloyed to change the microstructure and the mechanical properties to form alloy steels.   There are more than 15 elements that are mixed with carbon steel to produce different grades of alloy steels. Some of these elements include aluminum when used as an alloying element it removes phosphorous, Sulphur and oxygen. When silicon is used as an alloying element it increases magnetism of the steel and strength. Manganese as an alloying element is used to increase high-temperature strength, harden the metal and increase the ductility of the alloy metal. These additional elements are added with a focus on modifying the steel properties and make them more suitable for specific applications (Tuttle, 2018). It has also come to my realization that alloy steels have extensive uses in sectors to include, automobiles, machinery and equipment, and railway and road construction.

 In the construction industry alloy steels are used to hold firmly large modern structures to include, bridges, airports, and skyscrapers (Tuttle, 2018).  They provide the strength required to support large structures. Small items to include nails, screws, and bolts used in the construction of large structures are made from alloy steel.  

Stainless steel contains chromium that ranges from 10-20%, chromium is the main alloying element used in making this type of steel highly resistant to corrosion (Baddoo, 2008). I have gathered that stainless steel is most preferred for use in medical equipment, to make pipelines, cutting tools and to make machinery and equipment in the food processing industry.  Stainless steel contains a higher percentage of chromium and a relatively low amount of carbon. To increase oxidation and corrosion resistance elements to include nickel, titanium, aluminum, sulfur, and selenium are added (Baddoo, 2008).  During production, most stainless steel is melted in electric-arc and oxygen furnaces.

It has also come to my realization that there are more than 100 grades of stainless steel, however, there are five classifications of stainless steel, these classifications include, austenitic, ferritic, martensitic, precipitation hardening and duplex.  Tool steel is a commonly used type of steel in engineering (Baddoo, 2008). I have learned that this type of steel is resistant to deformation and flattening as a result of its hardened nature. Tool steel is also resistant to wear and breakage. Tool steel is carbon steel and alloy steel that are well suited to be used in making tools (Baek, et al., 2019). They are also suitable for use when shaping other materials as a result of their hardened nature.

Steel is the most commonly used metal in the field of engineering and this has been evidenced by the above discussion. I have discovered that the use of steel in the engineering field dates back to many centuries and has continued to evolve over the years. Today over 75% of the steel used in the construction and engineering sector has been developed in the last 20 years (In Chinese Society for Metals (CSM), & In Chinese Academy of Engineering (CAE), 2016). Following a close examination of data recorded by the World Steel Association the total amount of steel produced in the world amounted to 1808 million tons in 2018 and over 50% of this steel was used in the construction and engineering industry.

Part C


In conclusion, steel is one of the most important metals used in the construction industry, steel is most preferred because of its characteristics to include toughness and durability.  Steel has a high melting point which makes its temperature resistant. Steel is extensively used in the construction and engineering industry and the automobile industry.  Steel is flexible and can meet the requirements of different projects in infrastructure.  Steel is produced in a basic oxygen furnace where various amounts of steel carp are mixed with flux and melted at extremely high temperatures.  The use of steel to make equipment sparked my interest and drove me to study steel even further.   I used to think that three was only one type of steel, however, I have discovered that there are four types of steel that are further subdivided into other categories. At the end of the research, I am well aware that every type of steel serves a different purpose according to its characteristics. I am now fully aware that all the other types of steel are a product of carbon steel and other elements are added to modify its structure and chemical composition.  Research into steel metal has proved to be very insightful and has helped me replace some of the myths I had on steel with more factual information.
















Baddoo, N. R. (2008). Stainless steel in construction: A review of research, applications, challenges and opportunities. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 64(11), 1199-        1206

Baek, G. Y., Shin, G. Y., Lee, K. Y., & Shim, D. S. (2019). Mechanical Properties of Tool Steels            with High Wear Resistance via Directed Energy Deposition. Metals, 9(3), 282.

Baufield, M., (2019). What Are the Different Grades of Steel? Retrieved from;   

In Chinese Society for Metals (CSM),, & In Chinese Academy of Engineering (CAE),. (2016).    HSLA Steels 2015, Microalloying 2015 & Offshore Engineering Steels 2015: Conference            Proceedings.

Matmatch. (n.d). Carbon Steel: Properties, Production, Examples and Applications. Retrieved     from;

Tuttle, R. (2018). Alloy Steels.

1583 Words  5 Pages


            In sports, the applicable mechanical principles are various rules that are used for the purpose of governing the proper execution of sporting skills. In the process of using these skills as the sports guidelines, it means that athletes can have the ability of building excellent techniques as well as gain the best mechanical advantage. Nevertheless, Newton’s laws of motion are perceived to be the main basis for formulating these mechanical rules that should be applied together with other sports training principles for the purpose of achieving higher or efficient sport performance. 


            Traditionally, biomechanics in sports is divided into two, namely kinematics and kinetics. Kinematics, as a branch of mechanics is a science that is concerned with the geometry of body motions, including acceleration, velocity, and displacement, without considering the forces that generates it. On the other hand, kinetics deals with the generated force and the effect it has on a body. Taking that into account, muscular, neurological, and skeletal movement are to be taken into considerations in the process of describing biomechanics (Bloomfield et al., 2009 p. 211).

Biomechanical principles, laws and equations that govern long jump

            The following are some of the biomechanical principles and terms that are used when it comes to the need of elucidating the role biomechanics in long jump.

            Forces and Torques _ Force is a pull or a push that has the ability of changing the motion of stationary or moving object. Motion is produced and modified by the muscle forces as well as through the external forces of the environment. Therefore, when the racket or a body segment is rotated by a force, the resulting effect is termed as force of movement or torque. For instance, in tennis strokes, torque is created by muscles to aid in rotating the body segment of the athlete. During long jump activity, the swinging of the upper limb internally is basically as a result of the internal rotation torque that is produced by the muscle actions. On the other hand, it is important for the young long jumper to ensure that he or she has applied extra upper limp muscle force so as to assist  propel him or her with more energy (Bloomfield et al., 2009 p.287). 

                                                Newton’s laws of motion

  1. a) Newton’s first law: The law of inertia – according to this law, unless an object is acted upon by a force, it will stay in motion or at rest if that was the case. For instance, unless muscular force of the arms of the athlete will not try to overcome his or her inertia, his or her body will tend to retain his or her motion in the process of sprinting down the field (Mcginnis, 2005 p.81). 
  2. b) Newton’s second law: The law of acceleration – this law is used for the purpose of explaining the amount of motion that is created by a force. Acceleration is basically the tendency of a body to change direction and speed. According to this law, the force acting on a body is directly proportional to its acceleration. Thus, the sprinting acceleration to be gained by the long jumper will ultimately directly proportional to the force he or she will produce in the process of swinging his or her hands. It is computed as follows

                                    Force (f) = Mass (m) x Acceleration (a)

            For Instance, in case an athlete improves his or her leg performance or strength via thorough training while preserving his or her body mass, he or she will have an increased propensity to accelerate his or her body using the legs. This, then, will result in improved agility and speed. Accordingly, the same case relates to the potential of rotating a segment as stated above.

  1. c) Newton’s third law: Action and reaction law _ According to this law, for each individual action force action and reaction forces are equal and opposite. This implies that both the action and the reaction force do not act in isolation. For colliding bodies, they always take place in an opposite direction and with equal magnitude. For instance, the force that is produced by the young long jumper’s legs, in the process of ‘pushing’ against the ground, lead to the production of reaction force. Because of the pushing back of the ground by the generated reaction force, the long jumper is able to sprint in a straight line without sliding. This also enables him to cover a longer distance in the process of jumping (Ben & Jasen, 2011 p.80).


            Momentum is typically the product of velocity (the speed at which the body is moving) and the mass of that body, that is (F=ma). It is thus the total amount of motion the athlete will be possessing during the process of engaging in such sporting activity. Colliding bodies also have the ability of transferring momentum between each other. Different types of moment also results to the production of various impacts during sport and exercise.

  1. a) Linear momentum – this is a momentum that is attained when an object or a body is on a straight line. It, therefore, implies that it vital to understand that linear momentum is generated when the long jumper sprints down a straight line. It is computed as follows;

                                                L=mv    where m= mass of the body and v=velocity

  1. a) Angular momentum – being a rotational momentum, it is generated by bodies moving in a circular motion. It is computed as follows;

                                                H=I  where H= angular momentum, I = inertia and =angular velocity

             For example, the open posture of the forehand mainly utilizes significant rotational momentum. Likewise, the remarkable increase in the utilization of rotational momentum in serves and ground stokes induces a significant impact during the game of tennis. Thus, the integration of rotational momentum into ground strokes and serves methodologies is what act as the main basis of increasing the power of the tennis game today. The angular momentum that is produced as a result of coordinating the action of the body segment translates to the racket’s linear momentum at impact (Mcginnis, 2005 p.189). 

            In the process of rotating, increasing the radius end up slowing down rotation while decreasing the radius increases rotation. For instance, a diver will increase his or her rotation whenever the truck is more tightened hence creating short body radius. Likewise, Because of the lightening of the radius, a pike will generate slower rotation.

            In order to be in the position of achieving skilled or improved movements, a player should effectively combine angular and linear momentum. For instance, a discus thrower should ensure that his or her body has moved in a straight line from front to the back of the ring in the process of rotating with increased velocity.

                                                Centre of gravity (COG)

            This is an imaginary point that aid in ensuring the even distribution of the weight of a body. For the human body, the center of gravity can keep on changing significantly because the segments or the parts of the body can continue to move their masses because of combined rotations. This idea is important because it assist a player to understand balance and stability as well as how gravity has the ability of affecting sport techniques (Paul, 2014 p.154).

            The direction of gravitational force via an object is directed downward towards the earth’s centre and through the centre of gravity. The importance of this line of gravity is that it assists a player to visualize his propensity of successfully sustain balance. In case this line is not maintained within the base of support, reaction will be required so as to ensure that the body has remained in balance. For example, the COG of a squash racket is one of the simpler processes and can be found through dandifying its point of balance using a narrow object or a finger.

            When it comes to long jump, it is important for the athlete to understand that both walking and running are similar in terms of their locomotive activities.  Despite that being able to walk is not the same as a player’s ability to run. Shock absorption is relatively larger as compared to walking. There it is important for the young long jumper to maintain their balance so as to avoid injuries (Bloomfield et al., 2009 p.155).                                                  


            There are various means that can be used to enhance human movement performance because effective movement takes into account cognitive, physiological, and neuromuscular abilities, as well as other anatomical factors. Biomechanics is one of the movement techniques that are extensively used in sporting activities. The reason for that is because technique is one of the significant factors that improve the performance of an athlete. With the utilization of sport biomechanics, it is vital for the young long jumper to ensure that he or she has analyzed his or her body loading so as to determine the best means for performing that task. This also takes into account the determination of the best or the safest sport equipment to use so as to reduce injuries or enhance sport performance (Mcginnis, 2005 p.130)


            Running biomechanics is science used to explain how the human body moves during sports and the reason for that. In sports biomechanics end up incorporating concrete analysis of sport movements so as to aid in minimizing the risks of injury hence improving their sport performance. The reason for that is because research indicates that sports and exercise biomechanics takes into consideration the detailed analysis of all the mechanisms that are involved during body movements in the process of enhancing better sporting activities. In long jump, it is also important to take into consideration the interactions that exist between the athlete, their environment, and the equipment.  




BEN, S & JASEN, R. (2011). Aerospace Engineering: From the Ground Up. Cengage Learning

BLOOMFIELD, J., ACKLAND, T. R., & ELLIOT, B. C. (2009). Applied anatomy and biomechanics in sport. Champaign, IL., Human Kinetics.

MCGINNIS, P. M. (2005). Biomechanics of sport and exercise. Champaign, Human Kinetics.

PAUL, E. R. (2014). Foundations of Sports Coaching: second edition. Routledge Press




1682 Words  6 Pages



            The framework used within the K-12 science education aid in providing a blueprint that can in return be utilized for the purpose of offering the NGSS (next generation science standards. The reason for that is because it has been realized that it has the ability of offering or expressing the vision in education field, especially the teaching of science which ultimately requires students to have the potential of operating at the nexus of the three fundamental learning dimensions. These areas include crosscutting concepts, disciplinary core ideas, and science engineering practices (NARST: Publications - Research Matters - to the Science Teacher, 2019).

  1. a) Asking questions and defining problems

            In the process of utilizing this model or framework, it is important for the students to be given the chance of asking questions amongst themselves regarding the features they observe, texts, and so on before drawing a conclusion form them. In the context of engineering, it is important for the students to ask questions that have the ability of enabling them define the problem or problems they ought to solve as well as elicit ideas that resulted to its specifications or constraints. Ideally, it should also be realized that since scientific questions can arises through various means, the students should be made aware that they can arise through curiosity (Next Generation Science Standards, 2019). All these can result due to the inspiration they will through predicting the model, previous findings, and so on, which in return enables the solving of the existing problem. Therefore, the questions to be asked should be supported by other empirical evidences, including those that were arrived at through investigation.

  1. b) Developing and using framework (models)

            The use of models, for instance, physical replicas, diagrams, computer simulations, mathematical representations, and so on is something that starts at an earlier age. Although all these models might fail to correspond together, they have the ability of bringing various features into focus in the process of observing others. It is crucial to understand that such models ultimately consist of assumptions and approximations which in return limit or minimize a wide range of validity. This in return will ensure that in the process of using such models, students will always keep in mind the need of first recognizing their prevailing limitations. 

            When it comes to science, these models ought to be used in a way has the ability of representing a system or systems under investigation. The reason for that it will assist in the generation of various questions together with their associated explanations. Moreover, it will be possible to generate information which can also be used in making predictions as well as communicating them with others. In the context of engineering, the models will be utilized in way that has the ability of analyzing the existing systems to ascertain some of the existing flaws. The identification of these flaws is the one can aid in testing the validity of the solutions to any problem (NARST: Publications - Research Matters - to the Science Teacher, 2019).

  1. c) Planning and carrying out investigations

            In order to effectively utilize this model, it is important for the students to be given the opportunity of planning as well as carrying multiple investigations. At any given level, it is important to ensure that they have been assisted in engaging in a number of investigations ranging from those formulated by the instructor or teacher. Ideally, the reason for that is to enable them expose any issue or issues that that they have the ability of tackling on their own. On the other hand, it should be realized that some of the scientific questions that students might come up with can be undertaken as a means of describing phenomenon or testing model or theory regarding the way the world functions. In so doing, it is vital to ensure that the students have had the ability of generating information or data that can be used in supporting their claims.

d ) analyzing and interpreting data

                        Once the instructor have collected data from the students, he or she should ensure that they have been presented in a way that has the ability of revealing relationships and patterns that can allow results to be communicated effectively to other. Due to the fact that raw or unprocessed data have been noted to have little meaning, it is important, therefore, to ensure that they have been organized chronologically using tables, graphs, and so on. This is what will give such information the ability of being utilized as evidences. When it comes to engineering, it is important to make various decisions that will be based on the evidences concerning the functionality of a certain system. Although this can be perceived to be a trial and error method, it is vital to analyze such a design through developing prototype of it before gathering extensive data (Next Generation Science Standards, 2019). The general analysis of such information will have the ability of informing design decisions which will in return boost the assessment or prediction of performance. It is also evident that the same mechanism will ultimately assist in defining or clarifying the existing problem, determining economic feasibility, examine failures, as well as evaluate the existing alternatives.

e)Using mathematics and computational thinking

            For effective utilization of the prevailing models, it should first be understood that computational and mathematical reasoning needs to be applied equitably in science and engineering. The reason for that is because it so doing it will be possible to apply them in any task concerning critical thinking. In return, it means that it will be possible to tackle and accomplish any assessment before analyzing as well as building complex models. As a result of that, it is important for the instructor to ensure that the students have had the opportunity of using mathematical thinking for the purpose of representing physical variables as well as their relations. This is important because it is the same methodology that will enable them to make quantitative predictions (Next Generation Science Standards, 2019).  In the context of science and engineering, mathematical applications will have to take account things like geometry, logic, calculus, and so on. Computer and other associated digital will be used by students through measuring, observing, recording, as well as processing the same data.

  1. F) Constructing explanations and designing solutions

            The ultimate objective of science entails constructing explanations regarding the cause of a certain phenomenon. As a result of that, it is important for the instructor or the teacher to ensure that the students have had the ability of constructing their own explanations. Furthermore, they will have to be given the chance of applying standard explanations they could have learned during the lesson. This is to imply that all they have to do is to construct theories concerning the accounts of the real world. The reason for that is because it will be possible to generate several empirical evidences that will be used as solutions to such accounts (, 2019).

  1. g) Engaging in argument from evidence

            In the process of studying science and engineering, it is important to ensure that such an exercise have generated a sensible process of analyzing the evidence presented. The reason for that is because it is the one that will enable the instructor to advance and defend newly generated ideas. Such ideas will in return be used as explanations for the problem at hand.  As a result of that, the students should be given the opportunity of arguing as a way of expounding their explanations as well as defending their interpretations. This in return will enable them to advocate all the explanations they will have regarding the problem at hand. In science and engineering, argument and reasoning will have to be based on all the evidences provided before identifying a solution to a certain problem or phenomenon (Next Generation Science Standards, 2019).

  1. h) Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information

            In any academic institution, the teaching of science and engineering should have the capacity of developing the ability of the students to read as well as generate domain specific texts. Because of that, it is important for the teacher to understand that any science and engineering lessons have the potential of boosting their understanding while studying other lessons. When a student is capable of reading, interpreting, and producing technical and scientific texts, it becomes his or her foundation for excelling in academics (, 2019).

                                                Practice or process rationale

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information

            In the context of academic, the primary means of enabling a learner to excel is ensuring that he or she has mastered the concept or reading, writing, interpreting, and solving problems. This is, therefore to imply that for a student to be a critical consumer of data concerning science and engineering, it is important for him or her to master the ability of reading, or reviewing reports of technical or scientific applications or advances. In return, this is vital because it will enable the student to recognize salient ideas as well as identifying some of the obstacles that can hinder a student from achieving his or her goals (NARST: Publications - Research Matters - to the Science Teacher, 2019).

            On the other hand, in the process of using this practice, it means that it will be possible for the learner to identify any source or sources of error and other methodological flaws. As a result of that, it will be easier for engineers and scientists to have the ability of obtaining information to be used as the basis of evaluating validity and merit, designs, and methods. In the process of using this practice or process, it is important to ensure that interactive displays, graphs, tables, questions, and other models have been extensive utilized. This can either be done through writing, orally, as well as through other extended class discussions (, 2019).


            The utilization of the above practice or processes has the potential of improving the learning ability of students. Nevertheless, this framework is also perceived to be containing various disciplinary core ideas which all students need to master so as to boost their learning skills from kindergarten upwards. One of the means that have been realized to have the potential of enhancing proper utilization of this framework is for students to ensure that they learned all its core values. On the other hand, the importance of integrating science and engineering is that it will at the end of the day enable learners to understand the essence of boosting their learning skills.













References (2019). Retrieved from

NARST: Publications - Research Matters - to the Science Teacher. (2019). Retrieved from

Next Generation Science Standards. (2019). Retrieved from


1790 Words  6 Pages

Search and Seizure


Summary of the case

Randolph and wife had marital separation in May 2001 due to marriage issues.  One morning, the wife called the police to come and resolve the marital problems, and the police arrived the wife reported that his husband is a cocaine user.  The police conducted a search for cocaine evidence after obtaining a consent from the wife despite the husband’s refusal (FindLaw. 2019). The police used a warrantless entry and after the search, he found evidence of cocaine use.  (FindLaw. 2019). In the court, Randolph requested the court to exclude the presented evidence he was denied the request by the trial court. The Georgia Court of Appeals did not agree with the trial court judgment and reversed the trial court decision.  In addition, the State Supreme Court provided a legal clarity about the matter and affirmed that the wife's consent for the search of evidence was invalid since the husband, Randolph was a present occupant who refused to offer consent for the search of evidence (FindLaw. 2019). The summary indicates that the law enforcement agency desecrated the constitutional law and the search and seizure was unreasonable and illegal.

Courts decision

   Using the above facts, the court made a decision that during the search for evidence, the respondent was a present co-occupants and he was against the warrantless entry and search (FindLaw. 2019). Thus, the police search for evidence was arbitrary and invalid. This means that the policeman sullied the 4th Amendment and the search and seizure was illegal due to lack of legal authority. They did not have a probable cause- facts and circumstances about the crime of drug abuse. They solely relied on the information given by Mrs. Randolph and this was unlawful. According to the Fourth Amendment, police have the right for warrantless entry if only they obtain a voluntary consent in residences where occupants share a common authority (Bloom, 2003). However, they should not obtain a warrantless entry in presence of a present occupant who refuses for a warrantless entry. The occupants share common authority and premises and they are protected by the property law. In this case, Randolph is a co-inhabitant who has the authority to refuse the warrantless search as his wife is against his interests.

 Court's opinion

 Opinion or the official decision agreed by the judges regarding the matter at hand is that Randolph and his wife shared the premises and when people share premises,  the co-inhabitants has the authority to refuse warrantless a  search. Between co-tenants, there is no superior or inferior person and this means that each person must consider the interest of the other. Even though the respondent's wife allowed the police to search the evidence, the invite was a disputed invitation or rather a disputed permission that could restrict police to enter a dwelling (FindLaw. 2019). The Supreme Court puts emphasize on shared privacy. Justice Souter gives the opinion of the court by affirming that according to The Fourth Amendment, entry without a search warrant is considered valid if only the police obtain voluntary consent to search in a residence where the occupants share the authority (Bloom, 2003). In the case, Randolph and the wife shared the premises and one of the co-occupant (Randolph) was physically present and he rejected the warrantless search. Thus, the court confirms that the police officer did not have a search warrant or in other words, he did not justify the search for evidence to derive the evidence (Bloom, 2003).  In addition, the opposing party was physically present and he clearly stated his opposition. 

 With reference to the Fourth Amendment, the law enforcement agency violated the right to privacy since the co-occupant was present and presented his objection.  It is important to differentiate between reasonable suspicion and probable cause. The police officer relied upon a reasonable suspicion rather than using probable cause and warrant. According to The Fourth Amendment, law enforcement officials should adhere to the constitutional ethics and before using the warrantless entries, they should make an informed decision (Bloom, 2003). The Fourth Amendment condemned warrantless entry and lack of probable cause and for this reason, the respondent and his wife have the possession and control of their tangible property and, the authority from a single individual is insufficient. In this case, the third party does not have autonomy and the law enforcement agency should balance the consenter's autonomy and co-occupant genuine privacy (Bloom, 2003). The two individuals shared social expectation and this means that no one had the power to grant the consent.  The judges argue that the respondent and his wife are equal partners.

The dissenting opinion

 Judges Scalia and Roberts expressed their disagreement opinion and argued that the police warrantless search was reasonable since Mrs. Randolph gave the police the authority.  In this case,  the judges focus on women's equality and argue that  Mr. and Mrs. Randolph shared common authority per se, Matlock, supra, at 171 (FindLaw. 2019). Despite the opinion of the majority that individuals who share a resident have a common social expectation, the dissenting judges argue that the objections of the respondents do not comply with the agreement of the wife for a warrantless search or in other words, no one meets the expectations or the interest of the other. The majority opinion is arbitrary and obscure since they argue that the refusal of co-occupant makes the search unreasonable (FindLaw. 2019). However, the search was reasonable since Mrs. Randolph permitted the police to enter and solve the domestic disputes and she also needed a protective presence. Thus, police have a good reason to enter the residence and handle the threat of violence per se, Ante, at 13-14 (FindLaw. 2019). Again, the police have the legal authority to search for the evidence using a search warrant. Initially, the police requested the permission to search from the wife and since the initial search gave evidence, the police obtained an original search warrant to find more evidence (FindLaw. 2019). According to the rules of U.S constitution concerning the search and seizure, a roommate has the power to allow the police to enter the apartment and look for the evidence. The dissenting judges concluded that the modern property law gives equal right to both man and woman and no one possesses the power over the property (Bloom, 2003). Thus, man and woman are equal per se, Ante, at 2, and no one had the power to obstruct the wishes of the other.




Bloom, R. M. (2003). Searches, seizures, and warrants: A reference guide to the United States

Constitution. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.


 FindLaw. (2019). GEORGIA v. RANDOLPH [04-1067].  Retrieved from:














1113 Words  4 Pages












Stem Annotated Bibliography












Blank, J., & Lynch, S. (2018, September). Growing in STEM. The Design Process: Engineering Practices in Preschool. Retrieved from

This article tries to explain why engineering practices are important in a STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) learning system, most especially in the early ages of learning. Blank and Lynch begin the article with an illustrative story of a teacher and her students, and how the teacher employ the use of different designs to teach the students the concept of engineering.  The article illustrates that STEM is an important component of early childhood education because of the fact that it assimilates the global incorporation of content with comprehensive explorations meaningfully embedded in the real world contexts of these children. Blank and Lynch illustrates that engineering is important for this elementary children because it allows the children to learn develop important skills for instance they become creative, they learn how to plan effectively, they learn to work in a team and they also learn how to improve things to make them better. Blank and Lynch concludes by advocating for use of engineering in STEM topics because it greatly helps involve the young minds in unravelling actual problems. Design helps the students to view themselves as problem solvers, something that help them to become better learners and better people in the society at large.

Lyn, E. (2016). STEM education K-12: Perspectives on integration. Retrieved from

This article advocates analyses past research on STEM to show the limitations with the STEM programs integration for young students. Lyn argues for a greater focus on STEM integration with a more justifiable illustration of the four disciplines in studies that relevance to progress STEM learning. Interdisciplinary and Trans disciplinary approaches to STEM research are common topics in literature but this is not the case for STEM integration. Lyn argues that STEM integration is a sprouting field with reverence to progressing curriculum advancement and numerous student results. Lyn goes ahead to illustrate that there is still need to apprehend the learning effects of the students that come about with diverse forms of STEM integration and also from the different disciplines that are being integrated. Lyn argues that more research in this field still need to be done to help come up with a god integration model that will deliver good results. Lyn concludes by illustration that integration of STEM education raises more questions with no answers and there is the need for more research to be conducted to try and understand the best strategy that can be adopted to make the integration easy and effective. 

Gerlach, J. (2012, November 4). STEM: Defying a Simple Definition. Retrieved from

The article begins by defining STEM where it illustrates that it is an acronym for science, technology, engineering and mathematics. Gerlach goes ahead to explain that this is a shallow definition because STEM is so great a puzzle especially in the education sector because no one can truly explain what it really means. The author goes ahead to illustrate that STEM was introduced in the education field within the US because there was a concern that the students were not being sufficiently prepared in the STEM fields and there hence no enough workers in this increasingly innovative world. STEM is imagined to help in creating the next innovators who are intelligent and ready for high-tech fields. Students are constantly encouraged to do well in these areas so that they could secure better jobs in future. STEM is viewed as the path in helping groom the workers of the 21st century with special skills of computers and digital data collection tools. Gerlach concludes by illustrating that STEM is not something that be generally defined because it means different things for different groups. What is particularly true about STEM is that it is all about stirring forward, solving difficulties, learning and pushing modernisation to another superior level.

662 Words  2 Pages



            In the modern society computer has become part of people lives. Computers are used to perform almost every task from watching movies to reading books. New technology has impacted people lives by providing new and faster ways of communicating, sharing information, sending and receiving emails is faster than before, hard drives and flash drives are used to store data, and viewing videos online. Today a lot of people use computers and smart phones, but before people can use these gadgets someone has to create network and programme those devices.  That’s where the study of computer networking engineering comes about (Robertazzi, 11)

            Computer networking engineers are mostly employed in organizations to assist in installing and creating network in the offices and they work as IT team in the firm.  Node is referred to any devices connected to the network and work station is referred to computer that is connected to the network. Computer engineering is the study involving with the communication between computers (Sobh and Khaled, 112).  Data networks includes local networks (LANs), wide area networks (WANs) and the likes of intranets and extranets. To become a successful computer networking engineer one has to have excellent communications skills, keen in details, he or she must be good in analysing and solving problems( Schneidewind, 86). The main goal of computer networking engineers is to ensure that they provide network infrastructure so as to ensure there is full performance for their clients.

            Computer networking help people by managing their data and that all data is kept in the computer rather than keeping them in hard disk. Thus it will be easy to trace and manage the data.  And when there is need to change a particular document, updated will be made automatically and the people will be able to view or access the same updated document. Another advantage of computer networking is that it makes work easier, for instance, people will not have to transport documents from one point to another or transferring them using disk or USB (Grayson,111).  Also, networking allows sharing of office equipment’s such as printers.  Computer network engineering is among the best job in the market today, thus it pays well and it can help individuals.

            Bachelor degree is the minimum requirement to get an entry level job of computer network engineering. Networking engineer needs to have excellent communication skills to enable him or her to communicate well with their clients or her colleagues. Another skill networking engineers should have is experience in networking, without this skill, networking Engineering will be of no use. Having the networking skill will help the engineer to create good network systems. Networking Engineer need to be self-oriented this skill will help the engineer to be focused in the job. Also, they should learn different networking programs; with this they will not be limited on the work and they should keep updated with changing technology (Chneidewind, 54).

            In conclusion the study of computer networking engineer have greatly impacted people as a career has had impact in the modern society and it has become a very essential career just as it was in the past years. Computer networking is expanding quickly everyday making creating of ideas better than 100 years ago. New technologies are being realised, implemented and used in computer networking thus helping the world to move a step ahead.


















Work Cited

Chneidewind, Norman. Computer, Network, Software, and Hardware Engineering with Applications. , 2012. 52

Grayson, Robert. Careers in Network Engineering (e-Book). New York: Rosen Digital, n.d. Print.

Robertazzi, Thomas G. Introduction to Computer Networking. , 2017.

Schneidewind, Norman. Computer, Network, Software, and Hardware Engineering with Applications. , 2012.

Sobh, Tarek, and Khaled Elleithy. Innovations and Advances in Computing, Informatics, Systems Sciences, Networking and Engineering. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.




627 Words  2 Pages

Hiring a Senior RF Systems Engineer: Screening and Interview Process

According to McCuller, (2012) operative Resume screening is an essential step in regard to the general hiring procedure. The primary role is to ensure that potential candidates who hold desirable and pleasing experience and competence on a resume and then contacted to participate in interviews to select the most suitable one. In this case hiring Senior RF Systems Engineer needs screening on the four candidates resumes application for the position. Since the position is new in the company the most qualified professionals must, therefore, be chosen. The screening of the four candidates would involve analyzing the resumes by examining the general content provided on the resume such as skills, experience, competence, and expressiveness to establish any existing gaps that might disqualify the applicants for a later interview for hiring.

If any the resume that I would personally screen out is that of Mathew T, while the other three would be passed for a later interview that would lead to the selection of the most suitable candidates based on their competence, experience, and knowledge. The resume would be screen out based on the existence of gaps. In that, the line of experience is mainly more of mechanical with less designing skills. this does not, however, imply that the candidate is not qualified for the position but it means that more training would be necessitated to assist the staff to catch up to the more structured work settings. In addition, the candidate has only been positioned in a single company since the year 2003 which implies that they lack adequate exposure and complexity of the changing engineering role. In that, it is not only the experience, and skills that counts as such small details and employment patterns also matters. 

On the other hand, Dez, Erick R and Brad W would be passed for the interview. This is because their working experience is rather extensive such as that of Brad that accounts for 23 years. In other words, this implies that his working knowledge is fundamental in bringing fresh concepts and skills in the company. In addition, for the three candidates their employment pattern is desirable as they have not spend even a single year outside working yet they have worked for a number of organizations. Dez has also worked for an international company Motorola Inc. and this implies that his skills and knowledge would benefit the company positively. In this context, the interview would determine the candidate that suits the requirements of Senior RF Systems Engineer position. In that, the suitability cannot only be determined by just examining their personal resumes as the details might prove to be deceiving (McCuller, 2012).  After screening all the resumes it would be good to organize the papers based on the projected suitability despite the fact that the assumptions might not be right.

Face To Face Interview Preparations

After the screening, I would schedule interviews for the selected three candidates that have met the minimum requirements. Face to face is the most appropriate strategy to conduct the interview based on its ability to generate more details based on the expressiveness of the candidates. This requirement must have been met based on the description of the position. When contacting and inviting them to attend the interview I would also ensure that a detailed job description is sent to each of them to ensure that they have reasonable preparation in regard to their role and what the interview might entail. In addition, those conducting the interviews will also be mentioned. The interview would mainly involve a number of interviews for every interview. This is because, despite the fact that the setting might seem to be intimidating for the applicants, the practice can work in ensuring a more inclusive, impartial and reasonable account of the role is taken since the decision will be made from varying views rather than just a single one.

While interviewing the candidates all the questions should be similar for each of them to ensure fair judgment and comparable results. In addition, I would mainly use open-ended rather than closed questions since they tend to produce an essential information and offers an opportunity for the interrogators to the best way that the answers are provided. As the interviewer, I should not depend on memory but notes should be drafted during the interview. All the questions should mainly entail performing their responsibilities rather than personal questions that tend to be less objective. I would also consider asking more thought demanding and complex questions such as the type of skills that the candidate believes that they have brought to the company and their most demanding challenge while working. Their expectations in regard to the job can also be enquired to range their views and perception in regard to the role. I would prefer to talk less and permit the interviewees to have more time to be expressive and defensive in regard to their competence in this alignment.











McCuller, P. (2012). How to recruit and hire great software engineers: Building a crack development team. Place of publication not identified: Apress.


853 Words  3 Pages

Page 1 of 2

Get in Touch

If you have any questions or suggestions, please feel free to inform us and we will gladly take care of it.

Email us at Discounts

Busy loading action
  Working. Please Wait...