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Language acquisition in child development process and underlying theories


This paper discusses the process of language development as an important aspect that differentiates humans from other species. It highlights the various stages of language development before and after birth of an infant starting from listening skills, speech development, sentence construction and building of vocabulary in any language. Research has been done on language development and this paper uses the findings of these sources to explain how human beings develop language skills in various stages of development. There are also theories that have been used in trying to explain language development as a complex aspect in human existence.


Jones, M,(2014).Universal baby sounds .Vol. 15, 10 . Retrieved from:


 (Lemetyninen,2012). Language Acquisition. Retrieved from:


 Kennison, S. M. (2013). Introduction to Language Development.

Shulman, B. B., & Capone, N. C. (2010). Language development: Foundations, processes, and clinical applications. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.201 -210

Gerken, L. A. (2009). Language development. San Diego: Plural Pub. 108 -117

Klem , M., Melby –Lervag M., Hagtvet,B., Lyster ,S., Gustafsson , J., Hulme, C., (2015). Sentence repetition is a measure of children’s language skills rather than working memory limitations. Developmental Science 18:1. pp 146–15


Rudd, L. C., & Lambert, M. C. (2011). Interaction theory of language development. In Encyclopedia of Child Behavior and Development (pp. 830-831). Springer US.



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Subject: Management theories

Scientific management to the tenant's thought is the process of identifying the efficiency through the use of machine tools. By the use of the advanced machine tools, there is more efficiency which has high speed, feeds, and depths of cut. The workforce effort is important to the man-machine systems as they result to less time in completing the activity compared to the manual way of doing the work. The technique of time requires management training of different operators in the same activity so as to identify the most efficient method to be used in training (Wren & Bedeian, 2009). The varying sizes and shapes of hand tools to be used by the workforce should be identified with the task to be used hence the principle of efficiency to be used by the management. The scientific though ensures that no labor is wasted and only the numbers of effective personnel’s are maintained in any given workforce. Social and personal management was observed from the cultural forces (Wren & Bedeian, 2009). This is because culture it relates to political and social aspects that influenced a job of managing an organization. The thought came through the past arrangements of the institutional role of management that was in the repeated form thus no great change taking place. The modern error of management is brought about by the technological changes that have modernized the society. The modern though is enhanced by the blend of art and music through the transformation and recombination of the past and the present according to Bedeian (Wren & Bedeian, 2009).

The schools of thought are a theoretical framework of management. The classical school involves scientific, bureaucratic and administrative management. For scientific management, it involves decision making that is not systematic to solve conflicts (Wren & Bedeian, 2009). Administrative management looks at the process and the principle of management which contrast scientific management as it deals with individual levels of administrative and analysis (Wren & Bedeian, 2009). This relates to social and personal management due to responsibility, authority, centralization, team spirit, direction and division of work. Bureaucratic management stands in for waste and inflexibility. It ensures that there is a formalization of the rule, promotion of employees that is based on their ability to increase the efficiency. This aims at modernizing the management of the organization from the cultural way through the better organizational hierarchy (Wren & Bedeian, 2009).

Problems occur in every day to day operations of the organization. These problems may vary as some of are caused by difficult employees who may seem to cause trouble from time to time (DelPo, A., & Guerin, 2015). This implies that there are measures that should be taken so as it deal with these type of employees in a better way so as to increase their effectiveness and productivity. Listening to them is one measure that will improve the situation as their viewpoints will he heard. This will create a good understanding and enhance the discovery of legitimate issues (DelPo, A., & Guerin, 2015). A clear and a behavioral feedback is of at most importance as the managers will learn how to be reasonable as well. This will lower the defensiveness of the employees and give them specific information that can assist in their improvement. A consistency manager wills who sets the right standards will tame the difficult employees by setting policies of consequences if things don’t change. This will make the employees realize the negative impact of their actions (DelPo, A., & Guerin, 2015).


















DelPo, A., & Guerin, L. (2015). Dealing with problem employees: How to manage performance & personality issues in the workplace.

Wren, D. A, and Bedeian, A. J.  (2009).  The Evolution of Management Thought (6th Ed), Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley, John and Sons.  ISBN-13:  978-0-470-12897-8




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Critical Thinking and Sociological Theories

            To think critically one requires adopting several rules.  This is the willingness to enquire more from others no matter own challenging it may seem (Pg.8).  This is, therefore, true because learning should always be acquired through asking others what they know I order to develop knowledge.   In addition, one is expected to think in a clear and a logical way which involves defining theories to permit understanding (Pg.8).  The third rule is very effective as it requires the use of evidence in backing up arguments.  An argument without adequate support is a fail because it cannot justify its trueness (Pg.8).  Thinking about biases and expectations is essential as the argument has to support one's beliefs and those of others which may be contrary. Unreliable evidence should be avoided as this may make the argument to be invalid and when the challenges of uncertainty should always be accepted (Pg.8). This is because critical thoughts require more than normal senses.

In my opinion, the most challenging rule is admitting when one is uncertain or wrong in their argument supporting. An argument is always developed from a particular ground and therefore when support is not achieved due to the points being unclear it becomes difficult to accept that the argument lacks enough evidence or justification.  Accepting uncertainty seems like accepting a defeat of the argument which may not be achieved easily.  Individuals find it difficult to view beyond their own thoughts but it is essential to note that errors may occur.  Critical thoughts do not mean relying on one's thoughts but it requires paying attention to information sources in order to gather adequate and the correct information (Pg.9).  This helps in justification of an argument through the acquired knowledge from the relevant studies.



Chapter 1: Critical Thinking. 8-9. Pdf

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Crime pattern theory

Crime pattern theory provides explicit reasons as to why crimes occur in specific areas. The theory interconnects the rational offender with behavioral geography and the two creates the cognitive processes and offender’s motivation (Boba, 2006). The theory asserts that the potential offender uses the behavioral geography to create potential targets. Research shows that crime occurs in physical environment but there are aggregate elements which motives and directs the offender towards the process of target selection. For a crime to occur there must be an offender’s activity spaces or location and with respect to the theory, the activity space is known as nodes. High activity nodes welcomes offenders since  such place is full of people, cars  and shops and offenders  gets the opportunity to target various places (Boba, 2006).

 The route which the offenders use to enter in and out of the nodes (locations) is known as paths. High activity nodes creates path for offenders because such locations have a large number of people. The physical structure and daily activities influences the crime paths as offender’s targets a high concentrated place (Boba, 2006). The nodes and paths create the edge and this means that offender’s uses different mechanism in committing crime. A place where is there is high activity nodes and paths,  there a high crime rate  since criminals are able to identify territorial limits and  areas where they can commit high and low crimes. The crime and cognitive maps are important as they explain the level of risk which an offender may come across in a specific place and time (Boba, 2006). Cognitive maps impacts the spatial behavior and warns the offender. Crime and cognitive maps are different and they warn different groups of offenders by use of the ecological labels such as fear, personal experience and more. The crime pattern theory plays a crucial role in law enforcement. Through crime and cognitive maps, law makers can impose rule and allocate resources to prevent crime. The theory helps to understand the offender’s knowledge based on the experience as well as the pattern of victimization (Boba, 2006). This helps to create a high risk profile as well as prevention efforts.








Boba, R. (2006). Crime analysis and crime mapping. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

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Motivation theory

The most appealing motivation theory as discussed in the Herzberg’s theory is the position theory. Certain positions cause the satisfaction of employees and also cause the increase in the productivity of the company. Being in a managerial position creates the advantage of being in charge of so many duties which enhances the productivity of the company. Each position awarded to employees creates a sense of belonging thereby the productivity is assured of in the company (Zsolnai, 2011). A position comes with responsibilities that are rather appealing to the holder of the position, therefore, making it a comfortable and a satisfying motivational factor. 

Position as a motivational theory also comes with difficulties which are more of a dissatisfactory to the employee holding the position. For instance, the managerial position is a motivation factor and satisfying at the same time but the greater the position the more the duties and responsibilities (Zsolnai, 2011). Compared to a general worker, who has fewer responsibilities but more duties to attend, the difficulties on his side are less by far making the general worker the preferred position. Ample pressure is assured in the managerial position such as being given deadlines and to also cut the cost in every financial year (Zsolnai, 2011).

Motivation techniques have been applied widely in the work place especially by awarding employees bigger positions in certain departments as a reward for a job well done. This in broad increases the working capacity and also the productivity is enhanced in the process. Employees appreciate the sense of being recognized in every aspect of life especially by their superiors and when this is done they work extra hard to retain the position hoping for the next level in the job position. The motivation techniques are courtesy of Finlay’s flowers limited.



Zsolnai, L. (2011). Spirituality and ethics in management. Dordrecht: Springer.     

Pride, W. M., Hughes, R. J., & Kapoor, J. R. (2014). Business. S.l.: South-Western Cengage        Learning.

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Change Model & Implementation Plan 2

Roger's diffusion of innovation theory

Diffusion refers to a process whereby communication of an innovation is done through given channels over a given time among social system members. It is thus a communication that involves disbursement of messages viewed as being new ideas.  Innovation refers to an idea that is viewed by a person as being new. The features contained in that innovation according to the perception of the said social system members determine its implementation rate (Basavanthappa, 2008). Therefore, the implementation of an Early Sepsis alert system to a great extent depends on how the users or the members of the system will define its characteristics and how they perceive or respond to it. Changes are thus needed on the innovation, how the changes will be communicated in the context of sepsis and how the social system will apply it to achieve a common goal of problem solving.  The common goal in this scenario is early system that will be used to monitor the risk of inpatient developing sepsis and thus raise the alarm for early care and reduce the overall mortality risk (Shiramizo, Marra, Durão, Paes, Edmond, & Santos, 2011).

Innovation in diffusion should be able to indicate various features that will determine the rate at which it will be adopted or implemented which consist of compatibility, relative advantage, trial ability, complexity and how observe the innovation is to the social system members.  Relative advantage refers to the extent in which the system will be viewed as being better than preceding idea(Basavanthappa, 2008).   The rate of adoption of Early Sepsis Alert system will be determined by how the nurses of medical staff view it as being advantageous in detecting sepsis early enough(Shiramizo et al. 2011). . If theses members perceive the system as being better in detecting early sepsis, they will adopt it at fast rate thus speeding up the implementation process (Schnegelsberg, Mackenhauer, Pedersen, Nibro, & Kirkegaard, 2014).  Compatibility refers to the extent to which the innovation is viewed as being in line with values, adopters’ needs and the past experiences. If the alerts are developed using the best available evidence over an extended period so that it is consistent with the clinical values and the nurses needs its implementation process will be very easy (Basavanthappa, 2008). This is because the users of the systems will viewed as being better as compared to past system when changes had not been introduced. Complexity refers to the extent to which the innovation is seen to be difficult to comprehend and thus to use. The Early Sepsis Alert System will be implemented faster if the social system members feel that it can be understood easily after the introduction of new changes. This is true if the nursing staff do not need new skills that will help in understanding.  Trial ability refers to how experiments can be done using the system on a limited basis. In case the detection of sepsis can be done in implementation plan of the alert system, it means that the members of the system will adopt it quite easily (Basavanthappa, 2008). Therefore, if the sepsis alert system can be trialable, there is less uncertainty to the nurses who are considering its adoption.  The ability of the innovation to produce results that are greatly visible to the users determines the success of its implementation. The visibility of the alert system results trigger the discussion on its effectiveness and other people may consider adopting it after information about its innovation-evaluation is given.

Communication in diffusion involves sharing of information with others in order to mutually reach at an understanding (Basavanthappa, 2008). The sepsis alert system would be evaluated on the basis of relayed information on its effectiveness. The system would be subjected to evaluations’ comparison among the near-pears who have implemented the system. Time in diffusion involves decision making process on the innovation, a person’s or unit’s innovativeness and adoption rate.  The decision process a mental procedure where a person or unit forms an attitude about the alert system and then decides to implement or reject it. Innovativeness relates whether a person or unit adopt the system earlier than fellow social system members (Schnegelsberg, 2008). Adoption rate relates to the sepsis alert systems’ speed of implementation. The social system relates to members or interrelated units engaged in systems problem solving to achieve evident early sepsis detection.

Implementation plan

The system uses a computerized tool that includes continuous laboratory  values and whose aim is to identify impending sepsis that can be used together with an automated fashion that combines  medical record system that is electronic.  The implementation process is to be done in a public hospital near an academic medical facility. In the process, a single medicine war is to be used as a control ward while at least four others are to be intervention wards.  Some patients in the control ward are to be used as the non-intervention group. The intervention group will involve all patients in intervention wards with sepsis alert generated at real-time. 

Development will take about two months .The implementation of the project will involve two bundles of time that consist of 3 hours and 6 hours. Within the first three hours   after the alert, the nurses should obtain lactate levels of the blood in order to identify the possibility of hypo-perfusion connected to sepsis and then evaluate necessary interventions for resuscitation.  Antibiotics are to be administered within an hour of sepsis recognition or septic shock. The bundle of 6 hours will involve the transition of the patient to a superior level of care provision. The intention will be to attain lowest possible mortality rate and none if possible. 

The implementation process will involve inter- professional sepsis team that comprises of experienced practicing nurse and clinical nurses, laboratory representatives, physicians and representatives from safety and quality program.  It will also involve the medical-surgical ICU, staffs from the emergency department since these members often deal encounter sepsis. The nurses and physicians will work closely with other group members to determine the alert systems management. They will thus serves as discipline and unit-based resources that will be involved in mentoring the implementation process.

The system will involve the generation and collection of real- time data. The information will be generated using the a prediction tool fitted in the system that consist of common values obtained from the laboratory whose monitoring will be closely done among the hospitalized patients who will be selected by the team members due to heir relevance to sepsis. This relevance involves the shock index, the arterial pressure and other relevant data which will be transferred automatically transferred into the electronic record automatically.

The electronically availed data will then be identifies as positive, where by an alert will be raised. Therefore , the nurse have to respond quickly to the alert , carry out an assessment on the patient The nurses are then to enquire from the physician of the interventions needed and then administer the interventions required (Judd, Stephens, & Kennedy, 2014)..  The initial outcome will be aimed at actively administering diagnostic and therapeutic interventions that will have been assessed within 14 hours.

Any challenges encountered will have to be solved by involving the nurses who were monitoring the implementation process. Expected challenges such as alert fatigues the nurses and other team members will have to offer their feedback on the systems function ability in order to check the manner in which alerts were detected (Schnegelsberg, 2008). The feedback will also help in determining the safest timeframes for the alerts.  Furthermore, the sepsis clinical assessment and concerns on the assessment will need to be maintained to avoid relying on this system alone.  

The implementation cost for the alert system will have absorbed into the workflows in the daily routine so that no major direct cost is expected to be incurred. The cost will involve the salaries for the team involved in the process which is expected to get better as the electronic health record is being implemented together with ability for capturing vital elements of data. The benefits arising from the system in form of mortality rate reduction is worth the cost. To maintain the system communication among the staff will have to be improved and sustained and feedback presented individually(Schnegelsberg, 2008). Any addition training required for better understanding of the system will be offered to nurses and appreciates those who have endeavored to offer solution for upgrade.


Shiramizo, S., Marra, A., Durão, M., Paes, Â., Edmond, M., & Pavão dos Santos, O. (2011).   Decreasing Mortality in Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock Patients by Implementing a    Sepsis Bundle in a Hospital Setting. Plos ONE, 6(11), e26790.

Schnegelsberg, A., Mackenhauer, J., Pedersen, M., Nibro, H., & Kirkegaard, H. (2014).    Delayed admission to the ICU is associated with increased in-hospital mortality in      patients with community-acquired severe sepsis or shock. Critical Care, 18(Suppl 1), P241.

Basavanthappa, (2008). Community health nursing. Place of publication not identified: Jaypee Bros. Medical P.

Judd, W., Stephens, D., & Kennedy, C. (2014). Clinical and Economic Impact of a Quality     Improvement Initiative to Enhance Early Recognition and Treatment of Sepsis.    Annals Of Pharmacotherapy, 48(10), 1269-1275.   













Data collection tool







Time of alert



Septic shock no



Severe sepsis no.







Human resource list

  1. Clinical nurse
  2. Practicing nurse
  3. Laboratory representatives
  4. Quality program representatives
  5. Physicians
  6. Emergency department staff





2-3 months



3 hour bundle


Data collection

6 hour bundle


Intervention  administration


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Video 1

Domains of emotional intelligence

Self-awareness; This means that human being should have the capability to understand other peoples’ feelings. Under self-awareness, people should have a sense of humor and self-confidence in order to have the ability to identify one’s emotion (Goleman, 2012).

Self-management:  this is the capability of having control over personal feelings and the ability to make a sound judgment before doing action. In order to have self-management, a person should have integrity and fidelity so that he or she can be able to deal with changes which may occur in life.

Empathy:  this is personal skills in understanding people’s emotions and an individual is able to solve other peoples’ issues with respect to their emotional reactions. To have empathy, an individual must show concern, be able to build talents and respond to negative emotions (Goleman, 2012).

Social skills: This is the ability to build relationships through an effective leadership.  Individuals must also be able to management conflict, have effective communication and build love bonds between people.

Emotional Intelligent Practice

For several decades, EI have been growing rapidly due to the fact that in modern world, children are being raised in an environment where they gain EI while they are still young. However, due to intergroup war, hatred and female abuse, EI is controlled. In social context, there is control in emotional indicators for the purpose of responding to emotional problems (Goleman, 2012).


Gender disparity

On the five EI components, women are better than men as they have the ability to employ the domains in their life. For example, women have a high level of empathy and social skills than men (Goleman, 2012).

Cultural differences

 EI is different in different cultures in terms of social interaction. Some countries like Japan have a high level of social skills which helps them to understand their EI (Goleman, 2012).


Video 2

  1. What is the main idea of the video?

The main idea is to understand the difference and importance of résumé and eulogy virtues and which virtue should guide us in our lives.

  1. What is the difference between resume virtues and eulogy virtues?

The difference between the two virtues is that resume virtues are related with external qualities which are viewed through external appearance and their purpose it to fulfill the worldly needs. On the other hand, eulogy virtues are related with international nature and they tend to explain more about individual inward characteristic such as loving, dependable among others (Brooks, 2014).


  1. What is the difference between Adam I and Adam II?

Adam I concentrates on external nature on individual life and its purpose in life is to achieve goals and succeed in life. In addition, it is based on innovation and is determined to change the external world. On the other hand, Adam II focuses on Godly nature and it is interested do   the right things which glorifies God.  It is uses its internal strength to show love to all and to accomplish redemption (Brooks, 2014).



Video 3

  1. What is the main idea of the video?

The main idea is to let the audience know that driving is dangerous and it becomes dangerous due to careless driving but there are various ways which drivers can use to stop accidents.

  1. Why is it not difficult to make reasonable predictions about where a car is going to be in the near future while driving?

It is not difficult to predict about the future since the new technology is there to help us. Computation and algorithms will help the drivers in sharing data. In addition, cars are Newtonian objects with fixed velocity and thus it is easier for the driver to know the position and velocity of another car and estimate the mile so that he can make reasonable predictions (Healey, 2013).



  1. Why will the new technology change driving experience?

 The new technology will change the driving experience in that drivers will be required to share data, talk to each other and use cameras to check the position and velocity of other drivers. The driving experience will also change in that drivers will be able to predict the future by the use of technology (Healey, 2013).

  1. How can using a camera in the car help prevent accidents?

Camera will help drivers in preventing accidents since they will have the ability to know the position and velocity while driving. Sharing GPS data and using camera will help the drivers to alert other drivers on what is about to happen. Using the camera, a driver we be able to tell what the other driver is doing and find the safest rout to avoid the accident (Healey, 2013).

Video 4


  1. Why the amputees in Sierra Leone did not use their prostheses?

Amputees did not use their prostheses because their prosthetic could not fit them well and also they were painful. Their prostheses are old and the prosthetic sockets are made by conventional processes and thus they cause sores and blisters (Sengeh, 2014).

  1. How are the new prostheses better than the old prostheses?

New prostheses are better than old prostheses in that the new are cheap than conventional prostheses and they use magnetic resonance and element modeling which will helps to foresee the normal  forces and  make prosthetic socket. The new prostheses has 3D printer which makes prosthetic sockets for pressures relief (Sengeh, 2014).









Goleman, Daniel (2012). Goleman Introduces Emotional Intelligence. Published on Apr 23, 2012


Brooks,David (2014). Should you live for your résumé ... or your eulogy?  Filmed March 2014 at TED2014


 Healey, Jennifer (2013).  If cars could talk, accidents might be avoidable. Filmed April 2013 at TED@Intel


 Sengeh, David (2014). The sore problem of prosthetic limbs. Published on Apr 10, 2014




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Set Theory

            The article chosen is “Rethinking Set Theory” by Tom Leinster where categorization of results is being demonstrated in various and an example of such categorization is derived as follows; the article demonstrates results being presented using classical categorization where objects are grouped based on similar properties (Leinster Tom, 2014). For example a survey carried out in given school showing how many students are in the art class and a dance class respectively. Example includes in a certain year say 2014, the number of art students with respect to that of dance students is specified. The results were presented using classical categorization and the categories include art and dance students. There are still various ways of organizing and categorizing results. Conceptual clustering where classes are generated through formulation of their conceptual descriptions and entities being classified according to descriptions (Leinster Tom, 2014). Under this form of categorization, objects belong to one or more groups with varying degrees of fitness. Results can also be organized and categorized based on prototype theory where objects are grouped based on prototypes (Leinster Tom, 2014).

            For instance in this very survey, the information can be organized in a way showing the total number of students doing art and dance. The number of those doing both art and dance recorded the number of those doing art alone and the number of those doing dance alone recorded. This shows how a variety of ways of categorizing the information. Rearranging of categories makes the article the best source when categorizing information hence making the recording process easy.


Leinster Tom, (2014). Rethinking Set Theory, The American Mathematical Monthly

Vol. 121, No. 5 (May 2014), pp. 403-415  Published by: Mathematical Association of America

DOI: 10.4169/amer.math.monthly.121.05.403 Stable URL:

Page Count: 13



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Using Research Paradigms

The type of paradigm presented by the article is quantitative research.  This is because it utilizes techniques that are structured highly and rigidly. This is additionally significance in the provision of a much broader insight base on the analysis and course thus generating recommendations.

            The articles findings and recommendations were enhanced by the quantitative research paradigm used as it helped in investigating the cause and the actions course for the research questions. The article is associated with the following quantitative research characteristics, analysis, recommendation, based on numerical measurements, associated with research designs that can be pre-determined, reliability and validity can be tested and the articles objective was emphasized more on proof more than discovery (Slater, & Hinds, 2014).  This is in that the article was purposed to establish the connection between student’s perceptions, experiences of home nutrition and home food economics. This was therefore not based on discovering something new (Giddens, & Sutton, 2010). This can thus be pre-determined using the developed research questions by analyzing the questions. Additionally the article provided a detailed analysis of the findings before developing the stated limitations, recommendations as well as the conclusion (Slater, & Hinds, 2014). The study was able to provide a detailed analysis of the research questions based on the findings which was supported by the quantitative research paradigm.  Proof was additionally discovered on the significance at it was not based on discoveries.

School based education for home economics is worth being incorporated in provisional education system because it teaches significant and valuable life skills. This is mainly because it provides adequate knowledge of food independence, health as well as preparations.  Additionally it helps in creating awareness among individuals which assists in developing informed choices in relation to food.  It should therefore be included as it is crucial in transforming individual’s life’s outcomes through the development of better and equipped choices.

The findings may be utilized to compare the associated benefits and effects in regard to the education system. Additionally the results can be utilized to inform students on the importance of economics food and nutrition education system in school as well as in life. This can be utilized further in developing further research in future to develop more relations in regard to the system.

            The findings of the study have changed my knowledge in regard to home economics as well as nutrition education because of the stated benefits.  This is because in the current world dieting changes are required and awareness creation is the best strategy to solve the existing health issues.  Additionally I have advanced the knowledge on the skills that the education system may bring to the students.







            Giddens, A., & Sutton, P. W. (2010). Sociology: Introductory readings. Cambridge: Polity.

            Slater, J. & Hinds, A. (2014). University student perceptions ofHome Economics: food and nutrition education. International Journal of Home Economics,7(2): 68-80.


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