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Paper Instructions:

Criminal Profile Paper
You are to select a serial killer/criminal and explain the biological, situational and developmental factors that contributed to the criminal’s behavior. Examine their crimes and provide motive, intent, MO and Signature analysis. The paper should be 4-6 pages in length. References should be from various sources, including but not limited to textbooks, academic journals, professional journals, and web based materials (Wikipedia is not a proper source). All sources need to be properly citied, preferred APA style. You will need to email me who you will be profiling by Wednesday February 11th, 2015. . **HARDCOPY ONLY, no email submissions**

v Profile paper needs to be thorough and detailed with a comprehensive description of the subject’s background (both criminal and non- criminal).
v Seek to explain the subject criminal’s behavior utilizing techniques
and theories learned in class.
v Include information on the criminal’s M.O./Signature. Include the
offender’s motive and intent.
v Examine victimology and provide forensic victimology if victim information is availab
Adjunct    Prof    Udell    4

179 Words  1 Pages


Criminology theories


The three theories that hold the greatest potential to make society safer if implemented in the criminal justice policy and practice are corrective Justice, procedural Justice and retributive justice. Corrective Justice is found in modern-day contract law and it is based on the belief that holding the guilty party liable for the crime committed will rectify the injustice inflicted on the victim (Johnson, n.d). Corrective Justice, therefore, tries to rectify or compensate the victim by punishing the guilty party and ensuring that the punishment given is equal to the crime committed. Its use in modern-day contract law adds to its empirical validity. The theory has major policy implications as it holds the culprit accountable for their actions and also guides the legal system in deciding what steps to take when serving a sentence for the crime committed.

Procedural Justice on the other hand tries to ensure that the process that is used to investigate the crime and punish the criminals accordingly is fair and free from bias. Significant research has been conducted to try and identify fair and just processes to use when investigating crimes and examining the evidence before a sentence is issued (Johnson, n.d). Procedural Justice has great importance is it prevents the justice system from exploiting its powers. When delivering Justice the justice system has to ensure that proper investigations were conducted evidence collected and that the evidence is presented in court to allow for deliberation and also to give the accused a chance to prove their innocence (Barnesco et al, 2017). The theory, therefore, has major policy implications as it determines how the justice system approaches crime and sentencing of those suspected of committing the crime.

Lastly, retributive Justice seeks to ensure that the punishment issued is equivalent to the crime committed. During implementation, the justice system is expected to collect enough evidence before determining whether the accused is guilty. Once a guilty verdict is issued, the legal system under the attributes of Justice theory has a responsibility to ensure that the punishment of prison sentence issued is the reflection of the crime the accused is found guilty of. As a result, most rulings are made after careful observation of not only the evidence but also similar cases that were held in the past to determine what sentencing is appropriate thus proving the theory's empirical validity (Fedorek, 2015). The theory has major policy implications as it helps the justice system to determine what procedures to follow when issuing sentences.

The three theories can be integrated to form one powerful explanation especially because they all seek to offer justice and retribution. The powerful explanation will encompass the retributive Justice’s premise that the crime and the punishment should be equal and also that of corrective Justice where the punishment issued offered compensation to the victim while still punishing the offender. Ensuring that the processes involved are fair and humane encompasses the provisions of the procedural Justice theory thereby creating a powerful explanation that seeks fairness retribution and compensation in the rulings made by the justice system.

The classical deterrence theory assumes that people will make decisions based on what will bring them pleasure or benefits and prevent them from experiencing pain or discomfort. It further assumes that people will engage and pursue their desires if not deterred and thus may even engage in criminal activity (Johnson, n.d). As such any punishment that is used to deter or seek retribution for a crime committed should be swift and equally proportional to the crime committed to discouraging others from engaging in similar crimes. The theory works by informing the public of actions that are classified as criminal activity and also the punishments that will be for those who engage in such actions. The public on the other hand is expected to make rational decisions based on the information provided and abstain from engaging in such actions. The effectiveness of deterrence is therefore dependent on the public's ability to perceive the information issued as a threat.

Modern updates of the theory have evolved to try and explain why people engage in criminal activity. Since the theory assumes that everyone has the potential to commit a crime but only some select few choose to engage in criminal activity, a closer analysis can help to understand why some people choose to engage in criminal activity while others opt out (Reynald & Lecrelc, 2017). This has allowed for the expansion of the concept of deterrence and different approaches have been considered and used to help people reform after being convicted of a crime and also to help discourage others from engaging in criminal activity. The modern updates of the theory have helped to come up with policies that target not only criminals who have already been convicted of a crime but also citizens who are yet to engage in any crime thereby discouraging them from criminal activity.

In the past, fear was the major form of deterrence and the type of punishment used was intended to scare criminals thus preventing them from engaging in other crimes in the future. The strict punishment was also used to discourage others from starting a Life of crime. Over the years however fear has been substituted with reason and the punishment issued serves the purpose of ensuring that the guilty party is held accountable for the actions they engaged in (Tomlinson, 2016). While it is still a deterrent it creates the opportunity for other more humane means of discouraging crime such as reason. Measures have been taken to help prisoners reform while in prison by educating them on the evils of engaging in crime and what avenues they can pursue to earn an honest living. A lot of emphasis has been placed on educating criminals and society on the harm that crime causes as a way to discourage criminal activity rather than simply relying on long prison sentences and other forms of punishment.

The modern updates in classical deterrence theory suggest that it is possible to increase the deterrent effect. Individuals found guilty of a crime receive different sentencing and other forms of punishment depending on the crimes they committed. Therefore there are different levels of deterrence the reflex the nature of the crime and the harm or damage it caused. Increasing the punishments can therefore discourage people from engaging in the crying out of fear of suffering the consequences. Since the theory assumes that everyone is aware of actions that are considered criminal and only a select few engage in criminal activity it then means that the criminals make rational decisions to engage in crime even after knowing the consequences that will follow. Increasing the severity of the punishment will therefore increase the deterrent effect because the consequences will be higher than what is already present.

The deterrent effect is determined by the attitude that the general public has towards the punishments but before those who engage in crime. If the punishment is not strict enough it creates an environment where people who are considering engaging in criminal activity have little to fear and are more likely to commit crimes either in the hope that they will not be caught or because they have weighed their options and do not consider the punishment too severe to discourage them from engaging in crime (Johnson, n.d). Some crimes bear little repercussions and therefore do little to discourage others from engaging in them. Lenient prison sentences for example encourage people to engage in crime because the punishment is something they can bear. Prisons have also become more comfortable and are considered by some criminals as a way of life. Making the prison sentences stricter and reducing the comfort for inmates will therefore make the stay unbearable and further raise the deterrent effect.


The three premises and assumptions of conflict theory are comprised of competition revolution structural inequality and war. Competition theory is based on the assumption that competition is a constant Factor and often overwhelming in all aspects of human interaction and the relationships that people build with one another. The competition is brought about by scarcity of resources and major commodities that people need to survive in their daily lives. People compete for commodities like money property leisure time social status sexual partners among others. Competition is there for a default setting and people often compete with one another out of fear that the resources present are not enough to benefit everyone equally.

The revolution theory assumes that for change to happen in a year in a power-driven environment various factors bring about change in a gradual process. However, since the resources and opportunities needed to bring about this revolution and not divided equally among members of the community the change that occurs or revolution is a result of the conflict between the different groups that are used to classify people in society and the desire to rise above their current position (Hayes, 2020). Structural inequality theory on the other hand is based on the premise that human relationships and interactions as well as the social structures that people create a likely to experience inequalities of power. Commonly, specific individuals groups and organizations will process different traits and qualities that determine what position the individual or group occupies in society’s social structure. Organizations and individuals that occupy top positions in society work hard to maintain their position as this gives them the power and influence associated with air pollution.

War is often regarded as a unifier or a cleanser of the inequalities that exist in society. The inequalities that exist in society force organizations and individuals to engage in conflict either to improve their position in society or to retain the power and control they already have and prevent it from being distributed to those that occupy the lower levels in society’s structure (Fedorek, 2015). On the one hand, war can help to unify society after the conflict or even before the conflict is resolved to prevent it from destroying society. There are however occurrences where war becomes unmanageable and its destructive nature affects both those at the top of social structure as well as the low ranking individuals.

Anker's criteria for evaluating theories can be used to create a better understanding of competition theory. The logic used in the theory is consistent in that it shows how conflict arises in society as a result of people's inability to equally share the resources present. The theory argues that competition occurs because the resources present are scarce and competition is the best way to ensure that one benefits from the opportunities present (Fedorek, 2015). The theory has a wide scope as it focuses on competition as a general term to help explain why people choose to compete rather than working together to take advantage of the opportunities that exist in society. The general definition of competition used in the theory encompasses competition for things like money food employment the ability to lead a desirable lifestyle and other factors that promote competition (Johnson, n.d). Despite its wide scope, however, the theory is parsimonious as it is simple to understand and gives a concise explanation of how the scarcity of resources forces people to compete with one another.

The theory has empirical value as it discusses occurrences that can be tested and also easily examined in society. It can also be used as a call to action to encourage people groups and organizations to seek out ways to utilize the resources available equally rather than competing with one another. While the resources may be scarce society has remained sustainable and competition or scarcity maybe as a result of the few people and organizations who seek to attain more than others thereby creating a shortage for those who are not as competitive.

Feminist and black criminology should be included among conflict arguments especially because of the similarities that they share. Both feminist and black criminology recognize an important connection between intimate partner abuse towards women that is attributed to gender and race as well as cultural and structural influences that exist in society (Potter, 2006). If included in conflict arguments feminist and black criminology can help to create a more precise explanation of the impact that vices such as black partner abuse affect women and further makes it difficult to seek help because of the constructs that exist in society. A good example of feminist criminology is intimate partner violence against women. Butter against black women on the other hand gives an example of black criminology as it focuses specifically on violence against people of a specific race (Johnson, n.d). When approached separately feminist and black criminology may fail to demonstrate the effect that each vice has on the victim and in society in general. When included among concrete arguments however the information gained from them can help to educate people on how such actions affect society as well as what can be done to resolve them.


The underlying assumption of control theory is that people are born selfish and that they will likely engage in criminal activity if left unsupervised or if they believe that the crime will result in some form of gain without punishment. Under control theory, it is assumed that the tendency to engage in crime is not as a result of opportunity but rather the absence or lack of fear of the measures of deterrence set in place to discourage criminal activity (Johnson, n.d). It, therefore, differs from other theories like string theory which is based on the premise that people are naturally good but are likely to engage in crime if bad things happen to them. Unlike control theory where people's likelihood to commit a crime is influenced by selfish reasons, strain theory presents bad experiences as the main factor that pushes people to a Life of Crime (Johnson, n.d). Learning theory on the other hand assumes that people will engage in crime only after they have learned about the crime they intend to engage in the attitude of those involved in the criminal activity and the risk involved before engaging in the crime. And like control theory, the decision to commit a crime is influenced by the information collected on the respective crime rather than the opportunity or selfish nature of human beings.

Control theory also differs from strain and learning theory in that it seeks to identify the type of controls that people may have that prevent some from engaging in crime and not others. Strain theory examines the bad things that occur in an individual’s life while learning theory close attention to the information that is available to an individual which helps in forming the decision to engage in crime (Johnson, n.d). They however failed to show how some people will refrain from engaging in crime despite the existence of information on the crime in question and pressure from bad things that occur regularly. Control theory, therefore, offers a better explanation as to why some people choose to engage in crime while others do not and therefore a more suitable theory of crime causation.






Bernasco, W., Van, G. J.-L., & Elffers, H. (2017). The Oxford handbook of offender decision       making. Oxford University Press

Fedorek B, (2015) “Introduction to the criminal justice system” retrieved from,   

Hayes A, (2020) “Conflict theory” retrieved from,

Potter H, (2006) “An argument for black feminist criminology” Sage Publications, retrieved        from,

Reynald, D. M., & Leclerc, B. (2017). The future of rational choice for crime prevention.             Routledge

Tomlinson K, (2016) “An examination of deterrence theory: Where do we stand?” Tarrant           County Adult Community Supervising and Corrections Department, retrieved from,   




2630 Words  9 Pages


Juvenile crime

The issue relating to crime has been a topic for discussion for researchers and policymakers as they seek out different and more efficient ways to prevent crime, punish offenders and discourage others from engaging in criminal activity. The various research conducted has led to the development of different theories such as the labeling or interactionist theory that seeks to develop an understanding of why some people are more likely to engage in crime than others. The theory suggests that the labels that people are tagged with after committing devious acts greatly influence who turn out to be. Labeling someone a criminal therefore greatly contributes to their decision to engage in more criminal activity. Although the majority of research conducted seeks to reduce crime, the suggestions made by Fitz-Gibbon and O'Brien are likely to discourage juvenile offenders from drifting into conventional interest and further push them towards a life of crime.

In their argument, Fitz-Gibbon and O’Brien call for change by advocating for reforms in the way the legal system handle issues related to children brought in court and found guilty of a crime. The authors suggest that children found guilty in court should be denied the right to request bail and further have the protection of anonymity revoked to allow the courts to reveal their identity to the public (Fitz-Gibbon & O’Brien, 2016). The argument is based on the belief that the public's right to knowledge regarding criminals supersedes the right of the offender in this case children found guilty of a crime. The authors further believe that engaging in crime gives the legal system the authority to suspend the rights and freedoms of criminals and juvenile offenders should not be an exception (Fitz-Gibbon & O’Brien, 2016). Although the suggestions made are backed by well-researched information their implementation is likely to hurt the attempts made to discourage criminal activity and also to push juvenile offenders towards conventional interests.

One of the key concepts of labeling theory is that the actions that people engage in are not criminal and the definition of criminality is determined by those in authority such as police and the legal system. Allowing the legal system to reveal the anonymity of child offenders will therefore make it easier for the justice system and other organizations to label individuals as criminals even in cases where juvenile delinquents engage in petty crime (Linden, 2016). Revealing the identity of juvenile offenders is therefore likely to subject them to a Life of crime especially in cases where organizations are not willing to employ people with criminal records.

The labeling theory further suggests that people do not become criminals because they violate the law but rather because their actions are defined as criminal by the powerful such as police and the legal system. The suggestion by Fitz-Gibbon and O’Brien to revoke juvenile offenders’ right to request bail is therefore likely to discourage them from drifting towards conventional interest as it will subject them to a life where the crime they committed as children affect their lives as adults. Denying juvenile offenders’ bail will result in their serving time even for minor offenses (Linden, 2016). The criminal record will make it hard for the juvenile to secure employment in the future and this will likely push them towards a life of crime.

In most societies, the justice system is given the authority to suspend people’s rights and freedoms once they have been found guilty in a court of law. For young offenders however special protection is warranted as a way to protect children from challenges that will arise if they are associated with specific crimes. Following the labeling theory, revealing the identity of juvenile offenders will make it easier for society to label young offenders as criminals and thereby make it more difficult for them to disassociate from a life of crime. In addition, denying them access to bail can be seen as a form of discrimination and oppression especially because other offenders who are adults are offer bail. The suggestions made by the authors are therefore more likely to hinder any attempts made to reform juveniles and further discourages them from drifting towards conventional interest.

















Fitz-Gibbon K and O’Brien W, (2016) “Protection, not public shaming, is the way forward for    child offenders” The Conversation

Linden R, (2016) “Criminology: A Canadian perspective” University of Manitoba


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Criminal Profiling


Criminal profiling is the mechanism used to characterize an individual as a perpetrator of particular illegality distinctively. Unlike entertainment programs, criminal profiling cannot be equated to deviant behavior such as smoking and alcoholism. The majority of criminal profiling models need the application of logistics, skillset, and specialized analysis. However, there are no governing bodies that are put in place to ensure that criminal profiling is done according to standardize criminal justice procedures. As most statistics concur, most criminal profilers have no experience or a stable background against which they can rely on credible criminal profiling. Thus, the research's main aim is defining criminal profiling as a way of preventing wrongful convictions.

The Purpose of the Study

 Criminal profiling's primary aim is the collection and analysis of data that can then be presented in court for convicting a criminal. Hence, the aim of the research needs to be twofold. Even though principally, the research aims to cater to the needs of criminology students, medical experts, and investigators, it also informs on regulating criminal profiling by affording it to qualified people (Itulua-abumere, 2011). The unveiling of criminal profiling systems and forensic science is one of the ways of building upon already existing frameworks and eradicating loopholes of weaknesses that can be found within the systematic criminal justice system. This way, the research can answer the underlying questions on criminal profiling. Systematically approaching the issue of criminal profiling is divided into two types- geographical and personal characteristics. The latter is familiar and known to most people due to its prominent and sensationalize approach.

Research Problem

 The subject of criminal profiling is common among most members of the public. Its current presence in public spaces has given it the much-awaited attention it has been waiting for in the media. Most television programs and biopics have centered their topic on criminal profiling. Unfortunately, how the media perceives criminal profiling usually is inaccurate. The primary reason for falsely presenting criminal profiling is to insinuate that criminal profiling is an easy skill that does not need critical thinking skills. Due to this misinformed notion, the general perception around criminal profiling is tied to specific people or even mannerisms. The truth that no one can tell a criminal behavior by just looking at a criminal (Itulua-abumere, 2011).  Criminal profiling supporters are people who have fully grasped the entire criminal profiling system in its entirety and have virtually come to terms with its beneficial role in the criminal justice system. Therefore the public needs to understand criminal profiling investigative mechanisms attached to it. Also, most of the law enforcers do not know criminal profiling techniques. Hence it is essential to come up with ways of addressing criminal justice issues and ensure that the men and women serving in the police force are well versed with the issues about criminal justice profiling.

Research Questions

 What is criminal profiling? Criminal profiling defines a perpetrator’s characteristics from the crime site’s context. In the meantime, one has to come to terms with criminal profiling is a progressive investigative way of attaining credible information regarding a particular crime. Later the investigators can collect all the reliable data of the criminal. For instance, an investigator can determine the criminal's age, the criminal's sex, and past employment records. From this data, the investigators can begin working on the case while mapping out the entire scenario as the perpetrator of the crime carried it out. In coming to terms with the actual underlying issues, one has to draw out names of places the criminal has ever been to and the hobbies they engaged in before the eventful day when he went to commit the crime (Itulua-abumere, 2011). Also, the chance to narrow down a person who has been to the same location and rule out other activities that did not contribute to the crime is one of the most profound things about criminal profiling. Also, a qualitative research design helps to provide answers from how criminal profiling can be rectified in the long run.

 To what extent is criminal profiling useful? As stated earlier, when divided into geographical and personal characteristics, it covers all the mannerisms needed to come up with the narrowed down aspects of the crime scene (Itulua-abumere, 2011). The investigators have to come up with ways of finding the perpetrator but with more than one way of implementing the change.

The Describing Design of the Study

 The research's methodical individual approach was utilized to analyze geographical profiling in criminological fields (Itulua-abumere, 2011). The aim of analyzing criminal profiling based on criminology principles is to help isolate zones the perpetrator was likely to visit before committing the crime. This way, his movements, and routine can be traced, and his next move predicted.

Qualitative Research Design

 The research used past data ad literature on the same subject matter hence helping to cover more than one aspect of the topic extensively without wasting time. The research was qualitative because it sought to answer why criminal profiling has not yet been defined in the criminal justice systems of the world (Itulua-abumere, 2011). Also, the goal of qualitative research design is to align the research goals and come to terms with the conclusive findings of the entire research.


 The methodology relied on rapists and serial arsonist testimonials. The aim was to collect as much information as possible on these types of criminals (Itulua-abumere, 2011). Later, the researchers were to find a pattern of activities that tied the rapists and serial arsonists together. All the data were obtained from past literature. Even though perpetrators might change their geographical location, the same can be said about other criminals who wish to hide their illegalities and criminal activities.


 The research used geographical profiling mechanisms to analyze 1426 crimes that were investigated in the recent past (Itulua-abumere, 2011). These past investigations' effectiveness was analyzed and critically reviewed in terms of the crime scene's area and size.

Sampling Methods and Return Rate

 Knowing how effective criminal profiling is assessed through the previous investigation on the same issue (Itulua-abumere, 2011). Previous studies revealed that criminal profiling is not yet dependable; hence its validity is to be questioned. In past examinations, 152 law enforcer’s psychologists were unsure if the present criminal profiling systems would give accurate and dependable criminal profiling.

Conclusions and Findings

 Criminal profiling has gained interest due to its emergence in television crime series and documentaries, hence capturing the public and even scholars' interests. The chance and time to create a new system will depend on available and credible data on the current data's effectiveness. If a criminal profile is inaccurate, it might create misleading details, preventing law enforcers from capturing the criminal in a timely manner.




Itulua-abumere, f. (2011). (PDF) Criminal Profiling. ResearchGate. Retrieved 8 January 2021, from


1134 Words  4 Pages


“How a lot of the net Is Fake? seems, a region of It, Really."


Cybercrime, or computer-oriented wrongdoing, can be wrongdoing that highlights a portable workstation and an organization. The computer might be utilized inside the commission of wrongdoing or planning to be the target. Law-breaking might weaken an individual, company, or a nation's security and money-related success. There unit different security issues enveloping law-breaking once mystery information is captured or uncovered, de jure or somewhere else. you'll help characterize law-breaking from the reason of studied of sexual introduction and described 'cybercrime against women' as wrongdoings focused on against ladies with a clarification to aims harmed the casualty rationally and physically, utilizing modern media transmissions frameworks like web and flexible phones. All-inclusive, each authoritative and non-state on-screen characters lock-in in cybercrimes, count mystery exercises, support lawful offenses, and diverse cross-border wrongdoings. The net has ceaselessly competed have in its boring corners, to varsities of catfish and international safe havens of individual rulers (Read, 2018). However, that obscurity presently invades its every perspective: Everything that when appeared with authority and clearly real presently seems marginally pretend; everything that when appeared marginally fake presently has the management and distance of the real. The "fakeness" of the post-Inversion internet is a smaller amount a computable deception and additional a particular quality of encounter the mysterious sense that what your expertise online is not "real" however is besides irrefutably not "fake," and beyond any doubt perhaps each quickly, or in progression, as you switch it over in your head. There are a variety of problems that may be raised (Read, 2018). However, the net isn't real; the measurements are of pretence, the people are pretend, the companies are pretending, the substance is pretending, legislative problems are pretend, and ourselves are pretending.

The measurements are of pretence.

Measurements have to be compelled to be the foremost real issue on the web: they're calculable, trackable, and unquestionable, and their presence undergirds the business enterprise trade that drives our greatest social and appearance stages. But not so Facebook, the world's most noteworthy data–gathering organization, seems able to deliver honest to goodness figures. will they still tend to believe the measurements? Once the Reversal, what's the point? So, after they place our confidence in their exactitude, there's one thing not terribly real or so them: the favourite measuring this year was Facebook's claim that variant people ascertained at slightest a diminutive of Facebook Observe recordings every day(Read, 2018).

The people are pretending.

You can't physically meet most of the people you're connected with on the net. So, individuals create avatars who speak inside the web world, personae that are designed on some levels, cognizant or subconscious, to form others' thoughts around who they tend to really are. Beyond any doubt, it's natural to create avatars that talk to what they would like to be rather than what they tend to are. And it's because it was a quick step from there to dominant others' discernments folks to grant ourselves a bonus of some type, to betray. To complete up manikin aces. And maybe theytend to shouldn't so settle for that the people are real. Typically, often clearly not real human action. However, what would real human action look like? Real individuals on the net match their photos further as their real location, which may be copied to the locality indicated. Not because it did (Read, 2018). They need bots disguised as individuals people disguising themselves as other people; however, in some cases, individuals disguise themselves as bots, imagining to be "artificial-intelligence individual assistants," help technical school firms in contact to own last counterfeit insights.

The companies are pretending.

The money is commonly real. If the money is genuine, why will anything get to be? consistent with Odell who began to desire, she was during a dream composed. "Or that I used to be half-awake, incapable of acknowledging the virtual from the real, the neighbourhood from the worldwide, associate degree item from a Photoshop image, the earnest from the specious." (Read, 2018).  She passed by a motivating bookshop worked by the affiliates in point of entry and located a hindered concrete propagation of the beaming fake storefronts she'd knowledgeable about on Amazon, musical organization indiscriminately with popular books, plastic tchotchkes, and glorious things clearly bought from wholesalers (Read, 2018). Whenever you opt to attach for businesses over the net, you wish to take care. Businesses aren't real.

The substance is pretended.

Fake news is nothing unused. Fashionable is, however, easy. It's completely up to share knowledge, each real and wrong, on a vast scale. Social media stages allow nearly anybody to distribute their contemplations or share stories to the globe. The inconvenience is, most people don't check the supply of the material that they see online (Read, 2018). Typically, recently, they share it, which may cause pretend news spreading apace or so "going infective agent." at the same time, it's gotten to be more durable to acknowledge the initial supply of reports stories, which may create it difficult to gauge their accuracy. This has driven a surge of faux news. The sole website that provides ME that dizzying sensation of unreality as typically as Amazon will is YouTube, which plays host to weeks' price of inverted, inhuman content. Contrary to what you would possibly expect, a world distributed with deep fakes and different unnaturally generated photographic pictures won't be one during which "fake" pictures are habitually believed to be real, however, one during which "real" pictures are habitually believed to be pretend — just because, within the wake of the Inversion, who'll be able to tell the difference? (Read, 2018).  

The Legislative problems are of pretence.

Such a misfortune of any fastening down "reality" because it made people pine for it additionally. Our legislative problems are rearranged in conjunction with everything else, distributed with a Gnostic sense that they are being scammed and swindled and song to however that a "real truth" still prowls somewhere (Read, 2018). Teenagers are deeply latched in by YouTube recordings that guarantee to look at the tough reality beneath the "scams" of women's rights and variations. Political contentions presently embody exchanging allegations of "virtue signalling" — the thought that liberals are faking their legislative problems for the social reward. Anyone will concur that everyone online is lying and faux (Read, 2018).

Ourselves are pretending.

Everywhere online this year, you're needed to demonstrate if you're a personality's being. Are you able to retype this misshaped word? are you able to interpret this house number? Are you able to choose the images that contain a cruiser? I found myself prostrate a day at the feet of mechanism bouncers, quickly showing off my deeply created pattern-matching skills — will a Vespa check as a cruiser, so? — thus, you will get into clubs you're not indeed on the far side any doubt you wish to enter. Once interior, you were coordinated by dopamine-feedback circles to scroll well past any solid purpose, controlled by honestly charged options and posts to faucet on stuff you didn't care virtually, and troubled and hectored and sweet-talked into contentions and buys and connections thus algorithmically determined it absolutely was tough to depict them as real(Read, 2018). Wherever will that take them off? you not on the far side any doubt the arrangement is to appear for out some pre-Inversion reality — to red-pill ourselves back to "reality." What's gone from the net, after all, isn't "truth," however belief: the sense that the people and things they tend to expertise are what they speak to themselves to be. A long-time of metrics-driven development, profitable artful frameworks, associate degreed unregulated stage marketplaces have created an atmosphere where it makes additional sense to pretend online — to be tricky and negative, lie and deceive, to distort and mutilate — than it will be real. Sinking that will need a social and political amendment in the geographical area. Round the world, however, it's them because it was alternative. one thing else they will all conclusion informed the larva internet of faux people, pretend clicks, pretend locales, and faux computers, where the because it was a real issue, is that the advertisements (Read, 2018)




Considering all the choices ordered right down to proof the content further as what's within the internet is pretend and can't be trusty, it's evident that you simply ought to shun yourself from such activities. The fakeness is predominant, and every one of the stakeholders ought to alter the atmosphere around. there's nobody to be trusty and believed web being the forefront.
















Work cited

Read, Max. “How Much of the Internet Is Fake?” Intelligencer, 26 Dec. 2018,



1457 Words  5 Pages


Criminology Research for Serial Killer Aileen Wuornos



Criminology is the study of crime from a social viewpoint and includes who committed the crime, and why they committed the crime. It also includes studying the impact they have and how they could be prevented. The main aim of criminology is to determine the root cause of criminal behavior and generate efficient ways and theories to prevent it. Aileen Wuornos was an American serial killer and a prostitute who killed seven men in Florida. She was eventually convicted and placed on death row. Criminology research on Aileen Wuornos will enlighten us on why she committed crime and theories that could be used to explain her behavior.

Background Information

Wuornos was born on 29th February 1956 in Rochester Michigan. She had a horrifying experience during her childhood. Her father killed himself while in prison serving for child molestation and her mother abandoned her and her older brother. They were both raised by their grandparents of which her grandmother was alleged to be an alcoholic and her grandfather was a violent person. Wuornos was sexually abused by her grandfather and had sexual relations with her brother. In her early teens, she became pregnant and gave birth to a boy who was given up for adoption. In her adolescent years, she was thrown out of her home and had to live in the woods ( Editors 2017). As an adult, she began existing as a vagabond and engaged in sex for survival. In the mid-1970s, Wuornos was arrested for assault and disorderly conduct. She later settled in Florida where she met a rich yachtsman called Lewis fell and they got married. Shortly after, Lewis annulled the union when Wuornos was arrested in another confrontation.

Later on, after being involved in numerous crimes, she met Tyria Moore where they engaged themselves in a romantic relationship. In late 1989 into the fall of 1990, it was revealed that Wuornos had killed at least six men along Florida highways. In 1989, Richard Mallory’s body was found in a junkyard, and five other men's bodies were discovered over the following months. Wuornos and Moore were eventually tracked down where Wuornos was arrested in a bar in Port Orange in Florida and Moore in Pennsylvania. For Moore not to be prosecuted, she made a deal and prompted a phone confession from Wuornos who agreed to have committed the murders ( Editors 2017). During her trial, Wuornos said that Mallory had raped and assaulted her and therefore killed him in self-defense. She also maintained that killing the other five men was in self-defense as well, though she later retracted these statements. The jury found Wuornos guilty of first-degree murder on Mallory’s case and was given the death penalty. In the following months, she pleaded guilty to the other five murders and was charged with a death sentence for each plea. She later admitted to having killed Siems whose body was never recovered. After spending a decade on death row, Wuornos fired her lawyers who were working for a stay of execution. After being seen to be mentally competent on the death penalty and why it was implemented, she was executed by lethal injection in 2002.

Criminological theories that explain the offender’s behavior

Strain theory is an approach that states that certain stressors increase the likelihood of a person committing a crime. These strains include the incapability of accomplishing goals such as financial goals, the loss of positive incentives such as the loss of valued goods or the death of a close person, and the exhibition of negative incentives such as physical or vocal abuse. People who go through these stressors are easily upset turning to crime for them to get by. They use crime as a way of running away from the stressors. Though not everyone experiencing these strains will use crime as a scapegoat, some end up cutting on their expenses or run away from whichever place they are being abused. People experiencing strain may develop negative emotions such as anger, resentment, and depression.  These negative emotions demand coping reactions to ease the burden. Coping through illegitimate actions and violence happens for adolescents due to their limited legitimate coping means (Agnew 2012). They also are not able to escape stressful and frustrating environments. Wuornos’ grandfather was abusive and this is a strain that she could be going through and led her to commit the crime. Her grandmother was an alcoholic meaning that she had no one to talk to and this added to her strains. Her reason for committing murder could have been a result of an adaptation to a coping mechanism. When she was thrown out of her home, she engaged in sex for survival and committed the crime because she had limited legitimate coping resources.

Psychological theory is an approach that suggests that crime is shaped by an individual’s childhood experience. This theory focuses on the association between intelligence, personality, learning, and criminal behavior (Sikand & Reddy 2017). This approach claims that all criminal behavior is learned and the learning process is impacted by the extent to which the individual has contact with people who commit crimes. An individual’s personality is controlled by unconscious mental processes that are grounded in early childhood.  Criminal offenders are frustrated and are constantly drawn to past events that happened in their early childhood. Wuornos had a very bad experience in her childhood, from her father molesting a child, being arrested and killing himself and the mother throwing them out to live with their grandmother who was an alcoholic, and grandfather who was violent. Being surrounded by all these people and considering the events that occurred in her childhood, could have contributed largely to her becoming a serial killer. Being abused by her grandfather, having relations with her brother, giving her child for adoption just explains the events in her life that could cause her frustration and later commit the crimes.

Criminological theories that do not explain the offender’s behavior

Routine activities theory is an approach that suggests that the organization of routine activities in society creates opportunities for crime. The daily routine of activities that people engage in, inclusive of where they work, the routes they take, the groups they socialize with, where they shop, are a strong influence on when, where, and to whom crime occurs (Miró-Llinares 2014). These routines can make crime easy and low risk or difficult and risky. Opportunities vary among people, over time and so does the likelihood of crime. Wuornos did not have a daily routine of activities that she engaged in and so this theory cannot be used to explain her behavior. At some point, she even got married to a wealthy man and still committed crimes.

Social Reaction theory which is also known as the labeling theory focuses on the linguistic tendency of a majority group negatively labeling a minority group (Grattet, Ryken. 2011). It is concerned with how self-identity and behavior of people may be influenced by the terms used to describe them. When a person commits a crime, they will receive the label of a criminal. When society labels a person as a criminal, they are bound to accept it as part of themselves. And when the person thinks or believes them as a criminal, they are more likely to continue with their criminal behavior. This theory cannot explain Wuornos's behavior because apart from committing crimes, she sometimes got attached to relationships and lived her life before she went back to committing crimes. This means that even if she was labeled as a criminal, it did not influence her into committing crimes.

Scholarly articles supporting each theory

Strain theory

Strain theory from this article brings the argument that crime is not caused so much by not being able to achieve positively valued goals but by the inability to escape from painful situations. This argument is relevant in explaining delinquency because juveniles are obliged to live with their family in a particular neighborhood, attend a certain school interact with the same people in school and at home (Agnew 2012). There is little or nothing that the juveniles can do to legally escape if abused or mistreated in these settings. This makes them engage in crime to escape from such treatment. The research done involved data from a national sample of adolescent boys and the outcome showed that delinquency is more among those that are subject to harsh and unfair treatment by guardians and teachers.

Psychological Theory

The study in this article focuses on reviewing the literature to determine the role of psychological factors in the tendency towards engaging in such behavior which includes character, psychiatric situations, intellect, emotional style, and self-control (Sikand & Reddy 2017). According to the research criminal behavior is the result of an association between certain environmental conditions and features of the nervous system. People who engage in criminal behavior are influenced by environmental, neurobiological, and personality factors. The study conducted included 54 detained offenders who had a mental disorder and found out that high neuroticism, low sociability, and little agreeableness were associated with criminal behavior.


Theories that explain why Wuornos engaged in criminal behavior include psychological and strain theories. The psychological theory focuses on the association between intelligence, character, learning, and criminal behavior. Strain theories maintain that an individual particular stressors can cause them to commit a crime. Routine activities and social reaction theory are approaches that do not explain the criminal behavior of Wuornos. Routine activities suggest that an individual’s daily activities create opportunities for crime. Social reaction theories focus on the labeling of an individual as a criminal and the individual believing that they truly are. Strain theory explains Wuornos's criminal behavior because as a young person and having to go through abuse, abandonment by her mother, an alcoholic grandmother, and difficult childhood, as the theory explains, she was escaping from all these stressors.















Agnew R. (2012) Reflection on “A Revised Strain Theory of Delinquency”, Social Forces,

Volume 91, Issue Pages 33–38, Editors (2017) Aileen Wuornos Biography. Retrieved from

Miró-Llinares, Fernando. (2014). Routine Activity Theory. 10.1002/9781118517390/wbetc198.

Grattet, Ryken. (2011). Societal Reactions to Deviance. Annual Review of Sociology. 37.


Sikand M, Reddy J.K (2017) Psychological Underpinnings of Criminal Behaviour. Forensic Res

Criminol Int J 5(3): 00157. DOI: 10.15406/frcij.2017.05.00157





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Value Integrated Care a Social Care Intervention


Table of Contents

 Introduction- 3

Background- 3

Case Study Discussion- 4

Children as victims of Negligence and Physical Abuse- 5

Lower Learning Abilities in children- 6

Integrated care on Addictive Issues 7

Conclusion- 8

Bibliography- 9




Integrated care is used as an intervention to provide people with different health and social care necessities. Through the integration care, both the health and social organizations are working collectively to deliver the interventions that enhance health and social results. Social care interventions involve person-centered strategies and changes in activities. The integrated care in the United Kingdom has drawn the hypothesis of laws to grant answers to the augmented problems founded on social care organizations. This paper deals with the provision of integrated health and social care in the United Kingdom, where the government, as well as other health organizations, have embraced new different approaches to promote integration in health and social care to its populace. These approaches are founded on a national context for collaboration, which provisions local solutions, provides better financial incentives comprising research with diverse payments, and contracting systems.


For the last four decades, the integration of health and social care has been a strategic objective of the victorious United Kingdom government. A variety of strategies and financial implements have been utilized in the UK, though the overall improvement has appeared patchy and restricted (Baxter et al., 2018, Pg 5). This is because of various reasons comprising variances in culture and the ways of operations, funding, and the accountability provisions and distinct regulation systems that evaluate the performance of separate organizations and not as an organization wholly. There has been a universal agreement that new engagements have been complicated and confusing. Most frequently fail to guarantee that individuals receive appropriate services at the right time and place.  Given that most westernized countries face the challenge of an aging population needing more coordinated care and support for a combination of care and support needs, UK expertise in attempting to identify integrated care strategies would be of benefit to other nations. Since 1997, the decentralization of healthcare policy responsibilities to different authorities in Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland has contributed to rising policy disparity between these nations.

Integrated healthcare offers integrated, coordinated, secure, and efficient coverage for everyone's health needs through the coordination and distribution of healthcare. Integrated care strategies focus on the availability of services, who delivers these services effectively, and how patient access is supported. Integrated care includes collaboration and cooperation among service providers. It takes place through primary, secondary, and tertiary treatments and extends across the "medical neighborhoods" far beyond the regular home or separate provider of a patient. The interconnected health area comprises healthcare professionals, clinicians, hospitals, and allies. Also, it is strongly linked with patient-centered care; the patient, support, or care and his or her healthcare professionals have informed and actively shared decisions (Baxter et al., 2018, Pg. 29). Primarily, this partnership and coordination will be made possible and promoted through implementing active structures and systems.


Case Study Discussion

Coffering to the case study presented, Leana, who is only 13 years, is suffering from emotional and behavioral difficulties (EBD).  Emotional and behavioral complications have recently been progressively diagnosed in children, creating the most common chronic youthful situations. In the absence of timely and appropriate treatment, the EBD condition poses a long-term personal and community level concerns. Integrated healthcare, while working with children's emotional and behavioral implications with children serving systems, enhances the results of the care provided (Lowry, Hale, Draper & Smith., 2019, Pg.160). The main objective is to improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of healthcare to individuals by confirming that the services are appropriately coordinated and centered on their requirements. Thus, it is crucial to diagnose the demands of treating EBD to include Leana at the early stages of child development. In the UK, the EBD child problems are happening at an alarming rate, affecting the overall healthcare and children's growth.

Generally, children who typically have distinctive healthcare requirements encounter social demographical patterned difficulties in having access to healthcare, with less known concerning how these indicators character the access to healthcare amongst children suffering from EBD, and they compare to the patterns which are observed amongst the children without EBD. The kids with EBD typically get fewer researches as well as to policy attention as compared to kids with other unique requirements. Thus they are less probably to get treated even if EBD considerably affects the families and the society generally.  To abolish the adverse health results and other long-term problems of EBD, assessing the effects of EBD on admittance to care, and evaluating the structural aspects of health care admission is crucial. To effectively deal with the treatment of behavioral care difficulties in the social care environment, early childhood intervention will be essential (England-Mason et al., 2017, Pg. 52). Similarly, to augment the responses' results, the integrated healthcare interventions are highly recommended to account for the entire health and wellbeing of a child. 

Children as victims of Negligence and Physical Abuse

On the other side, Leana has also been a victim of child abuse, where her mother had initially neglected the child and physically abusive. As a consequence, Leana had to be registered with child protection. Regarding integrated health and social care, children have health rights; thus, they should be protected from physical abuse. The World Health Organization (WHO), has defined children abuse or maltreatment as all the forms of physical and psychological cruel treatment, negligence, sexual abuse or any kind of child exploitation that results from actual or potential harm to kids wellbeing, survival, growth or dignity in the context of an association of responsibility, faith or authority (Davies, O’Leary & Read, 2017, Pg. 600). Any acts, actions and words that weaken, diminish, or decrease the inherent worth and integrity of a child as an individual being are also significantly essential and expressive in the Indian meaning.

Even though child abuse can still be classified in various ways, the types of harm done could be used to impact current and future governance. Second, the form of abuse may also be described as other damaging effects on children's health and welfare: physical, sexual, and emotional abuse and neglect (the latter being intentional or ignorant). For a child victimized, these are sometimes mixed. Robust programs spanning many fields must be in place to better deter and handle child violence. Every system must not operate alone, but it should be integrated to achieve a successful method of over-representing child protection. For instance, educating the health workers to realize levels of child abuse is through itself of lesser value or even being harmful supposing the system to safeguard children or any other family member at risk is ordinarily absent or even ineffective. Decrees without implementation, present complacency. It should also be accepted that undertaking child protection is also a risky task for the experts involved. The government should have in position systems to safeguard the experts engaged in this Practice from the abusers or even the family members. The Practice will also require skilled and devoted members in the community to appliance the child safeguard system, and they should be satisfactorily be paid. Whistleblowers and accountable media cover to kid’s protection subjects are crucial mechanisms and thus need to be encouraged and fully supported through all government arms. The obligatory reporting on children abuses should be enacted through different countries, is also an essential method of supporting the experts who are committed to safeguarding children. 

Children's cruel harming and neglect by parents who appear much stressed through their conditions or psychological health complications need a very diverse approach. In such a situation, latent abuse may be averted through reliable, ideologically integrated, social, and medical care. Once acknowledged, adequately qualified and resourced welfare workers, instead of law enforcers should drive the management to assist and support for the members who are in the threat (Davies, O’Leary & Read, 2017, Pg. 720). The protection of children needs to be combined and closely harmonized participation of the primary players, with the national governments granting a significant lead. Even though non-governmental organizations and UN agencies are crucial in accounting for children protection, the fundamental responsibility is on the nation's government to work closely with right encouraging groups.

Lower Learning Abilities in children

In the instance where Leana is diagnosed with lower learning abilities, the team of PCP,

a behavioral health Care Manager and Psychiatrists Consultants will play a significant role in improving her health.   The PCP will arrange for the provision and monitoring of behavioral health services. To track Leana's recovery progress and new symptoms, the implementation of a patient registry/tracking system will be drafted.  The Behavioral Healthcare Manager will provide primary consultation care and brief treatment services when the need presents itself. Leana's behavioral complication cannot be treated with interventions in the first quadrant, from the cases study she has shown mild learning difficulties and has suffered from depression, anxiety and undiagnosed bipolar disorder for more than a year, therefore, early intervention implemented at the first quadrant will have no impact on the overall behavioral health of Leana. To effectively use this clinical integration model, Leana's condition can be treated in quadrant II. This quadrant is defined by moderate to high behavioral health complications and low to mild physical conditions (de Bruin, Dima, Texier &  van Ganse,  2018, Pg. 1922). Leana does not suffer from any physical condition; however, she has a severe case of behavioral health complications. To successfully improve Leana's health outcomes, a team to include a PCP, Behavioral Healthcare Manager, and a Psychiatrist. She will be engaged in a group wellness program and community-based services inclusive of behavioral services to provide additional support to her recovery process. The Integrated care teams are made up of the patient, Primary Care Provider, Care Manager, and Psychiatric Consultant. The patient is the most critical person in the group, to ensure the implementation of best interventions, the patient is encouraged to participate actively and point out what is working out for them and not working out.  The patient works hand in hand with the PCP and the Case Manager to track progress. To ensure the delivery of best care and intervention, the patient should raise concerns and questions on the care offered and stay informed (de Bruin, Dima, Texier & van Ganse, 2018, Pg. 1924).  The PCP is responsible for maintaining accountability for monitoring and overseeing all aspects of care. The PCP is also a vital member of the integrated care teams; he/ she is responsible for making and confirming the diagnosis.  The PCP collaborates in close liaison with the Case Manager to track the progress of outcomes. The Case Manager is responsible for coordinating with the PCP to develop, implement, and adjust a treatment plan. The Case Manager is responsible for answering all questions related to the treatment. Lastly, the Psychiatric Consultant is an expert consultant who provides advice to the PCP and Case Manager on treatment options and how to improve the existing treatment plan.


Integrated Care on Addictive Issues

According to the case study, Leana has been using heroin as well as smoking marijuana for self-medication on her undiagnosed bipolar disorders, where she has been battling with levels of depression and anxiety to the extent she has even struggled to commit suicide. Considering integrated health and social care, for Leana at her age, being in drug abuse is significantly risky, keeping in mind her bipolar condition has not been diagnosed through a medical professional. In some cases, individuals who engage with drugs or even alcohol abuse problems encounter numerous challenges in their lives comprising of issues of shelter, family relations, employment, criminal behaviors, and also debts.

This means Leana will require several interventions and a variety of organizations to assist her in drug abuse problems. There are several diverse treatment ideas and approaches in the drug abuse field, reflecting the various requirements and priorities of the user’s services and providers (Durbin, Hensel &  Deber, 2016. Pg. 130). These approaches tend to have envisioned results. Nevertheless, it is crucial to set out the primary objective of integrated care while working for diverse philosophies. The primary purpose of integrated care is to support substance users in overcoming the problem and their related health and social problems by offering proper, coordinated, and timely treatment and care. During her recovery, she may require diverse interventions that will generally include contacts with different services providers.

The diverse interventions and services providers require to be of equivalent significance in the context of increasing a personal-centered strategy to care. The sequence with which she accesses the services and interventions need to be founded on priority, which happens following the initial inclusive evaluation. Attaining integrated care will rely on having effective mechanisms to convey and exchange philosophies between the strategic as well to the functioning levels. The strategies to be established through dialogue amongst the professionals who comprehend how these services are delivered, and what might challenge any procedure of change to the habit. Accomplishments will rely on the services providers adopting the sense of ownership and comprehension of both the rules that support integrated care and the modifications in the Practice required in delivery.


In conclusion, Leana from the case study presented suffers from behavioral health complications; these complications include depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and undiagnosed bipolar.  Integrated care interventions can be used to improve the comprehensive health of the child.  Integrated care has proved to be effective in treating behavioral health problems.  The first step towards using integrated care is developing core competencies.  The four-quadrant clinical integration method can be used to address the health needs of the child.  While using this method, it is essential to identify the quadrant where the child falls under to apply the right interventions. The integrated care team is made up of the patient, PCP, A Case Manager, and a Psychiatrist. These stakeholders work in close liaison to ensure that the integrated care intervention implemented is effective. To successfully increase the outcomes of interventions, combined care interventions are recommended to address children's behavioral health. Also, to further enhance social and healthcare delivery, it is advisable to design a healthcare delivery system that integrates social care into health care.








Baxter, S., Johnson, M., Chambers, D., Sutton, A., Goyder, E., and Booth, A., 2018. The effects of integrated care: a systematic review of UK and international evidence. BMC health services research, 18(1), pp.1-13.

Baxter, S.K., Johnson, M., Chambers, D., Sutton, A., Goyder, E., and Booth, A., 2018. Understanding new models of integrated care in developed countries: a systematic review. Health Services and Delivery Research, 6(29).

Davies, E., O'Leary, E., and Read, J., 2017. Child abuse in England and Wales 2003–2013: Newspaper reporting versus reality. Journalism, 18(6), pp.754-771.

De Bruin, M., Dima, A.L., Texier, N., and van Ganse, E., 2018. Explaining the amount and consistency of medical care and self-management support in asthma: a survey of primary care providers in France and the United Kingdom. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice, 6(6), pp.1916-1925.

Durbin, A., Durbin, J., Hensel, J.M. and Deber, R., 2016. Barriers and enablers to integrating mental health into primary care: a policy analysis. The journal of behavioral health services & research, 43(1), pp.127-139.

England-Mason, G., Kimber, M., Khoury, J., Atkinson, L., MacMillan, H. and Gonzalez, A., 2017. Difficulties with emotion regulation moderate the association between childhood history of maltreatment and cortisol reactivity to psychosocial challenge in postpartum women. Hormones and behavior95, pp.44-56.

Lowry, R.G., Hale, B.J., Draper, S.B. and Smith, M.S., 2019. Rock drumming enhances motor and psychosocial skills of children with emotional and behavioral difficulties. International Journal of Developmental Disabilities65(3), pp.152-161.

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Race in the criminal justice system


            The United States runs the largest criminal justice system in the world. In 2015, there were over 6.7 million people under the correctional control of the justice system in the united states with about 2 million people incarcerated in jails, local, state, and federal prisons (The Sentencing Project, 2018). Although such a high incarceration rate could act as an indicator of the country’s tough approach to crime, issues related to racial discrimination in the criminal justice system have led to the oppression of African Americans in the United States. Issues concerning race have created an environment where African Americans are more likely to be arrested than whites. Following an arrest, African Americans are also more likely to be convicted and given lengthier sentences compared to whites. Race in the criminal justice system has created inequality in a society where African Americans receive harsher treatment from the laws and policies enacted than whites. 

Historical background

           Issues relating to race in the criminal justice system can be traced back to the systems established through slavery. Slavery was greatly popularised by the belief that whites were more superior than any other race, especially African Americans. Although slavery was abolished a long time ago, modern forms of slavery took its place and they were mostly used to offer more advantages to whites than any other race (Glover, 2009). Issues such as exclusion and segregation were used formally and informally to determine what opportunities and amenities were accessible to races such as African Americans while whites were given the freedom and control to place themselves in a better position in society (Glover, 2009). This led to the whites taking leadership positions such as government officials and policymakers. Since the policies used to govern society were made by the whites, it gave them more control over society and also the opportunities present. 

           Slavery was common in the 17th century and lasted up until 1865. During this time, slaves were regarded more as property rather than human beings. Their masters operated under the belief that they were superior while the slaves were inferior people. To maintain control, the masters would subject the slaves to slave codes that determined what was acceptable forms of actions and activities that slaves could engage in (Alexander & West, 2012). A common slave code was the suspension of all rights and freedoms for slaves as these were only reserved for whites. The suspension of slaves’ rights made it possible for the whites to oppress the slaves and subject them to inhumane forms of treatment. 

           The popularity of slavery and the use of slaves for forced labor after the civil war. Attempts to prevent discrimination of African Americans and other minorities led to the amendment to the Bill of Rights where slavery was abolished and every individual was given equal rights and protections regardless of their race (Alexander & West, 2012). The Bill of Rights however did little to end discrimination against people of color. Although slavery was prohibited, the state passed Jim Crow’s laws which placed people of color at a disadvantage in most social, legal, and economic forums. A good example is the inception of the doctrine of separate but equal which sought to separate people based on race. Since the whites were the controlling race, they reserved most of the amenities for themselves and restricted access to members of the African American community (Alexander & West, 2012). African Americans were also denied the right to vote or enter into contracts and this further made it difficult for African Americans to bring about change that would help end racial discrimination. 

           Other than missing out on opportunities, African Americans suffered especially those elected to protect them favored whites. Law enforcement officers were at liberty to use force when apprehending people of color. Over 3000 African Americans were lynched during the period Jim Crow’s laws were in effect and those responsible for the lynching were rarely ever prosecuted (The Sentencing Project, 2018). There were however a lot of changes in the 20th century that saw African Americans’ legal rights being respected and protected by the courts. In 1954, the separate but equal rule was struck down in the Brown v. Board of Education in 1954 by the supreme court. 

Race in the criminal justice system

            The influence that whites have over society has transcended to the criminal justice system where legislation and court decisions are influenced by race and often result in the oppression of members from the African American community. In 2016 for example, 27 percent of the population arrested in the United States comprised African Americans (The Sentencing Project, 2018). Although African American youths only constitute 15 percent of the United States youth population, they accounted for 35 percent of juveniles arrested in the country.

            The high number of arrests are greatly as a result of the frequency and approach that law enforcers use when investigating African Americans. Take the crime as an example. Although crimes related to drugs and drug abuse are committed equally by people from different races, African Americans and other minorities are arrested more often for drug-related crimes (Bhatia et al, 2018). This is especially because law enforcement officers are trained to identify crime where it exists and take appropriate action. The approach is however responsible for the discrimination of people of color because they often reside in areas associated with crime. Discrimination against people of color has led to the emergence of slums and other poor neighborhoods convenient for minorities (Becerius & Tonry, 2014). Whites on the other hand reside in well-built communities that offer access to basic amenities and security. 

            Societal segregation and disproportionate levels of poverty create environments that make it easier for the criminal justice system to target members of the African American community and other minorities. Instead of focusing on ending forms of discrimination that force African Americans to live in neighborhoods infested with crime, more attention is given to ending crime (McNair, 2009). A good example is the War on Drugs and stop, question, and frisk policies used by police officers in African American communities. Such policies call on law enforcers to take on stricter actions when apprehending suspects and also convict even minor crimes. Since such communities are populated by African Americans, it has created the stereotype that African Americans are more likely to engage in crime and drug abuse (Alexander & West, 2012). Although drug usage is equal across races, law enforcers are more likely to arrest African Americans than whites and convict them for drug-related charges. 

            The tendency for law enforcers to associate African Americans with criminal activity combined with the push top be tough on crime has created an environment where law enforcers use more force than needed when apprehending people of color. The issue is made worse by officials who choose not to take action to information and evidence that some police officers engage in actions that oppress citizens while in the line of duty (The Sentencing Project, 2018). During stop and searches, police officers have been known to target African Americans more than whites. People of color are subjected to more stops and are frisked with little provocation. Often, the major factor that prompts police officers to stop African Americans is their skin color. 

           The state of Massachusetts is a good example of the impact that race has on the criminal justice system. The region has an incarceration rate of 324 people per 100000 held in prisons, jails, and juvenile detention facilities (PPI, 2016). The figures mean that Massachusetts incarcerates a higher percentage of people exceeds that of different countries in the world. Concerning race, people of color are more likely to be arrested than whites. In 2010 for example, only 241 whites were incarcerated compared to 1502 African Americans (PPI, 2016). Racial discrimination in the criminal justice system is instigated from the approach law enforces take when making arrests through the justice system and finally to the different forms of incarcerations used to house those convicted. 

            Another example is a report by the New York State Judicial Commission on Minorities which reported that there exist two justice systems in operation in New York courts. One court serves the interests of the whites while the other attends to the needs of the minorities. Although the court is supposed to promote equal treatment and offer fair rulings, there is a lot of inequality and differential treatment resulting from race (The Sentencing Project, 2018). Minorities are offered poor services both in treatment and representation. Most of the facilities where minorities are housed are infested with rats. The suspects are treated with disrespect by court representatives and no form of courtesy is extended to their families. In the court, rulings often take shorter periods compared to whites suggesting that judges exercise some form of bias due to the tendency to associate African Americans with crime (Bucerius & Tonry, 2014). The courts that protect whites on the other hand offer great services to white suspects both in treatment and representation. White defendants are treated with respect and are offered proper representation court. Rulings are based on evidence collected and how the case is presented instead of race. 

           Sentencing is also an issue as African Americans are more likely to be incarcerated than whites. Despite Latinos and African Americans constituting only 29 percent of the United States population, they account for 57 percent of the population of inmates in the prison systems (The Sentencing Project, 2018). This means that African Americans have a 5.1 chance of being incarcerated while that for whites is only 3.1 for both petty and serious crimes. African Americans also make up 56 percent of the people incarcerated for drug-related crimes (The Sentencing Project, 2018). People of color are also more likely to receive longer prison sentences and 48 percent of those serving life sentences are African Americans. Some of the policies used to control crime are also responsible for the discrimination that people of color face. Drug-free zones laws for instance require strict sentencing to people found selling drugs near school zones (The Sentencing Project, 2018). For people living in high poverty areas, the designated zones make up a significant area where other community functions take place. Since the regions are also occupied by people of color, the requirement to take strict actions becomes another form of oppressing African Americans. 

           Although there is a lot of racism in the criminal justice system, positive change can be achieved through various reforms. One approach would be to change the policies and directives that facilitate the War on Drugs, if not doing away with it completely. The War on Drugs has created a stereotype that presents African Americans as criminals (The Sentencing Project, 2018). This makes it easier for law enforcement officers to take strict action as they tend to anticipate violence and resistance from people of color. If the war on drugs was to be disbanded, law enforcement officers are likely to shift their attention from people of color to the people responsible for the crimes. 

           A second solution would be the abolishment of mandatory minimum sentences and give judges the authority to treat each case differently. This is especially because mandatory sentencing only works to shift blame from the judges to the prosecutors. Increasing transparency in the judicial rulings can help regain the confidence that people have towards the criminal justice systems (The Sentencing Project, 2018). Another approach that could regain the public’s confidence is doing away with cash bails or only using them when necessary. Detainment of suspects should be made on the grounds of whether the suspect arraigned in court is a flight risk or not; not depending on their ability to pay bail. 

           Issues of race when delivering justice have existed for a long time. in today's society, race has led to various cases of police brutality and wrongful arrests that result in wrongful incarceration. People of color have been subjected to various forms of oppression arising from the approach that the criminal justice system takes when implementing policies to govern society. While these approaches have created tension between African Americans and whites, they are challenges that can be mitigated and resolved. Such changes will however require a great deal of change and effort from all parties involved especially because the issue of race is something that has existed throughout generations. 


















Alexander, M., & West, C. (2012). The new Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age of   colorblindness. New York, N.Y: New Press.

Bhatia, M., Poynting, S., & Tufail, W. (2018). Media, crime and racism. Palgrave Macmillan      Press

Glover, K. S. (2009). Racial profiling: Research, racism, and resistance. Lanham, Md:     Rowman & Littlefield.

Bucerius, S. M., & Tonry, M. H. (2014). The Oxford handbook of ethnicity, crime, and     immigration. Oxford University Press

McNair, G. (2009). Criminal injustice: Slaves and free Blacks in Georgia's criminal justice          system. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press.

Prison Policy Initiative, (2016) “Massachusetts profile” retrieved from,   

The Sentencing Project, (2018) “Report to the United Nations on Racial Disparities in the            United States Criminal Justice System” retrieved from,

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Mass shootings in New York

Mass shootings have become a major crime in New York and other parts of the United States. On July 27th, 2019, one person was shot to death while 11 others were injured when shooters opened fire as a massive block party was going on (Chiusano, 2019). The incident had the most injuries resulting from mass shootings in the United States and also increased the number of gun violence death and injury-related cases in Brownsville’s 73 precincts (Chiusano, 2019). The shooting took place as the Brownsville Old Timers Day block party was coming to an end. At 11 p.m, at least two gunmen opened fire at Hegeman Avenue and Sackman Street, killing one man and injuring seven men and five women.

    The shooting is said to have had the highest number of people injured as a result of mass shootings in the city of New York in 2019 (Southall, 2019). Despite measures being taken to prevent mass shootings in the area, the reaction from the police department may have contributed to the high number of victims especially because of how they responded to a request from the eagle for previous data on shootings in the boroughs. Before the July shooting, mass shooting crimes in the 73rd precinct had gone down by 29 percent. Before the shooting, 22 people had been shot in the precinct, which was a decline from the 31 who had been shot in 2018 (Southall, 2019). The shooting, however, raised the number to 34 in 2019 and this was an indication of an increase in the overall crime shootings in the precinct.

    When conducting investigations, the police department tried to find a connection between the July 27 shooting and gang activities in the precinct. This was especially because half of the shooting and violence-related crimes are a result of gangs and crews that operate in the area (Chiusano, 2019). The crime triggered a bit of disagreement as some considered it a mass shooting while others, like the mayor, refused to acknowledge the incident as a mass shooting. This was despite the high number of people that were injured by guns when the gunmen indiscriminately shot into the crowd. Although there is no clear definition of what qualifies as a mass shooting, people in the United States have come to refer to any shooting that results in four or more people being injured or losing their lives (Chiusano, 2019). The definition is retrieved from the Gun Violence Archive which keeps records of incidences that involved gun violence such as mass shootings. The Stanford Mass Shootings of America also defines mass shootings as any shooting that results in the death or injury of three or more people. The second definition has an added provision where the shooting can be as a result of organized crime, drug, or gang-related shootings thus making the July 27th shooting a mass shooting.

    Despite failing to make any arrests on the day the shooting occurred, police carried out investigations, and a man was arrested in connection to the shooting. Kyle Williams, a 20-year-old was arrested and later confessed to being involved in the shooting (Southall, 2019). The individual confessed to being a gang member and confessed to having opened fire and injured several people during the Old Timers Day event. He was later charged with attempted murder, murder, reckless endangerment, and criminal possession of a weapon. He was tied to the 9mm handgun that investigations indicated was fired 10 times and the bullets were responsible for killing one individual and wounding others (Chiusano, 2019). The arrest was greatly facilitated by the assistance provided by members of the public who had crucial information regarding the incident. People called the police with information that led to the identification of two women that present during the shooting. Once pictures of the two women were made public, the police department received more tips that led to the arrest.

    In 2019, there were 442 shooting incidents and 521 people had been victims of shootings in New York by July. The figures were an increase from those recorded in 2018 where 413 incidents were recorded and 501 people were shot (Moore, 2019). Despite the high numbers, the incidents are more common in some areas than others. Regions such as Manhattan and Queens were yet to record any shootings while 24 people had fallen victim to the mass shooting in Brooklyn’s 79th precinct alone (Moore, 2019). New York is ranked number six out of 50 in regards to states with strict gun laws. It, however, comes 48th out of 50 in relation to states that have the lowest number of deaths related to shooting incidents. In 2018, there were 7885 crimes that involved the use of guns and over 4000 of the crimes took place in the boroughs (Moore, 2019). It was also discovered that most of the guns used were purchased from regions with less strict gun laws and then used in New York.

    Based on statistics of mass shootings in the area, the July 27th shooting was a common occurrence that could have been predicted. At the time of the shooting, mass shootings and gang violence were the most common crimes in the neighborhood (Manskar, 2019). The person who confessed to the shooting was a member of the gang and the shooting occurred due to conflict between two rival gangs. One of the victims who was shot and killed, MR Pang, was also a gang member of the group Bloods (Manskar, 2019). The incident may have started as a disagreement between the two rival gangs and in an attempt to shoot each other, innocent bystanders leaving the ceremony got caught in the crossfire.

     The information on gang-related crimes and mass shootings should have been used to better prepare law enforcement officers from preventing such an incident from happening especially during the celebration. The event was held annually to commemorate the resilience of the African American community (Manskar, 2019). Despite the success of the event in its years, the rise in criminal activity should have warranted more vigilance from law enforcers and the general public. The increased gang-related crimes should have pushed law enforcement to put more officers on duty during the event to prevent any innocent bystanders from getting injured in case of incident occurred (Southall, 2019). Since some of the gang members are already known in the region, more vigilance from the police and members of the public would have helped to identify the incident early enough to take action before more people got injured.

    The approach that the New York Police Department took to handle the incident was in line with the police protocol that dictates their operations. When the incident occurred, the police could only investigate the area where the crime took place. They interviewed witnesses that were present including the victims to get information on what exactly happened (Paybarah, 2019). The investigation further involved collecting evidence such as bullet casings and the guns used to commit the crime. The information collected led to the arrest of one of the shooters who was later charged with various crimes including murder and illegal possession of a firearm (Paybarah, 2019). Like most law enforcers, the NYPD has a set of guidelines that dictate how police officers go about investigating a crime and making arrests. The police officers followed the protocols and were able to arrest a suspect who was later found guilty.

    When the crime occurred, the region employed the use of gun control and the ‘violence interrupters program’. Gun control entails policies enacted by the government not just in New York, but throughout the United States that aim at controlling access to guns. Through it, those wishing to own a gun have to go through various tests and pass various qualifications to ensure that only responsible individuals are allowed to carry weapons (CCCHRI, 2014). The violence interrupters program, on the other hand, was started to discourage people from engaging in criminal activity or purchasing firearms. Although the two approaches were in use during the time the shooting took place, their implementation made it difficult for them to yield the expected results. Despite having strict gun laws in New York, guns could easily be purchased in other states and then used in New York (CCCHRI, 2014). The violence interrupters were also not as thorough and more manpower was needed to ensure that such events were well covered and that people were discouraged from engaging in any criminal activity.

    The arrest made prevents such crimes from occurring as it acts as prevention, punishment, and deterrence. Once found guilty of a crime, the criminal was sent to prison to serve out his sentence. The time spent in prison acts as prevention because the criminal spends time behind bars and not in the community. When criminals are in jail, they cannot engage in criminal activities and thus prevents the occurrence of crime at least from those already in prison. Although some criminals go back to a life of crime once they complete their sentence, the time in prison offers some form of crime control and is, therefore, a form of crime prevention (CCCHRI, 2014). As punishment, the prison sentence issued is determined by the nature of the crime committed and the consequences that resulted from it. While in prison, some of the prisoners’ rights are suspended in order to punish them for their crimes. There are restricted movement and limited options in terms of entertainment, living, and several other restrictions. Punishment is often used as a way of helping the criminals see the error of their ways and discourage them from a life of crime (CCCHRI, 2014). Although some prisoners go back to crime after release, there are those that reform while in prison and do not engage in criminal activities following their release.

    Imprisonment also acts as a deterrence to crime. Other than punishment, prisons have been used to reform criminals by engaging them in activities that try to make them responsible members of the community. While in prison, prisoners receive training on practical activities such as masonry and other activities that can help them lead a crime-free life (Paybarah, 2019). Rather than just punishing inmates, most prisons emphasize on rehabilitating the inmates by helping them see the error of their ways. Training also equips them with the skills they need to find employment upon release. Rather than engaging in crime, inmates who finish their sentences have the option of applying for a job and earn a living using skills they learned in prison. Arresting prisoners like the one involved in the July 27th shooting can, therefore, help in ensuring that such occurrences are reduced not just in New York but in the entire United States.

    The statement from the mayor indicating that guns are often purchased from different states and brought to New York only goes to prove the effectiveness of the gun control laws in use in the region (Southall, 2019). One approach that can be taken to prevent mass shootings in New York will, therefore, be the implementation of stricter gun laws that address the need of New York residents in specific. At present, the gun law restricting access to automatic weapons is effective, but inappropriate for the type of crimes like the one in the 79th precinct. This is especially because most of the weapons used in mass shootings in the area involve pistols and small firearms that do not fall under the automatic weapons category. There is a need to implement gun laws that regulate the ownership and control of firearms specifically used in New York so as to reduce deaths and injuries resulting from the same. Since the gun laws have proven effective, targeting control to specific weapons will make it more difficult for criminals to access them and thus help prevent mass shootings.

    Implementing strict gun laws should also extend to other regions to ensure that weapons are not bought from neighboring states with lenient gun policies. The United States government can come up with measures to ensure that the policies enacted in one state are not affected by those in other regions. Since the debate on gun ownership varies across states, regions that do not take the issue of gun control seriously should be held accountable if weapons purchased in their borders are used in shootings in regions that are strict on gun ownership.

    Lastly, it is recommended that programs like the ‘violence interrupters’ receive funding and government support for their efforts. Due to the difficulty in controlling access to firearms, the 79th precinct should focus more on supporting the interrupters as they are in a better position to identify crimes before they occur and also discourage people from engaging in criminal activity. Other than controlling access to guns, the region should focus its resources on educating residents on the dangers of firearms as well as discourage them from engaging in criminal activity. The violence interrupters should engage with members of the community on a regular basis and educate them on the negative impact that crime has on society in general. The training should also teach residents how to be vigilant and inform police of any suspected crimes before they occur. since most of the mass shootings in the 79th precinct are as a result of gang-related activities, discouraging teenagers from joining gangs can also help reduce gang-related shootings as there will be lesser gang members in the street. The best approach to reduce mass shootings should, therefore, incorporate the use of groups such as the violence interceptors as they are the ones in the best position to identify the crime before it is committed.  





Chiusano M, (2019) “A shooting in Brownsville” amNY, retrieved from,       34433091/

Committee on Causes and Consequences of High Rates of Incarceration (2014). Growth of             Incarceration in the United States: Exploring Causes and Consequences. National            Academies Press.

Manskar N, (2019) “NYC shootings up as city grapples with gun violence” New York City,          NY, retrieved from,        grapples-gun-violence

Moore T, (2019) “Shootings on the rise in NYC: Up 5 percent in first 7 months of the       year” New York Post, retrieved from,   the-rise-in-nyc-up-5-percent-in-first-7-months-of-year/

Paybarah A, (2019) “Gun violence: New York’s own problem” The New York Times,       retrieved from,             gun-violence.html

Southall A, (2019) “He defied a code, his neighbors turned him in for murder, police say”            The New York Times, retrieved from,    williams.html



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 Human trafficking is not only a human rights violation but is also a heinous crime that victimizes men, women, and children. With globalization and population boom, criminals of human trafficking are working on a ripe environment, or in other words, the criminals can attack poor and isolated people such as marginalized groups (Volodko et al. 2019).  The study has shown that information and communication technology are impacting human trafficking.  The latter has now become a legal business enterprise since traffickers can commit their crimes using the technology. Focusing on the data of social media users, 83.33% of traffickers report that they use social media regularly (Sarkar, 2015).  This indicates that the number of internet users is high, traffickers can easily access the internet, and it is difficult to trace them.  The research paper demonstrates that criminals are taking advantage of information communication not only to communicate but salon to distance themselves. The study aslo finds that women are the primary victims of human trafficking. Note that women (aged 41-50) are susceptible to coercion due to a lack of family and social support. The majority of women are married, and they come from Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin. Therefore, to combat trafficking, it is important to understand the risks as well as the vulnerable population (Sarkar, 2015).   Also, it is important to put concern on the new technologies which have influenced transnational crime.  Criminals are abusing online technology, and therefore, tech solutions must be implemented to address the problem of sexual exploitation.  It is also important to note that online sex trafficking is a global issue, and therefore, technological and legal solutions will not solve the problems alone. This indicates that other entities, such as the government and society, must create a coordination system to come up with sustainable goals (Hachey & Phillippi, 2017).  It is the high time to evaluate the physical abuse, and emotional trauma that victims go through, and implement innovative approaches to solve the problems.  A comprehensive strategic approach is needed to prevent the victim from all kinds of abuse, including physical, torture, and sexual abuse.



 In 21 century, the world is experiencing many social problems, including poverty, hunger, discrimination, government corruption, and more. However, the most serious problem is human trafficking.  The latter is not a new issue since it existed since civilization, but today, the issue has increased due to factors such as globalization.  Trafficking is an organized crime where the criminals have the power to move to specific routes and explore new markets.  The internet has helped criminals to form cooperative relationships that enable them to execute criminal activities.  The study shows that most victims of human trafficking are forced to work in labor in the industry, such as agriculture, textiles, domestic work, and more. Going forward, different actors should explore ways to combat online trafficking. In other words, actors should build networks across them to discuss how the new technologies are exploited women- the victims of human trafficking.  The legal system should be in the frontline to address the issue of human trafficking. The media, the health care providers, community, as well as organizations, should take action not only in identifying human trafficking but also in assisting the victims.  It is important to note that trafficking is a form of slavery, and there is a need for awareness campaigns to combat human trafficking and unintended effects.

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Social reaction and criminal models of crime


            Social reaction and criminal models of crime are some of the parameters that are based on the perspectives of various sociopaths and psychopaths. The reason for that is because their views are based on the manner in which some of them have been deviating from the social realities. Taking into consideration modern social culture, it can be argued that what makes individual to keep on rolling is the fact that it is paramount for each person to differences that exist between categorized and deviance of the normal societal doctrines.  As a result of making each person to accountable for the reactions he or he takes, it is important to take into account individual fictional characters or traits.

            On the other hand, it can be argued that it is important for each person to ensure that he or she has the impacts of the social behaviors that are not impressed within the society. The reason for that is because individual controls are based on the parameters that are used for the purpose of emancipating the perspectives of the community. by using some of the methods that are used to influence social control, it means that it will be paramount for each person to ensure that the characteristics of each person is the one that has the propensity of normalizing the relationship that exists within the society (Russell, n.d.).


            The mechanisms that are used for the purpose of enabling each person to understand the dissipation, spread, and nucleation of the perspectives of each person is the one that is regarded to have the propensity of enabling the community to understand the effects of crime. What this implies is the fact that the propensity of the law enforcement authorities to depend on mapped crime models or patterns is what has the propensity of enabling them to depend of the mechanisms that are used for the purpose of preventing the occurrences of crime. The perspectives of the community are the one that makes such mechanisms or strategies to be hampered (Mary & Antonia, 20140).

            The problems that are encountered are based on the fact that there has been a robust or vigorous expectation regarding how the prevailing policing interventions end up influencing the perspectives of the community. From the mathematical frameworks being used, it means that there are various mechanisms that are used for the purpose of influencing the dynamics of crime. What this implies is the fact that the mathematical approaches used are the ones that have the propensity of understanding individual reactions to what is stipulated by crime hotspots (White et al., 2017). As a result of that, the empirical evidences provided suggests that there are various strategies that offenders uses for the purpose of mixing with the victims of violence. A notion to the masculinity of crime is hegemonic by taking into considerations of personal masculinity. The vales representations and practices that relate to male are commonly accepted due to males being dominant in the society at a particular point in history (Tibbetts & Hemmens, 2010).

            Nevertheless, it can be argued that the potential victims of crime to commit the same mistake are based on their propensity to participate in the same offense. Although repeating the same offense is based on the influence a person experiences, crime hotspots can be stated to arise from individual subcritical and supercritical bifurcations. Because of that, such considerations can also be based on the crime being committed that in return has the potential of overriding uniform and lineally stable crime distributions (White et al., 2017). What this implies is the fact that subcritical crime hotspots will depend on police suppression that are permanently recommended.  Because of that, it implies that superficial crime hotspots will have to be based on various mechanisms that aid in eradicating individual spatial patterns.  In this case, it is paramount for the society to take into account some of the mechanisms that are used for the purpose of making a person to fail to observe and understand the effects of crime displacement (Chesney & Pasko, 2004).


            According to the information collected, it means that individual controls are based on the limitations that are used for the purpose of emancipating and educating the public about the perspectives of the community. The reason for that is because such views are based on the manner in which some of them have been deviating from the social realities. The propensity of the law enforcement authorities is based on mapped crime models. The reason for that is because it is the one has the tendency of enabling them to depend of the mechanisms. The same mechanisms together with the policing means being used have been realized to have the likelihood of preventing the occurrences of crime. It is vital for the community to take into consideration some of these mechanisms that are used (World Health Organization, 2018).  The reason for that is because deviating from the normal societal realities is what makes a person to fail observing and understand the effects of crime displacement.

            Nonetheless, it means that it is paramount for the community and each person to understand the fact that crime is one of the ubiquitous features that have the propensity of impacting the dynamics of modern society. The reason for that is because each community will end up being affected by the inequalities that will exist. Some of the crimes that evolve as a result of homicide and residential burglary are the one that are perceived to evolve into crime hotspots. From the same information, it is evident that crime hotspots are the ones that results into real reactions (Deepali, 2012). The calls that are made by the community to seek police services are the ones that are perceived to have the likelihood of displacing the occurrence of adjacent crimes. Furthermore, the gains that the community and individuals do receive are based on quantitative understandings that are gained from the mechanisms being used. Such mechanisms have been noted to drive the general emergence of dissipation, spread, and the prevention of crimes.

            With regard to that, reaction-diffuse models that are being used by the police policing activities are the ones that have been realized to offer a useful and effective framework for investigating the evolution of various crime patterns. The same scenario is the one that affects the alternative policing mechanisms or strategies that effects the manner in which crime hotspot is being perceived. What this implies is the fact that activators (motive offenders) will have to be used as the general basis for understanding the behavioral routines of each person (Kruttschnitt & Gartner, 2005). With the absence of the security measures being implemented, the inhibitor will be liable for providing detailed information for targeted individuals. The presence of law enforcement officials is perceived to have the potential of deterring the occurrences of hotspot crimes. The establishment of stationary crime hotspot is something that depends on local or social diffusion of risks. Such risks are also based on the mobility of the society (Chesney & Pasko, 2004). Feminist criminologists tip to the fact that they have paid particular attentions to the issues of male to women aggression.

            From the perspectives of women of understanding the significance of improving their health, it can be argued that their psychosocial responses are the one that makes them to encounter stigmatization. As a result of that, such changes are the ones have been realized to make them experience various behavioral changes. While in prison, research indicates that is such discriminations that make them to have various negative outcomes. Because of the discriminations, the society makes them to feel that he or she has various social alienations (World Health Organization, 2018). What this implies is the fact that criminal offenders are the ones have been perceived to have the propensity of improving the welfare of the community (Deepali, 2012).  What this implies is the fact that the differentness that exists will have to be based on the parameters being use the differences that exists within the community as are some off the paymasters that have been realized to induce in the process of improving the wellbeing of each person. 


            Some of the crime that evolves as a result of homicide and suburban burglary are the one that are perceived to evolve into crime hotspots. From the same data being collected, it is evident that crime hotspots are the ones that results into real reactions. What this means is the fact that activators (motivation offenders) will have to be used as the universal basis for understanding the behavioral routines of each person. With the absence of the policing security measures being implemented and enforced, the inhibitors will be liable for providing detailed information for targeted individuals. Some of the crimes that develop as a result of homicide and housing theft are the one that are apparent to evolve into crime hotspots. From the same information, it is evident that crime hotspots are the ones that results into real reactions.

            As a result of that, such changes are the ones have been realized to make them experience various behavioral changes. With the absence of the security measures being implemented, the inhibitor will be liable for providing detailed data for targeted female individuals who could be incarnated. The presence of law enforcement management authorities is perceived to have the potential of deterring the occurrences of hotspot crimes. The establishment of motionless crime hotspot is something that depends on local or social diffusion of risks. Such risks are also based on the mobility of the society. From the same data being collected, it is obvious that crime hotspots are the ones that results into real reactions.

            With regard to that, the use of the reaction-diffuse models are being used by the police policing activities are the ones that have been realized to offer a useful and effective constructions for investigating and determining the evolution of crime patterns patterning the perspectives of the females in prison. On the other hand, the same situation is the one that impacts the women unconventional policing mechanisms or strategies that effects the manner in which crime hotspot is being perceived. This is to imply that activators particularly females who have been jailed or considered as (motivation offenders) will have to be used as the general basis for perceptive and the behavioral customs of each person.

            In a nutshell, feminist perceptive share same concerns as gender inequality proponents. Pointing to the issue that male manipulation leads to crime committed disproportionately by the male gender. Feminist criminologists point to the fact that they have paid special attention to the issue of male to women violence. This explains the violence to women and the oppression as well as the gender norms that contribute to the masculine feminine behavior. A concept to the maleness of crime is hegemonic masculinity. The ideas, values, representations, and practices that relate to male are commonly accepted due to males being dominant in the society at a particular point in history.

            In modern societies, hegemonic masculinity shows through paid employment.  What this implies is the fact that the mathematical approaches used are the ones that have the propensity of understanding individual reactions to what is stipulated by crime hotspots. As a result of that, the empirical evidences provided suggests that there are various strategies that offenders uses for the purpose of mixing with the victims of violence. The presence of law enforcement management establishment is the one that is perceived to have the prospective of deterring the occurrences of hotspot crimes. Because of that, such alienation changes are the ones have been understand to make females who have been incinerated experience various behavioral changes.

            According to the information being collected, it means that the crimes that evolve as a result of homicide and residential burglary are the one that are perceived to evolve into crime hotspots. From the same information, it is evident that crime hotspots are the ones that results into real reactions. Feminist criminologists point to the fact that they have paid special attention to the issue of male to women violence. This explains the violent behavior to women and the oppression as well as the sexual characteristics norms that contribute to the male feminine performance.  The perception to the masculinity of crime is hegemonic and based on individual masculinity. The thoughts, standards, representations, and practices that relate to gentleman are commonly conventional due to males being governing in the societal perspectives that happen within the community.










Chesney-Lind, M., & Pasko, L. (2004). The female offender: Girls, women, and crime. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications.

Deepali, M. P. M. A. S. (2012). Contagion of Violence: Workshop Summary. Place of publication not identified: publisher not identified. [Place of publication not identified] : [publisher not identified]

Kruttschnitt, C., & Gartner, R. (2005). Marking time in the Golden State: Women's imprisonment in California. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Mary, S & Antonia, Q (20140. Women As Offenders, Women As Victims: The Role of Corrections in Supporting Women with Histories of Sexual Abuse. New South Wales Government - Corrective Services NSW

Russell, B. L. (n.d.). Perceptions of female offenders [electronic resource] : how stereotypes and social norms affect criminal justice responses. Springer.

Tibbetts, S. G., & Hemmens, C. (2010). Criminological theory: A text/reader. Los Angeles: SAGE.

White, J., Sinha, E., National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (U.S.)., National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (U.S.)., & Workshop on Improving Collection of Indicators of Criminal Justice System Involvement in Population Health Data Programs. (2017). Improving collection of indicators of criminal justice system involvement in population health data programs: Proceedings of a workshop.

World Health Organization. (2018). INSPIRE handbook: Action for implementing the seven strategies for ending violence against children. Geneva: World Health Organization.





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Eugenics is the certainty in the prospect of enlightening human species abilities especially through dispiriting production by people having genetic flaws, or acknowledged to have unattractive characters which is denoted as negative eugenics (Chappell, 2019). Through eugenics, people with appropriate inheritable personalities which is known as positive eugenics have been encouraged to reproduce. The main idea of eugenics is to do away with those who are deemed as being less important in the society, in order to only remain with the important. On the other hand, eugenics has been viewed as encouraging racism, owing to the fact that its main agenda is to eliminate inferior races hence remaining with superior races. Likewise, the US prison had initially adopted eugenics in its prison systems, in order to reduce breeding among criminals. For that reason, this paper addresses ways through which eugenics ideas have been adopted in the criminal systems in the twenty first century.

In 1907, eugenics was used as a means of controlling crime in the US, whereby criminals would be sterilised as a means of discontinuing their generation. This law was adopted in order to control increased crime rates in urban areas of the US (Cohen, 2016). Criminals would be sterilised, since they were less significant in the society, in order to reduce the reproduction of criminals in the country. Nonetheless, in 1942 the sterilization was illegitimized in the US, bringing to an end the use of sterilization as a means of controlling the society (Cohen, 2016). In as much as the law against forced sterilization was IL legitimized, in the twenty first century, prisoners are still being sterilized in against the rule of law.

In a recent study in the US 148 female prisoners in California received tubal proceedings without their approval in 2013 (Chappell, 2019). Similarly, a judge in Tennessee offered prisoners a reduction of their sentence by 30 days on the condition that they underwent an everlasting birth control process. Men would be allowed to undergo vasectomies, whereas women would undergo Nexplanon which is an implant for a 4 year birth control. This was however according to the will of the prisoners, but it is also a means of forcing prisoners into sterilization. This is so because most prisoners would opt for a reduction of their sentences, for sterilization. Correspondingly, in 2009, the court legalized sterilization throughout the US which included a mother at the age of 21 years whose tubes were tied as part of her trial for marijuana possession (Chappell, 2019). In addition, a man allegedly opted for vasectomy for a reduced child endangerment sentence in the year 2014. 

The courts have consequently been on the forefront for issuing sterilization as means of reduced sentences for criminals. This is basically a new form of eugenics in practice, even though the victim is not coerced into undergoing sterilization (Bashford & Levine, 2010). Most inmates in the US have therefore undergone sterilization without their knowledge, whereby mothers who give birth to physically challenged children are sterilized in the hospital and the matter remains a secret. Moreover, in California, women inmates who had initially served prison terms, were targeted for sterilization since they were deemed as being a threat to the state security. Henceforth, it was necessary for them to be sterilized in order to control their reproduction thus cubing the spread of criminal activities within the society.


Chappell, B. (2019). California's Prison Sterilizations Reportedly Echo Eugenics Era:

The Two-Way. npr. Retrieved from:

Cohen, A. (2016). Imbeciles: The Supreme Court, American eugenics, and the sterilization of Carrie Buck.

Bashford, A., & In Levine, P. (2010). The history of eugenics. Oxford [etc.: Oxford University Press.





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The crime, the victim, and the job role


The law enforcement officers play a critical role in interacting with victims and ensuring that they receive the appropriate services and assistance such as counseling. Therefore, the law enforcement officers act as the first responders in helping the victims gain a sense of security, satisfaction, wellbeing, and the necessary information.  It is also important to note that victims also play a crucial role in providing details about the crime. Note that they act as the first witnesses and therefore they must cooperate with the law informant to conduct the investigation, and gather evidence. The victim and the professional roles are not the only factors that are considered when addressing crime but it is also important to consider how the crime affects the victim, the family, and society. The effects evaluation help implement the appropriate policies such as social response, education assistance, among other policies to support the victim. Crime contributes to serious consequences that affect the victim as well the society.  Law enforcement and the victim play a significant role in addressing the consequences through victim support services. The latter is achieved through coordination between the victims of crime and law enforcement agencies.

 How a professional comes into contact and interacts with a specific type of victim

The first point to understand is that interaction between the professional and the victim begins when an incident is reported to the police. At this point, the victim feels helpless and traumatized, and therefore the law informant professionals play a crucial role at this stage in promoting victim satisfaction. Holder et al. (2010) assert that the professional, who is the first responder should interact with the victim by giving self-introduction, that is; state your name as well as roles and duties. Secondly, the law enforcement officer should use an empathetic tone and show concern. For example, the officer can show concern by saying "I'm here now", should also maintain eye contact, and use body language.  A professional also interacts with the victim by asking the victim to explain what has happened or rather by conducting an interview (Holder, 2010).  Next, the professional may contact a family member, a counselor, or any person who would play a crucial role in helping the victim.  Another way a professional interacts with the victim is by giving him or her a pamphlet which will help the victim understand the 'victims' right', contact information, support groups, toll-free hotlines, and other services.

 Healy (2019) affirms that the first stage of creating interaction with the victim is very useful as it increases victim satisfaction. This type of interaction or victim satisfaction ensures an effective criminal justice process. Studies reported that victims who experience fair and legitimate police procedures increase cooperation and trust. They also show a willingness to continue with further criminal justice procedures, and also to obey the law. This indicates that the initial contact and interaction is very important as the police can help the victims recover.   Healy (2019) says that for the victims to achieve a higher level of satisfaction, and willingness to cooperate, the law enforcement professionals must implement the best practices. It is important to note that victim satisfaction is significant but the process to promote satisfaction is the most significant. This indicates that police treatment or how the police interact with the victim is essential. Therefore, police should not only focus on the outcomes but they should first consider the quality of interaction. As stated above, the law informant professionals should ensure high-quality interaction through high-quality communication and referral to victim support services.


Theories to explain the role of the victims

 Victimization Precipitation Theory

 The theory states that the victims may initiate a crime or attract violence through his or her provocative actions. Criminal violence may occur as a result of active behaviors such as the use of threatening language, insult, or physical violence (Siegel, 2011).  The later encourages the attacker and leads to the crime.  Secondly, criminal violence may occur due to passive behaviors. This means that a victim may unknowingly threaten the attacker.  For example, a woman invites rape by dressing sexy clothes.  The attacker may believe that the victim is seducing men and the behavior of the woman leads to the criminal episode.

  Lifestyle theories

 The lifestyle theories state that crime is triggered by the victim's lifestyle. For example, some people are high-risk victims. These are individuals who abuse drugs, drink alcohol,   and others are runways, and homeless (Siegel, 2011).  Most of the time, these people are found on the streets where they are vulnerable to fights and assaults. They are exposed to all kinds of violence that increase victimization. Another form of lifestyle that increases victimization is the college lifestyle.  Note that college students are vulnerable to victimization due to their behaviors such as drinking, sexual behaviors, dance, substance abuse, among other behaviors that increases the victimization (Siegel, 2011).  Other individuals are involved in a criminal lifestyle. This is a type of lifestyle where young people become members of gangs.   Note that such individuals carry weapons, engage in fights, and other activities that cause serials injuries.



 Deviant place theory

            The theory states that individuals become victims by visiting dangerous places.  For example, people who live in high-crime areas will experience criminal offenders. The offenders like to dwell in densely populated areas because they find it easy to target vehicles, smartphones, car keys, household items, among other things (Siegel, 2011). Thus, people who live in these areas become victims irrespective of their way of life.

  Routine activities theory

 An individual may become a victim simply because the offender can easily access properties such as homes (Siegel, 2011). The offender is influenced by the lack of security from police or homeowners, and offenders engage in crime due to motivation from peer groups.  These three variables will increase victimization.

 Personal consequences of the crime on the victim and family.

 Crime is a threat to the victim, the family, and society. First, the victim and the family face enormous consequences in that the victim may die, and the family is left grieving and struggling with the financial burden (Utech, 1994).  Secondly, a victim may be injured and he or she struggles with personal expenses including medical expenses, physical therapy, loss of property, mental health counseling, and more.  The National Crime Survey reports that the victim and the family incur a cost of more than $13 billion (Utech, 1994). This is a result of property damage, cash losses, and other expenses.  It is also estimated that victims encounter economic loss in that some do not attend work and others spend money on medical issues. Note that the victim and the family also suffer from social and psychological consequences. They experience higher levels of fears, they lose trust in society, they become guilty of being victimized, and they suffer from depression as a result of anxiety, sleeplessness, fear, shame, and anger.

Effect of crime on society

 Crime has an enormous effect on the society and its members.  Crime not only affects the victim and the family but the society feels that the safety is threatened.  When a crime occurs, society becomes vulnerable to violations as a result of a lack of safety (Weisburd et al. 2018).  Top of FormCrime does not only reduce safety but it causes disruptions of social orders.  It means that when people engage in a violent act, they have gone against the social rules and this may contribute to more chaos.  As a result of safety reduction and lack of social order, community members' increases mistrust toward the community leadership and law enforcement. People no longer collaborate in maintaining safety as they start a blame game to each other. The community faces pressure from the law enforcement for anti-social behavior whereas the police are blamed for the failure to address the anti-social behaviors (Weisburd et al. 2018). In trying to address the crime issues, the society experience economic costs, and financial burden.

Response to victimization

 Social policies that impact the victim

According to the national victim survey, victims suffer from post-traumatic stress syndrome, financial burden, and physical hardship (Siegel, 2011). Therefore, the law enforcement agencies and the human service system should coordinate in helping the victim. The following are the policies that are relevant to the victim;

  • Victims' compensation-The purpose of the victim compensation program is to pay for damages, medical bills, counseling, burial expenses, and other services (Siegel, 2011).
  • Victim Advocates -The purpose of the victim advocate policy is to connect the victim with an advocate who will guide through the court procedures.
  • Public Education- The purpose of public education is to help the victim understand the available service and primary prevention programs.
  • Crisis intervention - The purpose of crisis intervention is to connect the victim with local networks and social service agencies to gain long-term assistance such as shelter, food, and clothing (Siegel, 2011).  Some victims suffer from depression due to isolation, fear, and anger, the crisis intervention program, connects the victims with community organizations where they receive care and support.
  • Victim-offender reconciliation programs -The purpose of the reconciliation program is to connect the victim and offender with the mediator where they hold direct negotiation and achieve reunion (Siegel, 2011).



   In most crimes, law enforcement agencies play a curial role in connecting the victim to the criminal justice system. However,  for further legal processes to be effective, the law enforcement professional need to adhere to the core values and positively treat the victims to build trust, confidence, improve collaboration, and satisfaction.  Necessary skills such as effective communication, empathy, integrity, and confidentiality are needed to create a strong interaction.  It is important to note that in addressing crime, it is important to consider the factors that might have contributed to the victimization to help the victims minimize the victimization or rather change their behaviors.  The paper also finds that crime contributes to personal and social effects. For example, the victim feels angry and develops a problem such as depression.  The society develops a fear of insecurity, failure of the police to control anti-social behaviors, among other effects. However, as law enforcement concentrates on maintaining order in the community, it is also important to remember those affected by the crime and implement the appropriate intervention programs to help them cope with the situation.

















Holder H. Erick, Jr (2010). First Response to Victims of Crime: A Guidebook for Law

Enforcement Officers. US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office for

Victims of Crime.


Healy, D. (2019). Exploring victims’ interactions with the criminal justice system: A literature

review. Dublin: Department of Justice and Equality.


Siegel, L. J. (2011). Criminology: The core. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth.


Utech, M. R. (1994). Violence, abuse, and neglect: The American home. Dix Hills, N.Y: General



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In Weisburd, D., In Majmundar, M. K., National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and

Medicine (U.S.)., National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (U.S.)., &

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (U.S.).

(2018). Proactive policing: Effects on crime and communities. National

Academies Press

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