Edudorm Facebook

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

atomic bomb。hydrogen bomb and neutron bomb。 talk about the different chemical reaction

23 Words  1 Pages


Definition of Matter and How It Operates

Ancient day scientists such as Leucippus and Democritus are the founders of the definition of the structure of matter. In their discussion, they presented matter as a composition of small, finite particles, called atoms. They argued that atoms were moving particles of varying shapes and sizes and could join together. From this discussion, an atom was defined as the smallest unit of an element that can participate in a chemical change. These elements mentioned in the definition consisted of only one type of atom; the element had a mass characteristic of the element, which is the same for all atoms of that particular element. An element is, therefore, a microscopic sample of a large number of atoms with identical chemical properties. It is important to note that atoms that belong to one element differ in their chemical properties from atoms of all other elements. Also, when atoms of two or more elements are combined in a small, whole-number ratio, they form a compound. During a chemical change, atoms are neither created nor destroyed, but instead, they rearrange to yield substances with different forms. Thus, having this information at hand, it is easier to explain how a water molecule forms and its phases.

The formation of molecules is commonly through the transfer or sharing of electrons among atoms. During this process, some compounds are formed by gaining or losing electrons, which results in the formation of electrically charged ions. However, the water molecule is formed differently. The molecule is a compound formed by the bonding of hydrogen atoms and oxygen atoms. An important note is that the molecule is bonded by a covalent bond, from a weak positive charge and the other side with a weak negative charge. From the periodic table, the hydrogen atom has a single positively charged electron in its outermost electron level, while oxygen has two negatively charged electrons.  During the formation of this compound, there is no loss or gain of the electron, but instead, they share the outermost electrons, producing a molecule that has a tetrahedral shape. The oxygen side attracts the electrons more than the hydrogen side; electrons are then drawn away from the hydrogen atoms. This action leaves each side with a partial charge, a negative charge on the oxygen side, and a positive on the hydrogen, which is attracted to one another. The water molecule forms when two hydrogen atoms bond with one oxygen atom (H2O).

Water as a compound exists in three phases. These phases are solid, liquid, and gaseous forms resulting from temperature change. Water exists as solid or ice at temperatures below 0oC; the covalent bonds are strongest; beyond this temperature, all water is in a liquid state, and above 100oC, water evaporates. The bond between the water molecules is weakest. Based on the above discussion, reasoning between chemistry and reality seems to harmonize and extend conflicting. One of the clearest points is matter; this is because we have tangible items that we interact with daily. But at the same time, mud about the reality of the existence of atoms, which are stated to be so small. More issues arise, this time a question of why the hydrogen atom and oxygen atom bond to form water and not another compound. The issues of electrons getting lost and other gaining is beyond physical understanding; this science of formation seems confusing to a great extent and contrasting the biblical perspective. Religion tells us that God is behind the formation of the universe, including the waters; after creating the earth, he said let there be waters (Carmichael n.p). Using chemistry science to explain the formation of water and other components of the earth, in my opinion, is a way of conflicting with God’s power of creation.

Work Cited

Carmichael, Calum M. The Story of Creation: Its Origin and Its Interpretation in Philo and the Fourth Gospel. Cornell University Press, 2019.



658 Words  2 Pages


Question 1:1. Methods for determining toxicity in anti-cancer cells

  1. a) Chemical and preparation- in this method, reference materials are utilized for evaluation research of the 3T3 NRU (neutral red uptake) essay. During this process, the test materials that are used should be water-soluble. A culture medium is also used to directly prepare suitable dilations. After that, the solutions obtained are tested in at least five concentrations in a range that is individually selected for each use.
  2. b) Cell culture – during this process, Balb/c3T3 cells are carefully prepared and maintained in Dulbecco's modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) that is supplemented with 2 mM Glutamx, 100 mg/mL streptomycin, 100 UI/mL penicillin, and 10% calf serum. RPMI-160 is also used to prepare H460 cells that are supplemented with fetal bovine serum, 2 mM Glutamx, and 100 mg/mL streptomycin. Each of the cells is then cultured in a humid atmosphere containing 5 % carbon IV oxide (CO2) (Joann et al., 2005).
  3. c) NRU (neutral red uptake) essay- during this process, the test is conducted in a modified form. Afterward, Balb/c3T3 cells are then seeded using 96 plates of a density of 5!103 cell/walls. After a duration of 24 hours, the growing cells that to the bottom of the plates are treated using different concentrations that are freshly prepared test compounds. For the substances that are dissolved in DMSO, it is found out such a solution did not have a huge impact on the growth of the cells. The reason for that is because the normal complete medium has a huge influence as compared to the use of 0.2% DMSO. After a duration of 48 hours, the solutions are then removed from the plates before washing them using 200mL PBS or well.
  4. d) MTT essay – in using this method, MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] study is conducted on the cell that are cultured in well or PBS plates. The cells are then seeded using the plates maintained at a 5!103. After a duration of 24 hours, preincubation is performed for all the cells that have attached to the bottom of the plates. In order to influence exponential cell growth, different concentrations are used to treat them. 2% DMSO is also used as the control experiment because it does not influence cell growth.

            The plates are then incubated for at least 4 hours before dissolving the purple formazan crystals that could have been formed in 10 % sodiumdodecylsulfate (SDS) (Joann et al., 2005). Once dissolved, it takes 24 hours incubation at room temperature. After that, the absorbance rate is measured using spectrophotometric microplate reader PowerWaveXS. All the cells tested contain the reagents used except for that in the control wells

1:1. Drugs used and how much to dose to implement

Toxicity- in researching innovative anticancer drugs, there is the use of cytotoxicity tests as the main screening method. These are HTS (high throughput screening) tests that reveal compounds that have high cytotoxic activities. Despite that anticancer medicines are largely manufactured for the purpose of killing cells, clinically such activity is selective to tumor cells. That indicates that it will be logical to carry it out at the initial stage screening. Such a procedure is important because it assists in selecting compounds that are least toxic amongst those that are more active.

            On the other hand, by first determining the dosage for test compounds, there are various chemical and physical factors that will have to be taken into consideration. They include partition coefficient, molecular weight as well as the toxicity of all the related chemicals. Failure to do that, the oral activity cannot make any biological significance to chemical effects. Acute toxicity examinations have the propensity of providing preliminary information regarding the toxic characteristic of materials for which there are no other toxicology data that is available.  The reason that information is paramount is that it aid in the handling of cases such as accidental ingestion of relatively large materials. Possible targeted tissues can also be evaluated by enhancing repetitive dose toxicity analysis. 

Efficacy – The attrition rate of the anticancer medicines subjected to medical testing is unacceptably higher. For the case of MM (multiple myeloma), it postulated that that is as a result of preclinical models that have been realized to overemphasize the general antiproliferative activities of medicines. The same is also as a result of the medical tests that could have been conducted in refractory end-stage patients.  Because of that, it is validated that the use of VK*MYC transgenic mouse is one of the fruitful models for predicting single-agent drug activities in MM (multiple myeloma) (Marta et al., 2012). It has a 57% positive predictive value for medical activity as well as a 86% negative predictive value for medical inactivity.

            There are four successful agents that are prioritized for assessment in medical trials. Ideally, the transplantation of VK*MYC transgenic mouse tumor cells into congenic mice chosen was effective because it responded only to a combination of medicines consisting of end-stage drug-resistant MM (Sheng et al., 2019). Therefore, it is predicated that standardized agents, hypoxia-activated medicines, bromodomain inhibitors, and histone deacetylase will have the potential of demonstrating drug efficacy in treatment.

Bioavailability – the bioavailability is regarded as being the overall result of absorbing, distributing, metabolism, as well as the ADME excretion. Following oral administration, absorption is used to describe the capability of compounds to move and pass into the organized circulation. Distribution is used to describe how efficient compounds pass into the targeted tissues. Metabolism is the rate at which compounds or nutrients are eliminated from the circulation system after absorption (Hana, 2012). Excretion refers to the rate at which compounds are removed from systematic circulation and finally from the body.


Mouse models, studies and transcriptomic profiling

            Chronologically analyzed tumor growth information obtained from syngeneic mouse, CDX, and PDX tumor models are used to assess several efficacy and points as well as to come up with better statistical methods to model MCTs. Ideal, the general development of mouse models entails the selection of freshly dissected patient tumors into systematically measured chunks. These chunks are then engrafted subcutaneously on flanks of immunocompromised mice such as NOG, NOD/SCID, BALC/c, and so on. A caliper is used twice a week to monitor their growth to be in the position of establishing the initial stage of the PDX model. The growth of tumors is then harvested when they have attained a length of about 500-700 mm3. Several engrafted aid in the production of successive passages for the model. For the case of the syngeneic model and CDX model, the cell suspension is usually injected into the immunocompetent mice and immunocompromised mice to stimulate tumor (Sheng et al., 2019). During this time, pharmacological dosing commences when such tumors have attained the required volume.

Category efficacy endpoints in mouse studies

            In this research, for main endpoint models are examined including the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) method, a 3-category, the 4 response mRECIST method, a 5-cat method. Afterward, the RECIST based method classifies drug or medicine responses into a complete response CR, progressive disease (PD), stable disease (SD), and partial response (PR) based on the tumor’s RVT (relative tumor volume). Metastasis is not taken into consideration because it seldom occurs in several subcutaneous implantations. The 3-cat criteria or method is used for the purpose of classifying responses to objective response (OR), progressive disease (PD), and stable disease (SD) based on relative tumor volume (RTV). The mRECIST criteria take into account the general growth kinetics of the tumors 10 days following initiation of treatment. It also assists in classifying responses to PD, PR, SD, and CR using two main RVT parameters mainly the best average response and best response. The 5-cat criteria aid in the classification of responses of the maintained PD, PR, SD, and CR (MCR) based on the RVT ratio (Sheng et al., 2019). In defining CR and MCR, RTV is equal to 0 (zero) to aid in designating the disappearance of the measurable mass of the tumors to replace the principle (TV<0.10 cm3) utilized in Houghton.

Continuous efficacy endpoints in mouse studies

            In this study, 4 continuous endpoints are described. The first one is the PFS (progressive-free survival) which is considered to be the volume of the tumor doubling time that is obtained through linear interpolation of the tumor growth statistics. The next one is the RTV ratio which is an RTV ratio that is obtained between the vehicle group and drug group at a particular time of the day and is equal to RTVt /RTVC. In this case, RTVt refers to the relative tumor volume between a certain day and initiation of treatment day and RTVc is the vehicle group. The third category is the tumor growth inhibition (TGI) which is computed as 1- RTVt /RTVC. The fourth category is the tumor’s growth rate ratio that is the comparison between drug group and vehicle group (Kt/Kc) in which Kt/Kc is the tumor growth rate obtained as a result of modeling their growth data. An AUC endpoint ratio can also be introduced can be introduced to understand how growth rate ratios can be reduced when the tumors are made to develop under exponential kinetics (Sheng et al., 2019). With the AUC endpoints, unique treatment methods are used to compute continuous endpoints using the syngeneic model, CDXs model, and PDXs model for the selected mice.

Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic models – in order to understand the genetic basis of cancer and the molecular pharmacology of newly developed anti-cancer drugs require the use of various approaches that can address some of the primary key issues of medicines or drugs. That will incorporate understanding the development process of drugs, including pharmacodynamic (PD) and pharmacokinetic (PK) relationships.

            As a result of that, the incorporation of the modern predictive premedical (PD/PK) models into a logically designed early-stage medical tests provide an effective means of relieving bottlenecks medical issues. Therefore, such an understanding will also be based on the need of discussing various considerations on how PD and PK evaluation of anticancer medicines will have to be performed and incorporated into global translational efforts (Oingyu & James, 2011). Research will also have to be conducted using PD/PK models to examine drug disposition as well as the dynamics they have to any targeted tissue or tissues.

            Nevertheless, the significance of scrutinizing drug disposition as well as the dynamics they have to the targeted tissues or cells entail supporting the general or continued development of the premedical PD/PK models that can be consequently extrapolated for predicting patient’s pharmacological characteristics. The main physiological based PK/PB models be recognized include hybrid PBPK model, whole-body PBPK model, a two-pore models for examining macromolecules and their clinical applications. More medical data is also required to authenticate the premedical PK-PB/PD tumor based models and therefore encourage a better framework for preclinical translation to medical translation (Oingyu & James, 2011).

            Nonetheless, tests such as the use of GMM (genetically modified mouse) models have also be regarded as being the best approach for mimicking the molecular and pathophysiological characteristics of HCC (Femke et al., 2008). Because of that, it is possible to come up with ground-breaking techniques that can be used for the purpose of measuring the concentration of drugs in cell and related biomarkers for drug responses. These are some of the unique models that assist in the assessment of the effects of chemicals agents such as oncogenes in return; GMMs enhance detailed examination of the carcinogenic pathway (Joann et al., 2005). Such a strategy is important in assessing the dependence and cooperativity in Vivo. 

            From the information collected above, it means that the advantages of conducting essays such as 3T3 NRU (neutral red uptake) essay are what conclude the development of anticancer drugs. Such tests are the ones that have enabled researchers to understand the need for rejecting non-selective genistein derivation and then chose the most suitable structures of additional optimization. Conversely, considering the use of the VK*MYC GEMM model, PD/PK model, and other methods proves them to be successful premedical models that assist in predicting the medical activity of medicines. For instance, in unprocessed and relapsed MM (multiple myeloma), such a strategy is perceived to have the likelihood of providing useful filters (William & Norman, 2012). Such filters are important because they assist in the prioritization of a large percentage of agents for assessment in medical trials.


            The research for new drugs takes into account the use of several sophisticated tests that are perceived to foster the production of more and more innovative drugs. In the process of researching for active substances, multiple chemicals will have to be tested before selecting the most appropriate one. Despite that, it should be understood that there often exist high risk as well as expensive projects that can be analyzed. In the long-run, the selection of the most appropriate preliminary test is perceived to have the potential of enabling researchers to diminish expenses that are linked with preliminary clinical tests. Currently, there are various in vitro examinations that are perceived to be suitable in conducting drug toxicity analysis.








Femke, H, Isabelle, C, & Hans, V.V. (2008). Experimental mouse models for hepatocellular        carcinoma Research. Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Ghent University       Hospital, Ghent, Belgium

Hana, S.S. 2012). Accessing The Bioavailability Of Phytochemicals In Caco-2 Cell Model And    Developing A Sensitive Method For The Detection And Quantification Of These           Compounds. University of Massachusetts Amherst

Joann, P, Krzystof, P, Janusz, S.S, & Aleksander, P.M. (2005). In vitro toxicity evaluation in the development of new anticancer drugs—genistein glycosides. ELSEVIER Press

Marta C,Geoffrey M. M,Victoria M. G,Stephen E. P, Jake S,Marcus L,Keith S, Ricky, W. J &     LeiF, P.B (2012). Drug response in a genetically engineered mouse model of multiple           myeloma ispredictive of clinical efficacy. The American Society of Hematology

Oingyu, Z & James, M.G. (2011). The Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Pipeline:       Translating Anticancer Drug Pharmacology to the Clinic. New York

Sheng, Xiaoqian J, Binchen M & Qi-Xiang L. (2019).The design, analysis and application of       mouse clinical trials in oncology drug development. BMC Press

William Y. K & Norman E. S. (2012). Drug Efficacy Testing in Mice. Springer-Verlag Berlin      Heidelberg



2367 Words  8 Pages


Effects of chloroform



Chloroform is an organic compound with formula CHC13, its IUPAC name is Trichloromethane. It’s a colorless sweet-smelling, dense liquid. Most of it in the environment comes from the industries since in large scale it is produced as a precursor to polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and refrigerants. It can be used an euphoriant, anxiolytic, anesthetic and a sedative. It was the first ever anesthetic to be used in surgery and due to its effects, it is ceased being used for any medical purpose. Due to it anesthetic effect it has aided criminals to perpetrating crimes, they use it to make their victims unconscious. In the body it causes harmful effects to the liver and kidney and the central nervous system. Just like any chemical compound it has chemical and physical characteristics.

 Chloroform molecule has physical and chemical properties and a history of how they it was discovered. It is an organic compound and has a molecular geometry structure similar to that of methane. It’s a hot clear liquid that is intensely sweet, its molecules are inflammable, it is soluble in alcohol but sparingly soluble in water, it is stored in well stoppered bottles and away from light and lastly it boils at 140 Fah (Warren, 1849). The main components found in chloroform are Methane and Chlorine. When preparing it in the lab scientists initially combine Methane and Chlorine to remove Hydrochloric acid, then then combine the new compound with chlorines breaking it down again with the same goal of removing Hydrochloric acid combining the new compound with chlorine is done until there are no traces of Hydrochloric acid left. The final substance is distilled and four different chloromethanes including chloroform (Winch, n.d).

The history of this molecule dates back to 1831, where a pharmacist produced chloroform by making a mixture of chlorinated lime and ethanol, however, he mistook it for another compound. It was not until 1834, when Jean-Baptiste who hailed from France determined the empirical formula of this compound and named it.  In 1847, James Simpson discovered the anesthetic properties of chloroform when he used it to make a patient unconscious during surgery. When the patient inhaled the vapor, it seemed to have a narcotic effect on the central nervous system, this effect was produced relatively quick (History. com Editors, 2010). Despite the medical assistance it brought it was also associated with high risk of death, at one point it resulted to the death of a 15-year-old girl who had inhaled its vapor in 1848, when having an infected toe nail removed. Great care was needed while administering it since excess vapor inhaled paralyzed the lungs resulting to death. Its use as an aesthesia spread quickly such that in 1853, it was administered to Britain’s Queen Victoria during the birth of prince Leopold, her eighth child (History. com Editors, 2010).

Chloroform enters the body through the air we inhale, eating food with small amounts of chloroform, drinking water with amounts of chloroform or injecting it into the body, while in the body it has severe effects to the central nervous system, the liver and the kidney (Snow, & Richardson, 1858).  A severe case that was caused by the use of it appeared in “Paris Medical Gazette” in the beginning of 1849. Chloroform was used twice on a woman who was under going a surgery to remove a tumor that was in her groins, immediately after the surgery was complete the patient started to show alarming signs such as chattering of the teeth, paleness of the face, convulsive movements of the face , complete discoloration of the lips, the flexor muscles in the hand contracted, the patient started gasping for air and showed signs of delirium, this condition lasted for around eights minutes and her medical attendants decided to stimulate her with ammonia vapor (Warren, 1849). The human skin also experiences soreness when it comes in contact with it.

Another fatal case that shows the effects of chloroform in the body occurred in the same year 1849, in the month of march. A 17-year-old girl inhaled chloroform to calm the pain that was radiating from a toothache and this resulted to her death. When a postmortem was done on her body, doctors concluded that her death was causes by inhaling a high dosage of chloroform. Her right lung appeared bright colored and the left one appeared purple. This inhaling of chloroform had made her heart flaccid and emptied all the blood from it and lastly it has caused swelling of her kidney (Warren, 1849). Mostly it is transported to the parts of the body such as the liver and the kidney through blood. Its volatility ensures that the small amounts of it stored in the body fat leaves the body, some of it leave the body through the air we breathe out. Also, while in the body it breaks down metabolites, some of these metabolites attach themselves in the cells of the body, and if they collect in high amounts in the cells, they cause harmful effects. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) declared chloroform is a possible cause of cancer to humans following tests carried out on mice that (Golden, Holm, Robinson, Julkunen & Reese, 1997).

Its anesthetic quality and the fact that it takes a very short time to react has resulted to wide spread use of it by criminals who use it to daze, knockout their victims or even murder them. Criminals sedate their victims with chloroform so as to commit heinous activities such as raping or even robbing them. Many cases of the use of chloroform were presented in court in the 19th century. An example of these cases was the case of Dr Thomas Neill Cream a graduate from the university of McGill college with a thesis in chloroform. He set up his practice in London and a year later one of the bodies of his victims, that he had murdered trying to perform an abortion on using chloroform was found.  Having his reputation ruined in London he left for Chicago, here it is said that he sedated the wife of an Illinois station master using chloroform and she became her second murder victim. He was also responsible for killing four prostitutes but the extent to which chloroform was used in their murder was never found out (Payne, 1998). It is most likely he used chloroform just like in his two previous murders.

Another case was presented in court in 1994, a 59 years old man was on trial on allegations of raping a 17-year girl. The man purchased chloroform which he used to render her unconscious and later transport her to the location where he raped her (Payne, 1998).  Most recently in 2014 David Cooper was charged in court with the murder of his girlfriend, the murder weapon was a tea towel that he has soaked in chloroform. According to Nathan Lents, who is a forensic scientist and a criminal justice professor, for chloroform to knockout someone completely at once the person requires continuous dosing. Criminals who kill their victims using it administer the victims with a higher dosage which in return makes them experience respiratory failure or cardiac arrhythmia (Janos, 2018). Over the years so many people have perished in the hands of criminals who use chloroform on their victims


Chloroform is an organic, sweet smelling, dense liquid whose IUPAC name is Trichloromethane. It is produced in the lab by mixing Methane and Chlorine and adding Chlorine repeatedly until there are no traces of Hydrochloric acid left. It is nonflammable, it is soluble in alcohol but slightly soluble in water. Its history dates back to 1831 but it was not until 1834 that it was named and given an empirical formula. Its anesthetic characteristics were discovered by Simpson who used it to sedate a patient during surgery. Despite the fact that it was proving to be of high importance, it posed many health risks to those who inhaled it since when used in high amounts it would result to death. It enters the body through the air we breathe, food and water that might be having traces of it. In the body it affects the central nervous system, the liver and kidney. It causes severe effects such as delirium, discoloring of the lips and paleness of the face. Chloroform inhaled into the body in large amounts results to death. Criminals have used it to sedate people, due to its sedative nature so that they can be able to perpetrate crimes such as robbery and rape. History presents the case of Doctor Thomas as evidence that it has been used to perpetrate crimes such as rape. Most recently in 2014, David cooper used it to kill his girlfriend. Chloroform is no longer used for medical purpose due to its effects on the body.













Golden, R. J., Holm, S. E., Robinson, D. E., Julkunen, P. H. & Reese, E.A. (1997). Chloroform    Mode of Action: Implication for Cancer Risk Assessment. Retrieved from;   

History. com Editors (April 26, 2010). Ether and Chloroform. Retrieved from:   

Janos, A. (2018). Chloroform: How the ‘Knockout Drug’ Has Been Used to Murder Over the       Last 25 Years. Retrieved from;         anesthetic-but-also-murder

Payne, J. P. (1998). The Criminal Use of Chloroform. Retrieved from;   

Snow, J., & Richardson, B. W. (1858). On chloroform and other anesthetics: Their action and             administration. London: J. Churchill.

Warren, J. C. (1849). Effects of chloroform and of strong chloric ether, as narcotic agents.           Boston: Ticknor.

Winch, Z. (n.d). The Chemistry of Chloroform. Retrieved from;            chemistry-of-chloroform

1614 Words  5 Pages


                                    Catechol Oxidase Experiment


            From the laboratory information collected, it implies that a large percentage of enzymes always possess a defined 3-D structure. Any change which occurs within their structure is the one which causes a considerable change in their activity. Lab research suggests that it is the pH of the entire reaction which has the capacity of modifying the structure of the enzymes hence altering its activity (Wood, 2014).


            5 test tubes

            Control test tube

            pH scale

            Catechol oxidase extracts

            Lead solution



Prepare each reactant with pH values ranging from 2, 4, 6, 7, and 8 respectively.

Then label each of the five test tubes with their pH values

Add ¼ capacity to the test tubes

To each test tube, add 10 drops of the catechol oxidase extracts

Add 10 drops of catechol to each test tube

Carefully, shake each test tube to ensure that the contents have mixed as required

Note the color change of each test tube and record their respective color range using the pH scale.

Continue shaking each test tube and note color change after every 5 minutes for a duration of 20 minutes.


                        A graph showing the enzyme activity in each tube against time





                     6             A         B         C                         D







                                                    5                10                   15                   20


                                                                                    Time (seconds)


                                                A –Test tube A

                                                B- Test tube B

                                                C-Test tube C

                                                D-Test tube D

               Based on the information collected above, we reject the null hypothesis because it does not take into consideration the impacts the pH has on the enzyme’s activity. The pH of such an enzyme is the one which have the capacity of affecting its enzymatic activities. Moreover, we fail to reject the alternative hypothesis because the graph indicates that the pH of the enzyme will have the capacity of affecting its activity. During the experiment, it was noted that the smaller pipette was not efficient in adding the reactants but it did not affect the measurements

              During the experiment, the enzyme was mixed with varying buffer solutions which in return inhibits its activity. At the same time, the buffering solutions are used for the purpose of trying to pH changes in the test tubes. In order to determine how active the enzyme is, it is important to measure the intensity of the color formed when the mixtures are given time to react fully. Using the control tube, it becomes easier to determine the volume of lead which was used to inhibit the enzyme.


The data collected indicates that the pH and the concentration of the catechol oxidase enzyme is the one which affects or increases the intensity of the brown color in the reactants. It should be noted that enzymes have an optimum pH within which they show maximum activity (Sigel et al., 2009). Any slight difference in the pH of an enzyme is the one which also reduces its activity. Basically, Catecheol oxidase has an optimum pH of about 7. The turning of fruits and vegetables browns is due to the effect of Catechol oxidase enzyme. The release of Catechol oxidase is when plant cells have been damaged. It is these damaged cells which react with this enzyme to form benzoquinone.










Sigel, A., Sigel, H., & Sigel, R. K. O. (2009). Metal-carbon bonds in enzymes and cofactors. Cambridge, UK: RSC Publishing.

Wood, E. J. (2014). Practical Biochemistry for Colleges. St. Louis: Elsevier Science.





574 Words  2 Pages



The main purpose of my laboratory experience is to purify benzene acid to a solid.


  • With a spatula, weigh 1.50g of benzene and place it on a weight paper
  • Put benzene in a eureka flask
  • Using a graduated cylinder, measure 20ml of distilled water
  • Put a hot plate in a vent and turn heat to 60 Place eureka flask on plate and pull door down so that you cannot inhale the fumes.
  • Let the flask remain on the hop plate until it dissolves
  • After benzene has dissolved, turn the hot plate off and remove the flask
  • Place the hot flask in a vent and let it cool down and then observe what it looks like
  • Using a spatula, poor benzene in a suction filtration
  • When it’s done filtering, poor it in a watching glass and let it sit there for 2 days
  • Add crystal to the melting point tube and ensure that the crystals are at the bottom of the melting tube
  • Place and leave it in the melting tube until it reaches its melting point


The starting time for the experiment was 11.10a.m

At 11.16a.m crystals started to form

The melting point of the crystals started to approach 1150 C and finally at 1990 C

Basically the experiment took 3 minutes melting the ice



                                                H                     O






(Steven et al., 2016)

Discussion and conclusion

The re-crystallization of benzene does not dissolve at low temperature. It does at high temperature and separates water of crystallization using suction filtration. Pure re-crystallized benzene has a shinny appearance or a white crystal powder.  The melting point of benzene during the experiment was 1190 C. Since the melting point of impure benzene ranges from 1180 C-1200 C; it means that the M.P of benzene during the experiment was of an impure substance. The melting point of pure benzene is 2480 C (William, 2006). Its high melting point is mainly caused by the stronger intermolecular forces of benzene.

Considering the structure of benzene, benzene has a double hydrogen bond between oxygen. Moreover, because of the carbon-carbon bond, it makes it to have a planar structure.  It is the simplest hydrocarbon compound (Steven et al., 2016).



Steven, S. Z, Susan A. Z, & Donald J. D. (2016). Chemistry. Cengage Learning Press

William, A.M. (2006). Organic chemistry: Volume 3 of Elements of Chemistry: Theoretical and Practical, Elements of Chemistry: Theoretical and Practical. J. W. Parker and son



415 Words  1 Pages

Lethal injection chemicals

Lethal injections involves a three-drug formula and typically includes a paralytic , barbiturate and potassium solution and are intended to bring about instant death.   Sodium thiopental, potassium chloride and pancuronium bromide or Pavulon are the three main drugs used in the process of lethal injection. Potassium chloride is the one that causes death in the execution process and is supposed to lead to cardiac arrest and thus the instant death immediately after injection. It causes excruciating pain if it used without anesthesia (Wong, 2006). Pancuronium Bromide works by paralyzing the voluntary muscles throughout the body including the diaphragm and entire lungs. The chemical cause death through asphyxiation, it has no impact on consciousness or pain experience and has to be used together with anesthesia. Sodium thiopental is an anesthetic agent that is normally administered when the execution process through lethal injection is starting and normally renders the person unconscious before injection of the two drugs previously mentioned. When it is administered into the blood stream of condemned inmate, an amount of between 1200- 5000 mg of the chemical would lead to unconsciousness and finally death by stopping the person from breathing. Another chemical used and which cause less pain is pentobarbital that work by depressing the central nervous system and can be used in just a single dose (Wong, 2006).

The initial shot of sodium thiopental makes the person being executed to unconscious to a level that they cannot detect any pain. The chemical amplifies the function of GABA, which is a neurotransmitter whose work is to suppress brain activity, and blocks the functioning of AMPA - excitatory receptor of the brain (Pawlowski, 2015). The injection is supposed to last through the injections of the other chemicals and thereby preventing pain during the death of the person. Saline, which is a neutral substance, is applied for the purpose of pushing these drugs into the blood and therefore have a rapid effect.  For these drugs to work , effective quantities should be in the blood stream constantly in order to prevent a possibility that the person will  regain consciousness and suffering in the process. In absence of sodium thiopental, midazolam hydrochloride chemical has been used in some states, and is mostly applied as a sedative but it is normally combined with opiate if it is to be used in the execution process (Cook, Harris & Lorish,  n.d). The reason is that midazolam does not contain any painkilling or analgesic effect; hence another drug is required for this purpose. Even though it has been used recently, there have been claims of various executions done through this drug made the inmate to show signs of consciousness, gasping and this seemed to indicate that they did not attain the intended unconsciousness state. Where the person is not unconsciousness in the process of administering the electrolytes and muscle paralyser, the burning effect of the chemicals may cause them to experience suffocation (Cook, Harris & Lorish, n.d). 

 Most states in U.S applied the combination of the three drugs in their lethal injections executions until around 2009. In New York State, after the abolishment of death penalty by U.S Supreme Court in 1984, the death penalty was reinstated this time by lethal injection as an execution means. The Court of Appeals again halted capital punishment in 2007 on the basis that it is unconstitutional. In many other states the death penalty as a means of execution using lethal injection is still in use and different states have been using different chemicals (Death Penalty Information Center, n.d). The various executions that have been carried out in different states represents different protocols for lethal injection and some of the drugs used have not been applied before in the execution process  and especially those that have been provided by compounding pharmacies  with less regulations. However, a shortage of these drugs especially sodium thiopental which is the major anesthetic used has complicated capital punishment in many states across United States and this has also lead to changes in protocols for execution in some of them (Death Penalty Information Center,n.d). Pharmaceutical firms have put restrictions on supply of such chemicals citing internal dispproval on their use in lethal injection execution and this has brought about the shortage of the drugs. Foreign companies in Europe have also restricted the supply of the drugs and this shift was informed extensive international campaign driven by opponents of death penalty. The opponents of death penalty have also raised issues with the drugs quality and the possibility that the chemicals may fail to work, subjecting inmates to significant amount of pain which violates the ban on unusual and cruel punishment.

Even though protocols for lethal injection induces least pain, are relatively fast and in line with constitution if they are properly administered, a great risk that the drugs may not be administered appropriately has raised questions. Where the three-drug protocol is used, a possibility that administration of the drugs will be done in the wrong way and needless pain is always present. Untrained staffs that are supposed to undertake the task are more likely to improperly the lethal injection than a medical profession. The possibility of failure rises if a suitable vein cannot be found in a person’s arm (Elliott, 2016).  Law suits have been brought in courts by death-row inmates who have found issues with the possibility that substantial risk of an individual lingering and experiencing painful death is present in the protocol. In light of various botched executions that have been carried out with drugs and drugs sources that are questionable, serious right issues arise from the use of lethal injection. The fact that death-row prisoners have challenged the execution method and its constitutionality highlights these issues (Elliott, 2016).

The high possibility of the inmates suffering excruciating painful deaths raises the issue of prohibitions of cruel and unusual punishment in the Eight Amendment. This is especially true for midazolam, a drug that has been attributed with failure to induce a full unconscious state or consistent unconsciousness. The drug cannot always have anesthetic effect and appears to have a ceiling effect where an increase in the dose will not bring about greater impact. The possibility of inmates waking up while being executed because the drug failed to work, as has happened before, make them to feel extreme and unimaginable pain.  The kind of pain that is experienced by the individual can only be termed as being cruel and unusual method of punishment. Moreover, the use of untrained personnel in many states, having no knowledge on the properties of these chemicals supports the case of potential risks of cruel death that is associated with this particular procedure (Berger, 2008).


Wong, J. R. (2006). Lethal injection protocols: the failure of litigation to stop suffering and the case for legislative reform. Temp. J. Sci. Tech. & Envtl. L., 25, 263.

 Pawlowski, J. (2015). New Vistas in Anesthetics, IV Induction Agents. In Essentials of Pharmacology for Anesthesia, Pain Medicine, and Critical Care (pp. 819-826). Springer New York.

 Cook, A. L., Harris, A. L., & Lorish, L. M,( n.d). LITIGATION STRATEGIES IN OPIOID CASES.

 Death Penalty Information Center,(n.d). U.S. SUPREME COURT REVIEW OF LETHAL-INJECTION CASES. Retrieved from:

Death Penalty Information Center,(n.d).State by State Lethal Injection. Retrieved from:

Berger, E. (2008). Lethal Injection and the Problem of Constitutional Remedies. YALE LAW


 Elliott, C. (2016). 8th Amendment Freedom from Cruel and Unusual Punishment: Lethal Injection Drugs. In The Forum: A Tennessee Student Legal Journal (Vol. 3, No. 1, p. 2).


1272 Words  4 Pages

Art That Delivers Clean Water & Power

The article discusses the various competitions sponsored by Land Art Generator Initiative (LAGI) on site specific designs, with an aim of obtaining ideas that could lead to clean power generations. The 2016 competition involved designers who can come up art installations that can generate water and clean power for Santa Monica city in California.  The setting of the contest made it possible for designers to harness different powers including wind, solar, tidal and wave which could easily be intergraded with city infrastructure (Anthropocene Magazine, 2016).  The winners of the contests included Regatta H20 by Japan’s Christopher Sjobergand Ryo Saito, Cetacea by Keegan Oneal, SeanLink, Caitlin Vanhauer, Colin Poranski from University of Oregon, The Clear Orb by South Koreans Jaesik Lim, Ahyoung Lee, Jaeyeol Kim, and Taegu Lim of Seoul, Cnidaria Halitus by individuals from Callison RTKL and Catching the Wave by Canadians Christina Vannelli, Liz Davidson, and Matthew Madigan of Hamilton in that order (Anthropocene Magazine, 2016).  The Regatta H20 utilizes wind energy, Cetacea harnesses solar, wave and wind energy, Clear Orb utilizes wave and solar energy, Cnidaria Halitus harnesses tidal energy and Catching the Wave uses the wave energy. The aim is to have power plants become central part life by embracing the role of these machines on environment while looking forward to a future where well-planned cities involve designed clean energy technology (Anthropocene Magazine, 2016).

The efforts by LAGI represents a worth course that is necessary in a period where  fresh water is becoming scarce and clean energy is an essential aspect in sustaining the environment.  The design and invention of such technologies is vital in showing how innovation, culture and   improving technology role can   lead to carbon free economies through power generations that improve environment conservation efforts. By working close with relevant cities such organizations can develop solutions for challenges faced through a combination of clean energy and fresh water generation.




Anthropocene Magazine, (2016).Art That Delivers Clean Water & Power. Retrieved from:  







Biomes .Habitat with Humanity


The article discusses the idea of biomes introduced by Frederic Clements, a botanist century ago.  He argued that plants formed communities of organic units rather than responding to the environment individually. He was later to include the animals in this notion where, with the help of Victor Shelford, asserted that animals and vegetation were part of the units. Over the years, ecologists have added environmental factors into this notion (Donovan, 2016). 

However, questions have been raised over this traditional definition of biomes since it leaves out people and cities.  Individuals like Erle Ellis have argued that human influence is being ignored, given that they have been using these aspects raising the case human ecology and all of earth’s ecology has been transformed by human activity.  An important issue is whether cities can be included on to this definition, while evidence is growing that these cities may have environmental processes, animal and plant communities that are similar. Urbanization has altered various systems so that climate and peoples ways of living are becoming similar in cities from different locations.  Similarities between these cities expand to animals and plants where those in urban centers have similar characteristics in times of size and behavior(Donovan, 2016).

An inclusion of plants and animals into communities of organic units is logical given that these organisms do not live independently but normally have a symbiotic relationship which determines their behavior and characteristics.  Animals interact in units so that those with similar characteristics stick associate closely while plants with similar features growth together in an environment. These organisms interact in an environment making it a central part of biomes, since environmental factors affects organisms. Cities fit into biomes definition if humans, animals and plants living there have similarities in behavior or characteristics.


Donovan, T., (2016).Habitat with Humanity. Retrieved from:  


646 Words  2 Pages



Health risk and benefit of Nitrates

The question on the significance of nitrates in the body of human beings is debatable. A nitrate is a radicle with molecular mass of 62.0049g/mol and a molecular formula of NO3- and is essential to the human being as compound chemical structures. Nitrates are found in many foodstuffs consumed by human being on a day-to-day basis (Givens, 2008). The group of elements occurs naturally in fresh vegetables and most instances; it is added to meat as a preservative. Nitrates combine with water in the body to form nitric oxide, which reduces high blood pressure (Hatfield & Follett, 2008). Nonetheless, a high concentration of nitrates is detrimental especially to the infants since it causes methemoglobinemia. Therefore, this paper discusses the benefits as well as the health risk associated with ingestion of nitrates into the human bodies.

Many controversial issues have been surrounding the effectiveness or significance of nitrates in human dietary, some of which are fact less as other are scientific research. Nitrates being highly soluble in water they occur in tissues of plants in solution form as nitric oxide. The compounds of nitrates such as nitric oxide are very useful and are beneficial to the human body since they reduce hypertension (Hatfield & Follett, 2008). However, in high concentrations, the compounds are very toxic and have numerous health risk especially to infants. Therefore, the questions become, should nitrates be eliminated from human beings diet due to the health hazard it beholds? If so, what about the significant benefits of the human life it beholds. The following are some of the health risks that nitrates pose to the life of people.




Health risks

Infant methemoglobinemia

High concentration of nitrates in human dietary is harmful and detrimental; this substance gets into human dietary though the food substances such as vegetables and canned meat, the more intake of canned meat one do the higher concentration of nitrates is being ingested. The high level of nitrates is very toxic to infants (Hatfield & Follett, 2008). The substance makes the infants very vulnerable to a very severe condition called the methemoglobinemia, which is always caused as result of metabolization of triglycerides by the nitrates. The methemoglobinemia is also known as the blue baby syndrome since infants with the condition develop a bluish skin. Over the years, drinking water has been thought to be the primary contributing factor and scientific doubts whether such links exists. After some through research, the methemoglobinemia is considered to be as a result of different factors, such as protein intolerance, diarrheal infection, and heavy metal toxicity, with nitrates just playing an insignificant role.

Low stomach acid

In adults, some adults are susceptible and prone to the low stomach acid to their natural conditions. These kind of people are vulnerable to the effect of nitrates than others because they lack or under produce the methemoglobin reductase enzyme because of inherited mutation. The enzyme is responsible for breaking down the methemoglobin and hence individual who like the enzyme breaks down the substance slower than those who have the enzyme. Continuous intake of nitrates by people with this condition leads to circulation and accumulation of methemoglobin in their bodies resulting low stomach acid. This condition of low stomach acid is linked to many other medical conditions such as gallstones, food allergies, asthma, and hepatitis. Moreover, the individuals are also sensitive and susceptible to the effects of nitrates (Givens, 2008).

Carcinogenic Substance

In meat canning, nitrates are always used as preservatives. Nonetheless, the problems occur only there is the formation of nitrosamines, which only happens when the food is subjected to high heat, cooking. When nitrates are exposed to high temperatures in the presence of Amino acids, the chances are high that the substance will form a compound called nitrosamines. Naturally, there exist many types of nitrosamines, but a majority of them is protein carcinogens (In Motarjemi et al., 2014).

 For instance, processed meat, bacon, and hot dogs contain a high content of sodium nitrate at the same time thy are a source of amino acids meaning protein foods when exposed to high heat creates a perfect condition of the formation of nitrosamines. So, therefore, this kind of scenario arises only if the protein foods are subjected to high cooking temperatures, although vegetable is the primary source of nitrates they cannot form the carcinogenic compound since they are rarely exposed to high temperatures during cooking. Other health risks of nitrates have no proper scientific knowledge and proofs hence remain claims, such as the risk of neural tube effects in women.

Benefits of nitrates

On the other hand, nitrates have many advantages to humans and are very significant in human dietary not only as a source of nutrient but also as a medicine and factor of food production. In a nutritional approach, nitrates are used as fertilizers, color enhancing agents, as well as preservatives in meat processing. Additionally, the compound is also used in the meat industry to provide the cooling effect during meat processing.

Nitrates as medicine

Nitrates and nitrate compounds can also be used as medicines. For instance, nitrates are used in the treatment of angina pectoris. A compound of nitrate called the Nitroglycerine has been used to treat angina pectoris and one of the constituent therapies for CAD, the coronary artery disease (Givens, 2008). Moreover, recent scientific research on animals asserts that dietary nitrates enhance the dilation of coronary arteries as well as protect them from infractions and ischemia. In arterial dilation, nitric oxide is a gas that is responsible or bold circulation in the body.

For the arteries such as the coronary artery receives low pressure from the heart due to their structure and functions hence any small coagulation inside blocks blood from passing through especially cholesterol. The production of nitric oxide dilates the coronary artery and prevents calcification of the arteries or coagulation of blood in the arteries. The above happens when the endothelial nitric oxide synthase accomplishes systematic nitric oxide in the vascular endothelium (In Motarjemi et al., 2014). Nitric oxide with its amino acid precursors is the arginine, which increases plasma nitrite and nitrate and in turn produces NO, nitric oxide. The same is the case with anther amino acid found in watermelon called the Citrulline, which at some instance always prove more importance than arginine.    

Nitrates a fuel to physical performance by athletes

            Many scientific studies reveal that physical performance, especially under high-intensity nitrates can enhance endurance in the exercise process. As a result, many athletes uses bet roots because of their high content of nitrates to serve this purpose. Biologically, it appears that due to the presence of nitrates in the blood increase the efficiency of mitochondria responsible for the production of energy (In Motarjemi et al., 2014). Furthermore, researchers have shown that beetroots, which have a high content of nitrates, have the ability to reduce oxygen cost of exercise by a percentage margin of 5.4 percent and at the same time increase the time exhaustion by 15 percent and improving the printing performance by 4 percent.

Dietary nitrates lower high blood pressure

            Nitrates dissolve in water to form nitric oxide meaning that nitrite loses one oxygen atom and forms nitric oxide, which is a very vital molecule in the human health. Although the nitric oxide is a short-lived gas because of its high volatility, it serves various function in the human body (Bryan, & Loscalzo, 2017). It is a signaling molecule, to begin with; the molecules are used by the body endocrine system to send relaxation signals to the artery muscles cells as they move within the arterial walls. The relaxation of arterial wall will mean that the blood vessels have dilated which eventually makes the blood pressure to go down hence in the process controls hypertension. Essentially, this is how the commonly known drug nitroglycerin works. It merely supplies Nitric oxide to the heart and arterial muscles to dilate the blood vessels and reduce the blood pressure.  

            The gas is not only responsible for reducing blood pressure but can also reverse or prevent angina, and chest pain experience when the heart receives less oxygen as a result of low blood pressure. Therefore, due to these benefits chances are that rich nitrate supplements such as beetroots or their juices can be used to reduce blood pressure over a period of few hours. High blood pressure is one of the prominent and dangerous risk factors for heart disease. Thus this shows the centrality of this gas in the human health (Sparks, 2013).

Personal judgment

            In my personal viewpoint or personal judgment, nitrates and its compound are very hazardous to the life of human being in high level. Furthermore, to the extent that it facilitates the contraction of one of the world leading killer disease called cancer. It also facilitates or accelerates infant mortality rates by causing a condition called Methemoglobinemia or the blue baby syndrome as well as low stomach acid conditions. However, the benefits the substance has to the life of the same human beings outdo its health risks (Hatfield & Follett, 2008).

            Argumentatively, nitrates compounds are very useful the human body to the extent that the body itself manufacture for itself a substantial amount of nitrates. It is understood that, for every kilogram of body weight one carry, the body produce about a milligram of nitrite in return naturally. In addition, the health risk that only occurs in extremes but not naturally (Sparks, 2013). What I mean is these, look at the health problems caused by the nitrates and its compounds all the way from infants to cancer in adults, to low stomach acid only occur in exceptional cases or extremes.

            On the same note, nitrates are essential molecules and compounds in meat processing industries since they are used ad coolants, preservatives, and appealing color addition to meat hence critical. The problem only occurs when the processed meat, which is now a compound of nitrates and amino acid, is subjected to high temperatures to form carcinogenic nitrosamines. Meaning, if the process is controlled and such as high cooking heat is evaded then no problem at all. The same is with naturally occurring nitrates found in vegetable, which rarely gets to such temperatures during the kitchen (Bryan, 2010). 

            Similarly, in the case of the vulnerability again the nitrates compound are very essential for growth, but the problem only occurs when there is an excess of it that causes susceptibility of the infant to acquire the blue baby syndrome. For the case of low stomach acid, it is very special one since it only occurs to a special group of individuals. The condition only affects people, which low content of methemoglobin reductase enzyme, which is a rare case, and the condition only makes them vulnerable but can still be controlled (Bryan, & Loscalzo, 2017). Therefore, since the benefits of nitrates and its compounds surpass its health risks to a human being as shown in this discussion, I uphold its use in human dietary.  


            In conclusion, the issue of the significance of nitrates in human dietary is contentious and debatable. Although the substance is very useful in human life, it poses a threat to the survival of the same human being. Due to the controversial aspect, that this matter beholds many scientific types of research has been undertaken to look into the core of this issue. Clear consensus and agreements have not been made or agreed upon concerning this case but so far, the existing proof points at the centrality of the nitrates and its compound to the life of human beings. The above claim has been proven strongly by the self-synthesis of nitrates by the human body itself to serve in some essential body functions such as the endocrine system. Therefore, nitrites are necessary to the human body, and in case there will need to abandon its use in human dietary then a discovery of a substance that matches of its significance is required.   






Reference list

Bryan, N. S. (2010). Food, nutrition, nitric oxide pathway: Biochemistry and bioactivity. Lancaster, Pa: DEStech Publications, Inc.

Bryan, N. S., & Loscalzo, J. (2017). Nitrite and nitrate human health and disease. Cham: Humana Press.

Givens, D. I. (2008). Health benefits of organic food: Effects of the environment. Cambridge, MA: CABI North American Office.

In Motarjemi, Y., In Moy, G., & In Todd, E. C. D. (2014). Encyclopedia of food safety.    Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press, 2014

Hatfield, J. L., & Follett, R. F. (2008). Nitrogen in the Environment: Sources, Problems, and Management. Amsterdam: Academic Press/Elsevier.

Sparks, D. L. (2013). Advances in Agronomy: Volume 119. Boston: Elsevier/Academic Press.             





2103 Words  7 Pages


Arsenic is an atomic chemical element. Arsenic is an innate component that is found in high levels in the earth crust. It is a natural heavy metal making it a metalloid which is poisonous. It exists in compound form that consists of carbon, sulfur and other elements.  Arsenic is inorganic in form which makes it highly toxic (National Research Council (U.S.), & National Academies Press (U.S.), 2013). Arsenates are highly soluble in water. Its occupational health hazard in the long term results to cancer and skin lesions. Inorganic arsenic has also been linked with developmental effects, diabetes, neurotoxicity and cardiovascular diseases. There has also been chronic arsenic poisoning as a result of being in a constant contact with the contaminated water (National Research Council (U.S.), & National Academies Press (U.S.), 2013).

Employees in Thailand working in oil drilling sites have a high risk of getting contaminated with inorganic arsenic due to the exposure of inhalation, ingestion, and eye contact or dermal. Due to the exposure workers in the oil drilling sites inhale contaminated gas that lead to constriction of their veins and arteries that in return reduce the blood flow that lowers the function of the nerves. The acute exposure to the workers results to lung distress that eventually results to death (National Research Council (U.S.), & National Academies Press (U.S.), 2013). The route of exposure is a natural component of the earth crust. It is widely spread and concentrated on the ground where the oil workers dig dipper in order to extract the oil from the earth crust. The deep penetration is caused by where the oil deposits are found on earth. Toxic gases are emitted from the drilling which the workers inhale slowly contaminating their health system. Despite the precaution taken the industrial activities is a primary cause of exposing the arsenic and the arsenic compound to the air which is hazardous.



National Research Council (U.S.)., & National Academies Press (U.S.),. (2013). Critical aspects of EPA's IRIS assessment of inorganic arsenic: Interim report.

354 Words  1 Pages

Influence of Population Demographics on the Concentration of the Oral Contraceptive, 17a-Ethinylestradiol, in the Denton Wastewater Treatment Effluent


17a-Ethinylestradiol also known as EE2 is an estrogen found in many birth control pills which has increased in the waste treatment plants because of increased human consumption (Brooks et al, 2003). In the recent years the high levels of EE2 have interfered with the normal aquatic ecosystems and have been seen to cause some effects on the aquatic species (Becker, 2001). Most laboratory tests have confirmed that EE2 has some effects on the aquatic species since it ensures that male fish species portray character traits of female fish and interferes with the reproduction composition and functions (Huggett et al, 2003). The levels of EE2 are determined by the number of women using the medication. Most women according to the previous research carried out are seen to use the medication (Legato, 2010) and therefore this increases the level of EE2 and in turn interferes with the normal aquatic conditions. This experiment was carried out to determine the effect of population on the concentration of EE2 and whether the levels of EE2 vary with population. It is predicted that the levels of EE2 will increase with increase in human population especially women population since they will consume the medication since they want to control the already high population.

Liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to measure the amounts of EE2 present in the Denton waste water treatment plant (Nelson et al, 2004). 500ml samples were corrected from the plant where d3 17β-estradiol was used to measure the amounts of EE2 present in the collected samples. 250ml of ethyl acetate was used to extract the samples twice. The samples were them put together and dried together using nitrogen. This residue was combined with 0.5ml of ethyl acetate and then transferred to 1ml amber glass vials. This mixture was later dried in nitrogen and later resuspended through methanol. This is the methodology followed to determine the concentration of EE2 since it is harmful since it interferes with the natural aquatic ecosystem since it affects the reproduction of the male fish. The results shows that concentration of EE2 is highest during months of October and April since most of the universities are in session. Most of the young female students are seen to use the birth control pills and thus their presence ensures that the EE2 levels rise when the universities are in session compared to when the universities are closed.

The hypothesis is valid since the concentrations of EE2 were high as the population of women increased. The more the women population increases in Denton the more the levels of EE2 since most of the young women in Denton are observed to use the medication. The concentrations of EE2 become high since most young females use the medication and later excrete it in their wastes. With the increased human population it is noted that the levels of EE2 will increase since many women will still use the birth control pills. Denton has a number of universities and it is researched that the more the number of female students, the more the levels of EE2 since the female students will use the birth control pills more. The samples used indicate that the more the human population, the more the levels of EE2 but the results are a bit inaccurate since more samples need to be used in order to come up with accurate conclusions.






Brooks,B.W.,Foran,C.M.,Peterson,B.N.,Weston,J.LaPoint,T.W.,&Huggett,D.B.(2003).Linkages between population demographics and effluent estrogenicity.             BulletinofEnvironmentalContaminationandToxicology71,504--‐51.

Huggett,D.B.,Foran,C.M.Brooks,B.W.,Weston,J.,Peterson,B.N.,Marsh,E.,&Schlenk,D.(2003).In vitro and in vivo comparison of municipal            effluentestrogenicity.ToxicologicalSciences72,77--‐83.

Nelson,R.,Grebe,S.,O’Kane,D.,&Singh,R.(2004).Liquidchromatography--  tandemmassspectrometryassayforsimultaneousmeasurementofestradiolandestroneinhum            anplasma.ClinicalChemistry50,373--‐84.

Legato, M. J. (2010). Principles of gender-specific medicine.

Becker, K. L. (2001). Principles and practice of endocrinology and metabolism. Philadelphia,     Pa. [u.a.: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.


680 Words  2 Pages

Neurochemistry: Neuroendocrine Immune System Modulation & Brain Function

The neuroimmunology knowledge base can be used in the understanding of bidirectional neural-immune interactions, which comprises of complex systems that are normally interacting at many levels. The neuronal and neuroendocrine pathways play a role in controlling of cellular and humoral immune responses.  Recent studies have, however, shown how the immunity is suppressed by neurons in parasympathetic nervous system and which secrete acetylcholine. Cytokines is the primary means through which the central nervous system is influenced by the immune systems as a result of this suppression (Ader, 2007). Molecules of neuro- and immune signal which include the hormones, cytokines or their receptors belong to one big family and this enables a neuro-immune communication that is mutual. The immunoenehancement which comprises of antitumor and antiviral cytotoxic acitivity and which relates to the reward system of the brain provides directions for immune disorders found therapy (Galimberti & Scarpini, 2014).

Inside the brain, the inflammation as common disease mechanism has various benefits in that it drives responses of the brain to dangerous stimuli. This beneficial process may at times go off balance and thus leading to the persistence of neuroinflammatory process. Hence, it has become possible to relate the damage progression in some neurodegenerative diseases to chronic neuroinflammation that has not been controlled. The basis of this association includes pathophysiology and levels of pro-inflamnatory cytokines. The AD is normally driven by the accumulation of intracellular tau protein and the deposition of extracellular beta amyloid compounds that are insoluble (Griffin, 2006). Amyloid forms the main element of senile plaques while tau is an element of neurofibrillary tangles.  The deposition of amyloid is usually specific for AD and is considered to a possible primary. Beta amyloid is toxic to body neurons. In the preparation of brain slice, it leads to a long term potentiation, killing neurons and damaging the synapses. There is also selective neurotoxicity for both the entorhinal cortex (an area that seriously affected by the diseases) and hippocampus and spares the cerebellar neurons (Griffin, 2006).  The damage is made possible by free radicals that arise from the combination of amyloid with zinc, copper and iron ions. A high correlation exists between the severity of neurological dysfunction in the diseases and the soluble amyloid solution. The AD has two major lesions – Alzheimer’s plaques (or senile plaques –SPs) and the nuerofibrillary tangles. The Alzheimer’s plaques are spherical lesions found in cerebral cortex and are of two kinds which are diffuse amyloid plaques and neuritic plaques. The neuritic plagues are diffuse amyloid plaques that contain neuronal processes that are degenerating and with tau paid helical filaments (Griffin, 2006).

 The Alzheimer’s disease has been linked to chronic neuroinflammation. There has been established a strong link between the neurodegeneration and pro-inflammatory cytokines, which has been found in both bench research and clinical data. The cytokines acts as soluble cell communication mediators that are essential in immune regulation and the bidirectional communication between the immune system’s cells and the nervous systems cells (Dunn, 2006). In addition, if cytokines is increased as a result of maternal infection, an alteration may occur on the immune status of a child’s brain leading to the development of abnormal cells subsequent damage of the brain.  It is evident that activation of maternal immune result to a rise of cytokines level in the placenta and the amniotic fluid. The effects of cytokines on the placenta can change the transmission of cells, oxygen, growth factors, nutrient and maternal antibodies and each of these can affect the development of the fetus (Ader, 2007).    

Glioblastoma Multiforme refers to an aggressive type of brain tumor whose cures are very few.  Glioblastoma is the most primary and deadly tumor of the brain which primarily arises from epigenetic and genetic astroglial cells alterations. Activator and signal transducer of transcription 3 which is referred as STAT3 is the primary potent gliomagenesis regulator which is achieved through angiogenesis induction, invasion of tumor and immunosuppression host (Ader, 2007).  In the cells of Glioma the mutations gain leads to STAT3 activation which makes cancer therapy inhibition process to be more attractive. The other potential target is the GBM molecular therapy which works through resistance of treatment as well as an occurrence.  The molecular is from the proteins family which mediates the transcription of nuclear (Ader, 2007). The molecular pathogenesis of glioblastoma involves both the gain and loss of proteins that causes the multiplication and proliferation of tumor cells .A major increase in the protein level in the glioblastoma as compared to other grades of glioma indicates that alterations pattern are likely consist of many cellular pathways and regulatory system of the molecular in tumor cells that are aggressive.  Essentially, glioblastoma is a clinical entity that has anaplastic satrocytoma and astrocytoman and pathologically it may at times arise from an astrocytic tumor that is less anaplastic and may also consist of neoplastic astrocytes. Therefore, it is an astrocytes’ tumor. The World Health Organization classifies bthe glioblstoma as central nervous system tumor that is poorly differentiated and is not referred as part of astrocytic neoplasm. The glioblastoma histological diagnosis is normally made on two secondary features basis but not certain cytological characteristics (Griffin, 2006). The said features are necrosis and vascular proliferation. 

The interactions between cytokines and the nervous system happen in various ways. The cytokines molecules play a significant role in the survival or death of neuronal cell. Moreover, the peripheral cytokines that are released from immune cells due to inflammation can lead to various neuroendocrine responses of the central nervous system. The immune system is, in turn, regulated by the nervous system through various routes that include the neuroendocrine pathways and the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems (Dunn, 2006). Experiments have been done to show the extent to show how cytokines together with their receptors are indicated in the tissues of the nervous systems and how much the tissues resoond to the cytokines. These experiments have involved the immunohistochmeistry to show the cytokine pathways in central nervous system. The pattern of specific cytokines over expression in human brain of infected patients shows that cytokines neurotoxic effect has a role in the neurodegenerative diseases in human. Immunomodulation is aimed at manipulating the immune systems to keep infections under control and immunomodulatory molecules can modify immune systems and include immunomodulators like cytokines (Pirtoli, Gravina & Giordano, 2016). Cytokines can be viewed as immunomodulators. Pharmacogenomics refers to the field of research that is aimed at understanding the way in which genetic factors influences selective therapies choice and affect the reponse to human infections treatment responses. Currently available knowledge on degenerative disorders and which are erratic indicates that in spite of their multifactorial etiopathogenesis, genetics have a major role in causing pathological events. Treatments of such infections involve an interaction between a stimulus that are administered exogenously and various endogenous proteins that form part of disease pathogenesis.  Such an interaction takes place between neutotransmitter and an exogenous molecule that is capable of blocking this interaction (Pirtoli, Gravina & Giordano, 2016).

There is an increasing interest in the trails of non-pharmacological which has been supported by the use of electrophysiological techniques. Various strategies that have been used to study the manner in which brain circuit works include deep simulation of the brain, stimulation of spinal cord and the peripheral nerve which the researchers also use as a form of treatment. Studies have shown that the amount of peripheral immune cells detected in the central nervous systems can result from irradiation and not pathological physiology (Pirtoli, Gravina & Giordano, 2016). Evidence from such studies have indicated that the presence of bidirectional communication between the immune system and the brain. Furthermore, physiological stressors can affect the immune function. As such stress associated with taking care of people with Alzheimer’s disease or even depression has been linked to measures of reduced immune responses. Moreover, information on how brain affects immune responses has been gotten from lesion studies (Galimberti & Scarpini, 2014). In the event of immune responses, certain automatic nuclei show electrical activity that has been altered and varied monoamine metabolism which suggest that a reciprocal communication between the brain and the immune system.  The immune system can communicate with central nervous system through the outflow of endocrine from the nervous system. Cytokines can also transmit some signals to the central nervous system from the immune system.  This communication may indicate an immunoregulatory function on the part of the brain and sensory role on the part of immune system (Galimberti & Scarpini, 2014).  

Molecular pathways result from excessive and abnormal messages that are translated to the endothelial cells which eventually lead to ineffective and chaotic blood flow. This determines the acidosis and hypoxia areas in the tumor. Acidosis and hypoxia belong to the most potential stimuli for the production of pro-angiogenic cytokine which lead to more pathologic loop and thus sustaining the emergence of glioblastomas (Pirtoli, Gravina & Giordano, 2016). A significant result of this environment that is highly pathological is the more resistant and malignant tumor cells which can make them lose apoptotic reaction to hypoxia.  The Alzheimer’s pathways include the amyloid cascade hypothesis that relate to the genes. The AD involves protective variants that can be seen in amyloid gene and has low risk and high risk variants for the condition. The variants have been found in the amloid response pathways. The amyloid hypothesis holds that deposition of beta amyloid initiates the various events that eventually lead to AD (Pirtoli, Gravina & Giordano, 2016). The accumulation of beta amyloid in the brain serves as the main driving force behind the disease’s pathogenesis.  Other pathways include the signal pathways that form crucial part of the intra and inter-cellular signaling. These pathways allow for enable cells to transport, receive and act on various molecular signals. Research has found protein –to- protein networks interactions for the Alzheimer’s disease (Pirtoli, Gravina & Giordano, 2016). This research explored the relationship between the AD and the interaction of proteins by use of these proteins structural analysis.

In normal cells, genomic integrity is maintained by telomeres and chromosomal instability is stimulated by continuous division of cells. In most of the cancer cells, the telomerase sustains the length of telomere.  The length of telomere and the activity of telomerase play significant role in the development of cancer and growth of the tumors. The telomerase serves as the ribonucleoprotein enzyme where it catalyzes the telomeric DNA extension in a eukarytic organism (Jafri, Ansari, Alqahtani & Shay, 2016). The telomerase in human comprises of hTR , hTETY and the dyskerin proteins , NHP2, GAR1 and the NOP10. The activation of telomerase in the cancer cells resulting to recurrent mutations that generate a 11bp nucleotides stretch that is identical and which have a consensus binding pattern. Such a motif serves the role of transcritptional repressors and regulates expression of telomerase (Jafri, Ansari, Alqahtani & Shay, 2016). Recently there have been advances in the determination of the ciliate telomerase and yeast structure though there lacks a clear understanding of the role of telomerase in cancer cells of human.  However, knowledge about the role of telomerase’s alternative lengthening has increased considerably. There are various beliefs on the mutations of hHERT promoter where some believe it to be the driving force behind carcinogenesis while others believe such mutations only allow the sustenance of tumor growth (Jafri, Ansari, Alqahtani & Shay, 2016).   

Developments in pharmacogenomic drugs is capable of advancing the understanding of drug metabolism and interactions, which may lead to drugs that are less dangerous but effective. Producing drugs and delivering them on the basis of efficient and rational application of proteomic and genomics knowledge can be used as a basis of providing a niche that is profitable and involving large amounts of money (Husick, 2012).  Such a production would have to involve the identification of various diseases based on specific regions and engaging in personalized medicine strategy. Personalized medicine involves a therapy which uses a treatment approach that is patient focused.  This approach allows a drug effect that is more specific and which equates to an adverse event profile that is safer (Husick, 2012).

There have been recent advances in understanding the response of immune system in the central nervous system and that cytokines play a role that extend outside immune response. Given that this involves the behavior modulation and changes in development comes with new perspective on the function of the brain, there is a need for further research on the mechanisms of brain diseases and dysfunction.  The future research should also involve the role of cytokines signaling in the alterations of emotions and behavior.


In Galimberti, D., & In Scarpini, E. (2014). Neurodegenerative diseases: Clinical aspects, molecular genetics and biomarkers. 214-221

Ader, R. (2007). Psychoneuroimmunology. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press.422-423

In Pirtoli, L., In Gravina, G. L., & In Giordano, A. (2016). Radiobiology of glioblastoma: Recent advances and related pathobiology.

 Griffin, W. (2006).Inflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Retrieved from:


Dunn,A.(2006).Effects of cytokines and infections on brain neurochemistry. Retrieved from:

Jafri, M., Ansari, S.,Alqahtani,M. and Shay,J.(2016). Roles of telomeres and telomerase in cancer, and advances in telomerase-targeted therapies. Retrieved from:

Husick,L.(2012).Planning for Personalized Medicin.Managing Innovation in the Life Science. Retrieved from:






2228 Words  8 Pages

Beneficial Microbes, Hydrogen Loving Microbes and 2 More

            Gold does exist in two forms i.e. gold-ore deposits and dissolved gold.  Dissolved gold is found in sea water and thermal springs. Despite the fact that gold in all these forms is toxic, some bacteria have been discovered by scientists for example Ralstonia metallidurans to metabolize oxidized gold. These bacteria reduce the gold and they encase themselves in solid gold the moment they are put in a solution containing oxidized gold. Enzymes play various roles in the process of metabolism. These include; Para-amino, Pantothenic and Niacin acid are involved in metabolism of one carbon compound and synthesis of nucleic acid. Purines, pyrimidines are used in transamination synthesis of amino acids. Riboflavin is used in decarboxylation reactions. Organisms require certain amounts of organic chemicals that cannot be synthesized in addition to those providing carbon and energy. These organic chemicals are known as growth factors for instance vitamins are growth factors for certain microorganisms. Growth factors for most microbes include amino acids, pyrimidines, purines, NADH, cholesterol, and heme. In addition to the chemical nutrients, organisms also have physical requirements for growth for example specific temperature conditions, Ph, pressure and osmorality. Temperature plays a significant role in microbial life through its three-dimensional configurations.

            Hydrogen-loving microbes; at Yellowstone National Park, it is believed that microorganisms living in those springs used sulphur as a primary energy source. Researchers have however discovered that most of the microorganisms live off hydrogen. The gene bacterial sequences collected from the springs matched the other gene bacterial sequences known to metabolize hydrogen. These results made sense given the high temperature environment at the springs. The temperature in those springs is over 70°C, this makes it understandable that the microbes in that environment rely on hydrogen but not sulphur.

            Prokaryotic Operons play roles in regulation of genes. They normally consist of a promoter, a series of genes for enzyme coding, structures like protein channel proteins and a regulatory element known as an operator. Vibrio vulnificus infection is caused by a Vibrio vulnificus bacterium that normally lives in salty and warm water. This bacterium can penetrate can penetrate directly into a wound, a cut or a tiny scratch. This bacterium multiplies and emits quorum sensing molecules. As the cells sense a quorum, some of their genes are turned on thriving in the body hence causing the disease.

  1. It is necessary for Vibrio vulnificus to turn on different genes as long as the bacterium finds an open place to penetrate in.
  2. The term turning on means being attacked
  3. The related microbe is unable to infect through the skin because the skin tough and cannot allow it to penetrate into the genes not unless there is a passage.

            Scientists replicate cells’ DNA for many tasks for example gene action, elucidation of cells’ relationship, hereditary disease detection, determination of genetic fingerprints, detection of pathogens, and diagnosis of infectious diseases. These studies use a variety of DNA that are produced in the process known as polymerase chain reaction (PCR).The process of PCR can generate 100 billion DNA in a single afternoon. However the process requires a very high temperature of around 94°C. The temperature of almost boiling water is required so as to break the hydrogen bonds of DNA. But again this temperature can denature most polymerase enzymes of the DNA.

555 Words  2 Pages

Page 1 of 2

Get in Touch

If you have any questions or suggestions, please feel free to inform us and we will gladly take care of it.

Email us at Discounts

Busy loading action
  Working. Please Wait...