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Synopsis of Mini-Case 11.1: Perfecting Patient Care (p. 173; Lee textbook): In this case, Jamie, the nursing home administrator, and Logan, the system’s Chief Operations Office, are under the impression that the management team at the nursing home, in question, needs to focus more attention on improving operational efficiencies and addressing perceived safety concerns by utilizing a Lean production approach. The system vice president of finance, Reilly, expressed concern that utilizing a Lean may actually lower the quality of care provided to the residents due to the cost cutting that will result. In addition, he is concerned that resultant changes in processes will put unnecessary pressure on employees and, finally, that diminished quality of care and unnecessary pressure on employees are inconsistent with the current mission of the organization.
This mini-case does a really nice job illustrating that there isn’t always unanimous support for cutting costs to increase profits. With that said, there is a lot of pressure on organizations to lower their operating costs in order to generate the needed profits to reinvest in the business. Healthcare reforms have increased the number of previously uninsured residents and citizens, which has correspondingly increased the volume of clients utilizing healthcare services. At the same time, reimbursement methodologies are moving away from the fee-for-service model, which is based on volumes, and instead are using a value-based approach, which is focused on the quality of the case provided. In addition, there is a growth in capitation and bundled payment systems—each compelling providers and provider organizations to better manage their expenses. These same healthcare reforms and insurers are adding pressure the healthcare leaders to adopt new models of care delivery that will improve outcomes while better controlling costs. This trend isn’t likely to lessen. Instead, healthcare organizations are going to need to place more emphasis on utilizing health informatics and data analytics to drive financial, operational, clinical, and strategic decision-making. In addition, leaders will need to put more effort on identify and addressing inefficient and ineffective processes, since these will increase costs and lower profits.


Lee, R. H. (2015) Economics for Healthcare Managers Third edition. Chicago, Ill: Health Administration Press.


The student, will assume the role of Jamie, and has been tasked with preparing a position paper that supports his recommendation to utilize a Lean production approach to improve the operational inefficiencies and safety concerns associated with his facility. Realizing that this paper will be read by members of the system’s senior leadership team, including Reilly, and approval will be needed to move forward with the Lean approach (reengineering), Jamie will need to address the concerns expressed by Reilly. It should be assumed that Reilly’s concerns may be shared by other members of the leadership team. Jamie will need to take into consideration how you would respond to the following questions when preparing the position paper:

1. Why is inefficiency common in healthcare? Doesn’t competition force organizations to be efficient?
2. What evidence do we have that process redesign can improve efficiency? Isn’t process redesign just another name for making employees work harder? Is there evidence that employees will accept the redesign?
3. Plenty of evidence indicates that problems with quality of care harm patients, but won’t improving quality cost more? How could better quality not cost more?

In addition, you considering your responses to the above questions, it would be prudent to utilize credible, outside sources to support your position paper to the leadership team.

This analysis should be prepared as a Microsoft™ Word document, and then attached to the unit discussion thread. There is no minimum or maximum in terms of the word count; however, the response should explicitly address all required components of this discussion assignment. The document should be prepared consistent with the APA writing style (6th edition) and reflect higher level cognitive processing (analysis, synthesis, and or evaluation).  

Please Instructions and ensure the questions in the directions are answered.

665 Words  2 Pages

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

Look back at the MBUSA case, and consider that this decision was being made today. How could MBUSA leverage current mobile, cloud computing, and collaboration IS trends for their training plans? Provide specific recommendations for a new training strategy (using these new technology options) and create a new cost-benefit analysis using the same framework for this new project.

Make sure that you use the template I gave you. When you read the template you will be able to find out the Mercedes Business case issue. 

Make sure you include current mobile, cloud computing, and collaboration information system trends for the training plans. It must broke it down to three categories!!!
Please format your business case so that an MBUSA executive could easily interpret it.  Here is an example of how you could layout your document (this is not required, just a possible layout if you are having trouble getting started):

Introduction (paragraph)
Option 1 Framework (see my table in the paper)
Option 1 Benefits (paragraph)
Option 1 Costs and Risks (paragraph)
Option 2 Framework (see my table in the paper)
Option 2 Benefits (paragraph)
Option 2 Costs and Risks (paragraph)
Recommendation and Conclusion (paragraph)

Note: in preparing the business case, you need to identify all relevant elements and arguments but you DO NOT NEED TO INCLUDE FINANCIAL CALCULATIONS. The numbers provided in the case are insufficient for you to be able to do so. However, you should try to make “quantifiable” estimates when possible.

255 Words  1 Pages

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

This project is based on the case study Numeric Investors. Each student is required to submit a written report on the case, which will carry a weight of 5% in the overall grade. This report should answer the following questions. 

Assignment Questions
1. What do you think of Numeric as a firm? How are long-short products of Numeric different from its long-only products? 
2. How useful is Exhibit 3 in understanding the characteristics of the stocks included in the various funds of Numeric? 
3. How does Numeric's investment process work? Understand especially the Pepsico example in the case. What are the assumptions on which Numeric's two models are based? What are the sources of value added? What are the weaknesses? 
4. (optional) How should Numeric think about its capacity to manage money? In particular, what limits should Numeric place on asset growth in its funds?
5. (optional) What advice would you give to Numeric's partners concerning the future direction of the firm?

The report should not exceed 8 pages (excluding any tables or appendices).

185 Words  1 Pages

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Case study is below.  Need to Define Alex’s decision statement. What are the triggers, symptoms and root cause? Using the course material, explain how you arrived at your decision statement.     After a close review of the facts what are the next steps Alex should take in reference to the decision statement and why?  Required Formatting of Short Case Study:  This report should be double spaced, in narrative format, 12-point font, and two pages in length excluding the title page and reference page;  This paper is to be written in the third person.  There should be no words in the paper such as “I. we, you or your;” 
Use APA formatting for in-text citations and reference page.  You are expected to paraphrase and not use quotes. 
Alex was the general manager of Allied Software Corporation’s Tysons Corner, Virginia division office.  His company develops large software systems for the defense department.  Alex has four program managers reporting to him, each with a program worth between $3 and $6 million.  Dave was one of those program managers.  Recently hired, Dave wanted this job to work out well.  Dave’s team was made up of 15 system analysts and programmers working on a one-year program worth about $4 million.  The program had a short turn around time for a program of this magnitude and Dave felt that the deadlines were almost impossible to meet. In fact, he was facing a critical deadline on Monday and it was Friday.  They were already a week late.  Moreover, some of the department computers were down for service and a few of his people didn’t seem familiar enough with the programming skills needed to create this part of the software.  Still he needed this job to work for him so complaining to Alex was out of the question.  Dave knew that some of his subordinates were very disgruntled about being overlooked for the job Dave now held and they may take the opportunity to criticize him.  Nine of the 15 department members were old timers at the job while the remaining programmers were there only two years.  The department was noted for being good and while tensions ran high everyone seemed to work well together in a crunch.  Dave knew he could count on his team to meet deadlines, but did not know why they always had to be in crunch mode to get the group to work together.  He guessed this coming weekend would be one more crunch.  Dave was fairly sure that Alex was not aware of the department dynamics and he wanted to keep it that way least Alex think that he could not handle the job.  He and the department would just make the deadline work by putting in some long weekend hours.
Alex arrived at work one Monday morning at 8:00 a.m.  By 8:01 a.m., every member of the finance department was lined up outside his office complaining that someone had stolen all the computers right off their desks.
Robbery foremost in his mind, Alex searched the departments and by 8:15 a.m. he knew the answer.  No robbery had occurred. The computers were not taken from the building but just had been moved.  All of the computers from the finance department had been found on the desks of Dave’s engineering team.  Alex instructed the financial staff to leave the computers on the engineer’s desks for now, until he could figure out exactly what happened.  The financial staff was understandably ready to tar and feather Dave, but Alex was able to keep everybody calm until Dave came to work.
The first of his team to arrive, Dave came in at 8:30.  Immediately upon his arrival Alex asked to see Dave in his office, alone.  “What the heck happened, Dave?” Alex did not yell it out, but he emphasized the word “What”.
Dave calmly explained that his team had promised the customer that specific work that was overdue would be in the customer’s hands by Monday morning.  The team decided the only way to get it done was to work through the weekend.  By Saturday afternoon they realized they were not going to get it done unless they had more computing power. So they took the computers off the desks of the finance department. They worked through Sunday and late into Sunday night and delivered the product to the customer very late Sunday night for its promised time, Monday morning.  When they left late Sunday evening they were just too tired to put the computers back on the desks of the financial staff.  They just thought they would do it in the morning. Dave assumed that the others would be there at the usual time of 7:45 to return the computers.  He did not think it necessary to leave a note.
Still a little upset but thoughtful, Alex asked, “Why did you need more computing power?”  “We just did not have enough machines up for everyone to use.  The service guy was not due until Tuesday.” Dave replied. “Why didn’t you have the work done before this?” Alex asked. Not looking him in the eye, Dave said, “We hit a few snags on the programming end of things and we just couldn’t get past them. It cost us a week’s time, so being late already we all decided that we would work over the weekend to get the material in on Monday.” “While I appreciate your team meeting the deadline, which was the most important task, Dave, not letting the finance department know that the machines could be found in your offices or leaving a note was not a good decision. They lost a lot of time without computing power today.”  You need to address Joe and his department and explain the debacle.
“My bigger concern here” Alex continued, “is that your department seems to need a crisis to get the work done. This isn’t good. Do you have any ideas?” Anxious to deflect Alex Dave said, “I think you and I should work closer to set more realistic deadlines with the customer.  Also a better service policy would help.”  Alex nodded his head, but was not convinced.  Alex asked Dave if he thought more computers or different software would help.  Dave replied, "It couldn't hurt."  Thinking he dodged a bullet.  Dave left Alex’s office and went straight to the finance department to mend fences. He felt better when he left there and went back to his department.
It appeared that Dave needed help in some way but Alex wasn't sure what was needed. Dave left Alex feeling uncomfortable and he was still unsure if he had gotten enough concrete information to solve his dilemma.
Alex decided to have an informal meeting of Dave’s department and get the rest of the staff's opinions. The meeting seemed to yield the same answers Dave gave. However, Alex's suspicion that there was more information to be gotten was confirmed.  He noticed that everyone kept looking at Dave and each other trying to take Dave's lead and not suggest other ideas.  Also, Dave seemed miffed that the team had to be consulted after he had given Alex his opinions.  Alex left the meeting wondering if he was making more of the last minute crunch time phenomena than was necessary.  Maybe he should take Dave at his word; work on the deadline setting and get him a new service policy

1249 Words  4 Pages


The road to Legal: a case for Cannabis

People’s misconception about marijuana has greatly contributed to the varying opinions the people have regarding its use, effect and impact that it has on the user as well as society in general. Before the drug was made illegal, the majority of Americans refrained from using it as it was associated with minority groups like Mexicans and Negros. During its inception, marijuana was introduced as an artificial Paradise drug that was smoked for pleasure in a community that valued work ethics over entertainment. This combined with the xenophobia that existed in the United States during this time discourage people especially those from the white community from indulging in its use. The misconceptions further discourage people from conducting research that would help to understand the impacts that marijuana has on the user and society and this greatly favored those seeking to abolish its use. Although there have been many attempts to control and even prevent the use of marijuana in any capacity in society its prevalence and different uses have led to the popularization of the drug to a point where its use has been made legal in a significant number of communities not only in the United States but across different countries.

Marijuana and its use faced a lot of criticism from the white community and their influence greatly contributed to the laws and restrictions that sought to control or prohibit its use in society. When the drug started being used by members of the community its use was popular among Mexicans and the Negro community (Abel 201). The White on the other hand chose to refrain from its use as they did not want to be associated with people they considered to be lesser beings especially Mexicans and Negros. The Mexicans were comprised of low-class immigrants who were regarded as crude, uneducated and loud. The Mexicans also lived in dirty shanties, spoke foreign languages, and ate strange food. Despite not being slaves, they were mostly peasants who were stereotyped as thieves and untamed savages by the whites. According to the White then, Mexicans and Negroes were largely to blame for the challenges that existed in America including the devastation that hit the American economy in the 1930s (Abel 202). Their tendency to smoke marijuana was, therefore, looked down upon by the whites and they sought to prevent its use by seeking out laws and policies that would discourage others from indulging in marijuana.

The restrictions and prohibition of marijuana use was therefore the result of the various attempts by the White to disassociate themselves from races that they considered inferior such as the Mexicans. The restrictions on marijuana use occurred unexpectedly when Hamilton Wright, who was then the chief United States delegate to the international conference at The Hague. While at The Hague, Wright included Henry J. Finger who was a California pharmacist as part of his team (Abel 203). When giving his presentation, Finger made a plea that marijuana is considered as a narcotic drug along with opium and further sought to have its use censored on a worldwide scale. His request was however influence by the desire to stop the White from being influence into marijuana use by the Hindoos (Abel 203). The decision to control the use of marijuana was therefore as a result of racial discrimination against other races and the fear that consuming the same drug will make whites the same as people from races that were considered inferior.

Italy further popularized the decision to control the use of marijuana when it stated that its participation in the conference at The Hague was dependent on whether restricting cannabis use was part of the agenda to be discussed (Abel 203). This was even though Italy was one of the major producers of fine hemp fabric in the world. The decision to control and restrict the use of cannabis came as a result of people’s dependence on the drug in the African colonies off Tripolitania and Cyrenaica. More attempts were made by the United States House Ways and Means Committee which tried to have marijuana outlawed domestically. When the call to have marijuana outlawed failed to get national support different state legislatures developed their laws and policies that made possession of marijuana illegal unless prescribed by a physician. The first law to restrict cannabis use to only individuals prescribed by physicians was passed in California followed by different states west of the Mississippi like Utah Wyoming Texas Iowa Nevada Oregon Washington Arkansas and Nebraska (Abel 203). While those seeking to outlaw cannabis had valid reasons the multiple uses of the drug made abolishment difficult especially because of its medicinal purposes.

The reliance on cannabis as a prescription drug helped to develop a better understanding of marijuana as well as its benefits. Marijuana’s ability to help people deal with depression and cure headaches greatly popularized it spread to North America and other Muslim countries. By the early 1830s cannabis products like hashish more widely in use in France and other parts of Europe where the drug was used for medicinal and recreational purposes (Atkins & Clayton 26). Cannabis also became popularly used as a painkiller to a point where Queen Victoria used it to relieve her menstrual cramps. Its continued use led to discussions in the scientific and medical literature where hundreds of articles were published to give more insight on the benefits as well as the effects associated with marijuana. A good example is a paper published by Doctor Reynolds in the British medical journal the lancet describing the therapeutic uses of cannabis (Atkins & Clayton 26). The added attention towards cannabis helped to create more awareness about the drug and discouraged people from using stereotypes and other misconceptions to mislead society about marijuana and the impact it had on the users and society in general.

The growing information about cannabis use, its effect, and its impact helped people and organizations to conduct more research on marijuana use and also criticize beliefs that were influenced by misleading and controversial information concerning its use. A good example is the investigations made by the Indian hemp drug commission. The Indian hemp drugs commission was appointed by the British government to identify whether smoking marijuana had any connections with the occupants of the people held in the lunatic asylums of India. The investigation conducted involved hearing testimonies from multiple witnesses a significant number of which were medical practitioners in over 30 cities to try and identify a connection between insanity and marijuana use (Hall 1). The investigation also sought to identify whether smoking marijuana made people prone to engaging in violent crimes.

From its findings, the commission drew the conclusion that moderate use of marijuana was in no way harmful or injurious to the user. In addition, the study revealed that alcohol was more tempting than marijuana and that moderate use of marijuana did not harm the mind in any way thereby disproving the belief that cannabis use was responsible for the high number of insane patients in the asylum (Hall 1). The Indian hemp drugs commission further recommended that any policies and laws should focus on preventing excessive use of the substance rather than abolishing it. Some of the policies suggested by the commission include taxing cannabis products, initiating a licensing system for those intending to cultivate, limiting the number of locations where the product will be sold, and also lowering the number of products that an individual could possess (Atkins &Clayton 29). The recommendations made by the Indian hemp drugs commission played a major role in the legalization of cannabis in the United States and other countries like Canada and Uruguay.

In the period between 1973 and 1978 marijuana has been legalized or decriminalized in more than 12 States in America making up a third of the nation's population (Dufton 211). The States include Oregon Colorado Ohio Alaska California Minnesota and South Dakota to mention a few. In such areas, people were allowed to possess up to 1 ounce of marijuana and the punishment for being caught smoking in public was usually a civil fine rather than criminal charges. On November 6th, 2012, the state of Colorado and Washington legalized the recreational use of marijuana (Dufton 212). People can now purchase marijuana from state-licensed stores for both medicinal and recreational purposes.

Society has greatly evolved and decisions and a longer influenced by biased information or misconceived ideologies. Policies that seek to control the use of substances are influenced by well-conducted research rather than the preferences of an influential few. Research studies conducted to understand cannabis and its impact have enabled society to come up with policies that seek to protect citizens from excessive use of marijuana without limiting them or excluding the benefits that can be reaped if the drug is used correctly. Although legalizing cannabis use has only taken place in select countries, the changes introduce act as an example for other nations to follow and this will likely results in the legalization and decriminalization of marijuana use across the globe.







Work cited

Abel, Ernest. “Marihuana: The first twelve thousand years” Springer Science and Business           Media LLC. n.d

Dufton, Emily. “Parents, Peers and Pot: The rise of the Drug Culture and the birth of the Parent   movement, 1976-1980” 2013

Hall, Wayne. The Indian Hemp Drugs Commission 1893–1894. Addiction,             2019

Mosher, Clayton J., and Scott Atkins. In the Weeds : Demonization, Legalization, and the            Evolution of U. S. Marijuana Policy, Temple University Press, 2019. ProQuest Ebook   Central,


1596 Words  5 Pages

Apple case study

            In the case for apple, the ethical issue related to exploitation of employees especially in factories located in developing countries. Unfair treatment of employees negatively effects employee performance. Employees perform better when they feel as part of the organization (Meyer, 2019). Unfair treatment sends the message that the company values its interests more than the employees well being and this greatly affects their morale and overall performance.

            Exploitation of employees could disrupt the organizational culture at apple as it relies on innovation on the side of the employees. Apple’s organizational culture is creative innovation where employees are required to be creative and come up with ideas and products that challenge the conventions and bars set by society. Since the ethical issue impacts employee morale and their willingness to put in extra efforts, they are likely to be innovative and the company will find it difficult to innovate its products and thus disrupt the organizational culture.

            To remedy the situation, the company should strive to improve the working environment in all its premises, including those in developing countries. Apple should set up codes of conduct that seek to ensure that the needs of its employees are met and that they work in ideal environments (McGinn, 2018). The company should also enhance transparency as a way to build trust and showcase the changes implemented in an attempt to promote overall employee well being.

            There various ethical and moral belief systems that Apple could use to respond to the issue and they include individual, corporate and professional beliefs. Individual ethics and morals determine people’s behavior and their ability to discern right from wrong (Hare, 2019). Those operating under individual ethics may start to separate their interests from those of the company and thereby only do the bare minimum while at work.

            Corporate ethics relate to the ethics and beliefs upheld by the company. Organizations in different parts of the world may have different policies and opinions regarding the issue (Hare, 2019). Corporate ethics may influence the organization to use a corporate culture that offers equal opportunities to all employees, regardless of their geographic location.

            Professional ethics relate to the responsibility that the management holds as they are responsible for the employee and organizational well being. Managers may therefore strive to create an ideal working environment and issue fair compensation for the work the employees perform (Hare, 2019). Opportunities and rewards should be issued depending on work done rather than labor laws or other factors that have led to the exploitation of employees.

            The most appropriate and applicable belief system is corporate ethics. The company has a responsibility to ensure that all of its employees receive fair compensation and that they work in ideal environments (McGinn, 2018). Apple has the resources to ensure that its employees are not exploited even in regions where laws do not protect effectively employees.

            While personal and professional ethics could help to advocate for equal and fair treatment for all employees, there are a lot of barriers that they would have to overcome before any positive change occurs (McGinn, 2018). Furthermore, any change implemented would have to be approved by the company thus making corporate ethics the most ideal approach to resolve the issue.

Stakeholders should therefore advocate for change in the company’s international culture to ensure that all employees are treated equally and fairly across geographic barriers. Stakeholders can garner support from the government, influential people in society and the general public to advocate for the need for ideal working environments. Stakeholders can also help rebuild the positive image that people associate with Apple thus reduce the damage caused to the company’s image and brand.



















Hare J, (2019) “Religion and Morality” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, retrieved    from,

Meyer P, (2019) “Apple Inc.’s organizational culture and its characteristics (An    analysis)” Panmore Institute, retrieved from,        organizational-culture-features-            implications#:~:text=Apple's%20Organizational%20Culture%20Type%20and,tha t%20challenges%20conventions%20and%20standards.

McGinn, R. E. (2018). The ethical engineer: Contemporary concepts and cases.    Princeton University Press



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Dollar Shave Case Study

The Dollar Shave Club case is an ideal example of how company’s can penetrate a new market and disrupt the processes used by its competitors. When DSC entered the shaving and hair removal market, the major player in the market was Gillette. The company (Gillette) was however struggling to attract new customers especially with the growing competition from new entrants in the market. Despite this however, DSC was able to penetrate the market and disrupt processes and practices that presented shaving as a luxurious and expensive lifestyle (Anderson et al, 2018). The disruption caused raised problems for Gillette as consumers placed more value on the convenience provided by DSC over the lifestyle product presented by Gillette. This in turn shifted demand towards DSC, reducing the demand and market share for Gillette.

            DSC’s uses a subscription service business model where the consumer receives the products and services at their doorstep depending on the nature of subscription made. The company’s value proposition is expressed through the slogan “Shave time, shave money” which guarantees the consumer access to products and services that are timely and cost friendly (Anderson et al, 2018). Gillette on the other hand relies on a Business to Consumer business model and the value proposition is tagged in the phrase “the best a man can get” (Anderson et al, 2018). The two differ in that Gillette presents its products as a luxurious necessity. DSC presents its products as daily necessities that should be accessed with ease.

            DSC’s business model was disruptive in that, it introduced a new approach to reach the target audience and excelled where its competitors had failed. Despite Gillette’s failure to make its products available through ecommerce, DSC was able to rely on subscription services to ensure that consumers could access its shaving products without having to visit vendors, retailers or other physical shops (Anderson et al, 2018). The subscription services employed by the company enabled it to reach consumers and establish repeat buying in the early stage of launching its products, something other organizations had failed to achieve.

            Despite making losses during the launch period, Uniliver was willing to spend one billion dollars to acquire DSC. Despite making loses in the initial phase, DSC’s market entry strategy has introduced a new platform for reaching consumers through subscriptions, ensured repeat purchases as the packages are renewed monthly, and disrupted the business models used by other competitors (Anderson et al, 2018). The company is therefore likely to gain more market share and gain a competitive edge before the competition can adapt to the new processes introduced.

            The Dollar Shave Club is worth one billion dollars because it has penetrated an already dominated market and established a strong brand that is associated with customer value and efficiency. The company has disrupted processes that present shaving products as luxuries and thereby lowered prices for the consumer. The strong brand established and the company’s value proposition will guarantee constant demand for the company’s products and services.

            The company’s worth is further increased by the decision made to diversify its products and further target both men and women. Gillette’s value propositioning suggests that the company mostly targets male consumers. However, DSC has diversified its products and targets female consumers as well. The women targeted by DSC buy products not only for themselves, but also for their spouses and children, thereby increasing demand for DSC products and services.

            Lastly, DSC is worth 1 billion dollars because it has established a functioning infrastructure that allows it to save on cost while ensuring that its products are available to the consumer at the highest level of convenience. The company relies on manufacturers and warehousing to make and store its products while shipping is handled by a third party. The company therefore saves on the cost for manufacturing and delivering the products and storing them before they are purchased. Consumers are required to create an account on DSC website and input information about how often they require the products. Deliveries are then made to the designated location, ensuring efficiency and convenience throughout the shopping experience. The information collected will be helpful to compile data on how to be innovative and when launching new products and thus proving that DSC is worth the money offered by Unilever.

            Gillette can however engage in different strategies in response to DSC’s entry into the market. One of the strategies that the company could use is product diversification to target both men and women. This will ensure Gillette enlarges its market share and has more demand for its products and services. Gillette should however pursue a re-branding strategy that will change its image and value proposition. The new brand should present Gillette products as being affordable and convenient rather than luxurious as is the case with the company’s current image. The disruption caused by DSC has shifted the target audience’s perception of shaving and hair care. In order to recover, Gillette must change its image and brand identity to on that places emphasis on how the company offers value for money.


Anderson J, Quetard K and Tavassoli T, (2018) “Dollar Shave Club: Disrupting the shaving industry” London Business School,

863 Words  3 Pages

CRH Plc Case Study


 This document revolves around a strategic evaluation and business assessment of CRH plc, a construction entity in Ireland. The central role of the corporate-level approach is highly regarded internationally. Less grasped are the operations of this specific approach, predominantly the outward challenge of minimum commercial midpoint producing extensive value addition. These subject matters are investigated in the CRH plc case study. CRH plc is singled out for the study due to its exemplary corporate management history. The second section entails the company’s profile- it one of the leading building material organizations globally. Currently, its operations are in 26 nations.

Case Study Analysis

Application of Porter’s Generic Strategies Model To CRH Plc

 The alignment of Porter's Generic strategy to CRH plc situations brings to attention the extensive performance-oriented methodology used to enhance and contains expenses. Porter's Generic strategies give a company as many options as possible. For instance, if a certain client prefers cheap building materials, then it is up to the CRH plc Company to ensure that it provides cheap yet effective building materials. Therefore, the choice has to lie with the client and the burden of providing quality and optional services has to be the company's duty. These are known as generic strategies. Three various methods determine a generic strategy (Balogun, Hope-Hailey, and Gustafsson, 2015). First of all, generic strategies enable items or services to be offered in various industries. Hence, the services and items have to provide a competitive advantage to sustaining quality performance. Porter termed generic tactics, rely on cost leadership through the generation of specific items and services. Also, the focus is part of the segment which makes up generic strategies. The focus section consists of two more parts- cost focus and differentiation focus. It is vital to take note of the main characteristics of building material industries. The first character is the infectious impact the building material industry has on other parts of the economy. For instance, building materials are not long-lasting but bulky in terms of the space consumed.  Also, the durability of building materials varies from one nation to another or from one locality to another. In developing nations, building materials demand causes an increase in the GDP hence the entire economy expands (Grant, 2015). On the other hand, in developed economies, there is an inverse relationship between the GDP and building material demand. Such characteristics need cost leadership strategies to effectively deal with the long-term impact of building materials and at the same time come to terms with gaining a competitive advantage over other companies in the world. In simpler terms, generic strategies ensure that there is a holistic take on other competitors. For the sake of coming up with a reliable strategy that ensures that most people are in line with the current events that are taking place in the construction industry, cost leadership theories come in handy because they help to designate the weakness and strengths of the entire company. The weakness and strength can then be weighed against the general performance of other companies to come up with more than one way of ensuring unity and full utilization of company assets and utilities.

 There are several ways of combining Porter's strategy with the CRH plc business model. Producing quality items is one of the issues that make CRH Plc Company have a competitive edge over its rivals. The increment of profit margins by minimizing expenses while at the same time charging standard prices has made CRH plc relevant as a company and as a brand. Secondly, growing the market share by charging affordable rates while at the same time making a logical profit margin with each sale is effective enough for staying ahead of the stiff competition (Islami, Mustafa, & Latkovikj, 2020). It is vital to take note of the cyclicality tied to the construction industry increase concrete-related items. These items require rigorous capital savings that are characteristically known to be long-lasting and significant in terms of value addition (Ireland, Hoskisson, and Hitt, 2012). Most of the building materials are active and graphically-reliant items. In most of the developed economies where the infrastructure is intact and well developed, the building is stabilized and relies on RMI reliant. The populace and general public are key in driving the building material industry. Subsequently, in developing economies, and western sections initial economic progression enables more building material output hence leading to more growth within the sector. In the long term, Porter's generic strategies have helped the company developed more options and leveled the pricing. Also, the distribution of more than one logical model enables the company to cover more than one area. This way, the profit margins increase tremendously. Thus, the result is effective logistics which caters to every need of the entire building material company.

Bowman’s Strategy Clock

 Bowman's Strategy Clock is a holistic and simple strategic instrument that enables selections for market positioning. It relies on pricing and the alleged value. According to Bowman’s strategic clock, there are 8 positionings. Each position marks a distinct attainment strategy in the marketplace. Position 1, entails affordable pricing and minimum value addition. Position 1 centers on quantity selling. The items are priced low in terms of value and the charges are minimum. The integration enables position 1 a competitive zone in the Bowman clock. Position 2 entails low pricing. Position 2 strategy facilitates the generation of affordable items within the market niche. The position 2 strategy has minimal margins hence process effective in the standardization of prices. In the position 2 strategy, the manufacturer aims to produce quantity to cover up for low pricing (Johnson, Scholes K and Whittington, 2014). Additionally, in position 3 the company is allowed to combine low pricing and differentiation. This combination ensures that the price is standardized and remains competitive when compared to the perceived price. This position allows value addition to the product. The succession detailed in position 3 or hybrid approach considers the equilibrium between expenses and differentiation while at the same time attempting to maximize each profit margin. Mechanically, is persistently tied to primary material and trade. Position 4 deals with differentiation strategies.  CRH plc focused on differentiation strategy. During a differentiation strategy, the construction company had to focus on differentiating the building products so that they may stand out from the rest of the construction companies due to the value addition associated with the company (Sukma, Lubis, & Utami, 2019). Differentiation has an extensive range, from complete building materials to special diversified materials with distinct characteristics. A differentiation strategy aims to give the company an edge over its competition and assists in coming up with marketing strategies that would make it more visible. More so, this strategy confines the company to a certain market niche among its clientele. For example, some people might prefer decorating designs other than other types of companies. Position 5 entails focused differentiation whereby, the company offers quality items at an expensive price. For this reason, the company can attract only clients from a certain market niche. In this particular case, focused differentiation assisted to influence the mind of the clients. For instance, most clients prefer CRH plc items as compared to other products due to the commercial make that is tailored into the products. Due to the stiff competition and the taxing endeavors to meet the rising demands, quality seems to be declining (Hayes, 2018). Therefore, quality is paramount as long as the items are worth it. Therefore, focus differentiation helps to define the market space and clients. Also, it keeps the rivals out of the CRH plc's market space. Whenever CRH plc meets with new customers, they tend to gravitate towards items that make them different from their competitors. Simply put, the role of focus differentiation forms a competitive advantage where the company differentiates its products so that it can outperform rival companies due to the perceived value in the market.


 Systematically, CRH plc's strategy is sustainable due to the value addition structure which gives the company more options in terms of durable solutions and strategic requirements. Its sustainability is seen in the strategy's ability to persistently upgrade the business operations and finance intrinsic tasks within the entire organization. Secondly, the effectiveness of the strategy is tied to its growth, therefore, there are more chances of capitalizing on financial disciplines and monetization of resources and assets. Supporting and funding value addition is at the core center of this particular strategy which in turn gives the people the chance of meeting up with more market needs and demands if allowed to come to terms with the current condition of the company (Sukma, Lubis, & Utami, 2019). Thirdly, the leadership development aspect of the strategic model is sustainable because it appeals, advances, and invests in long-term performance aligned to creative and entrepreneurial administration. The creation of knowledge and mechanisms will facilitate a streamlined decision-making process which will in turn influence the entire company's performance. More so, the company's strategic management model is aligned with the company's vision.  To attain the vision of becoming the best company in the building industry, the company had to produce an extensive, unified, and multilayered plan that will see to it that they achieve these visions within ten years. Therefore, the sustainability of the model relies on the ability to fulfill both short terms and long-term goals while at the same time managing the performance of the entire company.

 Based on Ansoff’s matrix is applied, it will be for market planning mechanisms within the company. It can isolate, and assists the company makes inform decisions on the marketing operations within certain niches. Due to the extensive nature of the Ansoff matrix, it can serve as a communication between two or more areas especially among existing market spaces (Tukdeo, 2016). Due to CRH plc's global presence, the Ansoff matrix will assist in the extension of market penetration in these areas. This can only take place due to the existence of CRH plc's products in most parts of the entire world. Apart, from market development, the Ansoff matrix would put in place the framework needed to market develop building material. Market development is applicable when the company wants to venture its business into new market spaces with other existing items. There are numerous ways one can go about market development in the construction industry.  For instance, CRH plc has to keep on expanding to new market segments where the construction material will not compete or the competition will favor the parent company. Additionally, the third aspect of the Ansoff matrix entails diversification strategies. In the context of Ansoff, diversification only takes place when the entire item or service being offered is completely new (Grant, 2015). There are numerous ways through which CRH plc can produce more items and services in their current market. Depending on the market niche and the consumer needs, the company can generate a new relevant item that would add diversity to its portfolio. Through their strategic management, the company was able to come up with a formatted long-term organization and execution of the company's immediate objectives. The definition of marketing strategies is vital because it assists the entire company to survive and even thrive in the process due to the steady pace with which the company aligns itself to the dynamic competitive surrounding.  Therefore, all company departments are easily managed due to the streamlined managerial aspects of the strategy.  Due to this, CRH plc has come to be known as one of the most effective companies when it comes to the management of more than one aspect of the company through cost-effective and focused differentiation. Non-integrative organization and execution and only factoring the deliverable which can be confirmed within a certain time frame. More so, in the building industrial sector, most of the efforts go toward the managerial aspect of the entire projects rather than strategize supervision.


CRH plc assumes a corporate strategy that permits the integration of other managerial strategies. To take full advantage of local markets, personal obligation delegated to expert operational administrators for maximum performance. This creates an atmosphere of the corporation and focuses on the immediate goals of the entire company. Through Porter Generic strategy CRH plc can incorporate competitive advantages strategies into its overall strategic management framework. This is done through cost leadership and differentiation hence leading to an affordable price and high-quality products. The significance of generic strategy in the building material industry is the focus it places on the expansion of choice and narrowing the competition scope by giving the company an added advantages. Bowman’s strategy clock gives the company more than three strategic market positioning in which they can have more than one option for their market share and pricing due to the perceived value. Bowman's strategy clock positions building material products based on two aspects- pricing and perceived value.  Due to the relation between the market surrounding and unpredictability in the construction industry, it is prudent to focus differentiate the products so that the external factors are regulated and standardized based on the business development norms. The existence a distinct area of operation gives the company an advantage of coming up with more ways of exploring the market needs and consumer demands. The consistent patterns of construction in regional areas have always attracted a high demand in most parts of the world. For instance, most of the developing nations have to come to terms with a higher demand for building materials than developed economies which only have a stable supply and demand for building materials.




Balogun J, Hope-Hailey, V and Gustafsson S (2015) Exploring Strategic Change, Ed4, Prentice Hal

Grant R (2015), Contemporary Strategy Analysis: concepts, techniques, applications Ed .Wiley

Hayes, J. (2018) The Theory and Practice of Change Management, Ed5, Palgrave Macmillan

Ireland, R., Hoskisson, R, and Hitt, M. (2012) The Management of Strategy: Concepts and Cases, 10th Ed.

Islami, X., Mustafa, N., & Latkovikj, M. T. (2020). Linking Porter’s generic strategies to firm performance. Future Business Journal, 6(1), 1-15.

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Lynch, R (2018) Strategic Management, 8th Edition, Pearson.

Sukma, D., Lubis, P. H., & Utami, S. (2019). Analysis of Marketing Strategy of Minyeuk Pret Using STP, Ansoff Matrix, and Marketing Mix.

Tukdeo, R. (2016). Strategic analysis & recommendation.

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 Case Study About Nutrition


Analysis of the Celine’s Case Study

Celine is outgoing, and most of the foods she eats are from local eating spots. The only food which she eats at home is breakfast. Her breakfast consists of toasted bagel, cream cheese, and jam. Therefore, in the morning hours, she fails to consume a balanced diet. Also, her other foods are made up of junk food. For instance, she eats a hotdog each day from a stand. Instead of supplementing natural food with processing foods, she opts to consume more processed food than natural goods. For example, fried chicken wings and lasagna are some of the food served at her dinner table. It healthy to consume water after every meal; however, the Celine would rather consume wine than water after every meal. Lack of a balanced meal and the overconsumption of meat on a regular basis and friend food are no healthy for a woman aged 35 years old and above. The nutrition of a 35 years old woman should be made of carbohydrates and proteins instead of junk food, which consists of unsubstantiated nutrients.

 Celine's sickness is manifested through the consistent consumption of junk food. Eating poorly normally weakens the immune systems hence giving ways to diseases and sickens to attack the body. For instance, at breakfast, Celine takes toasted bagel, cream cheese, and jam hence indicating that she consumes plenty of fat in her systems. Her routine does not allow her to burn enough calories (Kothari, 2020). Her dinner is made up of heavy meals such as lasagna. Her meals are not close to each other hence denying her the space she needs to digest most of the food staff she has eaten during the day. This is one of the indications of an impending danger because she consumes without the need of giving her digestive system time to expel the waste generated during the day time functionally. Consuming plenty of food which is poor in terms of quality might lead to abdominal pain due to the intensive imbalance in terms of the acidity and basicity of the foods taken (Djordjevic, 2018). Considering the amount of food consumed during the daytime, Cline suffering from heartburn, nausea and abdominal pain. As one would have expected, Celine the impact of junk food on the overall health is extensive. In the meantime, the ability to keenly come up with proper dietary plans relies on the ability of Celine to comfortably engage her diet in a manner that corresponds to the food needed to improve her is within human nature to permit or forego the benefits of eating healthy organic foods for the sake of retaining a healthy physic through informed decision making (Wickramasinghe et al., 2020).  Choices sometimes have consequences because the food consumed tends to shape the manner in which the body responds to the sicknesses. A healthy body is able to recover from an illness and cater to the long term needs of a person. First of all, junk food slows down the rate of metabolism. Muscles depend on the production of glucose in order to generate energy and produce energy for the cells and entire body. Gradually, the body becomes weaker and susceptible to diseases due to a weakened immune system.

Nursing Interventions

Determining present eating patterns of the patient helps in identifying mistakes and negative eating patterns. Secondly, the nurse needs to set daily goals for the patient so that she will be pushed further into eating more healthy foods. Also the patient should consume more foods that are rich in energy such as carbohydrates (Djordjevic, A. (2018). Also the patient should attend nutritional counselling

 One of the most convenient nursing intervention is to register in an interactive program where she can get a chance to express her concerns and learn or acquire skills on eating a healthy meal. Interactive programs helps one learn how to handle low fat foods and balanced meals with low sugar foods (Kothari, 2020). Also one can be able to learn effective food preparation techniques. This an educational technique where the person has the chance to develop good eating habits. Additionally, this eating habit will promote intake of fresh fruits and green vegetables. A decreased sugar in the diet is one way of ensuring that abdominal pains are relieved from the body

 An alternative intervention is ensuring that the patient has access to healthy food staff such as fruits and vegetable. This is done through advocacy actions integrated in the patient treatment plan (Kothari, 2020). Accessibility to healthy food at a subsidized rate ensures that the patient continuously eats healthy foods as a lifestyle rather than a treatment option

 Consuming a healthy balanced diet plays an important role in sustaining the proper general health and wellbeing hence averting malnutrition. A balanced diet consists of carbohydrates, proteins, fats and dairy. An improper diet may cause malnutrition. Malnutrition is a situation where the body is weakened due to the absence of certain nutrients within the body. The body needs a balanced diet so that it can be in good general health (Snyder, & Dougall, 2018). The body needs nutrients to repair damaged parts and to also assist the body to recover from the effects of a long day or toxic waste found within the food. It is a personal duty to come up with dietary plans that will help the body recover on time and also give the body the energy it needs to run the daily activities on time. This is all dependent on giving the body the nutrients it needs to be strong and healthy. Sometime, the basic principles of getting rid of excessive fat is through the integration of a proper diet and exercises. Also, water is to be taken in between the meals to assist the body get eh nourishment it needs (Gluba-Brzozka, et al., 2019). For the most part, fried foods are to be eaten in smaller quantities and during weekends or sometimes once per month. Distributing the amount of food consumed into three to four hour intervals give the body the digestive period it needs. The chance to come up with a proper dietary plan that covers all the needs of an individual gives credibility in terms of intake and calories burnt throughout the day. In summary can only thrive if given all the nutrients in the right quantity and proportions so that it can retain its strength and cater to the needs of the individual.




Djordjevic, A. (2018). Parents Knowledge about the Effects of Oral Hygiene, Proper Nutrition and Fluoride Prophylaxis on Oral Health in Early Childhood. Balkan Journal of Dental Medicine, 22(1), 26-31.

Gluba-Brzozka, A., Franczyk, B., & Rysz, J. (2019). Cholesterol Disturbances and the Role of Proper Nutrition in CKD Patients. Nutrients, 11(11), 2820.

Kothari, S. (2020). Impact analysis of a nutrition and health education intervention on school going children in Jaipur City.

Snyder, S. A., & Dougall, A. L. (2018). Assessment of nutrition topics for education in college-aged adults. J Food Nutr Res, 6(8), 525-530.

Wickramasinghe, K., Mathers, J. C., Wopereis, S., Marsman, D. S., & Griffiths, J. C. (2020). From lifespan to healthspan: the role of nutrition in healthy ageing. Journal of Nutritional Science, 9.

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Cosway SWOT Analysis


Cosway deals in a wide variety of products that provides opportunities for expansion. The company deals in a wide variety of cosmetic and beauty products, manufacturing products soap, cleaning and toilet preparation manufacturing supplies. The customer has managed a big customer base that makes it easier to expand and dominate new markets (IncFact, 2020). Another strength is that the products are used on a daily basis and therefore in constant demands. Since people use cosmetic and beauty products on a daily basis, the company has the customer base needed to remain competitive. The company has established strong relationships with its customers which give it control over pricing (IncFact, 2020). Cosway sets ideal prices for its products that give their customers value for their money. When used as a differentiation strategy, Cosway is able to set lower prices than its competitors and this makes it easier to attract new customers and retain existing ones.


The company has a poor marketing strategy that relies on good testimonials from customers and its agents. Although word of mouth and testimonials help to communicate the company message, Cosway should invest in different avenues of marketing to ensure its message reaches as big an audience as possible (IncFact, 2020). The company’s marketing strategy also limits its reach when attracting new customers. In addition, the company has limited trademark applications hinders innovation. The company has also failed to make market entry difficult for other organizations and which increases competition. The company has a large market share and influence to control prices as well as influence customer preference. Despite this however, different companies have come up in Coswa’s market and present more competition.


The company has a strong brand name which makes it easier to differentiate its products from the competition. Differentiation is important because of the wide variety of similar products in the market that customers have to choose from. Cosway also has a large market share which creates constant demand for its products (CCL, 2020). Reliable customers that are constantly seeking out Cosway products create opportunities for growth while still helping the company to remain competitive. Furthermore, advances in technology create room to innovate and gain a competitive advantage. Customers’ needs are constantly shifting and Cosway has to innovate its products in order to remain relevant in its market (Cosway, 2020). Advancements in technology make it easier for the company to assess its customers and determine what products are likely to do well. The company can also rely on technology to innovate its processes and product quality as well as introduce new products in the market.


The company faces stiff competition from other organizations offering similar or alternative products. Since the products that Cosway specializes in are in constant demand, different organizations come up seeking to take advantage of the lucrative market. Another threat is the risk of substitution. Customers’ needs are constantly shifting and the existence of alternative products in the market makes it easier for customers to shift their preferences and opt for products from the competitors (Zoom Info, 2020). The company also has to constantly innovate better ways to innovate in order to prevent its processes from harming the environment. A lot of raw materials are used up in the manufacturing process and Cosway must constantly assess its process to ensure that the least harm is caused to the environment in the process from manufacture to the time the product is made available to the customer.


















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Cosway, (2020) “About Cosway” retrieved from,

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Zoom Info, (2020) “Cosway” retrieved from,        company/29822450?__cf_chl_captcha_tk__=9e38fc0d2745c43703b53d3680708ae547bae3e1-           1604420868-0-Aa9R-


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 Patagonia case study

Summary of the Organization

            The competitive nature of the clothing industry forces organizations to come up with creative strategies to attract and retain customers. The need for innovation in such an industry is intensified by customer’s shifting needs and wants as they try to keep up with current trends. Since fashion is a concept that is constantly evolving, organizations in the clothing industry must be flexible enough to anticipate these changes and offer products that satisfy the customer’s needs. For organizations like Patagonia, success is determined by how well the company manages to differentiate its products from those from the competition. Differentiation is therefore a major contributor for Patagonia’s success in the clothing industry despite the existence of stiff competition.

            Patagonia is an American clothing company located in Ventura, California. The company was founded in 1973 by Yvon Chouinard and has managed to acquire a significant market share through marketing and sale of outdoor clothing. The founder is a rock climber and during its early years, the company specialized in the sale of mountain climbing gear (Thangavelu, 2020). The products sold by Patagonia when it was first started were hand forged and sold through Chouinard’s company, Chouinard Equipment (Patagonia, 2020). The company operated as a sole proprietorship until later in 1965 when Chouinard teamed up with Tom Frost. By this time, the company was experiencing tremendous growth and Chouinard needed help supplying the growing demand for products. Teaming up with Foster also helped to innovate and develop better products to match the customer’s shifting needs and wants.

            The company has tried to remain flexible by expanding its products and innovations that target customers in different sports like surfing. The company has also tried to add variety through additional products like sleeping bags, camping gear and backpacks for daily use (Thangavelu, 2020). Despite the existence of stiff competition from organization offering similar or alternative products, Patagonia’s differentiation strategy and customer base gives the company a competitive advantage by creating constant demand for its products.

Customer Base

            Patagonia’s customer base consists of fashionable individuals who are committed towards keeping up with the latest fashion trends. They comprise of individuals who dress well on a daily basis and prefer doing some form of research before making the purchase decision. The company’s target audience is also well informed and up to date with current and emerging trends that revolve around the world of fashion (Hiebert, 2017). The company’s customer base further comprises of ethical customers who are picky about where the products are manufactured and the impact that the raw material has on the world’s natural resources. Although majority of them are driven by the desire to keep up with emerging trend’s in fashion, a significant number prefer to shop from organizations that are committed to preserving the environment and extend the same when manufacturing their products.

            The company’s customer base mostly lives in the suburbs or major cities with small potion live in towns and rural areas. The group is made up of both men and women in the ages of between 18 and 50 years (Hiebert, 2017). The customers lead expensive lifestyles and are willing to spend on fashion. The impulse to buy is triggered by preference rather than necessity and majority of the customers go for products that are appealing, innovative and fashionable.

Mission and Core Values

Patagonia operates under the mission statement ‘we’re in business to save our home planet’ and it summarizes the company’s core values and code of conduct. The mission statement was recently changed from the old one which read “build the best product, cause no unnecessary harm, use business to inspire and implement solutions to the environmental crisis” (Patagonia, 2020). The old mission statement has been in use for more than 45 years and the decision to adopt a new one was influenced by the company’s desire to communicate its growing vision.

The company tries to place more emphasis on its commitment to preserve the environment and protect its resources from being exploited through the new mission statement. The new mission statement is therefore a testament to the company’s commitment to offer comfort and convenience to not only its customers but everyone in society through its products and commitment to preserve the environment.

Patagonia’s core values reinstate the company’s commitment to deliver the highest quality of products while doing the least damage to the environment. Other than ensuring that its products are environmentally friendly, the company has also put measures to ensure that the processes involved from making products to delivering to customers is environmentally friendly (Heath, 2019). The company relies on recycled materials and reuses some of the raw material as a way to minimize the amount of raw materials used in the manufacturing process. Patagonia further engages in different ways to reduce the number of greenhouse emissions, chemicals and toxic waste that is emitted during the manufacturing processes.



            Patagonia is aligning itself on a path to be one of the leading organizations that promote environmental sustainability by ensuring that its processes are environmentally friendly. The company operates under the vision statement that reads “A love of wild and beautiful places demands participation in the fight to save them, and to help reverse the steep decline in the overall environmental health of our planet”(Patagonia, 2020). The vision is brough to life through practices such as the company’s activities on social media platforms. A good example is the company blog that allows customers to post photos and share their experiences using Patagonia clothing and other products. The posts shared highlight the unique qualities of the products and also the beauty of the environment that the organization is committed to protect.

            The Worn Wear Wagon is another example of the company’s commitment to enhancing environmental sustainability through recycling and ruse. Instead of advertising more products and encouraging customers to make new purchases, Patagonia engages its customers on activities such as the Worn Wear Wagon to teach the target audience on the importance of reusing and recycling their old products before purchasing new ones (Thangavelu, 2020). The worn wear wagon was a marketing strategy where the company would visit designated locations to repair any damaged products bought from its stores. The company assisted its customers to make repairs on torn clothes and spoilt zippers. Customers also received training on how to make their own repairs instead of substituting damaged products with new ones.

Corporate level strategy

            Patagonia’s corporate level strategy that focuses on growth and is responsible for determiningwhat approach the business takes when innovating products and making them available to the target audience. The company constantly innovates its products and launches new ones to satisfy an identified opportunity in the market (Avishikta, 2016). Growth is achieved through different platforms such as the company’s online platform. The website is used to highlight the company’s products as well as capture natural scenes that serve as backgrounds for images and videos posted on the company website.

            The information shared through Patagonia’s social media platforms helps to keep customers informed about existing products and those that will be launched at a set time in future. The platform personalizes the company and its products as the content shared serves as testimonials from customers who have purchased and are already using Patagonia merchandise (Avishikta, 2016). The exposure helps to attract new customers who purchase new products and create more demand for Patagonia products. The growing demand in turn promotes growth for the company as it ensures that there are customers ready to buy products from Patagonia as soon as they are made available in market.

Business-Level Strategies

            To gain a competitive edge, Patagonia uses differentiation as a business level strategy to set its products apart from those from the competition. A good example of the differentiation strategies used is the ‘anti-black Friday’ campaign carried out by the organization. Instead of urging customers to make more purchases during the black Friday shopping craze, Patagonia opted to advise its customers on the importance of reusing old products (Lutz, 2014). The move was backed by an advertisement discouraging customers from buying a jacket in their products list and repair the clothes that the customers already have as a way to reduce wastage and destruction of natural resources.

            The company’s business level strategy has helped Patagonia to differentiate its products from its competitors as it goes against what most of the competitors are doing. The decision to discourage people from making unnecessary purchases communicates the company’s commitment to offer quality and preserve the environment. Customers are therefore more likely to purchase products from Patagonia that the competition as the former is seen as being more invested on the customers well being more than it does towards making profits.

PESTEL Analysis

  • Political

Patagonia’s political environment has the most relevance to the company’s success as it determines how the company goes about manufacturing its products and making them available to the target audience. The company has established a reputation of being corruption free and this has a positive impact on the target audience which promotes growth. 

  • Economic factors

Patagonia’s economic factors influences decisions such as employee working hours, state of economic growth, inflation and wage rates. The company has developed strategies that look out for customer interests while at the same time protecting the customers interests and preserving the environment in the process (Basil et al, 2019). The company’s ability to balance its economic environment gives the company the market share it currently enjoys.

  • Social factors

The social factors at Patagonia create the biggest challenge for the organization. Although the population leads a lifestyle that requires Patagonia products and services, the population growth rate in the market is very low and this discourages steady growth. Patagonia has opted to deal in products that are appealing for customers of both genders and in different age groups(Basil et al, 2019). The large segment of customers ensures that there is constant demand of products for customers at different stages of development.

Literacy rate is really high and it has the 4th least expensive baby death rate. Population growth rate of Patagonia Case Pestel Analysis is low.

  • Technological

Technology also has relevance in that it influences the efficiency of production and quality of products made. For Patagonia, the challenge arises when the technology needed relies on energy that could affect its ability to reduce waste in all stages of production (Patagonia, 2020). The company is however careful when adopting new forms of technology. Reliance on alternative forms of energy helps to cut down on wastage and maintains the company’s commitment to preserve the environment.

  • Environmental

The company engages in various activities to try and preserve the environment and its resources. Patagonia is heavy on recycling and organizes drives to repair damaged products as a way to discourage customers from making unnecessary purchases(Basil et al, 2019). The approach is likely to create more opportunities especially since people are more inclined to making purchases from organizations that are committed to preserve the environment.

  • Legal factors

Legal factors dictate how a company operates and offers guidelines on how to interact with employees, customers and the environment in general. Patagonia’s corporate policy ensures that all activities are in line with the legal requirements and that employees and customers are treated fairly and in a humane way.

















Avishikta R, (2016) “Types of corporate level strategies” The Next Generation Library, retrieved            from,           strategies/99697

Basil, D. Z., Diaz, M. G., & Basil, M. D. (2019). Social marketing in action: Cases from around the world. Cham, Switzerland: Springer

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Heibert P, (2017) “A look at the type of person who shops at Patagonia” YouGov, retrieved from,               person-who-shops-at-patagonia

Lutz A, (2014) Ä clothing company discourages customers from buying its stuff-and business is booming” Business Insider, retrieved from,        business-strategy-2014-9?IR=T

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Case Summary

            Ben is a forty-six-year-old male who works as a computer scientist at one of the large universities. The patient has been exhibiting unusual tendencies in recent weeks, which has necessitated evaluation at the local hospital. His wife Cindy has to help answer the interviewer’s questions because Ben himself is a hostile interviewee. He does not want to seek any professional help because it is against his will. According to information obtained from his wife, he is easily irritable, moody, and shows increasingly inappropriate behavior and actions.

            For instance, in a neighborhood party last Friday, he approached an attractive young neighbor and grabbed her breasts after confirming whether she was having a good time as he was leading to a furious reaction. Ben was not even aware of the ramifications of his actions. She also became angry and struck Ben. The undesirable behavior is affecting his loved ones such that Cindy is embarrassed by the husband’s behavior and says Ben has never displayed such tendencies in the past. Ben has always been kind and respectful and “even a little shy”.

            The patient has even started eating his breakfast with his bare hands and also was late for work. He even experienced difficulties organizing his work briefcase. The client makes all sorts of plans, but experiences difficulties following through on them. In the past, Ben has always been cautious, organized and still plans. But yesterday, the client left the car running in the driveway and took the bus to work.

            Cindy had enquired from Ben's siblings and learned that he displayed similar tendencies in college when his behavior was peculiar and erratic. He assaulted his roommate, believing that he worked for the KGB. During his college episode, it took eight months for the symptoms to escalate rapidly towards the end. He received some medication by the college psychiatrist, but no further information is available since Ben could not disclose anymore. Among the excuses given for his behavior in college include growing pains and being away from home. The siblings cite no mental illness in the family. However, Cindy has discovered an uncle Mo who died in a psychiatrist hospital 14 years ago.

            About six months ago, Ben was involved in an auto accident in which he hit his head on the rear-view mirror. The X-ray at the emergency room resulted in negative findings. The wife was to monitor his situation for the next 24 to 48 hours for any signs of brain injury. Other than a slight headache, Ben exhibited no adverse symptoms. The erratic and irritable behavior started to appear five days ago after nearly six and half months after the accident. He usually works 50 hours a week, earning $130,000 per year. He is an excellent employee and maintains good relationships with his co-workers and friends. Cindy and Ben have been married for about 23 years. Although they have had a few fights, it is a mostly happy marriage. Ben was also a high achieving student in high school, not an alcoholic, experienced no family loss, and is remarkably healthy except for undergoing a tonsillectomy.

            Early in the marriage, Ben had a huge fight with the departmental head who he believed was plagiarizing his work. They had to move across the country to find other work with Ben still thinking he had substantial evidence because both of their articles began with the same letter of the alphabet. The wife has also located a disturbing journal that the husband keeps but has not come with it to the interview because it is mostly nonsensical. The initial evaluation concludes the recent episode is brought about by an accident the patient recently experienced when he hit his head on the rear-view mirror.

Clinical Impression (Diagnosis)

            907.0 delayed effect of intracranial Injury skull fracture

            294.11 (F02.8x) Major Neurocognitive Disorder to Traumatic Brain Injury with Behavioral Disturbance.

Other Factors

            V15.81 (Z91.19) Non-adherence to Medical Treatment

            V61.10 (Z63.0) Relationship with Spouse

            V62.9 (Z60.9) Unspecified Problems Related to the Social Environment


            Ben should begin treatment immediately before the eight-month mark. The symptoms escalated in the first episode in college when he assaulted a roommate for believing he was in the KGB. Because six and half months have already elapsed since sustaining a head injury, urgent action will be necessary. The first course of action in the medical treatment is carrying out a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan to determine the extent of the head injury during the accident on the frontal lobes and other parts of the brain. Although the head injury may be mild, and only a small percentage of them progress to severe injuries, the MRI scan will confirm the state of Ben's injuries (Hersen & Beidel, 2012). A clinician with training on dealing with head injuries should reexamine Ben. If there are any concerns, they should document these and recommend treatment procedures appropriate to the patient age. The recommended treatment by the clinician should be followed, including follow-up therapy by an occupational therapist or social worker.


  1. Describe how the new information alters the picture presented in the original case study, before submitting the review Ben Part 1 assignment.

            The new information alters in the original case study since now the practitioner understands that they may be a history of mental illness in the family tree. In the original case study, the professional does not get a complete picture of the function of the replacement behaviors or any previous medical attention he may have accessed. Before accessing the additional information, the evaluator had difficulty understanding Ben’s behavior except for the automobile accident and stress at work (Tampi et al., 2017). His marriage is doing fine; he is not an alcoholic, works normal hours, has a healthy life, and keeps in contact with friends and family.

            However, in the second interview, we understand that Ben has experienced such an episode in the past. We also know that the patient has a history of using some medication issued by the college psychiatrist. We also understand that there is a history of mental illness in the family with Ben's uncle dying in a state hospital for the mentally ill where he had spent 14 years. We understand that Ben is prone to acting irrationally accusing his co-worker of plagiarizing his article because they both began with the same letter of the alphabet. Finally, the additional information alters our view of blaming the accident for Ben’s behaviors but on mental illness such as bipolar. The physician concludes that there are no medical effects from the accident (Weiner & Otto, 2014). The nonsensical journal he keeps also reinforces the notion that Ben may be suffering from some form of mental illness.

  1. Describe your new diagnostic hypotheses and justify your conclusions.

Clinical Impression

296.89 (F31.81) Bipolar II Disorder DSM-IV-TR hypomanic current episode with moderate symptoms and mixed reactions

V61.10 (Z63.0) Husband-Spouse Relationship problems

F60.69 Disorder of personality and behavior in adult persons

F90.98 Behavioral and emotional Disorder with onset occurring in the college days

V62.9 (Z60.9) unspecified episodes relating to the social environment such as Ben grabbing a female neighbour's breasts at a party

            The primary focus of the therapeutic intervention will be on eliminating depression and mood swings in the patient (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Ben feels his boss his stressing him as well as environmental triggers that are setting off his irritability and aggressive behavior. Ben’s mood disorder is rooted in the challenges he experiences at the workplace as well as other social triggers such as experiencing difficulties with organization. Ben may also have been triggered by the automobile accident such that he may be experiencing fear driving his car. For example, he left it running in the garage and opted to take the bus to work instead. Ben is not experiencing any loss since all his parents are well and alive (First & Tasman, 2004). He also keeps close contact with co-workers and friends going back as high school. I would target conducting sessions with Ben and Cindy since the patient is hostile in the first interviews. I would then graduate to include the family such as Ben’s siblings and parents in subsequent sessions.

  1. What further diagnostic evaluation do you believe is warranted?

The further diagnostic evaluation I would recommend is the Major Depression Inventory and the Patient Health Questionnaire (Balogh et al., 2015). The tools will help put in context the complete spectrum of Ben's condition. I would also like to meet with Ben's boss and co-workers to gain a better understanding of workplace dynamics.




American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5thed). Washington, DC: Author. ISBN: 780890425558

Balogh, E., Miller, B. T., Ball, J., & Institute of Medicine (U.S.). (2015). Improving diagnosis in health care. The National Academies Press. Print.

First, M. B., & Tasman, A. (2004). DSM-IV-TR mental disorders: Diagnosis, etiology, and treatment. Chichester, West Sussex, England: J. Wiley.

Hersen, M., & Beidel, D. C. (2012). Adult Psychopathology and Diagnosis. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.

Tampi, R. R., Zdanys, K., & Oldham, M. (2017). Psychiatry: Board review. Oxford University Press. Print.

Weiner, I. B., & Otto, R. K. (2014). The handbook of forensic psychology. Hoboken: Wiley. Print.







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The Southeast Planning Group (SPG) case study

Analysis of the change that took place in the SPG

 The Southeast Planning Group (SPG) has been a healthy organization for 5 years. The founding director has helped the organization achieve operational effectiveness. However, changes are inevitable and the SPG is experiencing changes in that the executive director has resigned from her position and the organization has appointed a new executive director (Plummer et al. 2014). It is important to note that the first change occurs as a result of hiring a new director and the second change occur in organization restructuring. The community as well as the organizational members, and stakeholders are resisting the changes and they believe that the director is not making the right decisions (Plummer et al. 2014). They also believe that the director has a self-serving behavior and hence he does not target to support the organization.  As a result, stakeholders have reported that the organization is under uncertainty since the new leadership has shaken the existing organizational processes.

 One strategy that might improve the organizational climate and return the organization to optimal functioning.

 One strategy that might work best for the organization is that the Southeast Planning Group should improve communication with stakeholders or in other words, the new director should engage stakeholders so that they can understand the change in terms of ‘why the change', what the organization wants to become, and the plan that the organization will follow to reach the destination (Lauffer, 2010). To put it simply, the strategy that the organization should use to improve the organizational climate and ensure that the organization achieves its level of functioning is communication. Note that the change has altered the organization's climate and this means that elements such as interpersonal relationships, trust, organization structure, and more have changed. The new leadership has caused the negative effects on the organization's climate and to ensure that the organization works effectively as before, the new director should communicate to organization members and involve them in the change cycle (Lauffer, 2010). This strategy is effective in that the stakeholders have worked in this organization for five years and any change will impact them either positively or negatively. Thus, the new director should communicate with the stakeholders to understand the unique needs of the organization and plan change initiative (Lauffer, 2010). The director should not implement change without informing the stakeholders about the purpose of change, the strategic objective, and more importantly, conduct risk analysis with the stakeholders to measure the potential issues that the change could bring.



















  Plummer Sara-Beth., Makris Sara., & Brocksen M. Sally., (2014).  Social Work Case Studies:

Concentration Year. Laureate Publishing


Lauffer, A. (2010). Understanding your social agency. SAGE Publications,





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