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Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

Discuss how Orientalism operates as a discourse to affect human rights and everyday lives in certain sections of the Canadian society

32 Words  1 Pages

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

choose and existing Canadian product to be introduce and market in a foreign country,  You should discuss the following points:

Brief history ( political and  economic ) of the country chosen; existing competition for your product; target market; pricing strategy; distribution method; conclude by stating your reasons as to why you think this product would be a successful investment in the country chosen.  You can include picture/logos if you so wish.  The report has to be 4-5 double spaced pages plus a bibliography

94 Words  1 Pages

Social and Economic Progress

In Canada, education is closely linked to an increment in learning opportunities and success which in turn leads to societal progression. The aim of education differs from one community to another due to the various ways through which education is made available to individuals. To comprehend the association between education and social progression, the objectives of education are supposed to be defined into economics, community, humanistic, and justice preferment. Each one of the objectives can then be categorized as personal and collective (Riddell, & Song, 2017). More so, education is known to nurture productive skillsets and this facilitates the advancement into the Canadian labor market. Hence the society can better itself and retain prosperity through the skills of its citizens. Secondly, education advances civic skillsets and this transforms people's civil and political perspectives. Consequently, society reaps the benefit from educated and informed people. Also, education engages a person's talents and interests hence allowing them to serve the public for the greater good of the entire society. Therefore, society excels and flourishes due to its people.

Features of Education That Provide Social Opportunities

Education is a vital tool that plays a pivotal role in contemporary, industrialized Canadian society. A good education not only transforms society but enables people to survive in the competitive world. The modern-day man lives a standardized lifestyle that is enabled by educational solutions. The first feature that causes education to trigger social progression is the eradication of poverty as educated people stand a better chance of generating value through the creation of jobs or through transferring the skills to employers (Mansfield, 2019). Thus educated people can meet their needs and sustain their lives in the long run. Secondly, education enables people to choose more than one lifestyle, thus, it is not easy for a person to engage in a life of crime. This is because education enlightens people and gives them more chances to make a sound judgment in line with sound decision-making. In the end, education makes society safer as people do not engage in reckless and compulsive behavior as most educated people can understand the consequences of their actions and come up with solutions to vices occurring in the society.

In most parts of Canada, education most of the time takes place in schools. Schools are social institutions that are designed to impart knowledge, skills, and traditional norms into society. One of the most important aspects of education is the ability to enlighten and channel the skills and education back into society for the benefit of the society itself (Bratland, 2020). The providence of education is key in the eradication of poverty and education people can easily combine their efforts for the betterment of the entire society. for example, educated people have better moral development and ethical values than people who did not receive any education.

 In summary, education fosters social progress through its interconnected aims- humanistic values, civic- improvement of social life, and actively taking part in the democratic process, economic- the providence of informative skills which transform people into productive individuals in the society and harboring a just society. Through the development of formal education, modern economics can run and progress due to the role education has contributed to social progression. Most people are likely to maintain a productive life due to awareness brought forth by education. Schools are social institutions set aside for the development and impartation of social and cultural norms.




Bratland, E. (2020). Knowledge building as theory development in education: What forms of progression and in-depth learning are possible in the subject of social sciences?. Edukacja Humanistyczna, (2), 163-178.

Mansfield, I. (2019). The impact of selective secondary education on progression to higher education. Higher Education Policy Institute.

Riddell, W. C., & Song, X. (2017). The role of education in technology use and adoption: Evidence from the Canadian workplace and employee survey. ILR Review, 70(5), 1219-1253.

650 Words  2 Pages


Funding of Safe Injection Sites by the Canadian Government

Safe injection sites are facilities that help to reduce harm where addicted drug users can safely use the drugs at the watch of professionals. The whole idea about these facilities is that when they permit drug addicts to inject their drugs in a medically controlled site, the probability of death caused by an overdose is lessened. The idea of the sites has met different reactions from people who support it and others who are against it. The supporters believe that these sites offer medical regulation to drug users and help to prevent the spread of diseases that arise through the sharing of needles and offer a safer injection process. With the safe injection site, the drug users who will be using the illegitimate injectable drugs despite the regulations around them, they can use them in a safe surrounding. People who are against this idea argue that the government should support an illegal idea and that the sites cause more harm than good by encouraging drug addicts to continue injecting drugs. The Canadian government should fund safe injection sites because these sites educate the users on the dangers of using drugs, safer drug use practices, and also offer recommendations to the treatment of drugs and recovery.

Canada has had a history of health-related and social harms that are connected to injection drug use. Responding to this, towns throughout the country have instigated harm reduction policies and programs. Canada has moral and legal responsibilities that oblige it to respond bravely to the plight of these people that face serious health risks by the use of drug injection to reduce danger. Among the solutions that have been suggested is the development of safe injection facilities. Nevertheless, the provision for the reduction of harm methodologies in Canada creates different mixed reactions and has been contested even in court. The supporters of safe injection sites maintain that these facilities save lives because research shows that since the introduction of the sites, drug overdose has reduced. The facilities serve as a bridge to detox and treatment in that they use a four-pillar methodology being harm reduction, prevention, treatment, and enforcement (Kerr et al. 1). They believe that safe injection sites are the first step to recovery and more to that is that nobody dies in the sites. The sites offer a clean environment for the drug users and also allow them to connect to other services such as treatment for drug-related inflammation or dental care. Supporters maintain that safe injection sites should be viewed as a place where drug addiction can also be treated. The facilities benefit public health and the broader society in the sense that they lead to a decrease in drug-related crime and also positively influence the drug users to quit. They have also contributed to the reduction of public injections in the streets, and doorways. Dangerous behaviors such as the sharing of needles, HIV infections have also declined with the introduction of these sites. In Vancouver research shows that there have been less discarded needles in the neighboring streets.

The people who argue that the sites should be closed maintain that the government should not facilitate the use of drugs. Despite the sites having the goal of reducing crime, some people are still not comfortable with any facility that allows addicts to inject drugs and defy the law. They maintain that governments should not aid illegal, risky activities (Stueck 1). They maintain that the money used on these facilities should be used on cure and the government’s funding for the safe injection facilities conveys the wrong message to the younger generation who would be thinking of using drugs. Another argument is that safe injection sites do not do anything to prevent the use of drugs or help drug addicts. Other arguments are that the safe injection sites attract drug traders and that public wellbeing stresses that illegitimate drugs should be firmly controlled. Critics argue that giving addicted persons a comfortable spot to inject themselves with illegal drugs encourages the use of more.

 Insite is a safe injection site in Vancouver which got an exception from “Canada’s controlled drugs and substances act from health Canada”. At some point, the federal administration failed to prolong their exception and when the Insite followers went to court, they were allowed to operate the site on health grounds.  This facility is a medical facility run by professionals who connect users to addiction services, counseling, and other resources. Over the years the Canadian officials have embraced the idea of safe injection sites and several sites have been opened throughout the cities (Stueck 1). The main focus and aim for these sites are to prevent people from dying and getting them out of the streets where in case of an overdose they have no one to keep an eye on them and this has kept the addicts alive. Researchers say that this is a smart approach because of their harm-reduction strategies and the impact these facilities have made on the community. Despite this, the government is not willing to use the taxpayer’s money to find safe injection sites or agree to the full decriminalization of illicit drugs. Most of the Canadians and some of the leaders support the idea of decriminalization of drugs but the government is not up for it.

Safe injection site assessments in Canada have provided broad evidence of the positive impact of this form of health intervention. Research has shown that safe injection sites attract and keep their target population which includes people who inject drugs and are homeless, and those who engage in drug practices that are connected to a heightened mortality and morbidity risks such as public injection (Kerr et al 1). There has been an increased acceptance of safe injection sites resulting from the overdose disasters and political alterations in Canada which have steered to the fast increase of efforts to increase safe injection sites around the country. Federal legislation should be amended to make these services and sites better. However, in areas such as Vancouver, accessing facilities such as safe injection sites has increased but the ongoing overdose crisis shows that something more had to be done. Safe injection sites should be extended to new settings such as hospitals to be able to maximize the opportunities for drug users to reduce harm and health inequalities.

Funding for safe injection sites could result in more facilities being opened and this will reduce the deaths caused by drug injection overdoses. The sites offer other treatment and counseling services which eventually lead to drug addicts quitting their addictive behavior. There will be enough facilities for every addict to inject themselves from which will reduce the addicts on the streets and prevent them from dying. Safe injection sites create a path and a possibility for drug injecting addicts to reduce their use and eventually stop injecting the drugs. The Canadian government should fund these sites because drug injection addiction can be treated through them.









Works Cited

Kerr, Thomas, et al. "Supervised injection facilities in Canada: past, present, and future." Harm

reduction journal 14.1 (2017): 1-9.

Stueck, Wendy. "The arguments for and against Vancouver’s supervised injection site." The

Globe and Mail (2011).


1208 Words  4 Pages


The Canada Health Act


The Canada Health Act is a significant development in healthcare in Canada. In 1947, hospitalization insurance was introduced to care for inpatient services. Ten years later, the Federal Government offered financial assistance to care for the costs of hospitalization. However, the federal government and the provinces decided to provide full support to the Canadians by providing funding beyond hospitalization. Healthcare providers, governments, and other stakeholders came up with two options; first, a multi-payer system where multiple entities would be allowed to collect the funds and pay for health service, and second is a single-payer system where the government could collect funds and pay for health care services. However, a health care commission supported a single-payer system as it could provide the same benefits to all populations, or in other others, everyone could be covered. However, the Canadian Health Act has limitations in that health expenditure does not cover medical innovation, drug, home health services, custodial care, and other services. A point to note is that majority of public services are covered by the federal government. This indicates that services such as prescription drugs and long-term care are not covered since there is no public-private mix. Many have raised argument that there is a need to revise the Act and improve it. In general, the Canada Health Act is a public system and it provides cost-effectiveness. However, the problems with the Act are limited services or in other words, it underperforms in the areas of core medical services and fiscal sustainability.

 The Canadian health system has achieved its goal in access, quality, and satisfaction.  However, the current issue is based on what services are provided, and how they will be funded. The Canada Health Act allows the government to manage the health insurance plans through accessibility, comprehensiveness, universality, and portability (Deber, 2003). However, the current universal health insurance is provincially run and adheres to the theme of 'medically necessity'. This means that universal health insurance excludes other services that could be provided by private providers. Firsts, it is important to note that Canadian health care is under the federal-provincial authority. Initially, each province financed health care but due to market failure, the national government provided funding programs for hospital and physician services (Deber, 2003). When the Canada Health Act was introduced, the national terms and conditions were maintained and the federal government continued to influence the policy directions. Today, a large number of expenditures for physicians' services and hospital care are provided by the public sector. Note that the public sector is unable to cover services such as dental care, long-term care, and more. This means that since the Canadian health policy is under the federal-provincial authority, it means that there is a private sector hence these services are not offered (Deber, 2003). Note that in the past, hospitals were independent boards. Today, all hospitals are under regional health authorities or in other words the provincial government encourages single-payer. The problem with this kind of management is financing the system, delivery, and allocation.

 There is an issue in financing the system in that in the mid-1980s, the Canadian economy experiences a deep recession and for this reason, the federal government reduced the funding, as a result, the provincial government experiences problems such as lack of hospital bed, reduction of physician fees, and poor nursing employment market (Deber, 2003). This reveals the problem of sustainability and the leaders argued that there should be an alternative source of revenue to meet the total costs since the public sources were unable to meet the spending costs. Some argued that a single-payer should provide the insurance overeager. However, single-payer and government involvement has raised a debate on the issue of comprehensives. Note that the Canada Health Act defines comprehensiveness as providing all medically necessary services. This means that hospitals are not moving beyond the boundaries of public insurance yet patients with insurance coverage should receive all services including prescription drugs and home care (Deber, 2003).

 Another problem with the Canada Health Act is the delivery of health care. Note that in Canada, delivery is managed by the regional health authority. In other words, the provincial and territorial governments have started a centralized administrative authority. This has created a conflicted relationship between the physicians and the regional bureaucracies. The regionals structure can be traced to the United Kingdom after World War one where public health authorities managed primary health centers (Deber, 2003). Canada adopted the UK idea of regionalization where Dr. Henry Sigerist recommended the creation of local government structures.  Even though the regionalization promotes the provision of quality services in diverse health sectors, physicians experienced significant consequences in that there is no relationship between the regional health authorities and the physicians (Deber, 2003).This is because, normally, physicians work under the provincial government. However, when the physicians work under the regional health authorities, it means that they have a little interest in regional health authority.  As a result, there is no system coordination hence embarrassing performances.  

 Thus, the regionalization of health care under the Canada Health Act is viewed as a failure.  Note that the regionalization is associated with different financing arrangements and this has resulted in financing obstacles (Marchildon, 2017). The health system experts viewed the regionalization as the best strategy to manage health care facilities and coordinate the services. It is important to note that the purpose of regionalization was to provide primary health services to everybody, reduce costs, promote health prevention, improve service quality, meet the population needs, and promote decentralized decision-making and improve the allocation of resources (Marchildon, 2017). However, regionalization has not achieved integration. The solution to the problem of regionalization is that the regional health authority should be eliminated and all provincial governments should control the health systems. This means that there should be a single provincial health authority or in other words, physicians should work with the provincial governments (Marchildon, 2017). However, since the provincial government might not return to work with the physicians, then there should be reshaping of regionalization. For example, the provincial government should highlight the health needs and set goals that the regional health authorities should meet and failure should be accompanied by hard consequences (Marchildon, 2019). As stated above, there is no relationship between the physician and the local government. The provincial government should encourage the regional health authority to establish interventions that would promote collaboration with physicians in the geographical boundaries. Another recommendation is that physicians should participate in clinical governance (Marchildon, 2019). Thus, there should be a strong relationship between the physicians and the regional health authority so that physicians can collaborate with authorities in system management.  




Unquestionably, the Canada Health Act needs to be reformed. The provincial government has been the primary authority for health-care services and when the universal health coverage was introduced, the Canada Health Act established guidelines that the health systems should adhere to access federal funding. The problem with the Canada Health Act is not about universal health coverage but the problem arises from financing the health coverage. The universal health coverage is funded through a single-payer system, it is also funded through public and private insurance, and finally, it is funded entirely privately. However, the federal government has a greater responsibility for coverage and this indicated that the universal health coverage is a single-payer system. First, this system restricts the provision of core medical services that could be accessed if private insurance were allowed to raise the funds. Secondly, Canada Health Act restricts patients from accessing core medical services. No privately funded payment is required and this means that patients only reduce medically necessary treatment funded through public schemes. Even though the federal government has greatly contributed to the areas of health care, there is a need for greater accountability and allow the provinces to adopt effective policies that increase the quality of care and provide patients with the freedom to use private insurance companies.










Deber, R. B. (2003). Health care reform: Lessons from Canada. American Journal of Public

Health93(1), 20-24.


Marchildon, G. P. (2017). Physicians and regionalization in Canada: past, present and

future. CMAJ189(36), E1147-E1149.


Marchildon, G. (2019). The integration challenge in Canadian regionalization. Cadernos de Saúde Pública35, e00084418.






1389 Words  5 Pages


Summary Writing

 In the article 'Mental wellness in Canada's Aboriginal communities striving toward reconciliation', Boksa et al (363) review the mental health challenges facing the aboriginal people in Canada and assert that as the Truth and Reconciliation Commission  increase the efforts to promote mutual understanding and respect, the mental health professionals should be  involved in promoting the mental-wellbeing of these people. In general, European colonization is a harrowing tale that made Aboriginal people experience disadvantage in all realms. As the TRC prepares to provide health and cultural support, the mental health professionals should not be left behind but they should work collaboratively to promote mental wellness.

 The psychological sufferings began in 1883 until the mid-1980s when the Canadian government established residential schools where aboriginal people could learn Euro-Christian values and adapt the Canadian society. While in the residential school, children were severely published, and experienced mental, physical and sexual abuse. A governmental agency that deals with Indian affairs reported that …aboriginal are to be kept in a condition of tutelage and treated as wards or children of the State… (Boksa et al. 363)". The European settlers argued that aboriginal people were ignorant and thus, needed civilization. Thus, all children aged 7-15 were isolated from the parents and guardians and forced to attend the school to learn new ways of living.

  The living conditions in the residential school was also a contributing factor to the mental problem in the aboriginal communities. The separation between children and their parents resulted in disruptions of family traditions. As a result, children and youth became involved in antisocial behaviors such as the use of illicit drugs (Boksa et al. 364). In society, adults were suffering from extreme poverty, poor health, lack of security, and unemployment which all contributed to mental problems

   In many ways, aboriginal people have suffered from depression but some individuals have a higher level of mental disorder than others. For example, suicide rates among Aboriginal youth is higher. This is because of the historian factors such as loss of lands and suppression of belief systems while some groups have resiliency such as cultural continuity (Boksa et al. 364). For this reason, First Nations have created a partnership that aims at promoting mental health.

However, Aboriginal people may not access mental health services due to stigma and discrimination. For the mental wellness program to work, mental health workers should understand the traumatic experiences that Aboriginal people went through and after understanding the past and current challenges, they should provide mental support through training and respectful collaborations (Boksa et al. 365). For mental health professionals to provide quality services, the government at all levels should provide funding. 


It is with no doubt that the Aboriginal people in Canada experienced intergenerational trauma- Aboriginal experienced untreated trauma not only during the colonization period but many years later. The mental health professionals should work proactively and collaboratively with the reconciliation commission to create a healthier future by providing metal health services and promoting mutual recognition and respect





Work cited

Boksa, Patricia, Ridha Joober, and Laurence J. Kirmayer. "Mental wellness in Canada’s

Aboriginal communities: striving toward reconciliation." Journal of psychiatry &

neuroscience: JPN 40.6 (2015): 363.


531 Words  1 Pages


Canadian Classes


Lake Erie crisis

Lake Erie which is one of the Great Lakes is undergoing slow but dangerous changes. These changes are a result of the continued dumping of toxic chemicals from industrial plants (Wines 2014). The Great Lakes comprise the biggest freshwater sources on Earth. The historical uses of the water from the Great lakes include fishing spots, source of drinking water, and also serve as a mode of transportation for goods. The lakes also are popular for recreational activities such as boating and also important for wildlife and ecosystems. Of the other Great Lakes, Lake Erie became the most polluted because of the industrial presence along its shores. Because of the millions of people living in its basin, the lake has been affected by human activities and factories that dump their waste in it. This pollution led to the fish in the lake dying and appearing along the lake’s shoreline. Lake pollution has impacted the lake’s main wildlife points such that it can no longer support biological life. The excessive algae that led to the death of the fish which some people depended on hence business closures. The water too became toxic for consumption.

                                                Mackenzie Pipeline inquiry        

The Mackenzie pipeline inquiry was established to examine the impacts projected gas pipeline would have. The inquiry would impose the recommendations on the terms and conditions that could be used (Bocking 2007). It allowed testimonies from different groups concerning the pipeline. The commissioner went to different groups of people in Mackenzie and to other cities in Canada to get the public reaction. He also held meetings with experts to acquire their opinions and insights about the pipeline suggestion. He then held hearings in the society in territories in the North West and Yukon which helped to shape his views. From this process, the directive that was suggested was that the pipeline ought to be constructed through the northern Yukon and the construction of a pipeline should be deferred for ten years. The inquiry helped to assess change before the change was made and also was used to determine whether the change should occur, and if it should, how its hostile consequences may be moderated.

Green Movement in North America

The green movement arose as a result of concerns about the protection of the countryside in Europe and the wilderness in America. It was also because of the health concerns that were as a result of the rapid transformation of North America from an agricultural society to an industrial one. The clearing of the forests led to the changing of the river flows and this affected the fish and the birds which helped to control the pests and insects (Lallanilla 2018). The transformation of North America into an industrial society would make industrialization cause nuclear fallout from atomic tests, air pollution that resulted from factories and millions of cares. The Factories released chemicals into the atmosphere, in the rivers and lakes. The use of pesticides caused the death of birds, insects, and other animals. The forests and farmland disappearance and the impact it had on the environment became a concern to many individuals. Industrialization caused toxic chemicals that were drained into the rivers to destroy the animals and the environment and most importantly the clean water. These issues led to the rising of the green movement to preserve and protect the environment. 








Bocking, S. (2007). Thomas Berger's unfinished revolution. Alternatives Journal33(2-3), 50-52.

Lallanilla M. (2018). The History of the Green Movement: The Green Movement Has Been Going on for Centuries. Retrieved from:

Wines, M. (2014). Behind Toledo’s water crisis, a long-troubled Lake Erie. New York Times4.

611 Words  2 Pages


The impact of treaties in Canada


Treaties have been part of Canada’s history as they were commonly used to constitutionally recognize agreements made between the indigenous people and the Crown. Canada opted to use treaties as a way to describe the exchange engaged with the indigenous people for various reasons such as sharing ancestral land by the indigenous people on condition that the crown would in turn provide some form of payment and other benefits. Although the treaties represented the agreement reached on by the two parties, they both had varying opinions regarding what the treaties were and what they sought to accomplish. The indigenous people for instance considered treaties as sacred covenants established with the Canadians. They respected the agreement because they believed that through the treaties, people with roots from different regions could be welcomed into Canada, and preserving these treaties was considered a moral obligation. The crown however had varying opinions regarding the importance of the treaties. Other than the advantages that the crown was able to gain from the treaties, the relationship with the indigenous people was mostly influenced by the fact that the indigenous people had occupied the land before the crown. The importance placed on treaties by the crown was therefore dependent on the benefits the treaty offered. The varying opinions regarding treaties and what they represented are greatly responsible for the varying views that people have +of treaties even today and ought to be resolved to develop better relationships that favor the indigenous people as much as they did the Crown. 

           A significant portion of the settled lands of Canada like Ontario, Alberta, and Manitoba originally belonged to the indigenous people before they were transferred to the government through treaties. The transfer was facilitated by the promises made by the government to offer payment and other benefits in exchange for control and having interests in the indigenous people’s ancestral land (Asch, 2011). Although both the indigenous people and the government were present when the treaties were signed, there have been various disagreements in both implementation and acceptance of the terms dictated by the treaties.          The indigenous people and the government have always had varying concepts over what the treaties symbolized and what each side would be required to sacrifice or give up to fulfill the treaties (Asch, 2011). The confusion was mostly because, during the time the treaties were enacted, the indigenous people had different world views compared to the crown. The indigenous people and the Canadian government had different definitions of land ownership. The idea of land belonging to an individual and the provision that the individual could make decisions regarding how to use the land, including keeping others out was a new concept for the indigenous people. Such differences have attributed to the conflict revolving around the agreements made through treaties. 

           The indigenous people relied heavily on word of mouth and information was passed down from one generation to the next through oral tradition. Unlike the crown, the indigenous people paid more attention to what was said through the word of mouth rather than what was written down in paper and the same approach was practiced even during the signing of treaties. Rather than writing, the indigenous people relied on sawn beaded wampum belts to record important events (Montpetit, 2011). In the early stages, the wampum belts made to signify the treaties were regarded as sacred objects and would be brought out to commemorate ceremonies. The belt was however a tradition practiced by the indigenous people and while they were important to the people, their importance to the crown may have only served the interests of maintaining the treaties with little emphasis on their use as traditional symbols (Montpetit, 2011). The government viewed the treaties as agreements that gave the crown freedom and authority over various aspects of the indigenous people’s lives. The promise to offer payment and other benefits was mostly done to entice the indigenous people to give up control mostly for the benefit of the crown.

How indigenous people interpreted treaties

           The indigenous people believed that the agreement made through the word of mouth was more important than the terms written on the treaties. They were therefore bound by their word and also their customs and traditions. In commemoration of their customs, ceremonial conventions would be held during the negotiation and signing of treaties (Miller, 2009). Those involved would smoke sacred pipes and also exchange gifts such as the wampum belts. Since elders were considered more informed due to their experiences and possession of information on oral history, they were often elected to represent the indigenous people during the signing of treaties (Miller, 2009). While the representatives were familiar with the indigenous people’s customs and traditions, they had little understanding of what customs existed in Canada and how the government regarded treaties. 

           To the indigenous people, the treaties brought the promise of a better future for both parties especially because of the relationship they sought to build. They considered the crown an added advantage to the protection of the indigenous people especially because they believed that the crown would protect the indigenous people the same way they did their interests (Miller et al, 2000). Concerning land, the terms stipulated in the treaties were interpreted to mean that the crown would only use some of the land owned by the indigenous people for farming and other purposes. When the negotiations were being made, the indigenous people used their customs and traditions to interpret the occupation by the crown as a lease or on for a limited time, but the land would remain under the control of the indigenous people (Miller et al, 2000). This was especially because the indigenous people considered land as an entity that could not be possessed by any one person or used to deny entry to others. Their tradition of sharing land made it difficult for them to grasp the idea that the agreements they were signing on the treaties would allow the crown would force the indigenous people to extinguish all rights and titles they had to the land agreed upon in the treaties. 

           The indigenous people also believed that the treaties only sought to establish some form of peaceful coexistence with the crown. Their communities were often led by a chief who was the leader of the system of government used and was made up of a council of advisors and elders from the community. Since the indigenous people were already governing their communities, they never intended for the treaties to force them into assimilation as this would force them to abandon their traditions and give up their status as a sovereign nation (Miller et al, 2009). The crown however failed to elaborate on the difference in culture and that signing the treaties and took advantage of the fact that the indigenous people would focus more on their customs rather than that of foreigners.

Since consensus was used to make major decisions especially ones that would affect the entire community, the crown may have opted for treaties as they would go in line with some of the traditions used by the indigenous people (Borrows, 2017). Another custom that the treaties exploited was where land was owned in common and controlled by chiefs and the councils. This meant that decisions made by the council, such as giving possession of land to the crown, would be regarded as law even if individuals occupying the land objected. The indigenous people however failed to identify the full impact of the treaties because they did not fully understand what treaties meant and the binding contract they created with the crown. 

How the Crown interpreted treaties 

           The Canadian government saw treaties as an opportunity to take possession of the land occupied by the indigenous people. The treaties facilitated the legal expansion of the crown into settlements owned by the indigenous people for various purposes such as mining and setting railway lines. Through the treaties, the crown was able to mislead the indigenous people into signing over the rights to their land, forcing them to move to the regions specified by the crown as reserved land for the indigenous people (Borrows, 2017). While the terms of the treaties required the crown to offer some form of payment or compensation for the land they possessed, it was not clear to the indigenous people that the agreement would mean that the crown would have permanent control over the land they took. 

           Treaties were also viewed as a tool to help the indigenous people live better since the crown viewed their customs and traditions as superior. The crown believed that their influence would be beneficial especially in areas such as fishing and hunting. Although the treaties did offer protection to the indigenous people, they infringed on different rights that made the rewards meaningless (Government of Canada, 2020). The treaties became the first step towards assimilation and the crown pushed the indigenous people to abandon their customs and traditions and adopt the Canadian culture. The indigenous people were forced to change their religious beliefs, learn new languages, and even refrain from practicing some of their ceremonies.  

           The crown also had a contrasting view of land and the purpose it served. When the first treaties were signed, the indigenous people were more trusting of the crown because they believed that land was sacred and that it was custom to accommodate those that sought to be part of their ancestral land. The belief was great as a result of their customs and traditions which prevented the ownership of land by an individual (Morriss, 2014). Although each person occupied land and used it for various purposes, the indigenous people did not believe in sole ownership of land as it was controlled by the councils. To the crown, however, the land was a source of profit that could be exploited to further their course. The idea of sole ownership of land was influenced by activities such as farming (Morris, 2014). Individuals sought to own and control all rights and access to land because of the profit they could gain from activities like farming and fishing. The group ownership of land made treaties an ideal tool as it would make it easy to transfer land to the crown without having to deal with each owner individually.

Consequences of treaties

When the treaties were first introduced, they were presented as agreements that would benefit all parties involved. However, after less than 50 years after the first treaties handing over land ownership to the crown were signed, Canadians had already exceeded the population of people occupying upper Canada and other parts originally occupied by the indigenous people such as the Great Lakes basin (Asch, 2014). More land was claimed as additional colonists occupied the land as they needed room for farming activities. The indigenous people signed about 35 treaties and unknowingly surrendered all the lands in upper Canada and all the rights to the productive lands for farming on the south and the natural resources that existed in regions such as Georgian Bay and Lake Superior. 

Although the occupation started as peaceful dealings between the crown and the indigenous people, the demand for more land as more settlers came led to pressure between the two as the crown pushed the indigenous people further away from the prime land (Borrows, 2010). The errors made by the elders when they failed to fully understand the terms of the treaties or the authority they held began to be felt. The crown exploited loopholes created by poor description of terms, missing signature, and lack of clarity on where boundary lines were drawn to take advantage of the indigenous people (Borrows, 2010). This led to the onset of complaints and inquiries by the indigenous people as they sought to regain control of their land. 

           Although the treaties favored Canada more than the indigenous people, they benefited both parties involved especially in the early stages. The Maritime treaties for instance sought to establish peace and foster friendship between the crown and the indigenous people (Aldridge & Fenge, 2015). Some of the terms agreed on in the treaties also sought to enable the indigenous people to engage in trade without restrictions and carry out fishing and hunting as they had in the past. Other than the treaties, the crown further provided food and ammunition as well as offering protection to the indigenous people. 

           Another example is the Seven Years War where the French, British, and Americans established treaties with indigenous people like the Indians due to the advantage they had in battle. Since the war was fought on foreign lands, the indigenous people were accustomed to the environment and could fight in environments that were too hostile for the foreigners (Montpetit, 2011). During the war, it became clear that strong alliances with the indigenous people created an advantage and the crown sought to establish such relationships through the treaties. In 1775 for instance, the British Imperial Government in London took control over treaty-making as a way to better control the colonies (Morin, 2020). To enhance their control, the British Imperial Indian Department was established and placed between the northern and southern branches which were separated by the Ohio and Potomac Rivers. The department functioned as an extension of the military as it governed under the king’s authority. 

           Attempts to gain more control in the region led to Sir William Johnson being elected as the head of a branch established to the north and greatly influenced the development of English speaking in the regions occupied by Canada. The northern branch was responsible for the continuity originating from Johnson's leadership which was an improvement of the old Covenant Chain and how Canada handles modern-day affairs related to the governing of indigenous people (Morin, 2020). The alliance established between Sir William Johnson and Molly Brant; his Mohawk adviser helped the crown to neutralize the French influence in the region. The treaties established by the two parties helped to protect the indigenous people's land from falling under the control of the Anglo-American colonies as doing so would have given them control of the northern border. 

           After the war, agreements were made between Johnson and the indigenous people that made up the seven nations of Canada. they included the Mohawk, Huron, Anishinaabe, Abenaki, and Onondaga people. the agreements guaranteed protection of the regions near St. Lawrence Valley and along Lake Ontario as well as the right to trade and practice religion (Borrows, 2010). The Murray Treaty of Longueil for instance was singed by General James Murray and the Indigenous people of Huron and it promised that the crown would offer protection to the indigenous people thereby safeguarding their security following the French retreat. 

           Various developments have been made to ensure that treaties protect the interests of both the indigenous people and the crown. Although treaties that addressed issues related to portions of Aboriginal rights to land in different parts of Canada occurred in the past, there are various on-going negotiations related to land and distribution of resources still ongoing (DOJ, 2020). The years after 1973 for example are considered an era for the modern treaties. This was facilitated by the decision by the decision made by the Supreme Court in Canada to recognize Aboriginal rights. The Northern Quebec and James Bay agreements were signed following the Supreme Court's ruling as comprehensive land claims policy and modern treaties were enacted. The modern treaties comprise 25 additional treaties signed after 1975 to advocate for positive change such as advocating for indigenous people to be allowed to govern themselves (Aldridge & Fenge, 2015). The treaties have helped to develop positive relationships between the federal government and 97 different indigenous communities which comprise roughly 89000 indigenous people. 

           Through these treaties, indigenous people have been granted control of land that is almost the size of Manitoba, 600000 km², and have overseen capital transfers of more than 3.2 billion dollars (Asch, 2014). Other than offering compensations, the treaties have also facilitated the protection of the indigenous people's way of life. The locals are allowed to practice their customs and traditions and are given more opportunities and access to resources. The indigenous people also actively participate in decisions affecting the ownership, management, and use of land as the treaties seek to protect the rights and freedoms of the indigenous people. 

           Throughout history, Canada's approach when negotiating treaties has evolved to be more accommodating to the interests of the indigenous people. The relationships that the indigenous people have had when signing treaties combined with the new indigenous laws and joint innovations during the signing of new treaties have greatly helped to ensure that the indigenous people are not exploited (DOJ, 2020). The government continues to advocate for cooperation and respectful dealings during treaty negotiations as a way of ensuring that all parties involved reach agreements that are beneficial to everyone. Discussions are also being held to try and come up with solutions for treaties enacted in the past that continue to oppress the indigenous people to develop better treaties. 

The evolution of the treaty process in Canada reveals the various steps that were involved in the evolution and shaping of Canada. The continuing discussions and new treaties signed are an indication that the challenges that existed in the past have been dealt with or are being addressed in ways that do not affect the overall impact that the treaties have had on the Crown and the indigenous people. Different terms are being discussed to help offer better opportunities to the indigenous people and increase the protection of their rights and freedoms. 

In the past, the forming of treaties was often instigated by the Canadian government to gain unlimited access or unrestricted control to a piece of land or available resources. Although the treaties were designed to benefit the government, some of the policies enacted were intended to benefit the indigenous people as well or compensate them for parting with a piece of land or for compromising their rights (DOJ, 2020). Although some of the negative outcomes were unintentional, the majority of the negative outcomes were mainly because the crown placed its interest over those of the indigenous people (Morris, 2014). Later on, however, indigenous people started understanding the concept of treaties and how they differed from the approach taken by the indigenous people when making agreements. The realization led to the enactment of policies that sought to protect the interests of the indigenous people above all else (Morin, 2020). Rather than focusing on the interests of the crown, the new treaties focused on benefiting the indigenous people and any positive outcome on the side of the crown was mostly as a result of the activities carried out in favor of the indigenous people. 

The misinterpretation of terms that existed in the past has been rectified by the inclusion of indigenous laws and stakeholders who represent the indigenous community to ensure that the terms stipulated in the treaties do not end up oppressing the indigenous people. While there is little need for protection against attacks, the indigenous people still need policies that protect their rights and freedoms from being infringed upon (Morin, 2020). Since most treaties in the past tended to favor the interests of the crown, new treaties tend to focus on rectifying the unfair conditions and oppression that was carried out under treaties intended to take advantage of the indigenous people especially concerning ownership of land.


The varying opinions that exist regarding the impact that treaties had especially on the indigenous people are greatly influenced by the two viewpoints that existed when the treaties were introduced. although the treaty was the binding agreement, the indigenous people perceived the interaction with the Crown as the treaty. agreements and discussions held through word of mouth were often misinterpreted as the actual terms in the treaties. The belief made it difficult for the indigenous people to pay attention to the terms themselves an only relied on the explanations provided by the crown regarding the treaties. Since the government was responsible for enacting the treaties, they fully understood the terms dictated in them, as well as how to go about creating loopholes that benefited Canada, often at the expense of the indigenous people. 

           Although the treaties were supposed to benefit both Canada and the indigenous people, the difference in culture created communication barriers that resulted in the indigenous misinterpreting what the treaties sought to achieve. in the end, Canada was able to occupy land that originally belonged to the indigenous people. although the indigenous people enjoyed some benefits such as protection from hostiles, most of their rights were infringed on and their customs and traditions had to give way to the new mode of life introduced by the Crown. 














Aldridge, J., & Fenge, T. (2015). Keeping promises: The Royal Proclamation of 1763,      aboriginal rights, and treaties in Canada. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.

Asch M, (2011) "Aboriginal and treaty rights in Canada" UBC press

Asch, M. (2014). On Being Here to Stay. University Of Toronto Press.

Borrows, J. (2010). Canada's indigenous constitution. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

BORROWS, J. O. H. N. (2017). RIGHT RELATIONSHIP. Place of publication not         identified: UNIV OF TORONTO Press.

Department of Justice, (2020) "Principles respecting the government of Canada;s relationship      with the indigenous people" Government of Canada, retrieved from,               

Government of Canada,  (2020) "Treaties and agreements" retrieved from,               

Miller, J. R. (2009). Compact, contract, covenant: Aboriginal treaty-making in Canada.    Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Montpetit I, (2011) "Treaties from 1760-1923: Two sides to the story" CBC, retrieved from,     1.1081839

Morin B, (Morin, 2020) "Canada and the first nations: A history of broken promises"        Aljazeera, retrieved from,   nations-history-broken-promises-200316143613121.html

Morris, A. (2014). The Treaties of Canada with the Indians of Manitoba and the North-West        Territories: Including the Negotiations on Which They Are Based, and Other    Information Relating Thereto. Cambridge University Press

Ray, A. J., Miller, J. R., & Tough, F. (2000). Bounty and benevolence: A history of          Saskatchewan treaties. Montreal (Que.: McGill-Queen's University Press.



3685 Words  13 Pages

Indigenous people of Canada Public Policy

Research question 2

The nature of Indigenous relationships with governments in Canada.

 Indigenous Canadians or aboriginal comprise Indians, Inuit, and Metis.  Many issues have affected the lives of indigenous people and the root cause of the problem is the lack of relationship between the indigenous and the country. The aboriginal and non-original people are divided by a well-being gap and the gap has remained unresolved.  Indigenous people including women and girls are misrepresented and they are vulnerable to abuse.  Lack of relationship has resulted in social and economic dysfunction in Aboriginal communities. Aboriginal people have a culture of poverty, they experience a high rate of unemployment, incarcerations rate is high, they rarely enjoy social welfare, and the illiteracy rate is high, among other problems.  The federal government and provincial governments have tried to solve these problems to meet the interest of Aboriginal Canadians.  For example, the provincial government has employed provincial staff who play the role of management of natural resources and help Aboriginal communities access the resources in areas such as Ontario and Columbia.  However, Aboriginal people have not benefited from these initiatives, and they continue to face frustrations. This means that there are many urgent issues and challenges that need to be addressed. The purpose of this paper is to focus on future relationships or new ways of alleviating social and economic challenges affecting aboriginal Canadians.  It is important to note that the governments should not only focus on providing the services to Aboriginal communities, but it should also focus on building relationships that promote trust, mutual respect and mutual goals.  In building peace and relationships with indigenous Canadians or to promote reconciliation, the government should embrace indigenous peoples' traditions, their practices, and policies, give them a sense of hope, promote their well-being, and help them gain self-sufficiency and self-reliance.

 Focusing on the nature of the relationship between the Indigenous Canadians and the government, it is important to note that the relationships go beyond affairs that lead to government funding, provision of energy, clean water, education, among other resources (Alcantara et al. 2016).  Note that the government has been providing these resources as a way of promoting collaboration but still, the Indigenous have mistrust toward the government or the rapport between the Indigenous and the government has not been harmonious.   The answer to the question 'what is the nature of the relationship between Aboriginal people and the government is that the relationship is based on mutual recognition, mutual respect,   mutual responsibility, and sharing (Alcantara et al. 2016).  These principles of relationship indicate that the kind of relationship that is needed should be productive and it should promote mutual benefits. 

There have been many agreements between the governments and the Indigenous people.  These agreements mainly focused on the provision of municipal services such as water and sewer, fire protection, housing, and other basic services.  Besides, people from the First Nation and the federal government have signed agreements to build a highway, regional roads, bring economic development, conference centers, sewer management, and animal control, among other agreements (Alcantara et al. 2016). However, academics and the media have not recognized Aboriginal people in the intergovernmental agreements.  In talking about the Aboriginal Policy Making, academics and the media only recognize organizations such as federal government, municipal governments, and the provincial governments (Alcantara et al. 2016).  Despite the fact that the Aboriginal people and the governments sign agreements and cooperate on issues such as economic issues, land use, homeless program, and other issues, and concerns, the academics and the media do not pay attention to the role of Aboriginal people in policy-making but they treat the governments as the only entity in policymaking.

 Lack of recognition has been influenced by the absence of jurisdictional leadership.  In policymaking, the levels of government do not have knowledge or interest in Aboriginal communities. In other words, the senior's levels of government lack the clarification of responsibilities (Alcantara et al. 2016).  It is important to understand the negotiation and agreements promotes the relationship.   However, relationships can only be achieved if the agreement benefits both sides.  In this case, the Aboriginal people and governments sign agreements but Aboriginal people do not gain benefits.  This means that the agreements which are envisioned to promote relationship do not achieve the intended goal.  Therefore, to achieve the goal of achieving reconciliation and promoting relationships, the senior levels of government or rather the leaders should be in the frontline to promote strong relationships.  For example, the municipal government is expected to consult the Aboriginal communities or First Nations in facilitating the construction of infrastructures.  Even though the agreements state that the governments have a legal obligation to consult, it does not recognize the 'duty to consult' (Alcantara et al. 2016).   This indicates that even though the governments including the federal, provincial, and municipal play a great role in signing an agreement, they do not involve Indigenous actors. 

Focusing on the nature of the relationship between the Aboriginal Canadians and the government, it is important to note that to promote reconciliation and relationships, the governments should consult Indigenous actors. This is because, Aboriginal actors know their city's population, Aboriginal issues, among other issues in the Aboriginal communities. Indigenous actors or Aboriginal organizations would play a great role in educating politicians about Aboriginal issues that needs attention and also discuss with them the appropriate responses (Alcantara et al. 2016).  This kind of relationship not only solve the problems but it will also promote mutual respect. Thus, Alcantara et al. (2016) argue that the governments should recognize the Indigenous agency.  Note that the municipal government cannot address Aboriginal issues without consulting.  Thus, to attend to the issues and act on the Aboriginal agency should in the frontline. 

It is important to note that the nature of the relationship is not a complicated topic because it entails moving beyond the basic service agreements to include intensive collaborative governance. There is no big difference between basic service agreements and collaborative governance because the latter involves forming agreement and rather than depending on one party to fulfill the agreement, the parties work together (Alcantara et al. 2016).  Thus, the paper focuses on agreements typology that states the nature of the agreement.  Remember that agreement and negotiation are strategies of promoting relationships and since the paper's major theme is a relationship, it will identify the various agreement typology and how they would promote different patterns of relationships and mutual respect.


 The nature of the relationship

 Jurisdictional negotiation

  The great method of promoting relationship between   Indigenous and governments is through jurisdictional negotiations. This entails making agreements based on territory, infrastructure, resources, and other services. The negotiation also entails making decisions based on responsibility transfer on issues based on natural resources, access and water rights, and more (Alcantara et al. 2016).  Both parties (in this case the Indigenous and governments) can use different negotiation methods. At the end of the jurisdictional negotiations, Indigenous and one or all levels of governments should form relationships, and more importantly, mutual respect.  First, a relationship will be achieved through service agreement.   In this case, the governments should sign an agreement and allow the Indigenous to have access and autonomy in their community territory. For example, the government may provide fire protection.   Second, in jurisdictional negotiations, Indigenous and governments should promote relationships through joint-management treaties.  This means that both parties should collaborate in managing the services, administer resources, and share costs and revenues (Alcantara et al. 2016). This is a collaborative initiative and is different from service-agreement in that rather than delegating the responsibility to the government and wait for the government to act, join-management allows both the government and the Indigenous to have a shared responsibility. For example, in 2011, the communities of Pembroke Bonnechere, Petawawa, and other communities collaborated with the First Nations in recruiting medical professionals to mitigate the issue of shortage of medical services (Alcantara et al. 2016).  This is a type of join-management agreement in that both the Indigenous and other diverse communities had equal participation in coming up with the initiative.


 Relationship-building agreements

  The second way to promote relationships that would lead to mutual benefits is relationship-building agreements. This means that the Indigenous and the government should create a formal partnership and discuss the importance of mutual recognition,  and the need to focus on transparency and communication (Alcantara et al. 2016).  Note that before entering into the phase of collaborative police, Indigenous and the government should first agree to cooperate without legal binding. Relationship-building is very important it creates a path in which the Indigenous and the governments will discuss issues of mutual concern and create a partnership. For example, governments from the Ktunaxa nation and local governments created a memorandum of understanding (MOU) (Alcantara et al. 2016).  In the MOU  agreement, (a kind of relationship-building agreement),  the parties agreed to develop working relationships through commitment, respect and open communication in addressing issues  like economic development, infrastructure development, and more.  Similarly, Indigenous and the government should have a relationship-building agreement in that whenever they want to make decisions or policies concerning economy, land, or infrastructure, they should be guided by this type of agreement.

 Decolonization agreements

 The third method in which the Indigenous and the government should create a relationship that would promote mutual respect is decolonization.  This means that the Indigenous and the government should agree that Indigenous Canadians were the landowners until the period when Canadians colonized the territories.  The municipal and regional authorities should agree to let the Indigenous community enjoy their culture and inherent rights (Alcantara et al. 2016). This agreement is very important in that first, it will promote mutual understanding, second, the governments will agree that Indigenous should occupy the land, and third, the agreement will promote mutual respect.  For example, Okanagan and the First Nation signed an agreement in 1999 and the Okanagan and recognized that Westbank First National was the first to arrive in Okanagan and later the non-Native people arrived (Alcantara et al. 2016).They also agreed that the courts should focus on fairness and justice, and promote equality while addressing issues on Okanagan. The decolonization agreement created a lasting relationship, and it promoted mutual respect.


Capacity building

 Capacity building is an important method that will promote long-lasting relationships and promote mutual respect.  All governments should create capacity-building support programs and give Indigenous active participation in these programs (Rakshit et al, 2018).  Such initiatives will give Indigenous a sense of pride, and help them increase their self-esteem. A point to note is that all governments, policy-makers, and other stakeholders should provide capacity building in multiple dimensions (Rakshit et al, 2018).  For example, they should focus on promoting their human development, political leadership, and other areas that give Indigenous the capacity to address their external and internal stresses and meet their needs.  Thus, capacity building is a process of social change in that it will bring leadership ability, knowledge, management systems, community cohesion, and interpersonal relationships.


 Empowerment for self-reliance

  According to the OECD (1999), many of the problems that Aboriginal Canadians are facing are a result of dependency or reliance on government. As a result, Aboriginal Canadians continue to be marginalized in social and economic areas (OECD, 1999). The solution to the problem of dependency is not on the government but it is the Indigenous communities. In other, Aboriginal Canadians should have a vision of development and become self-reliant. This means that they should foresee the opportunities and standards and struggle to achieve ownership and bring a difference in the nation (OECD, 1999). The process of striving to shift from being dependent to become self-reliant will strengthen the relationship and improve mutual respect.


 From co-management to autonomy

 This means that in labor market programs, Indigenous and the federal government have been co-managing the labor market. The co-management has played a significant role in building capacity (OECD, 1999).  However, when it comes to signing agreements, the Canadian governments have been acting as the seniors which means that Indigenous lack the opportunity to speak up (OECD, 1999). The current nature of the relationship states that Indigenous should have autonomy in creating and implementing the labor market programs.


 Self-determination and self-government

 This principle states that Indigenous people have their own ways of life such as customs and traditions, and inherent rights such as right political rights, economic rights, land rights, customs,  traditions, philosophies, and others (Wilson-Raybould, 2018).  The Canadian government should recognize and respect Indigenous title and rights, and involve them in modern treaties. The government especially the federal government should also change the structure of practices and allow the Indigenous to govern themselves (Wilson-Raybould, 2018). This will promote a sustainable relationship and allow the two parties to work together in the future. 

  Eliminate social inequality

 All governments and non-government organizations should bring a healthy development in the Indigenous communities.  Indigenous people have suffered from health issues, a high rate of incarceration, lack of employment, among other issues that demand a unified response (Satzewich et al.2000). A wise strategy is that the federal government should come up with an initiative to acknowledge the difficulties and challenges that the First Nations have encountered and work toward healing the wound.  This strategy with foster reconciliation and build healthy relationships.  Another important point is that   Aboriginal communities are socially different.  This has brought a fundamental division and inequality, especially in ownership and control (Satzewich et al.2000). To integrate Indigenous Canadians in a cohesive community, the federal government should promote social equality regardless of gender and race. 


  For many years, the relationship between Indigenous Canadians and governments has not been harmonious.  The government has been violating Aboriginal rights such as their cultural and religious practices, land rights, removal from indigenous communities, violation of their aboriginal identity, among other problems. However, Canada is in a reconciliation era-meaning that the Indigenous people and the government are working toward building long-lasting relationships that would bring mutual benefits and promote mutual benefits. The research paper has researched the nature of the relationship and found that the relationships are mainly based on recognition. The federal and provincial governments should realize this strategy and strive to recognize their rights and interest, and more importantly, accept that they are Native in the land.  The government should address their claims, acknowledge their concerns, remove barriers in their territories, and come up with new policies and programs that focus on alleviating all legal barriers.  In summary, the relationship between the Indigenous peoples and the government should be based on the recognition of rights and interests.




















Rakshit R., Shahi C., Smith (Peggy) M.A., & Cornwell Adam. (2018). Community Capacity

Building for Energy Sovereignty: A First Nation Case Study." Sustainability in

Environment, 3(2)


Alcantara, C., Nelles, J., & Institute of Public Administration of Canada,. (2016). A quiet

evolution: The emergence of indigenous-local intergovernmental partnerships in



 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (OECD).  (1999). Decentralising

Employment Policy: New Trends and Challenges: The Venice Conference. Paris: OECD



Wilson-Raybould, J. (2018). Principles Respecting the Government of Canada's Relationship

with Indigenous Peoples. Department of Justice Canada


Satzewich, V., Wotherspoon, T., & University of Regina. (2000). First Nations: Race, class and

gender relations. Regina: Canadian Plains Research Center.

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Book review

The book ‘Clearing the plains: Disease, politics of starvation and the loss of aboriginal life’ by James Daschuk (2014) draws attention to the inhumane acts that Canada engaged in when trying to get rid of natives. Throughout the book, the author presents the various approaches employed by Canada and the effects that they had on the locals. A good example is the case where Canada cleared a plain to further weaken the natives who were already starving. The region had been struck by famine and this had resulted in a severe decline I the number of bison that the natives relied on for food. The Canadians acted under the notion that they were trying to bring progress to the lands they sought to expand to as a way to justify their actions. The acts they carried out however affected the natives more as a significant number lost their lives or had to flee to foreign lands.

Throughout the book, the author shows the correlation between the actions that the Canadians engaged in and their consequences on the natives. While the original idea was to bring progress, the desired results favored the Canadians and placed the natives at a disadvantage. Although a great number of natives were either manipulated, forced or willingly agreed to relocate in order to allow the progress promised by the Canadians, the progress only sought to benefit the Canadians more.

The author points out how, despite the Canadians promise for progress, the indigenous people are yet to enjoy the benefits promised. The indigenous people are the ones most affected by issues related to poverty, racism and low life expectancy (Daschuk, 2014). The Canadians on the other hand are seen doing better off and this, according to the author, is as a result of the occurrences that took place when the Canadians first engaged with the natives with the false promise of bringing progress.


Dashuk J, (2014) “Clearing the plains: Disease, politics of startvation and the loss of aboriginal    life” U of R press


339 Words  1 Pages


Presently, Canada is undergoing another shudder of argument on the legacy of its pioneer prime minister, John A Macdonald. Even though he was a prolific leader who laid the solid groundwork for the future development of modern day Canada, some people are of the opinion that he was responsible for causing a rippling effect on destructive elements in terms of policy formulation. Nevertheless, the public cannot dispute his contribution. There is no shadow of doubt that he performed his duties with passion and he had the leadership qualities, which took Canada then next level. Born as Sir John Alexander Macdonald, in 11th of January in the year 1815, Scotland and died in the year 1891, he rose in the political world to become a well-known prime minister of Canada 1867 to 1891. His leadership period coincided with early development of Canada. This essay will elaborate on his contribution to Canada through his effective leadership.

Background of John Alexander Macdonald

 Macdonald migrated from Scotland to Kingston, presently, Ontario situates in Canada around 1820. In the year 1836, he went into the bar. Later, the British assembly combined the higher and lower sections of Canada into Ontario and Quebec in an act known as Union, in the year 1840 (Martin 54). Macdonald came into parliament of Canada in the year, 1844. Between 1848 and 185, while his political party was in the opposing side, Alexander toiled at the British American association, elected for promoting unity within Canada and reinforce its relations with British. Rising compassion for reformation pushed Macdonald to bring forth an alliance government in the year 1854 in partnership with George Cartier, the front-runner in the eastern side of Canada, from which emerged the growth and formation of a liberal conservative political party with Alexander at the helm of the new political outfit. Later on, he used the party as his political vehicle to ascend into the prime minister position in the year, 1857.

            In 1864, Alexandra and Cartier came together and joined forces with their main rivals, George Brown for the sake of arrangement of association of British North America (Martin 104). After the discussions in Charlottetown with Prince Edward of London, they passed the British north act in 1867 hence producing Protectorate of Canada and Macdonald was its primary leader. In order to recognize his efforts and service, the same year, Macdonald received the award from the British Empire. Under his rule, Canada rose to fame, grew its borders, and included new counties such as Manitoba.

His most defining moment

            One of the defining moments, even though not known to many about John Macdonald is the fact that, he was the first person to occupy the prime minister position, not only in Canada but also in the world (Martin 59). He also tried to enact policies that would allow women to vote. He tried to extent the right to vote to women in the year 1885 through the House of Commons but the bill failed miserably. The one thing that stands out for this leader was his words, which he uttered during the house of common sessions, as he tried to convince other leaders to give women an opportunity to vote. John discussed women’s rights, which were often overlooked. Hence, his efforts were figurative even though he failed.

 Macdonald wanted Canada territories to remain free from American. He believed that Canada should align itself with British ideals because of Great Britain’s authority (Martin 123). As he campaigned for his last term in office, his objective was to keep Canada from trading with America. In addition, he lost after the exposure of the pacific scandal, which left every tongue waging. To the public eye, he ran for office and won with a huge margin.

Characteristics of John A Macdonald

In the 1860s, Macdonald was Canada’s most known leader and politician. He was clever, calculating, and witty, had good strategizing skills with stamina, and loved alcohol. During his tenure, he would prove to be instrumental in generating Canada into a functional state. John was tall, with loose legs, black hair, and loved caricature. His was charismatic yet courteous, flirtatious and had a lot female admirers (Martin 67). Apart from his public life, he had a personal life, marked with sad tales. Macdonald married his Isabella, a cousin, five year older than Macdonald. Isabella became sick and bedridden for year. She developed an addiction to opium and alcohol. In spite of his sickness, she gave birth to a boy who later died a year after his birth. The death of his son affected John so much, people close to him claimed, he never really got over the death and kept the son’s toys until his death. Isabella gave birth to another son who survived him. He facilitated his political career with charisma, determination, and smart negotiations. In addition, his dedicated his life to his family and people.

 He was a nation builder and led by example. In his prime, British North America was covers of territorial works (Azzi, and Norman 23). He left Canada a nation, stretching from one coastline to another. An appealing man and a clever manipulator who would move mountains and achieve the unthinkable. For instance, he convinced New Brunswick and Scotia into constructing Quebec and Ontario in establishing league in the year 1867 under his own administration, the coalition continued to expand and grow.

As one of the founding fathers of Canada and its first prime minister, his duties varied in terms of magnitude and frequency (Azzi, and Norman 26). By making North West police, Macdonald recognized the perpetual implementation of Canadian law in the western areas. By doing so, he was able to avert war and even civil war like the one witnessed in United States during its expansion.

Macdonald’s government enacted starvation policies, which assisted, perfect First nations from prairies for the sake of structuring the Trans Canadian routes consequently leading to numerous dead people (Azzi, and Norman 36). Aboriginals did not get any food until they travelled to reservation areas. Once, they started moving, the food was unsafe for consumption hence people suffered from malnutrition and sickness.

Contributed in the formation of Trans Canadian route. Then protracted the intercolonial routes, which lays between Quebec and Halifax near the coastlines (Azzi, and Norman 23). Nevertheless, before acquiring the contractual agreement for building British Columbia, his government and its administrators made sure huge monetary aids to Hugh Allan who was the founder of the railway.

Hoping to construct a robust industrial location within Canada, Macdonald’s state policy charged high prices on overseas imported items in order to regulate American rivalry. This strategy was relevant all through the World War 2 (Azzi, and Norman 45). More so, he decided to regulate his drinking habit when he turned 60 years old. From that day henceforth, no one ever saw him drank in public.

            In the year, 1883, he presented a bill to the national assembly, which would give single women a chance to vote for their leaders. The bill failed but he presented it again to the national assembly the next year but still it could not pass through, in the process, shedding light to the sufferings women underwent on a daily basis (Stanley 78). In terms of the transcontinental railway, it became a reality in 1885. He celebrated the railway transport by riding the train with his wife.

The ability to convince a huge number of people to follow your perceptions and dreams is not an easy task. It takes courage, good communicative skills, and charisma, understanding the people’s predicaments and how to meet them at their point of need. Macdonald was like an artist who knew how to strike a good relationship with his audience and ensure relevance through the issues he spoke about. At end of it all, he was able to transform Canada into a nation while taking into account the basic opinions of people (Stanley 123). As many scholars claim, he was good at what he did since creating unity from despair is an uphill task for anyone. There could be no Canada without Macdonald, he was simply a genius who stood the test of times and gave people a chance in life by creating a bright future for Canadians. Of course, many aspects changed after the reign of Macdonald; however, his shadow will always hover around Canada’s history.

His experienced coupled with the ability of persuading a large group of people will remain once of his greatest attribute (Stanley 207). From knowing how and when to execute, retrieve and initiate a strategy left most his plans success. For instance, he knew which strings to pull in order to get a good railway system, which would link Canada to various places. His integrity and confidence to do what was right made achieve success in many ways. Without solid integral values, he may have failed terribly in establishing some of the country’s land marking projects and serving the people with his talents and intellect. The assertiveness he needed to join the upper and lower sections of Canada into one section was not short of amazing, to say the least.

Macdonald was able to inspire his followers or supporters. Perhaps the most challenging job for any leader of Macdonald’s caliber is persuading the crowd and pushing them toward the same boat. Any leader needs loyal followers hence the need to inspire others into action and believing ideals of the leaders (Stanley 213). When the journey became tough, a good leader keeps on the course and retains focus of the objectives. John was able to handle various issues well, even though, he was under immense pressure. In, the process, he gained followers and won elections after his term came to an end. Therefore, he was a positive leader with a vision of changing the state of the Canada regardless of the uphill task. Putting words spoken into action is key even as pressure increases all over the place.

 The standing qualities of Macdonald mad him standout from the rest of the leaders Canada had to offer during that era. He easily won over the support of many people due to his impeccable skills and relating with people and their challenges. He exhibited humility and people saw him as one of them. In addition, he dedicated his time and talents to assist communities all through his life’s course (Bakvis, 61). As some scholars say, leadership is not a position. In fact, his life story reveals his determination to save and keep people safe from harm through formation of policies that shape and enhance the state of the economy. In other words, he took his time to serve and influence the lives of other people positively hence, he came out as a genuine leader with an open heart, willing to serve.

John A Macdonald became famous for the manner in which he socialized around the public. He was kind man and courteous to each and everyone around him. As a result, people loved his company, as he was humorous and as usual, generated a calm tranquility around people he was with. All of his social skills made it possible for him to leave a lasting impression on the people he associated with (Stanley 112). For example, he went to the council house and met more than thirty farmers and after conversing for a few moments, he knew them by their names. In another occasion, one of his guests was astonished with his courtesy and hospitality that he described him as a good man with good leadership qualities. Simply put, he became more famous for the manner in which he handled people and issues that came with leadership or the position he held.

 There is no debate around Macdonald’s reputation as a Canadian leader with a vast influential grip on the country. There exists plenty of evidence to show his prowess as an outstanding leader with unique character and leadership skills, unmatched and relevant in the present world. After analyzing his character and prowess through the eyes of people who met him in person, his speech reveals a man who was great and filled with passion to serve and achieve the unthinkable (Carter 90). In addition, through the analysis of his speech, one could tell his character as a leader and a person who valued integrity and courage. According to his speeches, he was an active man, decisive, enthusiastic, and loved gin while at the same time extending of lead of kindness to his rivals. His flaws somehow were not shameful. In fact, his weak qualities made him appear normal and an average man just like his followers.

            Macdonald was an astute man with the ability of shaping perceptions for the better. For example, during the American civil war, he praised anyone who attempted to bring peace and calm in the troubled times. He lay down his personal feelings about America and gave the situation his undivided attention(Carter 250). After the war, he continued to avert the American economic model and was able to infuse his ideas into Canada without any trouble. One of his most notable attribute was uniting people and giving them a chance to thrive under his leadership. For illustration he join his rival into forming one territory and enhancing skills and supervising administration duties which made the people believe him in all governmental aspects. In terms of accountability he was able to be transparent and willing to accept his mistakes and recover any mistakes committed.

Leadership is not hereditary and thus one cannot be a leader from birth. Some may argue that the exposure to leadership positions at a young age sets one into a leadership path, early in their lives. However, exposure is not equal to attaining successful leadership. History has enough examples of people who failed to leave up to expectations although they were leaders from an early onset. Although all of the above may be true, leaders are made; it is fact that stands undebated for centuries as from the examples of Alexandra demonstrated above. People do not have qualities that make them leaders from birth (Pyne 199). In fact, leaders learn a lot from their day-to-day activities, which later shape their perspectives and decisions on various matters. On the other hand, enrolling to a program does not automatically make one a leader. Making a leader means that a person is willing to learn. Some people succeed and give out good results after learning while others fail. Leadership should be inspiring and motivating others to be a better version of themselves through daily interactions. Besides, people cannot except to follow an individual who does not inspire them to be better than they were yesterday. In other words, a systematic belief in humanity gives a leader credible followers that later crown him or her with leadership even without a position of authority. Leadership is not a position. More so, not a combination of qualities that helps one exerts authority over his or her subordinates. Rather, leadership is a service offered to all with good intention being the driving force of the person at the helm. Studies prove that an individual’s intentions inspire the qualities of a leader, which in turn stimulates him to take a position of service to all. For instance, a person who wants to affect his or her whole country has to run for the office of the president.

In summary, the first prime minister to serve was loved but received criticism in equal measure. John had various controversies such as the Pacific scandal which revolved around the construction of a railway. However, this does not imply he was not an effective leader. To say the least, he outdid himself during his tenure as a prime minister due to his ability to set pace and enact relevant and quality policies. His open book nature won him many hearts, which translated into followers and admirers. In the current world leaders have a variety of talents sets and qualities. Political leaders such as Macdonald standout due to their charisma and ability to sway the public on their side. He had a vision, stamina, and creative thinking hence pushing words into actions easily and gave out a hospital attitude every time he met people. No one can undermine the achievement of Alexander who enabled the formation of Canada territory and put in place policies, which enabled smooth running of the government. During his rule Canada became a formidable force due to John’s organizational skills and ability to move beyond the expected norms. The ability to convince a huge number of people to follow your perceptions and dreams is not an easy task. It takes courage, good communicative skills, and charisma, understanding the people’s predicaments and how to meet them at their point of need.







Azzi, Stephen, and Norman Hillmer. "Evaluating prime-ministerial performance: The Canadian experience." Understanding Prime-Ministerial Performance: Comparative Perspectives (2013): 242.

Bakvis, Herman, R. A. W. Rhodes, and Patrick Weller, eds. The hollow crown: countervailing trends in core executives. Springer, 2016.

Carter, Byrum E. Office of the Prime Minister. Vol. 2291. Princeton University Press, 2015.

Martin, Ged. John A. Macdonald: Canada's First Prime Minister. Dundurn, 2013.

Pyne, Stephen J. Awful splendour: a fire history of Canada. UBC Press, 2011.

Stanley, Timothy. "John A. Macdonald,“the Chinese” and Racist State Formation in Canada." Journal of Critical Race Inquiry 3.1 (2016).

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Research on the Canadian Red Cross



            The Canadian Red Cross organization mainly deals with activities like violence and abuse prevention, assistance in disaster response, offering swimming and water safety guidance and first aid. It is recommendable for the organization to formulate a decision-making risk approach which to will strengthen the trust of the people towards regardless of any misfortunes. The organization should take various steps to facilitate development and prevent cases like bullying. It should also put in to place some strategies that will facilitate prevention of misfortunes within the organization. There are several challenges faced by the organization one of them being the issue of government funding and the other one is criticism from the people.


            Canadian Red Cross is the most active organization among other organizations in Canada. The organization has greatly amplified and developed intense association with local communities, the Canadian government and other world humanitarian organizations. The purpose of the program is taking part in disaster response assistance, prevention of violence and abuse, guidelines in swimming and water safety, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and first aid course and offer services on maternal health in the nations with poor accessibility of healthcare. The organization has made people to develop a sense of distrust due to its some activities associated with it and has also been facing several challenges during its service delivery. It is important for the program to formulate some strategies that will enable it overcome the challenges and enhance development.

Opinion Concerning Lack of Trust by the People towards the Organization

            There is lack of trust by the people concerning the organization due to a case of contaminated blood donation within the organization. It is recommendable for the Canadian Red Cross to adopt a risk decision-making approach in order to revive the trust of the on people (Skinner et al, 2016). This would protect the organization from facing criticism arising from failure or misfortunes that might happen in the course of the service delivery and strengthen trust amongst the people. Lack of trust was caused by a situation when there was donation of contaminated blood. This incidence led to deaths of many patients which made people lose trust with the organization. This approach would help in prevention of re-occurrence of such cases and strengthen the trust of the people.

Strategic Recommendations for the Development of the Canadian Red Cross

            Unity in leadership

            Total participation of the organizational leadership is one of the strategies that can enable the organization to survive and be strong in future. The leaders ought to take part in social networks within the organization and the societies they serve (Waldman, Yumagulova, Mackwani, Benson & Stone, 2018). The leaders should also improve their trust with their partners for instance, the board members, donors, employees, clients and the society. They also improve support and communication in order to achieve the organizational goals and vision.

            Invention of decision-making approach strategy

             Adoption of decision-making approach is another strategy that might help in prevention of misfortunes within the organization. This will help to prevent occurrence of any kind of criticism (Skinner et al, 2016). Criticism might be caused by failure to do as per the expectations for instance, during certain procedures to the patients particularly invasive procedures like blood donation. The service providers ought to adopt the strategy to avoid finding themselves in certain pitfalls which might affect the public as well as the program itself.

Challenges Facing Canadian Red Cross


            Funding is one of the challenges affecting the Canadian Red Cross. The government funding system affects the staffing in the fact that the government is hiring more contract staffs for service delivery (Hart, Greenfield & Johnston, 2005). This has brought about doubts concerning the continuity of getting funds from the government. This is because of the way the government is employing the non-permanent staffs. Failure of the government to commission permanent workers has brought about fears to the members of the Canadian Red Cross concerning the sufficiency of funds in future to enable service delivery.


            The Canadian Red Cross used to donates blood but it has faced a challenge of criticism after donating blood contaminated with HIV/AIDs viruses (Charbonneau & Smith, 2015). This happened unconsciously when the viruses of the disease emerged but people were not aware. The organized was donating blood as usual to the patients but ended up contributing to deaths of many patients. Many people lost trust on it and it became a centre of criticism.


            There is an issue of lack of trust by people concerning the Canadian Red Cross organization due to some case of donation of contaminated blood. This has led to criticism against the organization. It is therefore recommendable that new strategies like formulation of approach of decision-making over risks that might occur during service delivery by the organization. Good leadership participation can highly facilitate to the development of the organization as they will enhance trust among the people by show of their partnership. Funding by government is one of the challenges the organization facing because there has been a tendency of the government engaging contract workers which create fears if there shall be permanent employment. Criticism is also a challenge the association has been facing as a result of some misfortunes that happened as a result of donation of contaminated blood a case that caused deaths of many people. The organization is having distrust from the people as a result of its actions and also facing several challenges. There is the need to formulate some strategies to overcome the challenges and enhance development.













Hart, T., Greenfield, J. M., & Johnston, M. W. (2005). Nonprofit internet strategies: Best practices for marketing, communications, and fundraising success. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.

 Johanne Charbonneau, André Smith, (2015); Giving blood; the institutional Making of    Altruism;routledge studies in sociology of health and illnesses, Routledge.

Waldman, S., Yumagulova, L., Mackwani, Z., Benson, C., & Stone, J. T. (2018). Canadian          citizens volunteering in disasters: From emergence to networked governance. Journal of    Contingencies and Crisis Management, 26(3), 394-402

Skinner, M. W., Hoppe, P. A. H., Grabowski, H. G., Manning, R., Tachdjian, R., Crone, J. F., & Youngner, S. J. (2016). Risk-based decision making and ethical considerations in donor         compensation for plasma-derived medicinal products. Transfusion, 56(811), 2889-2894.





1044 Words  3 Pages


Canada Versus Australia: Multiculturalism Edition

De Courcy, Michele. (2005). Policy Challenges for Bilingual and Immersion Education in Australia: Literacy and Language Choices for Users of Aboriginal Languages, Auslan and Italian. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 8, 178-3), p.178-187.

Bilingual Education In Australia

This paper takes a deep look into the author’s researched opinions on the political landscape, social integration, economic and academic features of bilingual absorption in the Australian educational curriculum and education department, One of the study cases reviewed in the article is progression of occupations that would help raise the bilingual agenda in Australia.


Hayday, M. (2013). Canada's Bilingual Education Revolution: The B&B Commission And Official Languages In Education. Canadian Issues, 29-33.

Bilingual education in Canada

After establishing a  Royal Commission that would handles all matters entailing Bilingualism and multiculture, the objective of the entire commission is in disarray after failure to live up to the expectation of many people. Even though the government made significant leaps in terms of acquiring two national languages, English is still a dominant language utilized by many. Thus, French-speaking people have to conform to the traditions without question. In 1971, enactment of multicultural guidelines indirectly affected the application of bicultural Canada pushed and promoted by the Bilingual Commission. For example on had to use qualifiers if he or she wants Canada to be a bilingual, However, it is obvious that majority of Canadians cannot converse in both French and English. In the end, the politicians and lawmakers shifted the attention to education system and its ability of making Canada a bilingual country.



Herzog, B. (2014). Being Canadian: Dual Citizenship in Historical Perspective. American Review of Canadian Studies, 44(4), 448-466.

Dual citizenship in Canada

Citizenship is similar to an identity of each person living in a specific nation. The definition above reflects on Canada’s 1949 laws, which puts into perspective the country’s opinion on its own principles pitted against the rest of the globe. The citizenship enacted in 1977 aimed at bringing together Canada’s policies on immigration and existing naturalization rules with multicultural concepts shared by many people across the globe. Furthermore, via endless debates on citizenship laws, media’s outlook and influence, politicians’ stand  and diplomatic ties on dual citizenship, the author of the article suggests that the function and patriotic aspect of  citizenship laws is essential for political purposes consequently assisting the country achieve its short and long term objectives. Besides pursuing national goals, enacting citizenship laws is a strategic way of integrating the English world with the French and as a result, opening the country to new doors of opportunity and friendship. Thus, putting in place independent laws and permitting dual citizenship opens the gates to other people. A country cannot live in isolation from the rest of the world.

 Taking a closer look at the debates pertaining citizenship laws within Canada presents an important agenda to any observer. First, even though legislators over the passing years accepted citizenship laws as an emblem of integrity, progression, and coming of age, the judicial mitigations and measures failed in the quest of preserving the national identity of the people. This failure comes out whenever the country handles a task concerned with national adherences.

 In fact, when politicians refused to pass the dual citizenship bill in 1946, it was not to retain the exclusivity that comes with nationality status but they had a negative attitude toward the bill and dual citizenship.

. Levett, C. (2015). The value of Australian citizenship. Australian Nursing and Midwifery Journal, 22(8), 48.

Dual citizenship in Australia

On 26th of each month of January, Australians get the opportunity to reflect on their loyalty and love for their country. The day has different meanings to everybody. Thus, whether one became an Australian by birth or other means, they get a chance to appreciate the country and the benefits that come as a result of being a citizen. The bottom line or aim of setting apart this day as a holiday is to show loyalty to the country. Whether Australian or not, respecting the country’s values and freedoms it upholds automatically makes you an ally because you have their interests at heart. Accepting the Australian citizenship means, that one has confidence in committing to the country and the rule of law governing the country. Citizenship means that Australia is home and one has to take responsibility to make the country a better place for him or herself and other Australians.





Mann, J. (2012). The introduction of multiculturalism in Canada and Australia, 1960s–1970s. Nations and Nationalism, 18(3), 483-503.



Country Has an Official Policy of Multiculturalism

This article has a strong standpoint on development of dual citizenship laws and multiculture. Canada and Australia have common elements of multicultural reforms. To emphasize further, it discusses issues on enactment of multiculturalism and compares values and policies. Canada and Australia share a similar background in terms of their viewpoints on multiculturalism and citizenship. The only notable difference is the Frenchmen living in Canada. After the arrival of various nationalities in Canada, Canada experienced an alteration in national identity due to French and British people. In other words, Canada had to accommodate its friends by creating multicultural policies.

Ng, E., & Metz, I. (2015). Multiculturalism as a Strategy for National Competitiveness: The Case for Canada and Australia. Journal of Business Ethics, 128(2), 253-266.

Adoption of multiculturalism in school curriculum

In this particular article, the author introduces a concept the other articles failed to include in their works and that is the benefits of multiculturalism in a country. Multiculturalism can serve as an effective tool in enhancing competitiveness in all sectors of a country including schools. Consequently, benefits of integrating school curriculum with multicultural policies would naturally entrench the values and beliefs of foreign cultures with Canadian traditions hence making students tolerant toward other cultures. To put it simply, integrating with other cultures increases talent incorporates tolerance increases the political stability of a nation.




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