Edudorm Facebook

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

Discussion Readings: (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.)

Discussion Questions:

1. In class and this week’s news articles we learned how to use black holes as a way to “time travel” into the future. Suppose that there were some other way to travel into the past instead (NOTE: You would not be able to do this using a black hole!). If you could make the trip safely, where in the past would you go to, and why?

2. Black holes are easily one of the most popular types of objects discussed in introductory astronomy classes, and theories and observations regarding black holes appear in popular-level news articles very frequently – despite their general rarity, small size, and exceedingly small impact on Earth-focused astronomy. Why do you think that is the case?

Please have citation in the answer.

177 Words  1 Pages


NASA delayed in implementing safety standards and this led to the loss of life of seven astronauts. NASA’s institutional practices were the root cause of the accident (Howell, 2013).  The organization showed inadequate concern and it presented ‘a silent safety program’.  This bad culture had long-term effects and it has depreciated given that for many years it has relied on outsourcing and rather than promoting safety they concentrate on ‘Faster, better, cheaper’.  Despite the fact that NASA knew about the foam in the space, managers believed that foam-shedding was inevitable and was a ‘turnaround issue’ (Dick & Launius, 2006). According to the Columbia Accident Investigation Board, NASA had not created change till 1980 and there were no effective checks and balances as well as safety programs. Investigation also found that NASA is an organization with risk-avoidance system and it has the responsibility to ensure that astronauts are safe while in the space. However, NASA caused Columbia tragedies due to “normalization of deviance” (Dick & Launius, 2006). Prior to the tragedy, there was a foam containing ice in the Columbian orbiter which damaged the internal structure of the left wing and this resulted to loss of control.  Research said that foam is not dangerous but the   problem was that the heavier foam led to the accident and NASA could evaluate the ‘flight safety’ risk. The NASA’s upper management was not interested in investigating the safety and implementing change (Dick & Launius, 2006).


NASA should know that in today’s organization, change is inevitable and organization must modify management structures in order to survive. In order to develop a safety culture, the organization should implement positive behaviors and practices (Entwhistle, 2011). Focusing on the Columbian accident and NASA’s failure, the best strategy to overcome resistant is to commitment leadership. Note that engineers showed concern on the problems but the top management (senior NASA managers) had a bureaucratic mindset and they were not ready for change.  As leaders, they should show commitment ands this will help to make clear decisions and clear mission statements (Entwhistle, 2011).











Howell, E. (2013). Columbia disaster: What happened, what NASA learned. Retrieved from


Dick J. Steven & Launius D. Roger. (2006). Critical issues in the history of spaceflight. Government Printing


Entwhistle, T. (2011). For appropriateness or consequences? Explaining organizational change in English

local government. Public Administration, 89(2), 661–680.



Tummers, L., Steijn, B., &Bekkers, V. (2012). Explaining the willingness of public professionals to

implement public policies, content, context, and personality characteristics. Public

Administration, 90(3), 716–736.


427 Words  1 Pages
Get in Touch

If you have any questions or suggestions, please feel free to inform us and we will gladly take care of it.

Email us at Discounts

Busy loading action
  Working. Please Wait...