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In what ways did archeological evidence and the ideas of Abbé Laugier influence Neoclassical architecture? Were there other sources of inspiration? Did it just entail the copying of Classical buildings or was there something more creative and complex going on? Answer these questions using the PDF readings provided and present a Neoclassical building as an example, explaining the key features of its context, function, and design. Finally, are there any buildings near where you live that were influenced by Neoclassicism? If so, explain.

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Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
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  • Identify one similarity and one difference between any two species you observed. The similarity and difference do not have to be from the same species.

    ·Explore, elaborate, explain, and analyze the similarity and difference you have identified.

    ·Explain what this exercise has taught you about locomotor patterns of primates, relationships between locomotion and behavior, and relationships between humans and other primates. Reflection essays should discuss social interaction as well as locomotion and behavior.

    ·Include the titles of the videos you watched (with links to any outside materials, which is highly encouraged),
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Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
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Please review the instruction carefully and write according to it. I have attached documents for the three pieces of evidence. Please provide quality and original work

Critically analyze a regime of power and knowledge involved with the medicalization of women’s bodies. From an intersectional feminist perspective explain how women of different sexual orientations, classes, ethnicities, races, ages, etc., are subject to the medical gaze in different ways and to various degrees. Explicate one example of how women exert their agencies to challenge the disciplinary processes of biopower and biopolitics. Conclude with your critique of our post/trans human era of NBIC technologies, and its impact on and possibilities for women and their relationships with their bodies and the medical establishment.

In your essay cite three specific examples to support your analyses: one from lectures, one from assigned readings, and one from media shown in lectures, for a total of three. You can site more examples, but it is better to have three well-described and well-analyzed examples than six briefly mentioned examples! UNDERLINE THE FIRST SENTENCE OF EACH EXAMPLE

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Question: Analyze the role of ethics and values in conducting anthropological research abroad (beyond one’s own society).

I attached my textbook pages, those pages should be the primary reference source.

Please use proper citation.

The word count should be between 350- 500 words.

This is the textbook title:

Mirror for Humanity: A Concise Introduction to Cultural Anthropology
Conrad Phillip Kottak, 2018
McGraw Hill
ISBN.13: 978-1-259-81842-4

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Examine anthropology’s dual identity as a member of both the social sciences and the humanities. What advantages and problems do you see rooted in this dual identity?

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An important characteristic of culture is that it always involves relations of power. Identify and critically discuss an example of a sociocultural relation of power from the first three weeks’ lectures, readings, or media. What specific form of sociocultural relations of power do you experience in your own life, and how do you negotiate it?

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Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
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the course about a European history region and we should choose a commodity and talk about its history in Europe but for this assignment, you need to write in 800 words, reflect on current trends (economic, social, political) that are taking place (and are harmful) because of the little-known history that your research is uncovering.

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Assignment Description & General Instructions:
    The things left behind or thrown away can hold more information about the people doing the discarding then their cities and monuments.  While archaeologists of the early 20th century sought the tombs of kings, modern archaeologists place a greater focus on the homes and middens of the most common socioeconomic classes.  The trash of the common member of the culture is far more instructive than the tombs or houses of the economic elite.
For this assignment I want you to record everything your throw away for one week.  If you live in the dorms gather data on your roommate’s garbage as well.  If you are part of a household or live off campus record what is thrown away at your residence.  It is not necessary to take out your trash and go through it, but if you eyeball it and discuss with other people in your residence what they have discarded you should be able to obtain the needed information.  Then tell me, in an essay of at least 300 words, what you think your refuse says about you and possible those that you live with.
The interpretation is the tricky part and I often advise students to imagine the garbage belonging to someone else, perhaps a neighbor.  Then ask yourself some questions about the garbage and what it tells you.  It might also help to break up the information into three categories.  What does the garbage tell you about…
    •    The culture in general.
    •    Your specific domestic unit.
    •    What doesn’t the garbage tell you?
Here a series of more detailed questions to help you:
    •    What does the refuse tell you about the household?  
    •    Can you gauge the socioeconomic class of the household?  
    •    Can you tell how many individuals were part of the household or if the refuse was even from a single household?  
    •    What is the political or economic system of the culture?  
Put careful thought into your analysis.  I will be expecting you to be able to describe how the items of refuse provides the information you present as well as painting an image of the culture that created the refuse.  You should be careful not to overstate your data or give in to cultural bias or “assumed” knowledge.  Everything you say about your culture should be tied to specific items in your garbage.
Please include your list of things that were thrown away; though it does not count toward the minimum length requirement, it is necessary for me in order to grade your assignment.

Grading Rubric:
Analysis – 50%
    •    25 points:  The individual domestic unit and cultural as a whole are discussed using concrete examples from the list of garbage.  In addition the student offers information on what the refuse would not tell an investigator.
    •    15 points:  The student discuses both the domestic unit and the larger culture using concrete examples from the list of garbage.
    •    10 points:  The individual domestic unit and cultural as a whole are discussed is low detail.  Some specific items from the list of garbage are mentioned.
    •    5 points:  Only one context is mentioned in the essay.  Few items from the list of refuse are mentioned.  
Essay Quality – 40%
    Format:  The assignment is written in essay format.
Grammar & Spelling:  The essay is clearly written and thus easy to read and comprehend and the words are all correctly spelled.  This is often the portion where students loose the most points.  I will be subtracting points for each misspelled word and grammatical error.
List of Refuse – 10%

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                            The evolution of primate locomotion and body configuration



            The evolution of primate is dependent on the changes that occurred in their body structures which in return enhanced their adaptation to locomotion. Evolution is one of the primary factors that have enabled animals to adapt well to changing environments so as to take advantage of the newly exploited resources. As a result of body configuration and improvement in movement speed, primates have had the propensity of withstanding changing or hostile environment and escape predators much easier than before (Fleagle, 1999).  The changes that primates underwent are significant for survival and existence.

            Evolution and body configuration enables primates to increase the chances of survival. Primates that only managed to evolve dental structures and brains and not their body structure have minimal rates of survival. In the animal kingdom, primates have various variations in terms of their behavioral and physical characteristics which in return make evolution to occur. Each primate encounters fierce competition for the little natural resources available so as to survive. In case primates manage to develop changes, it means that the evolution pathway they might have will also be impacted (Fleagle, 2014). Lifestyle, geological, and climatic conditions are the main factors the evolution of primates largely depends on. In this essay, the four grades of primate evolution will be used as the basis for analyzing and discussing how their bodies have been modified over time so as to make primates to be well adapted to their environment.

                                                Grade I- The Lemuroids

            Over the years, lemuroids have exhibited evolutionary changes that have enabled them to increase the chances of survival. During the early stages of evolution, lemuroids have bent structures. Naturally, their spine was horizontal. Although they were relatively slow in movement, they dependent on feet and hands to walk. At the same, they used these structures not only to escape their predators but also to carry food. With time, a group of lemuroids started to stand in the process of trying to reach higher tree branches to access food. Eventually, transformation of their spine started to occur to facilitate vertical mobility (Haviland, 2013). Research regarding the evolution of lemuroids indicates that they are the only primates having a flexible or an elastic vertebral column.

            As time went by, lemuroids have managed to develop relatively stronger body muscles that ease the task of leaping from one tree branch to another. With the aid of their hind legs, they have the ability to jump across for a long distance. The development of this skill occurs when they are young and continue to perfect it before attaining adulthood. In most cases, perfecting leaping by young ones is the duty of their parents because at that younger they could have not developed strong muscles. According to the fossil records collected, they indicate that although lemuroids were initially leapers, they were not efficient in leaping (Lewis et al., 2010).  This is because before attaining adulthood, their limb muscles used to wear off quickly. As a result of that, it was difficult for them to escape predators because of getting tired easily. As a result of developing elongated hind legs tissue muscles, lemurs are given the propensity of running faster and leap faster and easily from one tree branch to another. According to paleontologists, the reason as to why lemurs developed those flexibilities is because of fear of their predators and competition for natural resources. Often, lemurs were always in danger when searching for food from the predators that tried to attack them. As one of their adaptations, lemuroids developed the capabilities for standing straight and running using their posterior or hind legs.

            An example of lemuroids is the Sclater blue-eyed lemur. This primate can grow and attain a body length of ranging from 39 cm to 45 cm and a tail length ranging from 51cm to 65 cm. after they have attained maturity, its body weight can range from 1.8 to 1.9 kilograms.  Sclater blue-eyed lemur grows and develops strong hands and having palms resembling that of humans. The rubbery texture of their palms enables them to have a firm grip on tree branches. Although its tail is relatively longer as compared to its body, it is non-prehensile. Males have a solid black color with a little tinge brown color, particularly at their roots while females' hair color is a reddish brown color. Even though the eyes of both sexes are blue, the back of their feet and hands are dark in color with a gray or dark brown colored muzzle. Nonetheless, according to the information collected by experts, lemuroids drop abruptly from trees and run at an astonishing speed bushes when threatened by their predators. This adaptation makes predators fail to adjust their vision quickly before the lemurs have dashed off for its safety.

            For about six million that have passed, fossil records gathered indicate that the ancestors of lemurs had thicker and shorter hands. For instance, their phalanges were relatively shorter estimated to be approximately half an inch. Because of that, lemurs couldn't walk or leap from one tree branch to another while carrying a lot of food. Leaping from one tree to another was difficult because of their weaker grip. In the process of the desire to carry loads of food and leap from one tree to another, ancestral lemurs were forced to stretch their hands further. In return, their hands continued to develop longer phalanges, especially females. Whenever lemuroids fold or cup their hands, research indicates that they have extra space as compared to other species.

                                                            Grade II: Tarsiers

             Regions of South Eastern Asian forests are the main area considered to support the survival of tarsiers' species. Giant serpents and nocturnal predators were the main enemies of Tarsiers centuries ago.  During this time, the Tarsiers were bright in color thus making them be easily susceptible to predation. The fossil information collected indicates that they had elongated body structures with the least being 20cms. It this relatively smaller length of Tarsiers' body structures that proved to be the reason why they were vulnerable to predators particularly when were at rest. During an attack, it was difficult for Tarsiers to move swiftly to evade predators. As time went by, tarsiers started folding themselves to have the propensity of avoiding predators. The bending act was to make their cervical vertebrae to become shorter (Lewis et al., 2010). With time, the length of the Tarsier continued to be reduced as they can be seen currently. Their length is proximate to be at most 13 cm thus making it difficult for them to be sported when hiding in bushes.

             The study conducted regarding the structure of their muscle tissues and bones suggests that during the Eocene period, Tarsiers were free to move within their habitat. Since the tree branches were relatively shorter, the Tarsiers could swing from one tree branch to another. The shortness of the tree branches also guaranteed Tarsiers the required protection from predators. Although their movements were somehow quick, predators could easily spot and attack them because of the distance they had to cover to reach their hiding places. One of the techniques developed by Tarsiers is lying closer to the trees with their bodies folded and remaining immovable for hours (Haviland & Haviland, 2008). As a result of that, it was difficult for predators to spot them. Successive generations, over the centuries, managed to develop relatively stronger arm muscle tissues. This evolution was important for Tarsiers because it gave them the potential of hiding within the trees, remain immobile for long hours, and without losing grip from tree branches or getting tired (Haviland, 2013). The Tarsiers' aptitude to hide in crevices or tree branches for a long period is their primary means of survival. Unless when the Tarsiers were illuminated with light, it was difficult for predators to spot and attack them.

            Despite that, the reason as to why Tarsiers fake to be walking slowly is just a means of fooling their predators. From their lazy outlook, predators assume that they are slow and decide to attack them with little speed and force. This continues to be the survival means of Tarsiers. However, the Tarsier can manage to maneuver quickly between the tree branches. Since they have smaller body structures, such an adaptation enables them to easily evade their predators and hide quickly. They have a strong physique because of the structure of their body muscles. According to paleontologists, during the late year of evolution, the mechanisms that mostly Tarsiers used to attack predators entailed scratching them with their bodies (Wright et al., 2003). However, due to the fact that the presence of thick fur on their predators’ skin, the animal managed to develop stronger muscles. Such an adaptation was advantageous because it could enable the animal to throw the predator off balance.

             To protect young ones, females have developed a deep sense of awareness and have the potential of attacking predators that are much larger than them. In the process of using their body mass to throw the predator of balance, the female and her young one have a chance of scampering off to safety by hiding in small cracks where such an attacker cannot fit.

Grade III – The Monkeys

            Monkeys feature dominantly in the evolution theories of species. Present-day species habit varied environments throughout the planet such as tropical forests to mountainous terrains exhibiting adaptive features to survive. Anthropologists place the existence of the species to have originated way back in the Eocene period. Fossil records dated indicate Africa as their cradle of existence and evolution. Early fossils of monkeys were in the Zaire River where experts postulate that they had to compete with chimpanzees for food to ensure their survival. With the advent in molecular studies, experts place the chimpanzee and the bonobos as phylogenetically and genetically being closest to humans than monkeys. For example, examinations of the hand of the last common ancestor of the chimpanzees and humans correlate it to that of the modern-day African ape (Mitani et al., 2012). Old world monkeys have hands that exhibit similarities to that of humans than those of chimpanzees though they differ to those of early humans. However, the feet of the monkeys show significant differences from that of the bipedal human foot.

 For the monkeys to survive, they developed great muscle strength to guard themselves against predators. The stature of the monkeys was such that they were small, hence the need to develop muscle strength. It enabled them to swing from tree to tree that was characteristic of the densely forested environments they lived. As the environment changed due to climate factors, the unequaled muscle strength became vital in facilitating fast movement to escape predators (Glenn & Cords, 2002). The monkeys today, show different adaptations according to the environment they habit such as those in sub-Saharan Africa and the snow-covered mountains of Japan.

            The monkeys have evolved over time to develop long hands and legs that aid in movement. The long hands allow the monkeys that habit the equatorial forest to swing from branch to branch (branchial locomotion) to escape predators and reach for food. The long legs are an adaptation to conform to the changing habitation environment. They are spending more time on land as the forests become sparsely populated enabling them to move at a speed greater than the average monkey. In the forests, the monkeys were often at risk from small carnivorous predators that could move much faster (Nina, 2004). There was also the susceptibility to losing their hard-earned foods to small habitats that stole it. The increased speed was a way of protecting themselves and their stash of food from such threats.

Their hind muscles have increased to over 1 meter enabling them to move much faster than most of the predators in the forest. The primates which utilize their hind limbs dominantly such as the colobus monkeys and the langurs employ leaping in their movements unlike quadrupeds such as guenons. They exhibit suspensory locomotion in which they suspend themselves from branches by their arms. They regularly climb, leap, swing, and run in diverse ways (Glenn & Cords, 2002). However, changes in climate and geography have led to structural changes such as the chimpanzees in woodland savanna climate in Africa that have adapted to living on the ground.

            They also exhibit elongated bodies that were not characteristic of old world monkeys. The spine elongation has lengthened their bodies to at least 2 feet. The elongated bodies allow them to leap longer distances compared to other primates. The adaptation developed over 2 million years ago when the number of predators increased substantially in the forest biome. The capability to access far off branches enabled them to access better quality food. The monkeys have evolved to exhibit the most unique tail that is long and strong. The tail has stronger muscles than other primates. It not only enables them to leap but also as a means of protection from predators. The strong tail holds its weight as it reaches far off branches and as a limb as it carries food with both arms while still swinging from branch to branch (Nina, 2004). The tail has evolved to have a furry end that distracts potential predators. For instance, the predators may be watching the movement of the feet and hands when attacking, but may not consider a fast, strong-muscled, and furry tail that can knock off any opponent.

Grade IV – Apes and Man

            Paleontologists often correlate the evolution of man and apes as going hand in hand. They consider apes to be the early ancestors of man. The fossil bodies of the apes and man show similar elongations in that they were much shorter and exhibited thinner width. Due to their massive weights, the apes walked on all fours for increased support. Their fingers could not carry anything since they exhibited joint phalanges from which things slipped easily. The evolution of man showed significant differences to that of apes because of their desire to hold equipment and tools (Tuttle, 2014). The apes weighed over 200 kilograms becoming heavier than normal primates due to their thicker bodies and developed muscle tissues. Climate changes necessitated the apes to develop thick muscles in order to survive in cold weather. To survive in such climates, they developed thick furs with long multi-colored hairs (Huffman et al., 2013). All these adaptations enabled the apes to survive in the cold climates they inhabited.

            Contrarily, the evolution of man between Homoerectus and Neanderthal man enabled the development of elongated spines. Their general structure changed in that they began to depend more on their feet to support the weight of their bodies. The body mass of humans reduced significantly from 250 kilograms to the range of 100 kilograms. Similarly, man desired to handle tools and equipment leading to their hands developing elongated phalanges and separates. In the early Pleistocene period, Homohabilis’s brain developed, which enabled them to discover ways to make their lives better (Taggart, 2005). For example, due to its bigger brain, homohabilis discovered fire allowing them to cook their foods and scare away predators at night. As man continually used fire more and more, they began to shed their fur that had long enabled them to keep warm in cold climates. In the late Pleistocene era, however, both apes and man adorned reduced tails and eventually did away with the feature. Man and apes used the tails to gain a significant advantage over predators as they hunted and gathered. An interesting fact I found in the research is that experts in the paleontology field believe that both man and ape lost their tails by cutting them off in their young ones (Tuttle, 2014). It led to subsequent generations that had shorter tails leading to complete disappearance in the eventual generations of the species.

                                                Critique of literature review

            Sources containing the evolution of primates are extensively available. The argument presented concerning the fact that improvement in primates’ locomotion speed and body structures is the one that facilitated their survival means is clearly verified. With time, primates have managed to restructure their bodies to increase the chances of survival. During the Oligocene period, the monkeys’ population had reduced drastically as a result of the decrease in the number of their predators. The changes that occur in the movement speed and muscle strength is the one that leads to an increase in their population. This can be evidenced by the number of fossils that were retrieved.

            The information collected regarding lemuroids and tarsiers is relatively difficult to obtain. It is easier to obtain their fossil records. Although, the information collected by paleontologists indicates that the origin of tarsiers was South East Asia, it can be argued that once they immediately started changing, it is when their population started increasing. The literature concerning the evolution of apes and man is wide and readily available. The evolutionary changes that man has undergone are the one that is noted to have saved generations from extinction. The primordial fossils of man and apes prove to be a good source of evidence of their evolution.

                                    Personal observations at the LA Zoo

            To have firsthand information regarding the validity of the LA Zoo, I decided to visit the LA Zoo. During my visit, I had an opportunity of viewing chimpanzees as they were swinging on tree branches and bars. Their nurturing behavior is also another thing that appeared to be more interesting to me. I realized that one of the factors that make them resemble human beings is how the chimps took care of their young ones. The efforts of the mother chimps to care for their young ones reminded me how human beings' traits resemble that of primates.

 Another fascinating fact is that all the female mammals showed their young ones love. For instance, the traits of the gorilla, monkeys, and chimps were similar to that of man. What this suggests is the fact that mammals dedicate a lot of time taking care of their young ones as they grow. The reason for that is to teach them how to independently feed, avoid enemies, and survive. That is what reminded me of the true human connection and affection. Since they are intelligent creatures, they have developed techniques to aid them grasp food with their hands, use tools, or walk. The experience I had in the process of observing them during that day cannot be comparable to what I initially had from reading books, articles, and so on.

 One of the main challenges I encountered during that day was that some exhibits had been closed. The reason for that is because they were not scheduled to be open for public viewing. As a result of that, I only managed to view only 14 exhibits out of the 20 I had planned to view. The presence of noisy and disorderly children proved to be a challenge because they kept on banging cages thus irritating and frightening the animals. Finally, since it was a sunny day, some of the primates were hiding or had fallen asleep under shades.


            My research paper, I have validated the fact that changes in body structures and locomotion as a result of evolution are what give primates a competitive advantage to resources. Some primates such as monkeys have elongated body structures while others such as tarsiers have evolved and developed much shorter body structures. It is this evolution trait that I believe has increased the primates' chances of survival. Those primates that have not managed to evolve and improve their body structures and movement or locomotion faced extinction. The need to run away and hide from predators that have stronger muscles and limbs for leaping or running is what facilitated locomotion changes. Last but not least, the primate that does not manage to develop more and more adaptable body features and fastens their speed will not be able to adapt well with the ever-changing environment.  




















 Fleagle, J. (1999). Primate Adaptation and Evolution, New York: Academic Press

Fleagle, J. G. (2014). Primate Adaptation and Evolution. San Diego: Elsevier Science.

Glenn, M. E., & Cords, M. (2002). The guenons: Diversity and adaptation in African monkeys. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.

Haviland, W. A. (2013). The essence of anthropology. Australia : Wadsworth Cengage Learning

Haviland, W. A., & Haviland, W. A. (2008). Evolution and prehistory: The human challenge. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.

Huffman, M. A., Nakagawa, N., Go, Y., Imai, H., Tomonaga, M., & Kyōto Daigaku. (2013). Monkeys, apes, and humans: Primatology in Japan. Tokyo : Springer Press

Lewis, R. B., Jurmain, R., & Kilgore, L. (2010). Understanding humans: Introduction to physical anthropology and archaeology. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Mitani, J. C., Call, J., Kappeler, P. M., Palombit, R. A., & Silk, J. B. (2012). The evolution of primate societies. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Nina, G.J. (2004). Shaping Primate Evolution: Form, Function, and Behavior. Volume 40 of Cambridge in Biological and Evolutionary Anthropology. Cambridge University Press

Taggart, R. (2005). Biology the unity and diversity of life (DME/BS/08-104(1). Cengage Learning Press

Tuttle, R. H. (2014). Apes and human evolution. Cambridge, Massachusetts : Harvard University Press

Wright, P. C., Simons, E. L., & Gursky-Doyen, S. (2003). Tarsiers: Past, present, and future. New Brunswick, N.J: Rutgers University Press.

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Anthropology is the study of human beings in different features such as culture, evolution of man, and societal aspects and culture which conclusively differentiate other species from humans. Similarly anthropology focuses on different cultures and how they impact the modern world. Anthropological systems are significant in the sense that they portray human beings as they are, and it does judge them based on their culture (Levinson & Pollock, 2011). According to anthropology, all human beings are the same, nonetheless, the only difference is between the distinguishing cultures which they emanate from. As such, one is able to understand why some people tend to react differently to certain incidents than others.

            Anthropological systems best explain the way people live and interact with each other on neutral grounds without being bias. The way people in different regions perceive certain things as being important while others do not. In the modern world, culture change is majorly attributed to the new technology, which has led to the erosion of culture as people copy from other cultures. For example, most Africans can easily access European content from the social media, hence acquiring a new culture. On the hand, ranking societies on a scale based on literacy consequently makes a certain group of people to feel unappreciated, hence some groups of people tend to dominate over others, thereby leading to culture change (Levinson & Pollock, 2011). For instance, a society maybe ranked as the poorest in matters literacy, whereas in that society literacy is not valued at all. Similarly, the act of ranking countries based on literacy levels, Gross domestic product, basically makes some countries seem poor when in real sense they may be focused on other areas rather than GDP and literacy. This makes some countries particularly developing countries to feel inferior, hence absorbing the culture of developed countries. 

            The whole world is being forced to operate in a specific way, hence people are forced to adapt to a new culture in order to fit into the society. For example, countries which do not value literacy are forced abandon their own culture and instead focus on literacy as a new culture. This has consequently led to modern world crises (Carrier, 2012). For example, most countries have been forced improve their literacy levels with most of their citizens not being able to afford the cost of learning. A few people consequently get good education in such countries, hence getting good jobs, while the majority tend to remain uneducated. This leads to an imbalance in the society a factor which eventually leads to evil acts such terrorism which is a global crisis.

            Unemployment which is attributed to lack of education is among the factors which lead to terrorism, with the main factor being lack of political freedom. Adapting to new forms of government, which leads to the introduction of new forms of trading for instance the use of a common currency often made most people to lack political freedom thus leading to terrorism. Even though this is not a current issue, but it provides a current example of how people were coerced into forming terrorist groups in 18th century (Carrier, 2012). Terrorism has grown and terrorists are also adapting to new ways such as the use of the social media as a means of recruiting new members. On the other hand, terrorists tend to fight a religious war, in which they allege the Western powers are trying to corrupt their religion, in order to make Muslims to copy their way of life, hence they retaliate (Carrier, 2012).  


Levinson, B. A., & Pollock, M. (2011). A companion to the anthropology of education.

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Carrier, J. G. (2012). A handbook of economic anthropology. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

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 As Black as we wish to be


Many anthropologists claim that race is constructed culturally rather than biologically. The lived experiences of the residents of East Jackson fully support this claim. The community is African American, and occasionally they have been discriminated against for being Black, Biologically they pose all the elements that would make them identify as white; Blue eyes, fair skin and red hair (2:06). In other communities in the US having a great grandfather who was Black would not make one be considered as Black but here in this community being part Black no matter how small that part is makes one Black. For some of these families being Black is about history, character and love and nothing to do with Biology (30:10).  Despite Ally’s parents being Black, she makes a personal choice and chooses to be White. Being Black or White comes down to one's choice to the residents of East Jackson (48:09) it is a choice they did not have in the past, but now they do. Sometimes the choice is to honor tradition, one was raised Black, and they would have to continue being Black to honor tradition (48:58) or to honor their allegiances (49:01).

            Racism in the county was very much evident even before the 90s.  Every county in Ohio had its issues such as prejudice although East Jackson was faced by double prejudice and poverty (8:47). From 1860 to 1970, racism was at its worst in East Jackson. The process of eliminating racism in East Jackson was a slow process. Despite the fact that all were of the same social status, some groups in the East Jackson received special treatment simply because they were from another race that wasn’t Black (9:29). Before the 1930s or 1940s there was a sign that was placed at the city limits of Waverly town that warmed the Blacks to be out of town by the time it was dark the sign read “Negros get out of town don’t let the sun go down on me” (9:27).

Ally who identifies as Black in school is discriminated in school by White boys who at one point threw a deodorant at her and told her they thought she needed it since Black people need deodorants, it was in the middle of class and no one even the teacher defends her (20.00). She was regarded as dirty because she rode the Black kids’ bus. While joining high school, she was forced to identify herself as White in order for her to fit in with the rest of the teenagers. She was forced to lie every time she had to talk to her sister or any of her cousins at school, and this greatly damaged the relationship she had with her sister who identified as Black in high school.

The experience of social stratification of the residents of East Jackson was explicitly racist and not a matter of wealth, as mentioned earlier in the podcast. The White were more privileged than the Black.  At one point Ally brought a White boyfriend home and when the mother told him that Ally was Black and not mixed-race the boyfriend dumped her because he was White and could not be in a relationship with a Black woman.  The White relate to each other how nasty Black people are (30.33). The social identity that is ascribed to the residents of East Jackson by outsiders and the people of Waverly is Black. This status has also been ascribed to them by the government (41:06). Normally in the US race is about color but the lived experience of residents of East Jackson has proved that this is not true, race goes beyond the color of one’s skin.








Pike County, OH: As Black as We Wish to Be. Retrieved from;



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Applied anthropology



Anthropology is the scientific study of humans and their behavior and their societies in the past and present. Applied anthropology is the application of anthropological theories knowledge and methods to asses and solve societal problems. Applied anthropologist often work for groups that initiate, manage and promote programs aimed at influencing the social conditions of humans. Applied anthropologists have qualifications they have to meet. Their work has impacted fields such as the education, health, business and also helped in the growth of developing countries. It has continuously maintained its relationship with anthropology. Applied anthropology has helped the society solve problems arising due to culture. It has become an important tool in solving problems and in the advancement of society.

Applied anthropology provides anthropologist with strategies that are used to help communities attain their goals. Applied anthropologists spend their time solving problems in unique ways in the institutions they are working for, they take up various roles such as; need assessors, impact assessors, planners and research analysts. Need assessor are applied anthropologists who collect data on programs which are aimed to help the public, planners are the applied anthropologists who contribute and participate in designing the future programs, research analysts consist of those applied anthropologists who interpret the research results for decision makers, impact assessors are applied anthropologist who specialize in the prediction of the effects of the policy or program (Van, 2002). All these types of specialized applied anthropologists are important in the field of applied anthropology.

Applied anthropologists can help community members achieve their goal by empowering the people in the community through education and organization. They do this because they believe with education the members of the community will be able to represent the community and action is likely to be taken. This way applied anthropologists serve as advocates in supporting the work of the communities (Kedia, & Van, 2005). Research show there was a time applied anthropologist were not that much popular, but as the employment of applied anthropologies increased during the early 1970s, they started holding high ranking positions as key decision makers on matters affecting the society (Descola, 2007). The rise in their ranks shows the effectiveness of the methods they use when doing and analyzing their researches.

Applied anthropological researches are mostly carried in situations where an agency wants solutions and well collected data for them to make an important decision impacting others. Applied anthropologists have to work within time constraints that are set by others (Kedia, & Van, 2005). They must be equipped with methodological tools to help them cope with the nature of their work. Tools such as ethnography which is defined as a systematic way of documenting and interpreting human culture that is present, interviewing skills, data collecting and coding, and a faster way of familiarizing themselves with the language of the locals. Applied anthropologists should also have good communication and writing skills (Ferraro, 2008). These requirements are important in making a good applied anthropologist.

Applied anthropologists are required to be have strong ethics since the reputation of their work depends on a very strong ethical policy. This is very challenging because the researcher must be able to put a balance between the interest of the one who commissioned the work and the community that is being evaluated (Kedia, & Van, 2005) Applied work often require many people since it is a collaboration with large groups such as communities and organizations. These anthropologists must consider the ethics of all parties involved. the guidelines to guide tem have been developed over time as a result of bad conduct and both the anthropologists and communities end up hurt.



`Applied anthropologists have helped in the alleviation of human problems in so many ways. They are working as full time employees and consultants in developing countries. Providing information about communities to agencies after a well carried out research on local communities to. These information helps agencies adapt projects and programs that local communities need, an example of these agencies is the World Bank and the United Nations development program. The most vital role of applied anthropologists in such institutions is to provide policy makers with information and knowledge on the ecological and cultural nature of people so that projects initiated will not face unexpected problems and also to minimize the negative impacts that the project or the program might have (Peoples, & Bailey, 2015). These applied anthropologists are playing an important role in the advancement of a developing country. Applied anthropologists who have specialized in development anthropology are helpful in this area.

Applied anthropologists are now taking up jobs in educational public and private institution. Their role in these institutions is to conduct a detailed observation of classroom interactions between the trainers and students, and observing how trainers are teaching people from various cultural groups. After conducting a detailed observation, they suggest on teaching styles that can be used according to local customs and needs of the students. An example is what is taking place in America due to migration the students in schools are becoming culturally diverse. Trainers and teachers are needing the expertise of applied anthropologists to help them in coming up with learning methods they can adopt to teach students from other cultural background (Peoples, & Bailey, 2015). Applied anthropologists who have specialized in the field of cultural anthropology are the ones likely to work in educational anthropology.

Applied anthropologists are being hired by firms as consultants, thus creating an employment opportunity called corporate anthropology. When carrying out international trade people from different cultural heritage conduct trade with each other. These corporate anthropologists are hired to advise executive and sales personnel’s on how to conduct themselves and what to expect when carrying out business with other people who are culturally different from them. Applied anthropologists are also working in the private companies because of their skills such as good listening and observation skills. They observe and analyze how workers understand the functionality of office machines. They are also hire to observe and come up with conclusions on how the attitude of the manager affect worker’s performance (Peoples, & Bailey, 2015). This is evidence that applied anthropologists are applying their skills to solve problems affecting the society in the field of business.

Another rapidly growing field in the field of applied anthropology is medical anthropology. Medical applied anthropologists are mostly trained in cultural and biological anthropology. They search for the interactions between human health and cultural beliefs and practices. They also study disease transmission cycles and patterns, and how a particular group of people adopt to diseases such as malaria. Since transition of viruses and bacterial is influenced by the food the people eat, their sanitation and sexual behaviors. Applied anthropologists in this field work together with epidemiologists with the goal of identifying the cultural practice that facilitate the spread of diseases. These anthropologists also study the different culture and their beliefs on how to treat illnesses and also asses the ability of their traditional healers on the capability of healing diseases. With this information they are able to help hospitals and agencies offering medical services to offer effective health care solutions (Peoples, & Bailey, 2015). Applied anthropology is important in solving medical problems caused by some cultural practices. Anthropologists in the field of linguistic anthropology can are useful when trying to understand cultural belief because of their knowledge on languages.

Applied anthropology is viewed as the fifth subfield of anthropology but that is not the case. All applied anthropologists have undergone training in one or more subfield of anthropology, this means than an applied anthropologist can engage in applied work in any of the four subfields as long as the work is about solving a certain problem in an organization. Anthropologists have grown to become very important to the government, public corporations and the private sector. This is because they have been trained to be keen observers, they know how to record data properly, they are able to understand and analyze human behavior in every setting lastly they are able to learn and understand different cultural beliefs (Peoples, & Bailey, 2009). They are one of the key major problem solvers globally

Applied anthropology is not a discipline in itself, but it is firmly grounded on the on the theories and methods of anthropology, therefore, it is correct to say that applied anthropology has helped in the advancement of anthropology. It is not possible to make theories of applied anthropology, therefore applied anthropology goes hand in hand with anthropology since all attempts to separate these two disciples have failed completely, and appear misguided. Applied anthropology is related to anthropological theories in three ways. The first way is through the prediction of an impact of a proposed program or project, the second way is through giving recommendations. Lastly is through application of an anthropology theory in a situation where results may have a particular outcome (Benedict, 1967). Applied anthropology is dependent on anthropology and therefore they cannot be separated. Applied anthropology is for the development of anthropology as a discipline


Applied anthropology has become an important tool in solving problems arising in the society. Applied anthropologists have helped in providing solutions to problems arising in the education sector such as how to teach students from different cultural backgrounds collectively. They have also helped in the advancement of developing countries by carrying out adequate research on how to help and approach communities living in such countries without creating a negative impact. They have also helped in the business word by advising companies executives on how to trade with people from other cultures. They have teamed up with epidemiologist to find solutions to diseases' that are transmitted due to cultural practices. These applied anthropologists require certain skills in order for them to be able to carry out their work effectively. Applied anthropology cannot be separated from anthropology since it requires the theories and methods of anthropology in its process. It has continuously continued to help and advance the society by provided well planned solutions to matters affecting it.




Benedict, B. (1967). The Significance of Applied Anthropology for Anthropological Theory. Man, 2(4), new series, 584-592. doi:10.2307/2799341

Descola, P. (2007). On anthropological knowledge. Social Anthropology, 13(1), pp.65-73.

Ferraro, G. P. (2008). Cultural anthropology: An applied perspective. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.

Kedia, S., & Van, W. J. (2005). Applied anthropology: Domains of application. Westport, Conn: Praeger.

Peoples, J. G., & Bailey, G. A. (2009). Humanity: An introduction to cultural anthropology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Peoples, J. G., & Bailey, G. A. (2015). Humanity: An introduction to cultural anthropology.

Van, W. J. (2002). Applied anthropology: An introduction. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.


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Artifacts are important since they act as great sources for increased understanding of history, since the frame how people have been acting in the world and how they have been thinking about the world (Houkes & Vermaas, 2010). Image 3 can be viewed from a linguistic point of view since it contains some scripts that were left behind in the past. The act as a great source for understanding the history of people who left them behind and only need to be decoded so that the true meaning can be deciphered.  The symbols and writings in Image 3 may not represent a language but may describe a form of writing that may have existed at that period in time. The artifact appears quite complex with unique glyphs and signs represented as object or abstracts designs. The fact may represent a form of operational writing system that the people used to express their spoken language.

 The artifact provides a tool for anthropologists to understand the cultural and social history of the people in which it was found (Houkes & Vermaas, 2010). Image 3 may provide answers to specific events in history such as the main cause for collapse of an ancient civilization in the area.  The artifact also serves to possibly show the kind of communication that the people used in their era indicated by the symbols that appear to be count of material possessions. The artifact may require related tablets to be found for it to conclusively be interpreted through decoding.  By connecting to other tablets found in the site , the artifact can assist in understanding what some objects  meant to societies in the past and learn about their stories.


Houkes, W., & Vermaas, P. E. (2010). Technical functions: On the use and design of artefacts (Vol. 1). Springer Science & Business Media.


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