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General Information on the USA

 The USA is the third-largest nation in terms of both size and population. It is geographically situated in North America and surrounded by Pacific and Atlantic Oceans to the west and east respectfully. Canada borders it to the north while Mexico to the south. Since its birth, immigrants dominated the country. Consequently, its inhabitants come from various parts of the world hence diversifying the entire population. Some of its inhabitants came from Europe and other continents (Ardichvili et al., 2010). The geographical scenery fluctuates from the tropical coasts in Florida to the Rocky Mountains, the Steppe reserves, and dry desserts on the western sides. In between these amazing features lies the Great Lakes and Grand Canyon. The wildlife also differs across the landscape with an estimated 20,000 flower species and Bison roaming the woodlands. Due to the huge economy, the USA boasts of wealth and minerals. Inhabitants aged 18 and above vote in the president and vice president every four years. The president rules the nation and lives in the white house. The two houses, that is- the senate and House of Representatives have 100 senators from each state and 435 representatives. These positions are elected every two years. General information of India.

 General Information on India

 India is located in South Asia and sandwiched between China and Pakistan. Its capital city is known as New Delhi. The capital meets the administrative needs of the entire nation. The government is a constitutional run entity and represents a diverse population made up of various ethnic groups speaking various languages (Swaidan, 2012). India is the second-most populous nation in the world after China. It is known for its complicated but unique urbanization traditions. In the 2600BCE, the Indus civilization dominated the northwestern part of India and ended up influencing most of its cultural norms. The British colonized India in 1858 and changed its political and economic landscape. The British rule ended in 1947 which led to the subcontinent partitioning based on religious lines- India filled with Hindus and Pakistan filled with Muslims. On the other hand, in present-day India, the combination of tangible wealth and cultural vitality despite the persistent domestic predicaments and financial inequality is observable in the country's infrastructure and diverse manufacturing base. The pace at which its science and engineering personnel evolve is quicker hence expanding other sectors of the economy.

Dimensions of Hofstede Model in India and the USA

 If Indian culture is studied under the 6D model, one can unveil the intricate fundamental influencers of Indian culture compared to the USA or any other nation.


Power distance

These aspects define inequality within society and the reaction towards inequality. In this case, India has an estimated score of 77 in terms of how it appreciates societal hierarchy or the top-down system within its society. If one condenses the Indian characteristics into a comprehensible phrase, terms such as dependent, the employer or the authority would take major precedence. Also, acceptance of unequal rights among the superior class and those from the lower societal class would be more pronounced among the Indians (Venaik, & Brewer, 2010). The higher class has more access to resources than the lower class hence explaining the pecking order. Authority or power is consolidated even though it seems not to be concentrated in one area hence managerial ranks are dependent on their workforce obedience. Workers are supervised and monitored in order to perform their functions correctly.


 India’s society exhibits both collectivistic and individualistic features unlike USA which is individualistic. The collectivism entails higher liking for larger social systems where people act based on the greater good of a specified group. In line with this context, an individual's actions are influenced by different ideals such as perspectives of one's family or relatives, etc. subsequently, collectivism forces an individual to adhere to the regulations of the majority hence accomplishing a greater well (Kim, & McLean, 2014). For instance, the relationship between the employer and the worker relies entirely on expectations- loyalty from the worker forces the boss to protect the worker and so and so forth. More so, hiring and promotion choices are based on past relationships which are primary in collectivist communities. The individualist element of the Indian people is perceived as an outcome of religion. The Hindu believes in a death and rebirth cycle with each rebirth relying on past deeds and how an individual lived out his past life.


 Competition, accomplishments, and victory drive the Indian community. The best individual defines success consequently an indicator of a value system beginning from academic institutions and continues all through organizational life systems unlike USA where with hard work and commitment anything is possible (Halkos, & Skouloudis, 2017). On the other hand, a low score or feminine implies that the dominant value system is caring for other people to improve their way of life. A feminine community considers the quality of life as an aspect of success and easily gaining an edge above all other competitions hence admirable.

 Uncertainty Avoidance

 This aspect deals with the uncertainty that comes with not knowing the future. India has a medium-low preference for averting improbability. In India, a certain level of imperfections is accepted therefore not all things are planned for or go according to plan (Ardichvili et al., 2010). Indians are patient people and their tolerance levels are at an all-time high. Residents are not driven into actions and settle for acceptable routines without evaluating.

Long Term Alignment

 India prefers to preserve its culture at all costs. In India karma concept dominate their thoughts and way of life (Ardichvili et al., 2010). Time is a linear concept hence not an important concept as compared to the USA which scores low in this aspect. Indians are religious people and hold religious perspectives on various international issues. On the other hand, individualism is stronger in the USA compared to Indian societies.


Indian is a restrained culture compared to the USA where overindulgence is key and even encouraged throughout one's life (Ardichvili et al., 2010). The opinion that actions are restrained through social standards and overindulgence is deemed as wrong or sinful.


 Comparatively, in USA workforces are part of the discussion process and democratic decision making helps in staffing and organizational structure (Swaidan, 2012). The employers motivate the workers to deliver quality work and in return, the workers reap the benefits through allowances. The American work atmosphere is aggressive because people believe that with hard work and dedication one can achieve anything they set their eyes on and this is why everyone tries to do their best to attain the impossible, unlike India where achievement is based on entitlement. Both the management and the workforce are both ambitious and intelligent. Additionally, both nations scored low in uncertainty avoidance as both nations rely on innovation and risk-taking hence the USA is willing to take more risks than India.


















Ardichvili, A., Jondle, D., & Kowske, B. (2010). Dimensions of ethical business cultures: Comparing data from 13 countries of Europe, Asia, and the Americas. Human Resource Development International, 13(3), 299-315.

Halkos, G., & Skouloudis, A. (2017). Revisiting the relationship between corporate social responsibility and national culture. Management decision.

Kim, S., & McLean, G. N. (2014). The impact of national culture on informal learning in the workplace. Adult Education Quarterly, 64(1), 39-59.

Swaidan, Z. (2012). Culture and consumer ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 108(2), 201-213.

Venaik, S., & Brewer, P. (2010). Avoiding uncertainty in Hofstede and GLOBE. Journal of international business studies, 41(8), 1294-1315.

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The American Dream Over Time

Everyone has a dream, for example, to be financially stable.  The American dream has been in existence for the last 90 years. This dream was initially based on acquiring a standard education and living in a standard and just society. Over the years this dream has grown to mean different things to different people.  In James Adams’ book the “Epic of America” published in 1931 he defines the American dream as a land that is better and wealthier and has adequate opportunities to gear everyone towards achieving their dreams and realizing their full potentials (Speth, n.p). Over the years the American dream has radically changed to mean the pursuit of happiness, acquiring material possessions, employment for all, proper healthcare and housing for all Americans. The American dream was not based on material possessions but on the existence of a just land where people are equipped to achieve their level best.  History has served Americans with alternative meanings of the American dream; this literature review explores the various dimensions and meanings that have been given to the American dream since its conception with close reference to the works of Speth, Gus, “What Is the American Dream?: Dueling Dualities in the American Tradition.” Kamp, David “Rethinking the American Dream.”  and Shiller, Robert J “The Transformation of the 'American Dream.”

In the 1930s, the American dream was based on a just society that was not defined by motors cars, fair wages, housing or healthcare but a dream of a social order where men and women would be able to attain to the maximum stature of what they are capable of (Speth, n.p). The dream also foresaw a future where people were recognized for what they are regardless of their background or status. Different means were used to echo this dream to all the edges of the country. In the 1950s and 1960s, the American dream took a materialistic turn where it began advocating for housing. It changed drastically from what the famous Martin Luther King Jr envisioned in his “ I have dream” speech  In this speech the American dream he had in mind was based on the conception and creation of a just society that was not defined by aspects of racial and other forms of discrimination. Contrariwise, the manifestation of the American dream in the 1960s was not what he envisioned. During this period the American dream was defined in terms of housing which was a vision for every true American citizen. 

According to “What Is the American Dream?: Dueling Dualities in the American Tradition.”  Speth, (n.p) argues that the American dream has changed to stand for the pursuit of happiness. Happiness is said to originate from within a person and the influence the government has on its people had been continuously questioned by Speth. Speth addresses the changes in the American dream and whether these changes have brought happiness to Americans. Happiness can be linked to the psychological aspect of human beings in the essence of how satisfied they are with their life. Satisfaction with one’s employment, their marriage and how they trust their government is detrimental to their happiness. The pursuit of wealth contradicts the American dream in terms of happiness, prosperity way and equal consumerism. Kamp (n.p) believes that the American dream is endangered and has been misplaced to stand for the pursuit of fortune and fame.  The American dream according to Kamp has been misplaced by the Americans and has been used to mean becoming wealthier. Also, according to Shiller, President Trump and Ben Carson have interpreted the American dream to mean owning a beautiful and prosperous business.  These three authors have completely shown how the interpretation of the American dream has changed. The American dream foresaw a just society where everyone is empowered to achieve their full potential, needless to say, the changes in the American dream have changed these three dualities to high commercialism, consumerism, and capitalism proving to be the primary focus of the American dream.

President Donald Trump's administration presents evidence that the American dream has completely changed to represent something else different. According to Shiller, (n.d) housing during president George Bush's reign resulted in the 2008-2009 financial crisis. Speth, (n.d) argues that since human beings learned how to hunt and gather, they have always needed housing; how housing fits in the American dream is a huge puzzle. First, America is invested by a high level of poverty, inequality in wealth distributions and many people falling in debt leaving many contemplating buying a house, renting or building (Kamp, n.d). As a result, incorporating the American dream with expensive housing means many citizens will face huge and lifelong housing debt (Kamp, n.d). According to the American dream, if all parameters were observed then people would achieve their full potential and hence live life with their means. The American dream is put clearly by Adam that it is not a dream of motor cars and high wages but a dream of social order. President Trump's reign is worried about the millennials missing out on the American dream by the exclusion of home-owning yet doesn’t include the primary focus of the dream. Shiller (n.d) argues that the American dream is now geared at material prosperity including bankruptcies, labor rates, entrepreneurship, employment, and building permits. This is not the spirit of the American dream as they focus on commercialization and capitalism making it hard for the achievements of equality.

Contrary to the American dream, even middle-class people are not able to sustain their life. The life of the Americans now is characterized by taking multiple jobs, 80-hour workweeks; fear of being laid down and parents not being able to spend time with their children. Many parents are swimming in housing debt while many youths are still in their parent’s house as a result of high costs of living.  Kamp, (n.p) reflects on President Obama's vision that is based on the original vision of the American dream where every American child should be able to afford education not by luck or by being smart in school but by the virtual of social justice which is at the center of the American dream.

In conclusion, from the above analysis, there is no doubt the American dream has changed radically. The virtues which Adams advocated for are not the same virtues advocate for today in the American dream. High consumerism, commercialism, and capitalism are the virtues now. While the American dream foresaw a nation where people would be able to exploit their dreams to the full potential, it is no longer possible due to corruption. Through the parameters of the original American dream, people could live within their means but they are now forced into expensive housing forcing then to bear the burden of lifetime debts. The American dream should be viewed in the lenses of possibility where every individual is empowered to achieve various heights.











Works Cited

Kamp, David. “Rethinking the American Dream.” Vanity Fair, Vanity Fair, 26 Sept. 2017,

Shiller, Robert J. “The Transformation of the 'American Dream'.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 4 Aug. 2017,

Speth, Gus. “What Is the American Dream?:Dream? Dueling Dualities in the American Tradition.” Grist, Grist, 25 June 2011,

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Rhetoric appeals In Malcolm X’s and Martin Luther King’s speeches

The United States has constantly been faced with the issue of civil rights throughout its history up until the current day. Though racism was by far more prevalent in the past because of the issue of slavery, it is nevertheless still an issue of debate today. It is this issue of civil rights that helped to mould great civil rights leaders such as Malcolm X and Marin King Jr. Their choice of expression in regard to the issue of civil rights was somehow different in that King chose a peaceful revolution with his ‘I have a Dream’ speech, while Malcolm chose a more assertive revolution with his ‘The Ballot or the Bullet’ speech. Both Malcolm and King in their speeches try to convince the black people that they have equal rights just like the white people and they should be given their rights. Both their speeches utilize the rhetorical elements of ethos, logos and pathos to help accomplish their objectives and Malcolm X is more effective in his persuasion as compared to Martin King.

Ethos can be defined as the practices of using ethical appeals or one’s reputation to help with the persuasion. Malcolm begins his speech by first identifying his religion, where he had recently broken of his association with an Islam organization that did not support his civil rights war. Malcolm’s civil right movement encouraged people to fight for their voting rights and the Islam organization forbade its members from engaging in political matters (Cone et al., 173).

 Malcolm clearly points out that he is a Muslim, but his main interest is dealing with the common issues affecting the society. ‘….a common problem…a problem that will make you catch hell whether you are a Baptist, a Methodist or even a Muslim…’ (Malcolm, 1). By addressing the issue of his religious affiliation he explains to his listeners that he is not interested in radicalization or separation. King begins his speech by calling for people to unite against discrimination. He illustrates ‘I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation” (King, 1).  He defines his objective but he does not create a persuasive opening as that of his counterpart. Malcolm is able to prove to his listeners that his main interest is in fairness and so religion has no influence in his believe for equality right from the beginning.

Pathos can be defined as the use of emotional appeals to help in making a persuasion more effective. Malcolm in his speech speaks about how the government lies to the blacks by mentioning how political powers at the time kept shifting blames to confuse the people (Cone et al., 173). He mentions how Democrats have always blamed Dixiecrats for the civil rights issue that were being faced at the time. He illustrates ‘Dixiecrats is nothing but a Democrat disguise’ (Malcolm X, 1). King on the other hand utilizes the concept of pathos appeal in his speech by making it more dramatic but at the same time engaging. His anger is evident when he elaborates the rights that the black people have been denied. His choice of words like; ‘Seared in the flames of withering injustice’ and ‘quicksand of racial injustice’ all help to show the reality of the tragedy that faces the black people (King, 1). His pathos appeal inspires energy of peace when the whites and the black people are united and treated equally. Malcolm’s ethos appeal is however more effective in that it incites anger and instils a passion in black people to fight for their rights and insert a change in the U.S political system.

Logos can be defined as an appeal that concentrates on reason and logic. Malcolm’s application of these concepts is clearly seen in his choice to first discuss the issue of religion. He ensures that his listeners understand that his interest is to help everyone irrespective of their faith. The appeal is also used when he tells the black people not to be so thankful about getting their civil legislation passes, because that is their civil rights and it is something that had been denied to them for years (Cone et al., 173). He argues that the legislation passes were just a small part of what the black people are being denied. ‘he illustrates ‘How can you thank a man for giving you what is already yours……You haven’t made progress if what is being given to you is what you should already have had’ (Malcolm X).  His argument makes a lot of sense and it helps the listeners to make coherent connections, and thus connect to his point of fighting for their voting rights.

 King’s use of logos appeal is perceived when he logically illustrates the losses that the black people are undergoing all because the promises made to them in the past were not fulfilled. He points out facts from American history and uses phrases like ‘a hundred years later’ to support his argument and to show that the black community has been neglected for so long (King, 1). King brings a solution to the people urging them to be peaceful and to always avoid violence because it will cause recklessness. ‘We must not allow our creative protests to degenerate into physical violence’ (King, 1). King’s urge for choice of nonviolent tactics in fighting for their rights is effective for his speech, as it helps to speak the message of peace in America. Malcolm’s persuasion is however more logical because he is able to show the black community that they have a long way to go, and so they need to work harder and do all they can to achieve their civil rights.

Comparing the two speeches in regard to their rhetoric appeal, Malcolm’s is more persuasive and assertive as compared to King’s. His speech appeals more strongly to his listeners, because he clearly points out the areas that he feels that the black community has been neglected. He is not scared to criticize the black people on the part that they have played in all these; he tells them that they should not be comfortable with the little that they are given. He goes ahead to challenge them indicating that what they are given is their right and they deserve more than that. The motivation for Malcolm to be more persuasive in his speech could be because he needs to be more convincing given his extreme views. Malcolm uses credibility, emotional and logical appeals effectively to help persuade his listeners of the need to take serious actions in order to achieve their denied voting rights.
















Works Cited

Cone, James H. “Martin and Malcolm on Nonviolence and Violence.” Phylon, vol. 49, no.

            3/4, Fall/Winter2001 2001, p. 173. EBSCOhost, doi:10.2307/3132627.

Malcolm X. ” Malcolm X: The Ballot or the Bullet. EdChange, n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2019.

King, Martin Luther. “‘I Have a Dream," Address Delivered at the March on Washington for

Jobs and Freedom.” The Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute, 25 Jan. 2019,


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 American Dream



The American Dream is the characteristics and set of ideas which promotes peoples’ success through hard work and dedication and that they should have a better life, be rich and everyone should be satisfied with the opportunities available to them. The opportunities will foster the living standards of people including those of children. The social class of different people does not matter, what matters is what people have attained which contributes to their daily living standards.

The American dream is attainable through; freedom and rights whereby schools are made free to everyone and equal opportunities for employment and this is due to no discrimination in education system. Another one is having a happy life with a good job and success in life. Having a job promotes a happy life to a happy family hence creating ones ‘wealth for his or her future. Also the dream is attainable by achieving education in social implications in unexpected ways despite a humble background (Squire, C.1994).

One of the barriers to attaining American dream is racial discrimination. Race and economic back ground is a major role to economic mobility for Black Americans and is shown by gender and education.  Joe R. & Nikitah,I. (1994) states that White American are dominant in the organizations compared to the black ones as the whites are paid more salaries, their living standards are high compared to the lifestyle of the blacks in the society. Another barrier is wealth inequality whereby White Americans have more wealth than the blacks. This inequality is due to the factors of market like economy, interest rates and higher rates of unemployment among minority groups.

Another barrier to attaining American dream is social security of the people. Mesa-Lago, C. (2007) states that social security program keeps poverty away for the ageing Americans but many people are worried the program may be broke in the near future. This is because there is risk of pensions and the national savings rate is going down all the time. So securing retirements and family debts for many people in the society is at risk too. Families being unstable financially is another barrier to American dream. The families are unstable in the sense that most people are struggling with health crisis and families cannot have peace of mind if they are battling with diseases all the time.

During manufacturing of oil and gas extraction, the people of Louisiana get affected by the activities carried out during that time. Stanley N., Kiran T., Paul E. & Colin H. (2016) states that the emissions polluted to the environments are very dangerous to people’ s health. No clean air to use by those people as the air is polluted one which is harmful to the body when they have inhaled it. Another factor is damaging marine ecosystems. The marine get affected by the wastes being drained to the water and there is no any form of regulation put into place to control drainage of waste products. No clean water to use as the water is polluted from the wastes drained to the ecosystem.

The other factor of oil and gas extraction is job creation to the. The industry has created many jobs to people around the area hence boosting their living standards despite its negative impact to the environment. For the jobless people hanging around practicing robbery or dealing with drugs, at least they have a place to utilize their time properly and earn a living. Another factor of oil and gas extraction is energy independent to people. Without the extraction of the substance, they will become dependent on exporting energy supply which leads to economic control from outside America.

The people of Louisiana do not trust the government and corporation anymore because their needs are not meet and they are overregulated in the society. This is shown by obtaining a development permit, a drilling permit and lastly an operating permit before its operations. This hostility lead to voting of a change. They voted Trump because of his business experiences which will help the Louisiana people to operate and manage their money without any scandal. Robert, S. (2017) states that the interests of Trump was serving people and not much into political systems hence balancing the country’s budget.

They also voted him because of making deals which will change America to prosper again. He wants America to be debt free from Obama’s debts. So they looked at him and thought this is the man who will help them regain from the debts they have as a country. Also Robert, S. (2017) says that these people also believe that the American dream will be revived if they vote for him. The fact that Trump supports the American dream, they voted him in because he will assist them to shape their wealth and their future.


The American dream aspires most people to change their lifestyle by first changing their mind on how to focus to a successful life. To be self-reliant one needs to study hard, have a job, have a happy family and be successful in their lifes. American dream provides the basis to control the destiny of many people and improve their living standards in the society. As song as life is challenging, many people should learn on many ways to explore which will change the lifes of many people in the society.




Squire, C. (1994). Empowering Women? The Oprah Winfrey Show. Feminism & Psychology,     4(1), 63–79.

Mesa-Lago, C. (2007). Social Security in Latin America: Pension and Health Care Reforms in     the Last Quarter Century. Latin American Research Review 42(2), 181-201. Latin   American Studies Association. Retrieved May 3, 2019, from Project MUSE database

Joe R. & Nikitah, I. (1994) Racial Barriers to African American Entrepreneurship: An      Exploratory Study, Social Problems, Volume 41, Issue 4, Pages 562–584,

Stanley N., Kiran T., Paul E. & Colin H. (2016). Environmental and Economic Impacts of Crude             Oil and Natural Gas Production in Developing Countries,          International Journal of         Economy, Energy and Environment. Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 64-73. Doi        :                                   10.11648/j.ijeee.20160103.13

Robert S. (2017). ‘I, the people’: a deflationary interpretation of populism, Trump and the                        United States constitution, Economy and Society, 46:1, 20-42, doi:                         10.1080/03085147.2017.1302060


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Reading Response Essay


 From the excerpt, Thoreau represents the American Dream. Thoreau states that he admired to move out of the village and spend his life in the country. He possessed a house in the Hollowell farm.  In his life, he focused on simplicity and assert that luxuries and comforts hinder people from living a meaningful life (Thoreau, chapter 2). He says that to achieve peace and happiness, and the true meaning of life, people should disregard material possessions. He urges people to commune with nature, focus on a conspicuous endeavor, and at the end, one will gain spiritual wakefulness. Thoreau ideas relate to the American Dream as he says that it is important to study the nature such as flowers, the mountains, water in the river, among other natural things to experience the beauty and focus on what matters in life (Thoreau, chapter 2). Focusing on the American Dream, it is important to understand that anyone can achieve success, peace, and happiness. Thoreau adds that to achieve the dream, people should simplify their lives.

 Schmidt and Cohen

Response 1

Schmidt and Cohen say that in the future, the technology will bring positive impacts such as productivity, quality of life, education, and connectivity that will bring economic opportunity (Schmidt & Cohen, 220). They add that technology will increase efficiency especially in the developing countries in terms of access to information, increase connectivity, increase innovation, and opportunities. Some of the innovations that I look forward to are 3-D printing-I would like to see how the 3-D printing will be used in manufacturing unique products (Schmidt & Cohen, 224). Also, I look forward to seeing integrated clothing machines, haircuts machines, and home robots. I am interested in these technologies and their ability to handle household duties.  However, some predictions seem overly optimistic. For example, Schmidt and Cohen predict that in the future, people will not use the alarm clock. Instead, there will be a high-tech bed that will not only give comfort and support but they will also administer massage, and a   special sensor inside the mattress will wake you up (Schmidt & Cohen, 229). Another prediction is that people will control the temperature while in the apartment.

 Response 2


I think that new technologies will change human life in the future. People will have a more-customized future where all tasks including decision-making and reasoning will be done by computers. Thus, the networked artificial intelligence will threat human capabilities. An issue of concern is that human being will change completely in that they will lose control of their lives and allow artificial intelligence to control (Schmidt & Cohen, 231). There will be a lot of data abuse in the digital system, and people will not be able to regulate them.  There will be social upheaval since the code-based machine will disrupt human work. Human beings will live in an unstable society since technology will lead to the destruction of traditional sociopolitical structures and shift to the use of weaponized information that will cause disruption.  I would like to live in that world   since we are in digital age and change is inevitable. However, I will control the technology so that it does not affect my life negatively.  For example, I may focus on a healthy lifestyle, avoid technology addiction by limiting the use, and find time for regular exercise.



 Response 1

The problem with the data-mining companies in collecting private information online is that they do so without consent (Andrews, 324). They just collect sensitive information without seeking a warrant to benefit their industries by advertising people's habits and desires.

 It matters a lot if marketers find private information such as marriage history, gender, age, friends, and other private information. This is because this information is private but the companies end up sharing with other organizations. They also record the individual's preferences to provide adequate opportunities or limit opportunities (Andrews, 328). Thus, an individual can be denied benefits such as a loan, social resources, and human rights

 Response 2

 Andrews believes that ‘weblining' is undemocratic in that companies use individuals' personal data to determine their value (Andrews, 327). For example, if a person's profile is positive, that person will be provided with economic opportunities, time and effort by the company.  If a customer has a low profile such as poor shopping habits, and low web-browsing practices, he or she may be discriminated by being provided with limited choices. 

 Weblining and behavioral advertising pose a greater threat to democracy than traditional print in that with weblining, the cardholder may find that his or her credit card, discounts opportunities limited is lowered. In addition, weblining affects the type of information that one receives (Andrews, 327). When one wants to read news from the Web sites, you are not provided with the big picture such as world news.  Instead, one received fashion stories and other irrelevant stories.



 Work cited

 Schmidt Eric.,& Cohen Jared.  OUR FUTURE SELVES.


Thoreau D. Hentry. Walden: Where I lived and What I lover For. Chapter 2

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Assignment 2: Project Paper

Harlem Renaissance Poets


African American literature had a significant impact in the Harlem Renaissance. For instance, poetry influenced the African American movement in that African American expressed their aggression toward the injustice and unfair treatment in the American society and through the empowerment of the movement, they celebrated their heritage. The most important artists in the Harlem Renaissance are Langston Hughes and Claude McKay. The former was a student in the Columbia University though he did not complete his studies. He engaged in the mastery of the art where he expressed the sense of cultural pride for the African Americans. The latter engaged in the literary movement and challenged the white authority and struggled with racism society.  He expressed his bitterness and showed a sense of racial pride in his pottery work such as ‘If We Must Die'. Generally, the African American writers ensured that black people enjoyed their culture and freed from the stereotypes. Thanks to the African-American writers for their great effort in the expression of racial and cultural pride. 


‘Dreams’ by Langston Hughes, 1902-1967

Langston Hughes was one of the Harlem Renaissance poets who wrote emotional and heartfelt poems that represented the culture of black people.  He played an important role in the Harlem Renaissance not only in showing a sense of racial pride but also in shaping the American literature.  His work is remembered as he condemned racism, promoted equality and enriched the lives of African Americans (Huggins, 1995). As a black writer, he was known as a racial chauvinist who empowered the Black movement. He was not only a poet, but he also engaged himself in various writing styles such as Novels, short story, nonfiction books and more. 

 In the poem ‘Dreams,' Hughes shows his desire for freedom in the American society.  When he was writing this poem, African Americans were suffering from cultural racism, and the purpose of this poem was to encourage the African Americans to hold onto dreams (Hughes & Johnson-Feelings, 2003).  Dreams and aspirations could save them and provide them with a bright future.  Despite the challenges they were going through such as cultural and economic subjugation, they were supposed to hold on their dreams or otherwise they could experience a brutal world.  Africans Americans were encouraged to focus on the future goal and hope to build meaningful lives.

 The poem ‘Dream' contains elements that show Double-consciousness. Hughes incorporates the double-consciousness in his work by using imagery such as ‘Life is a broken-winged that cannot fly’ (Hughes & Johnson-Feelings, 2003). He tends to indicate the essence of dreams and the need to hold tight to the dreams to have a bright future in the American society.  Also, he uses a metaphor ‘barren land' to indicate that if African Americas lives a dreamless life, they will not benefit from such an experience the same way a farmer cannot benefit from the barren land (Hughes & Johnson-Feelings, 2003).  If they live without dreams, their life will be worthless and covered with snow (emotionless life). Thus, they should hold onto the goals and strive to fulfill them.  These metaphors show that African Americans struggled with self and society and they could achieve success by holding tight onto the dreams.

Two primary themes in this poem include; Self-Actualization and wisdom. The first theme; Self-Actualization stands out in the poem in the first line of the first stanza ‘Hold fast to dreams’ (Hughes & Johnson-Feelings, 2003). Hughes urges the African Americans to find the inner strength, maximize their potentials, do the best they can and persevere the odds until they achieve their goals and hopes.  Another theme is wisdom. In the second line of the first stanza, the author says that ‘For if the dreams die' he tends to show the audience what happens if the dream die (Hughes & Johnson-Feelings, 2003). Thus, wisdom is important to understand the essence of dream and how a dream can help someone live a purposeful and meaningful life.

Own poem

Self-actualization and wisdom

Free Verse Poem

Self-actualization is all that you need,

Self-actualization is the path to achieving dreams and goals,

Self-actualization will create opportunities to succeed in life,

Be wise, accept yourself and embrace the unknown,

Focus on freedom and autonomy


If We Must Die by Claude McKay, 1889-1948

Claude was an active writer during the Harlem Renaissance. The New Negro in 1920s was a new spirit which was connected to self-dependence and, the Negroes demanded civil liberties and the end of segregation (Huggins, 1995).  The Negro Renaissance empowered the new spirit and the writers during this period focused on self-discovery and Claude was among the writes who expressed the need for discovery by writing poems in 1917.

 In his poem ‘ If We Must Die,' he expresses a sense of self and challenges the status quo in the American society after the world war 1 (Axelrod,  Roman  &  Travisano, 2005). The poem was purposely formed to encourage the blacks to fight the oppression and even if they will die, they should die while fighting back.  The poem makes a call to action and the need to combat the discrimination.  Thus, it is worth saying that Claude played an essential role in the Harlem Renaissance as he raised awareness of racism and encouraged blacks to fight for their dignity, justice, and identity (Axelrod, Roman & Travisano, 2005).  He encouraged them to join hands and fight back to eliminate the racial violence and unfair treatment.


 There is evidence of double-consciousness in the poem in the first sentence of the stanza. He uses the metaphor which says that ‘If we must die—let it not be like hogs’(Axelrod, Roman & Travisano, 2005). This is an indication that blacks should struggle to gain African American identity and win the freedom while in the American society. Second, the evidence stands out in the fifth line of the stanza. The author says that ‘If we must die—oh, let us nobly die’ (Axelrod, Roman & Travisano, 2005). The author means that blacks should leave behind moral principles so that they can be remembered as heroes and heroines.

 The primary themes in this poem are; mortality and honor.  The first theme of mortality is in line five ‘If we must die, O let us nobly die’ (Axelrod, Roman & Travisano, 2005). The author does not see any problem with death, but the important thing is to die like heroes.  The author tells the blacks not to allow shed their blood in vain, but they should fight back for their cultural heritage. Another theme is in the eight line' ‘Shall be constrained to honor us though dead (Axelrod, Roman & Travisano, 2005).  The author says that blacks should not resist, but they should become more strong so that even if their will die, the enemies will respect them.  The point is that in the warfare, blacks will be conquered, but they should fight back so that even if their die, their death will be honored.


Own poem

Mortality and honor

Free verse


 Even if you are conquered, you should fight back,

 Do not allow the enemies to dehumanize you,

 Let them know your masculinity, let them honor you,

 You have the power to defend yourself,

 Let your enemies honor your death.




African American literature shaped the African-American culture and abolished racism and slavery.  It is worth to say that all writers in the mastery of the art put their interest to black people and in specific they were interested in understanding the role black people in the American society. Since blacks’ people experienced all forms of discrimination, prejudice, stereotype, segregation, and oppression, the artists expressed their aggression using the different forms of art and through their work, they could show a deeper meaning of the role of blacks in the society.  They demanded freedom, equality and democracy and end of racism and slavery.








Hughes, L., & Johnson-Feelings, D. (2003). The collected works of Langston Hughes: Vol. 11. Columbia,

Miss: Univ. of Missouri Press.


In Axelrod, S. G., In Roman, C., & In Travisano, T. J. (2005). The new anthology of American poetry:

Volume two. New Brunswick, N.J: Rutgers University Press.


Huggins, N. I. (1995). Voices of the Harlem Renaissance. New York: Oxford University Press.



1377 Words  5 Pages

The Heath Anthology of American Literature

In the novel, the young men are described as men with an influence kind of a relationship between all. Looking at the men who just arrived at their ranch, they are composed and seem to be on a serious mission which might take more than the expected time for discussions. The land they are approaching is a land belonging to the Alamar family which is kind of an ancestral land. Just by the looks, Alamar family seems to be living a better life that is far better than the young men’s life (Lauter et al., 250).  The men are respectful of each other except that some personal issues make them estranged.  They seem so free and comfortable with each in a way that creates a great friendship amongst them. Working on a ranch is the best kind of idea among the group since the land here allows them to do cattle farming. This herd represents a source of understanding amongst the team. In this scenario, it is the only way they can associate freely and even make jokes to each other (Lauter et al., 253).

The main agenda for the convergence is to determine the way forward for the farmers in particular. They all seem to be bothered by the fact that one of them is the main cause of lack of good production. It seems unfair to every individual but it is more precise to identify that the one being accused of messing everything is the one offering the solutions. This act indicates the sense of belonging and looking out for the others. The climatic conditions and specifically the weather do not look so pleasing on the part of making crops to grow since destruction is what they expect (Lauter et al., 254). On the part of using crops to sustain the family and even make money is not simple according to the group members and the solution for this in order to make more money and live well is to get cattle. The same cows that caused the destruction are the same cows being offered as a solution but they all understand it is for the better of the group. Alamar and his sons are definitely feeling great about this idea and the fact that the Europeans are around.

The long stares and straight looks into what the Europeans are wearing, the kind of lifestyle they are living is most likely a surprise to them (Lauter et al., 249). The Europeans seem to be united by the fact that they form a majority group in this case and it assures them that the solutions being offered by Don and the sons will definitely be fruitful. From the kind of anger the Europeans feel about the lost crops, they still can react against the Dons since the law does not allow them to punish any trespassing animal owner. The relationship created in this article is that of the possibility of togetherness in all areas. If they had made a big mistake of killing intentionally, then there would be a lot of chaos and lack of trust. Don and his sons would not be so interested in looking at the Europeans. The complexion, in this case, gives them the advantages as the group is not ready to submit. At some point, there seem to be some differences among them which causes a bit of some argument. Don gives them a possible solution of not planting anything else but maybe peaches and vines.

As the landowners, the solution seems harsh to most of them as they think that he only wants to benefit from them in return. It is a sad response since profiting from the minors in the real sense makes one look so awful (Lauter et al., 255). Don asks them to utilize cattle keeping to their advantage but they seem so stubborn with this great idea according to Don. The homesteads will not be destroyed or taken away and they are assured of that but they seem not to fall for that idea. To the members, it seems like a good way of blackmail with the intention of throwing them off their homesteads without a reason. As the land owner, it seems like a fair option to loan them the cows and also give them tips on how to make money out of the cows but they do not want to hear of it.


The kind of ideology being passed on by Ruiz is the idea of having a good drainage system in the city of San Diego. Dons interactions indicate the kind of life the people face in terms of having rules that only suit the rich and in a way make the poor pay for what the rich use as expenses in the name of offering help. Ruiz tries to negotiate a way out of the difficult situation of lack of a good system which can be of help rather than a disaster to the society (Lauter et al., 254). Taking advantage of the rain in this are to develop the water reservoirs is a great idea but a lot of effort is required to make it a real deal for the society in general.












 Work cited  

Lauter, P., Alberti, J., Yarborough, R., Brady, M. P., & Bryer, J. R. (Eds.). (2010). The Heath Anthology of American Literature, Volume C: Late Nineteenth Century: 1865-1910 (Vol. 3). Cengage Learning.

910 Words  3 Pages

Journal: Journey to America

  • My first day in America
  • Sponsored Scholarship
  • Lost in a foreign country
  • Americans are generous
  • Saved by the security guards

It was at the beginning of the year a day that I had to make a critical decision ever in life. I had just received a scholarship in America which left me no choice but leave all behind including my family and chase my dreams. It was my desire since I was seven to study in America and since then it was fulfilled while I was 21. All I had in mind was that U.S.A is all about adventure thereby; when my day came to fly there I was filled with overexcitement.  There was a long departure queues and the sound of other planes taking off made me too eager for my turn.

With a blink of an eye I was in the dream land, which I thought was all about adventure. At the airport the scholarship team had sent someone to peak me according to the information were received back at home. However, due to hyperactivity I thought the place was fast thus; I had time to take a walk as a search for the adventure before the person to peak me arrived. At the airport there was all kind of races where others spoke in very strange language though they were not much of my concern. It was about five hours and I had already walked miles where I could not trace my way back to the airport therefore; I decided to ask for help though I thought my communication was poor but to my surprise I was taken back to the point I landed. At the airport I spent hours and no one seemed bothered with me but I did not give up until it was dusk and yet nobody came for me. I spent my night at the airport. Early in the morning five security men came towards me and I was scare though to my surprise they recognized me and took me with them. 


345 Words  1 Pages

Nicomachean Ethics Book VII


In the seventh book Aristotle discusses the subjects of pleasure and incontinence. Aristotle defines incontinence as the lack of adequate individual control (Ross, 1999). This is something that is in between temperance virtue and intemperance vice.   This is a demonstration of less self-human control with more demonstration of intemperance. In this section Aristotle discusses the manner in which pleasure acts in controlling an individual’s conduct.  Incontinence generates the feature of the association that exists between good deeds and knowledge.  According to the Greek the option of doing bad over good can only be influenced by ignorance (Ross, 1999).

According to Aristotle individuals are more likely to engage in deeds that are opposite to what they are required to (Ross, 1999).  Aristotle additionally makes the argument that there are several ways in which one can act contrary to their general knowledge and in the real sense they are not doing that at all.  For instance he states that an individual may be aware of holding a particular knowledge but when his mind is occupied with something different he forgets about the knowledge thus paying zero attention. He adds that one may hold the knowledge of the whole truth in regard of doing well but in a particular case the knowledge is ignored.  Due to passion as well as growing desires the knowledge of good deeds may be cleared (Ross, 1999).

Aristotle concludes this section by stating that a god existence is the only one that establishes pleasure in those activities that are objected towards personality growth rather than the ones that results in destruction (Ross, 1999).  In absolute nature pleasure cannot be regarded as evil as pleasure that is generated from positive activities generates significant life values. On the other hand Aristotle notes that pleasure cannot be regarded as good as it may make those things that are evil to be attractive due to desires (Ross, 1999).





Ross W.D. (1999).  Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics. Batoche Books, Kitchener.


332 Words  1 Pages



Defining personal character traits

Out of the various character traits that I possess, some of my prominent strengths are being flexible and easygoing. When I joined school, I got to interact with people of different cultures and social backgrounds. Even though the people had different origins and different ways of understanding and doing things, I was able to enter this new environment, learn how to cope and get along well with my fellow students. A situation that best describes the nature of my flexibility was when we went on a field trip and I got to interact with other students at a more personal level. During the trip, we were divided in groups of four and had to write a report on what we observed and learnt during the trip. Coincidentally, all the members in my team had different cultural backgrounds and so they had different beliefs. During group discussions, the members had different opinions about the events that occurred on that day. I was however to adapt to their way of thinking and we were able to present ideal findings from the trip.

            Another trait that I possess is being easy going and this was demonstrated in the group fieldtrip assignment. Despite being assigned to a group of people with different cultural backgrounds, I found myself intrigued and eager to know their culture. As we interacted, we got along well even when some tended to work slow or hold different views than mine. Rather than getting offended by the matters like other members being indecisive, I took it as an opportunity to better explain things so that they saw them in my perspective.

            In relation to abilities, my most prominent traits would be being caring and energetic. An example of a scenario where these abilities were best demonstrated was when dealing with the three members assigned to my school field trip group. After going for the trip and going back to school, we were expected to compile a report on what we learnt and present it in three days for evaluation. Each member in my team was assigned a task to ensure that everyone participated and contributed to the final result. However, one of the members fell ill one day after the trip and could not complete the task assigned to her. Having gone the ailment she was suffering from, I felt sympathetic for her and decided to do her task for her. I would also go visit her to see how she was doing and felt like it was my responsibility to take care of her. My second ability came into play when dealing with the other members of my team. Since the duties were allocated equally to all members, some were not as willing to do any extra duties so as to make up for the part that the sick member was unable to do. However, I was able to encourage them to share some of the duties and be enthusiastic about it. Other than taking most of the duties assigned to the sick members, I also took on the task of encouraging the rest of the members at a more personal level. Through determination and hard work, the three of us were able to complete all the tasks that were required for the assignment.

            Out of all the positive traits that I possess, there are some that traits that I find challenging and they include being assertive and firm. When the groups were divided for the fieldtrip, the members in my team assigned me to be the group leader since they found it easy to get along with me. However, my easy going nature made it difficult to be assertive and make a stand on issues. When other members became difficult to handle, I found it hard to make a stand and often kept changing my mind on issues. When it came to assigning duties, most complained that they could not clearly understand their roles and we had to hold discussions so that they knew what was expected of them. I also had a challenge when it came to giving feedback on time for meeting up and discuss the progress of the report. Being firm also proved challenging and instead of telling members what was expected of them, I ended up asking their opinion on what role they wanted to play. I also may have intruded into the sick member’s personal space especially when I kept going to her place to check up on her and catch her up on how the group was progressing.

            The goal for trait development in my strengths would be to note that I am easy going and flexible and ensure that people do not take advantage of me. Being easygoing, people may decide to be friendly so as to get me to do favors for them since I am flexible. Even though I may be capable of doing what they want, knowing when to say no will help prevent me from taking up more than I can handle. Even though being caring and energetic has its positive, keeping my abilities in check will ensure that I relate well with other people. The goal is to be caring without becoming too emotionally attached and intrude into their personal space.  As for the challenges, the goal to trait development will involve focusing on how to be more assertive and make a stand when airing my opinions. Instead of asking what people want, I should tell them what is expected of them for the success of the project we are undertaking and what role they play in its success.

936 Words  3 Pages

            I believe

            I believe in the beauty of imperfection and the forgiveness power.  I gained the perfection desire the moment I released that I had no power of changing how individuals perceived me.  This quest grew when I was still in high school and people had developed a negative opinion about the person that I am.  I spend un-numbered days, weeks and years trying to work on changing individual opinions by forcing them to perceive my personality and self as perfect. My efforts were however not fruitful as the ability to be perceived differently lies on how I conduct myself.   Throughout my school life, I was a better person and I did not value forgiveness because I believed that those who caused me pain through perceiving me negatively did not deserve forgiveness.  However, I was wrong because I learned that being imperfect is the best because we all hold our faults and strengths that are unique from the other.

            In high school in subjected much of my effort to gain people’s attention so that I would be noticed as a perfect person.  I was therefore forced to shed my blue childhood glasses.  Everyone developed a different opinion about me and even though I wanted to be noticed as a perfect person ironically I failed to appreciate the positive compliments. I turned to be an individual who never accepted compliments and my responses were termed as nonsense. I used to blame the things that were complimented to me on someone else.  This, therefore, made me realize that perfection is achieved when we accepted the person that we are but not through other people’s perceptions.

            I have learnt to accept what people perceive of me and to forgive them if their perception offends me. This is because we all see things different and my judgment towards some else is also different from what they think of themselves.  I now believe that imperfect people are not necessitated to be in control which means that they have to be themselves.  Being perfect is based on control because it involves trying to control the opinions held by others, attempting to be in control of situations and attempting to be in control of the world.  I released that achieving perfection requires too much effort which is impossible as several things much come in the way.  On the other hand, I believe in imperfection’s beauty because it simply means that even when things fail to work I have to smile and move on. In addition, this gives me the opportunity of noticing the imperfection’s beauty.

            Brown, (2010), asserts that imperfection is a prized gift that allows people to work on who they are meant to be and not what other people perceive of them. Through my imperfection, I have learned several and significant lessons. Attempting to view my life back then when I needed to transform people’s perception I see that I was stressed and the difficult moments made me a better person.  The trying times gave me no option but to accept things as they are and I realized that my imperfection was replaced by understanding.

Currently, I take everyone opinion about me positively and nothing that people perceive that annoys me anymore.  Forgiving means that I am able to accept that I am not a perfect person and I only need to work on what I truly believe in.  There are peace and beauty I accepting to learn things through the life experiences and am  fully involved in learning about imperfection’s beauty and the power of acceptance and forgiveness.





            Brown, B. (2010). The gifts of imperfection: Let go of who you think you're supposed to be and embrace who you are. Center City, Minn: Hazelden.

621 Words  2 Pages
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