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Should farm owners be required to provide migrant farm-workers with health insurance?


The agricultural sector in the United States is a significant economy contributor.  The agricultural sector depends on manual labor that is provided by farm-workers who are involved in harvesting, planting, plants processing, houses packing and facilities preparation that are connected to farming (Bruhn 79).  Most of the farm-workers are Latin American migrants and minor representations from other regions. Migrant farm-workers in America are a representation of one group that exists among the most marginalized and less served population in the state.  A migrant farm worker is described as a person whose primary employment lies in the agricultural sector on a recurring basis and exists in houses that are temporary. In America currently, there are over three million farm-workers who are migrants.  Farm-workers are in most cases isolated from the basic institutions in America such as educational system, healthcare, churches, and social services among others.  Health care provision is the most significant system that is objected at ensuring the wellbeing of individuals which in turn contributes towards social as well as economic development (Bruhn 80).  Therefore it is clear that every person that contributes to economic and social development deserves proper medical care regardless of their origin.  The migrant’s farm-workers in America should be provided with health care insurance.

While migrants farm-workers in America offers the required manual labor in the agricultural production of vegetables as well as fruits that are provided on daily basis to the American consumer market they remain invisible in the health sector.  The farm-workers employees and the health sector literally and figuratively exclude the migrant’s workers from accessing quality health care (Bruhn 82).  The agricultural sector sales exceed billions of money annually whose efficiency depends on manual labor.  Despite the fact that the migrant’s workers are seasonal or temporary workers they qualify for health care insurance provision from employees.  The workers are normally involved in tasks that are characterized by injuries and infections which may be obtained from the tools they use of plantations chemicals.  Due to the nature of farming that is normally seasonal, there is a need to ensure that health is maintained by the workers.  A healthy employee can be termed as a productive associate and asset to the well being of the farm (Bruhn 84).  A healthy and a stable workplace continuously remains an essential feature of the agricultural sector as a major economic growth determinate.

Health insurance remains among the top issues in America as the cost of the premiums is too high for individuals with low income such as migrant farm-workers.  As most of the American citizens have to handle luxury health covers those that ensure that they never lack food in the stores have to work without simply because the farm owners consider them as temporary workers (Allender, Rector and Warner 939). Migrants farm-workers should not be considered as temporary employees since their chances of getting employment in another sector are so slim.  In the quest of attracting as well as maintaining the significant workforce, agricultural producers and growers rely highly on seasonal and migrant farm-workers who perform different tasks in supporting the farming sector.  Manual labor requires healthy persons with the will and energy of engaging in the given roles without physical or internal health complications. A health insurance is one of the most significant benefits that a manual laborer employee should access (Allender, Rector and Warner 939). Farm owners should provide the migrant laborers with health insurance as a humane and efficient strategy in support of the agricultural sector.  It is well known that without the labor offered by the migrants this implies that the health sector would highly suffer from low productivity in terms of profit and goods.

Farm owners should provide health insurance to migrant farm-workers which should be entitled to their taxes payment.  Payment of taxes means that the individuals are directly linked with social and economic growth and therefore this qualifies them in accessing social needs such as quality health care (Allender, Rector and Warner 939).  The migrant’s workers provide labor in a secondary market which is agriculture. In this sector jobs are not normally stable which results in the lack of labor standards enforcement.  Manual labor that is required in the farms is physically challenging and it is also performed in conditions that are harsh.  The American health care is normally ranked among the highest in term of cost and this makes it difficult for the individuals to access quality care.  Despite the rising agricultural high-risk scenery farm employers fail to offer health insurance to the employees based on their immigration status, low income and temporary status.  However, the insurances cover can be offered to the employees on a temporary basis for the period when they work for the farm (Allender, Rector and Warner 940).  This is because the farm-workers wellness is essential towards productivity and economic development. 

Despite the fact that the migrant's farm-workers are essential to the American agricultural sector their migratory status does not quality them to the provision of healthcare insurance from the farm owners.  Working benefits such as those for social services, education and health are given to the permanent working employees.  Health care is highly acknowledged to be a great necessity for manual laborers but the migrant farm-workers status denies them the right (Boslaugh 925).   Providing health insurance to the migrant's workers would be expensive for the employers since after making their investment to the laborers they will move to a different state in search of labor since it’s a seasonal job. Health insurance and other working benefits should be given with the objective of motivating and decreasing the turnover rate. However, according to Boslaugh (925), the migrant employees cannot be retained based on the fact that farming lasts in different periods and thus the benefit may not change the rate of turnover. The farm-workers migratory status, therefore, affects the capability of providing and marinating health care benefits provisions. The perspective is, however, wrong because the provision of benefits should be based on the employee's contribution. In addition, the provision of health insurance can act as a way of reducing their migratory status and retain the laborers one season after another.


The benefits of the migrant's farm-workers outweigh the general cost that would be incurred when the farm owners provide health insurance to them.  The agricultural sector is the most important industry in the country as it offers support to all other sectors.  Health insurances are highly needed to offer support to the marginalized, less served and seasonal farm laborers. The farm owners require the migrant’s labor in increasing its productivity, sales as well as profit margins.  This cannot be achieved without the presence of a workforce simply because they cannot afford the high health care cost with their low income.  In addition, they are highly isolated from public care based on their status. The agricultural sector source of labor is based on migrants and the need to retain them cannot, therefore, be ignore.






Work Cited

Allender, Judith, Rector, Cherie   and Warner, Kristine. Community & Public Health Nursing: Promoting the Public’s Health. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2013 .

Boslaugh, Sarah. Encyclopedia of Epidemiology. London: SAGE, 2007. Print.

Bruhn, John G. The Sociology of Community Connections. Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media B.V, 2011. Internet resource.




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Agriculture economic home set

The data provided shows that the production of corn has increased over time informed by favorable market prices over the last few years. The reason for this seems to be an increase in the demand for the corn driven by the increasing ethanol production, feed FSI Non-fuel and the expanding export markets. How the local market price in the use market seems to have decreased from $6.89 to $3.60 a trend that shows a constant decline. The corn balance sheet shows that there was a slight improvement in corn yield for the, with a similar improvement in the domestic usage.  On the other hand, the trend in the soya beans production shows a steady growth a slight decline in production being offset by a following rise in next harvest year. In addition , the world harvest for soya beans have increased constantly since the year 2005 only stagnating in the period between 2009 and 2011. The increase in production is showed to have continued after the rise and has not experienced another stagnation to date.

In comparison with corn, soya bean’s stock-to-use ration is seen to be increasing since 2011 while corn stage usage ratio predictability is very uncertain. This means that with wheat production, which in some markets is used as a substitute for corn, being constantly high there demand is likely to remain low for the corn. The declining stocks-to-use ratio for soybeans in the world market indicates a better market as compared to corn.  Trading in soya beans is likely to bring in more returns than in corn, considering the above market analysis. Entering into a soybeans contract futures is the better option. 

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Explanation Context

Education refers to the process of teaching and developing knowledge, skills, mind and character. It can also be said to be a deliberate process that is systematic that involve efforts to transmit knowledge, skills, attitudes and other values. Learning is a complex and a long process that occurs in school and throughout in life that keeps on changing due to nature unfolds. The school-based approach is a formal system of teaching that entails attendance, disciplinary practices, and policies and defined curriculum enforced  I have been hired by the board and the administration of a school district that is intending to start offering agricultural education in the school program (Shuell, 1990). This is important for a new program that will see all the involved stakeholders put their efforts into making it a success. However, they are unfamiliar with the types of learning and teaching methodologies that pertaining agricultural education a reason why they have hired me for in order to help them learn more about the school-based teaching approach and how they will be able to hire the best teacher as possible (Schunk, 2004).

Identification and Explanation of the Recommendation of the Teaching and Learning Strategies

Education is a process that consists of both teaching and learning process. This means that in order to make the program successful in school having a good teacher who knows what entail in agricultural a program is paramount. The teacher experience is a critical aspect as it is an indication of success to the introduction of the new program who can be able to create a conducive learning environment. The process of determining the best teacher for the job will depend on many factors. The teachers should be a leader in this formal school-based strategy. This is because the teacher will leader the board, administration and the students to the area they are not familiar with (Shuell, 1990). The teacher should be able to demonstrate the skills as a leader who the entire school fraternity can listen to. Another strategy in teaching should be a specific order of the teacher in charge. The teacher should be able to maintain a good teacher-student relationship that will facilitate the teaching process (Severs, Graham & Conklin, 2007).

The educational setting of the school-based approach requires an educational setting of a classroom. This will bring a direct contact of the teacher and the students taking up the lessons. This is because there will be a one on one conversation with the students creating a room of familiarity eliminating fear among the students. A one-way teaching method plays a significant role that will help the students gain more from the teacher as they have no clue on the inner details of the subject (Severs, Graham & Conklin, 2007). The management should also be able to evaluate the content or objectives determined by the teacher in relation to what the student will be able to achieve at the end of the teaching period.

Evaluation is a strategy of the teaching and the learning process of the school-based approach. The formal testing by the teacher will help in identifying how well the students are fairing in the subject and how far they have progressed. This strategy assists on application and problem solving to the students by applying what they have learned (Schunk, 2004). The board and the administration can put into consideration of the outcome of the learning process of the teacher I the previous setting. This is can also be used to evaluate in the future preparation of the students that can be proven from former students that the teacher taught

Advantages and Disadvantages of the Strategies


A learning environment is advantageous as it creates a physical and a social environment that greatly supports the students in learning the new subject by a way of creating positive interactions with their peers and teacher leading to development f independence building their capabilities to cope with the introduction of the new subject. Evaluation and reporting to gauge the student's performance help in establishing a student file that is accurate (Severs, Graham & Conklin, 2007). It is advantageous as it helps the teacher know whether the teaching practices are effective to the new students creating an opportunity for adjustment resulting to the success of the training. Planning of the best teaching practice such as the one-way approach in the school-based strategy ensures that every student is given the same level of attention. It is also important as brings success to the whole class as the teacher is able to ensure that no student id left behind as it encourages a student-centered approach (Schunk, 2004).


One way teaching approach may fail to apply to all students in that some may be slow to understand the teacher resulting in poor performance. Encouraging participation to the students in the new subject may be difficult as they may not have all the relevant knowledge pertaining the subject (Schunk, 2004). The inevitable learning curve may slow down discussions among the students. The introduction of a new teacher as a strategy in the introduction of the new subject may create fear among the students resulting in an unsuccessful program.


Adult education differs from the secondary students learning as it takes place in many settings. Adult educators are different from the secondary educators as they have different preparations and backgrounds for their roles as adult educators. There are diverse learning conditions between the two settings. Adult educators mainly advocate for instructional design as a planning tool in curriculum due to its effectiveness (Gredler, 2005). The instructional design in adult education helps by ensuring students achievement of the desired learning outcome as it is able to provide a tool that makes planning for the directives more thorough and systematic. Adult educators pride themselves more than the secondary educators as there are more able to provide instructions that are effective and that help their adult learners learn more smoothly (Dean, 2004).

Educational programs both for adults and secondary students are similar and dissimilar in both ways. They are both similar in that both teaching practices provides useful information and increases the understanding level of the students. They both aim at introducing and demonstrating new skills as well as enhance them together with their abilities and habits in the given doctrine. They also foster more desirable attitudes and aspiration to the learning party. However, they are different secondary learning mostly uses a school-based technique that requires the students to compulsory attend classes which are not the same case with adult learning (Dean, 2004). Instilling discipline to students of secondary learning is a key role a secondary educator takes into consideration which does not apply to adult learning (Gredler, 2005). Teaching methods vary between the two groups whereby adult’s learners appreciate a class that helps them in attaining their goal which is not appropriate for secondary learners as they are not fully developed in the career they would like to venture into. Secondary students learn almost in a similar manner that may not require the teacher to adjust their speed, however, for adult learners, the educator may be required to adjust their speed in order to meet the needs of the adult learner as they learn differently (Dean, 2004).


Scholarship of learning and teaching has continued to evolve as it has taken the center stage in the academy. There have been many thoughts that suggest that this form of teaching and learning should become public, be subjected to critical review and evaluation, be available for exchange and it can also be used by other members of a scholarly community (Rudd, 2005). It is true to say that scholarship of teaching has remained ambiguous therefore making it difficult to practice. It is important to have a transformational change in the education sector in order to make the strategy effective and successful. Higher education is important as it is a great foundation for the students strengthening their career ground creating a need to of change as it will convert the institution of higher learning into a central activity that elevates teaching and learning (Rudd, 2005).

The scholarship plays a role in agricultural education to both adults and secondary students. This is because it engages into practice, reflection and assessment of teachings that create chances of learning new techniques increase the knowledge base of the students and acquire proper critiques that result to improvement (Rudd, 2005). It has also led to a continuous improvement of agricultural programs as well as creating new techniques for the faculty in agricultural teaching.






Dean, G. J. (2004). Designing Instructions. In M. W. Galbraith (Ed.). Adult Learning Methods: A Guide For Effective Instruction (3rd Ed). Malabar, FL: Krieger Publisher

Gredler, M. E (2005). Learning and Instruction: Theory And Practices (5th ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill-Prentice Hall

Rudd, R. D. (2005). What Is The Scholarship Of Teaching And Learning? Gainesville

Schunk, D.H (2004). Learning Theories: An Educational Perspective. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill-Prentice Hall

Severs, B., Graham, D., & Conklin, N. (2007). Education Through Cooperative Extension (2nd ed). Columbus, OH. The Ohio State University, Curriculum Material Service

Shuell, T. J. (1990). Phases of a Meanigful Learning. American Educational Research Association


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Philosophies in Agricultural Education

Philosophy refers to the study of general and essential problems that pertains certain matters such as knowledge, values, existence, mind, reason, and language. Philosophy was considered to be love for wisdom that made the philosophers search for the truth in various questions that varies in setting (Moore, 1988). Philosophy is important as it provides clear information on what has been done especially in agricultural education where it was massively influenced by the pragmatic movement.



Agricultural education to students is important despite the given level of learning. In order to achieve the objective of learning the students have a role to play as well as the expectations. First of all, students have to be active participants in the program which means that they should contribute to the discussions held by not only answering what was the teacher asks but also other questions posed by their peers (Boone et al, 2002). In order to make the whole learning interesting, they should be free to express their own ideas and suggestions about the topic to their teacher and the peers as well. The expectation of the students is to be better than they actually joined the learning program. This means that they are at a better position in the agricultural fields as they have the relevant knowledge required in the field. Their expectations are acquired new and different techniques, innovative marketing, new agricultural laws and regulation, new farm techniques and gain the knowledge to increase and enhance managerial skills and efficiency in agricultural production (Boone et al, 2002).


Teachers have a great role to play in educating the students as there are different philosophies to address that have a different approach. This means that a teacher has to formulate a plan of making sure that the students are aware of the different philosophies and what entails in each and how they all address agricultural education (Boone et al, 2002). In order to avoid the conflict of philosophies a teacher has a big mandate of drawing both the value and the criticism of the philosophy so that the learner can have a neutral ground of deciding which to follow.  The teacher’s expectation is to meet the diverse ideology and practice to the students, encourage more involvement of agricultural education to the students as well as deliver the opportunities to the students (Boone et al, 2002).


The teaching process refers to the general pedagogy, principles and management strategies that should be used in a learning environment. The teaching process mostly depends on the type of philosophy and the subject matter to be taught. The approaches include the teacher-centered approach and the student-centered approach. Progressive philosophy will be administered to the students through a teacher-centered approach whose primary role of the students is to receive information. This is because it is the area and the philosophy that the teacher is well acquainted in with direct instructions. The learning of the students is measured through the scores of assignment and tests. For liberal and behavioral philosophy student-centered approach will be the most effective. This is because the philosophies are different from what the teacher acknowledges. It will play a significant part as this model will enhance an equal play from both parties. It encourages active learning of group projects, class participation, and class portfolio. It involves inquiry-based learning of the facilitator, personal model and the delegator and cooperative learning.


The behavioral management theory addresses the behavior issue that one should understand and more importantly what are its causes. The philosophical school of thought believes that a teacher should not react to behaviors but should be proactive and take preventive measures. It is important to meet the basic student’s expectations because when they are not met there is no hope of the curriculum teaching (Howell, 2012). For the secretary of education liberal philosophy is founded on the basis of equality and liberty. This means that equality is important and there should be freedom of speech, free market, and international cooperation. It implies that the agricultural students should be given equal chances as they have a chance to choose what they want without being intimidated (Howell, 2012). For a teacher progressive philosophy is based on the idea of progress that emphasizes on the advancement to find the roots of education to present experience. It focuses on expeditionary, experiential learning, integrated curriculum, critical thinking and problem solving. The teacher creates lifelong learning and social skills through evaluation of the project and production (Howell, 2012).


The philosophies offer a different approach to agricultural education. This causes conflicts in the learning process of the students which mean that there should be rules and regulation attached to the learning program (Smith, 1991). As a way of resolving and minimizing the conflicts brought about by the approaches, it is important to have a strategic plan. The strategic plan will help in remaining true to my progressive approach and enhance respect for the other approaches. The strategic plan will involve a definition of the mission statement that will help in blending in the philosophies, identification of the curriculum goals and the objectives of the goal to achieve in learning and teaching (Grimes, 1991).



















Dr, Howell, R. T. (2012). Journal of Industrial Teachers Education. Virginia Tech.

Grimes, M, J. (1991). Stands for nothing-Fall for Anything. University of extension

Moore, G. E. (1988). A philosophy primer for agricultural educators. The Agricultural education magazine decemmber, 1988; vol. 61: Num. 6

Smith, K. L. (1991). PHIlosophy diversions-which road. Extension journal, Inc. ISSN 1077-5315.



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Agriculture education

Agriculture education is a wide subject which deals with the principles of science and business management. Students are enriched with knowledge and skills of problem solving which they apply in global society. Focusing on historical perspective of agriculture education, The Morill Act was established and played a crucial role of developing the land-grant college system where people were provided with knowledge, skills and moral standard (Moore, 1987). With this development, both citizens and politicians were interested in shaping their lives through agriculture education in the newly established college. During this period, there was a debate on whether the land-grand college should provide a vocational education or broad education. The debate created a conflict and new programs which blocked the success of land-grant colleges were established (MOSS & LASS, 1988).

 The National Society which was formed in 1906 supported the vocational training and incentive aid to provide knowledge and skills to citizens, develop economy and a well structured society. In 1917, the National Society passed the Smith-Hughes Act and it was set for the purpose of engaging teachers and students in vocational subjects, employment training, career counseling and agriculture competency. After the establishment of Acts on vocation education, John Dewey established the pragmatic philosophy in 20th century and there was a need of providing practical skills to both men and women in developing a skillful agriculture system in the rural communities (MARCUSIALAN, 1986).  This period concentrated on science of education based on classroom work in order to prepare students in socio and economic problem solving and provide teachers with best practices, teaching materials and   teaching programs.

 In 1970, there was introduction of philosophical writing which emphasized on preparing students with employment, vocational agriculture and dealing with food crisis. It was important for teachers to do experiential learning to solve problems in environmental level. Empirical investigation was valued for improving social behavior and for the creation of life-oriented environment. It was then found that there was a need for education change with respect to philosophy theory in order to meet the changing demands (Barrick, 1989).  Education lacked theoretical framework and so by 19990, the education was changed and new approaches such as technical agriculture, human development and experiential learning g was implemented.  It was believed that the three domains could help students in understanding both humanistic and idealistic ideas.


Having understood the agricultural education and its history, changes on past educational principles would lead to various implications on modern education.  With respect to the agriculture education magazine, a change from past curriculum indicates that there are new features in agriculture education which students should learn in order to fit in the new global agriculture market. For example, for various decades the past education has concentrated on vocational education and this indicates that a change will lead to new education curriculum and new learning environment. The National Research Agenda is working with AAAE in expanding the agriculture education so that students can be a position to solve complex problems in the changing world (Harder & Brashears, 2016).

A change in past curriculum will imply that educators will set a new curriculum based on EBooks and talking text. (Cano, 2005) assert that teachers will have to incorporate new teaching methods which will make learning and teaching easier. Rather than focusing on vocation education, EBook learning with instructor’s manual (with features like video clips, fact sheets PowerPoint slides) will help teachers to provide students with knowledge and skills. In addition, EBook curriculum will enhance performance as students are able to write notes, conduct research and to interact with their teachers. The technological change will also bring PDA curriculum where students engages in meaningful activities through computer use.  Unlike tradition curriculum, PDAs in agriculture education will help student to use technology and search photograph species, plants and become connected with real learning of the agriculture nature.  A change in traditional education will create a new curriculum based on internet learning where both teachers and students will find important information based on agriculture. Internet will advanced searching methods where students will concentrate on important activities, comprehensives research and understand the wide-ranging concepts of the subject (Harris, 2005). Computer games are another program of the study which will be developed while changing the traditional curriculum. The new curriculum will help students to examine the real world and understand the important things which they will apply in real life (Kuenzi, 2005).


Other point is that a change will lead to implementation of new teaching methods based on instructional learning and textbooks. This approach will help teachers to gain accountability and improve students’ performance. Agriculture textbooks are very important as they contain essential skills (Lee, 2005). Other implication of changing the education is that new curriculum will include games and simulations which increase the learning activities and students’ performance. In learning agriculture, structional resources such as games and simulations will play a crucial role of motivating students and providing them with learning skills which they will apply in global markets. Games and simulation helps students to practice the gained knowledge evaluate weaknesses in knowledge; create summary activity and new concept with relation to education (Knobloch, 2005).  Other implication of change is that a new curriculum based on actively teaching will be implemented in agriculture education. Unlike vocational learning, actively learning means that students need motivation in classroom for them to engage in classroom participation. In new curriculum, teachers will have the opportunity to motivate students by being enthusiastic, fair grading, equality and professional experience (Faulker &Baggett, 2005). Students need to be prepared to enter in the real world, and thus actively learning should be valued as it will facilitate fun learning and enhance the interest of student in learning.
















The Agricultural Education Magazine, September October2005Volume 78Issue 2




Harder, T G. Roberts  & Brashears, M. T. (Eds). (2016). American Association for Agricultural Education

national research agenda: 2016-2020. Gainesville, FL: Department of  Agricultural Education and



Moore E. Gary (1987). The Status of Agricultural Education Prior to the Smith-Hughes Act. The

Agricultural Education Magazine Feb. 1987; Vol. 59; Num. 8.


MOSS W. JEFFREY & LASS B.CYNTHIA (1988). A History of Farmers Institutes. 62, number

2, spring 1988 © agricultural history society


MARCUSIALAN (1986). The Ivory Silo: Farmer-Agricultural CollegeTensions in the 1870s

and 1880s. Volume 60, number 2, spring 1986. © agricultural history society


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Current Status of Agricultural Education

Agricultural education can be defined as the study of agricultural practices in relationship to business management, natural resources such as land (Dubinchenko, 2014). It also entails studying the three sciences which include physics, chemistry and biology and applying those sciences in the field of agriculture. Studies in the agricultural education class are taught on skills of relating agriculture to other disciplines they might have learnt. Therefore this paper will focus on finding out the current status of agricultural education and importance of the education since many students are now studying the course.

Agricultural education is aimed at ensuring students have the necessary skills which will enable them understand agriculture at a bigger perspective. Students are able to learn the importance of agriculture at a global level. Agriculture is important thus many countries especially developing countries depend on agriculture as their main source of income (Dubinchenko, 2014). Thus students are installed with scientific skills as well as problem solving skills that will enable them relate agriculture with business. Agriculture in the US is related with business as well as other industries which are of economic value. Thus agricultural education in America is important since other industries are incorporated in the study and students learn skills of relating agriculture with other industries as one way of ensuring economic growth. Currently the agricultural education program puts more emphasis on environmental concerns; food issues and helping students gain life skills in their development (Evenson & Pingali, 2007). Thus the education is important since students learn different issues that affect them as well as the community and learn strategies of solving issues affecting the people.

Agricultural education is not all about studying agriculture as the name suggest. It involves learning skills in life of an individual or groups of people which will help them in the process of life development. The current agricultural education program is seen to put focus on studying forestry, conservation, natural resources management, food processing and production, aquaculture, economics, sales and marketing but is not limited to only these disciplines (Dubinchenko, 2014). The program ensures that the community and individuals have the necessary life skills and get basic information on agriculture as well as opportunities that come with agriculture. People who study this course have the necessary life skills and thus are able to relate well with others and have many opportunities out there since they have learnt all the necessary life skills.

Agricultural education programs are offered in secondary schools, colleges and in both public and private universities, since this education is very useful in enhancing life growth and development (Evenson & Pingali, 2007). The program ensures that students learn three major components that come with this useful education. The components include leadership growth, career programs and official classroom education which are part of the curriculum in American schools. Students are taught on the basics of agriculture and taught on basic practices of agriculture and opportunities one can get having learnt education agriculture. More than eight thousand agricultural training programs are found in the US with more than 500000 students enrolling to study the programs (Evenson & Pingali, 2007). Agricultural education has a bright future in the US since many colleges and universities are offering the programs thus many students are enrolling themselves in those classes. Thus agriculture will be more important to the people since through agricultural education programs people will appreciate agriculture since it comes with many different opportunities.


Dubinchenko, S. (2014). The Mechanisms Of Agricultural Sciences, Education And Business      Integrati. Management Theory & Studies For Rural Business & Infrastructure           Development, 36(4), 794-801. doi:10.15544/mts.2014.074

Evenson, R. E., & Pingali, P. L. (2007). Handbook of agricultural economics: Farmers, farm       production and farm markets. Amsterdam: Elsevier, North Holland.




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Agricultural Education

Education has continued to evolve in line with the various developments in society so as to equip human beings with the knowledge they need not only to survive but to live comfortably. In the past, human beings were mostly focused on studying sciences and humanities so as to develop their minds and way of thinking. During this time, mathematicians and philosophers served as teachers who combined mathematical logic with scientific logic in their teachings. As a result, the foundation of the education system was based on a combination of sciences, humanities and art (Barrick, 1989). As human understanding of the world and knowledge grew, the fields broadened and new methods were used to educate society on several other concepts that were deemed necessary and of importance. Among such developments was the replacement of vocational agriculture with agricultural education.

            When the Kellog Commission realized the need to improve on what was taught in Land Grant and State universities, they sought to create an awareness that would result to positive reforms in the forms of higher education taught in public universities (Byrne, 2006). After thorough research, they came to the conclusion that there was a need to build good working relationships between the community and the universities. The relationships would pave the way for partnerships that were open and flexible enough to facilitate sharing of resources and responsibilities (Weerts, 2005). The venture proved successful and land graft universities have been able to provide accessible education to members of the community. Other than access, students benefit from the opportunity of getting to various academic disciplines taught in the universities. Students benefit from being exposed to a different field among which is Agricultural Education (Moore, 1994).

            Being a relatively new field, agricultural education has provoked a lot of discussion and is often confused with vocational agriculture. Vocational agriculture is a program that was taught in universities before the introduction of agricultural education. While some people tend to assume that the two refer to the same thing, vocational agriculture is more of a branch of agricultural education (McCormick, 1988). Agricultural education covers all educational aspects concerned with agriculture such as educational activities, processes and programs. It is a process that involves the blending of behavioral sciences of education with the applied sciences of agriculture. Agricultural education is very wide and contributes a lot to education. Other than responding to the technical informational needs of individuals who are or will be committed to the agricultural sector, it also educates people not in the agricultural sector by giving them general information and also gives transitional information and experience to people residing in the rural areas but lack a vocational commitment to the field of agriculture (McCormick,1988).

            Agricultural education also encompasses formal and non-formal programs, activities and processes that are involved in agriculture. Most, if not all, of the educational programs such as young and adult farmer, technical education, vocational agriculture and other programs are designed in a way that will prepare students with the skills and knowledge they need to get employment in fields related to agriculture (Williams, 1991). Non formal programs include activities that are educational but are organized and offered by organizations not registered as schools. They are often conducted on voluntary basis, are flexible and aim at solving contemporary solutions to relevant people engaged in agriculture (McCormick, 1988). Through the link created by joining humanistic dimensions with the technical aspects of agriculture, agricultural education as we know it today has managed to improve on the quality of education that learners receive not only in university but also in the community.




Barrick K. (1989) “Agricultural education: Building upon our roots” Journal of Agricultural        Education

Byrne V. (2006) “Public Higher Education Reform Five Years After The Kellogg Commission    on the Future of State and Land-Grant Universities”

McCormick G. (1988) “What’s in a name?” Journal of Agricultural Education

Moore E. (1994) “Education: Children and youth” Encyclopedia of Agricultural Science

Weerts J. (2005) “Validating Institutional Commitment to Outreach at Land Grant Universities:   Listening to the Voices of Community Partners” Journal of Extension

Williams L. (1991) “Focusing agricultural education research: Strategies for the discipline”          Journal of Agricultural Education



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Scholarship of Agriculture Education

            I agree with the idea of scholarship and its dissemination because it is necessary for all probationary faculty members to be engaged in scholarship during research, and extension practice which are important in agriculture education. Scholarship is important for creativity, rational inquiry of the topic and how to apply and expose the conclusions drawn from that inquiry honestly. Additionally, it helps to build on existing knowledge and employs significant analysis and judgment hence enhancing understanding. Scholarship is also important because it results into product that can be shared with others in the faculty and it subject to criticism where by qualified individuals can criticize and judge the product hence attaining perfect results. Expectation of scholarship dissemination is part of my obligation as a professional. This is because scholarship is wide and it covers many aspects for instance research falls under scholarship and it is so vital as far as my profession is concerned (In Oermann, 2015). Scholarship includes creative activities, teaching practice or professional practice which is vital in the profession.

                        Scholarship dissemination can be done using formal means or informal means and this is how I would disseminate the scholarship I create. One of the ways I can disseminate my created scholarship is by writing in scholarly journals, E-only journals, books, and working papers. Dissemination can also be done by using multimedia formats for instance video recordings (In Oermann, 2015). I can use monographs and refereed journals to disseminate scholarships. Materials can also be designed for use with the computer, musical concerts novels, essays and scholarly articles. Also, these scholarships can be disseminated in exhibitions and performances. Additionally, scholarships can also be disseminated through invited lectures and conference presentations. Those are some of the ways I can disseminate scholarship as far as my profession is concerned.


In Oermann, M. H. (2015). Teaching in nursing and role of the educator: The complete guide to best practice in teaching, evaluation and curriculum development.



327 Words  1 Pages

The Dimensions of Agricultural Education

            As a future professional I would like to focus on the context of the Scope of the Agricultural education.  This discipline shows the sole task of the farming education.  Agricultural education refers to the technical study of the principles and the modes of teaching and studying as they are based on agriculture. As a future professional, I am aware that the agricultural discipline is important as it is clear that we need agriculture so as to survive, if one has to eat they need agriculture.  The agricultural education program is essential in the American community as its courses ranges from a variety of programs.  I well understand the importance of the education and learning it in meaningful and genuine ways. The agricultural programs help me to discover my potential future career in agriculture. As I attend meetings based on the discipline, engage in contests and attend the agricultural educational conference, I make new friends that also motivate me in my future career (Barrick, 1988). 

            Through the dimensions in the program, I am able to help other students make partnerships with what they are studying in school and the outer domain.  I am spending more time to advance my education in agriculture as I also spend more time with other students and ensuring they have real agricultural experience and the community so as to up surge the sense of the responsibility of the public. In addition to the programs in the discipline, the education is more than cows, sows and plows thus I focus mainly on the actual, permanent education for my future goal. I have also learned valuable life skills though the agricultural programs based on the practical projects both in the school and the community (Barrick, 1988). 

            I have also developed and advanced the agricultural education programs that are now used as the models of the discipline chapters in the whole of America. This has encouraged me as a future professional to work together with the sanctioned and the resourceful learners to the ever changing domain to overcome the emerging agricultural challenges.  As agriculture is the source of the America’s economy, we should be aware that without it we cannot survive, we ought to create sustainable prolific educational systems and research which should be passed down to the future professionals. The agricultural and education discipline is essential as it is the basis of the farming education with the footings of organic and material sciences, psychology and sociology (Barrick, 1988).               














Barrick, R. K. (1988). The discipline called agricultural education. Columbus, Ohio: Dept. of Agricultural Education, the Ohio State University.



435 Words  1 Pages
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