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Hybrid Electric Propulsion for Aircraft




In recent years, both power-driven and hybrid electrically powered propulsion for airplanes has extended prevalent and noteworthy attention. This has come about as the solution to try and lessen pollution and ignition engine exhaust products and also to reduce noise pollution. This paper tries to understand the role that electric hybridisation plays in offering better aircrafts as compared to the conventional legacy type of propulsion system.  The electric hybrid propulsion systems reduce usage of fuel and there is also reduced carbon dioxide emission which makes it much better. This new model for aeroplanes expansion which hybrid electrically powered propulsion empowers has helped in highlighting momentous concerns with the warranty of aircraft practices like they are in existence in the modern day.

Keywords: hybrid, aircraft, propulsion, performance, turbo electric











Hybrid electric propulsion for aircraft

The consumption of energy by the aeronautics industry continues to upsurge against a background of the mounting fossil fuel rates. Because of the high energy compactness of the hydrocarbon gases for core incineration appliances, including gas turbines, this technology is ideal as the main force for aeronautics solicitations (Glassock et al., 2017). However, the locomotives have lesser effectiveness and influence to mass ratio when equated to the electrically powered engines. Although the hybrid electrically powered propulsion structures are still in the initial phases of development, it has significantly been trending especially when it comes to matters of more electrically powered propulsion and the fully electric concepts. The last two decades has seen numerous main technologies that relate to electric power and the drive structures advance to the level where the control and the energy concentration has become appropriate for certain aerospace applications and also releases (Glassock et al., 2017).

The power concentration and also the consistency of the power-driven motors and the drive electronics have become feasible, while the forecasts on the progress of the battery storing energy concentration has led to wide attention on these innovative electric technology. This concept of electrified propulsion has been implemented effectively in hybrid and all power-driven locomotive and marine vehicles; this accomplishment has confirmed momentous decreases in fuel usage and also releases (Xiaolong et al., 2018). The hybrid power-driven cars generally use on board batteries to help in enhancing the convention of fuel in the motorized engines. The aircraft fuel also burn in the same way and it could be condensed if there are adequate power constituent and battery expertise advancements (Xiaolong et al., 2018).

The Architecture of Electric Aircraft Propulsion System

Mechanisms weight necessities are critical for airplane solicitations; there must be a use of a blend of lighter constituents and approaches in order to guarantee that that there is condensed machine dimensions. This will also help intensify the precise power of the electrically powered engines in order to accomplish the aims that are essential in the aircraft structure (Lukasik, Borys & Wisniowski,2017). At the same time, it is vital that the sizing apparatuses be established for numerous machine types in order to enhance material usage. Structural honesty should be reserved and the machine inner temperature kept within design restrictions. The machine can either be vested at the back of the turbine apparatus or inside the compressor region (Lukasik, Borys & Wisniowski,2017). Such vibrational and hot settings upsurge the intricacy of the motorized and thermal difficulties. The design of the machine should also take structure necessities into thought, including those from the electric power dissemination and power-driven load structures.

There are many power systems styles that can be employed for electrically motorized force powertrains. All the electric systems that exist, parallel or series use electro-chemical energy storage that basically includes batteries that are used for propulsive power (Friedrich & Robertson, 2015). The power base of an electrically powered plane are the batteries, and due to the restraint of battery vitality mass, only a few kinds of batteries can be useful to these electrically powered planes. There are three kinds of batteries that are believed to be appropriate for electrically powered aircraft and they comprise; metal batteries, lithium batteries, and grapheme batteries (Lukasik, Borys & Wisniowski, 2017). However, only the batteries made from lithium have been functional in electric aircraft, the others are still in exploration stage. The energy concentration of these batteries can hypothetically scope 300W.h/kg, the definite real-world capability is much lesser to gratify the construction obligation (Lukasik, Borys & Wisniowski, 2017).

The proportions of the aircraft that can make use of an all-electric solution are closely united to the expansion of the batteries with advanced energy compactness. The batteries offer vitality for propulsion during one or more point of the aircraft. The decision on when the batteries will be utilized in a hybrid electrical propulsion structure is still fundamentally a portion of the aircraft design space (Ma et al., 2017). In the parallel hybrid designs, the motor and the turbine appliances are both attached on the same propulsion fan channel so that the fan can be compelled by the two energy foundations self-sufficiently (Friedrich & Robertson, 2015). In the series hybrid designs, all the control in the gas turbine tube is transformed to electric power which then pushes the motors and also charges the batteries.  In such a structure, only the electric engines are instinctively linked to the fans (Friedrich & Robertson, 2015).

Flight outline of Electric Aircraft Propulsion System

The flight outline of an electric power-driven airplane can be detached into four stages comprising; the take-off, the climbing phase, the cruising phase and finally the landing phase. The consumption of energy differs from one stage to another whereby the take-off and the cruise phase necessitate equal amount of energy. It is nonetheless imperative that this phase donates to less than 2% of the overall vitality that is expended because of its small intermission that is just about 1 minute (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (U.S), 2016). The climb phase underwrites to about 20% of the whole dynamism that is expended and its power obligation is 2.5 greater as compared to that of the cruise stage power. Nevertheless even with its comparative inferior power obligation as linked to the climb stage, the cruise stage still has about 75% of the entire energy that is normally expended for flights above 30 minutes. The landing stage devours the least energy of about 0.5% of the whole dynamism that is usually expended. Its power compulsion is 40% as compared to that of the cruise stage power (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (U.S), 2016). The take-off and the landing phases when pooled take up about 2.5 % or less of the entire energy that is usually expended all because of their little power necessity and also the petite process period.

Principles of Electric Aircraft Propulsion System (EAPS)

The EAPS normally consist of the subsequent constituents; the control stick, the motor, the supplementary power, the power batteries, the operator interface and the controller that usually has the drive component and a switch module, and other assorted constituents. In the course of the flying, the aviator while in the cockpit takes control of the control lever which produces an analog indicator to the resistor element of the regulator (Ma et al., 2017). The resistor element regulates the production of the initiative segment bestowing to the analog amount. The effort component of the regulator assigns direct current that is delivered by the power systems into interchanging energy to initiate the motor and the mechanical alternates the propeller to cause push for the plane. The electric airplane batteries are always electrically charged fully and connected in advance earlier before the flying and they always get detached from the plane for indicting after the flying. The batteries are normally recharged more than eight hundred times and those comprising less than eighty five percent of the original ability are detached from service and reprocessed (Ma et al., 2017). The pilot has the capability of obtaining data on the standing of the motor, the power batteries and the controller over the power adapted exhibition that is typically on the frontal panel. The aircraft usually fortified with two or more batteries that can be recharged to help warranty adequate energy (Ma et al, 2017).

Energy intake of Electric Aircraft Propulsion System

The power necessity for climbing and cruise stages is resolute by the propeller that is capable of being premeditated as the artefact of the push of the propeller and also the air speed. Restricted by its structure and mass, an electrically powered plane usually uses static ground propellers (Ma et al, 2017). The push that is normally produced by the propeller is comparative to its revolving rapidity under persistent temperature and thickness. Climbing constantly need the maximum power of the whole flight hence the propeller revolving rapidity is constantly advanced in the climb stage as equalled to the cruise stage (Lukasik, Borys & Wisniowski,2017).


The electric aircraft is the best resolution in helping create ecologically responsive planes in regard to expenses, welfare, effectiveness and also conservational defence. The efficacy of electric aircraft propulsion system is associated to the efficacy of the motor, the propeller and the controller. Both the motor and the controller are proficient of extraordinary efficacy action over the complete flying; on the other hand the propeller has a tapered high competence functioning array. Consequently the efficacy of the electrically powered plane propulsion structure is fundamentally influenced by the proficiency of the propeller. With the whole energy intake as the entity purpose founded on the flying outline and underneath the restrictions that warranty safe ascending and trip it is important to have an effective method can attain the augmented functioning point of the electric plane propulsion system in order to attain high competence to momentously lessen the energy intake of the electric plane propulsion structure on the electrically powered airplane.






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FlyAway Airways


The two approaches are similar and different in various ways. First, both methods are similar because they have comparable pertinent elements which consumers consider when finding quality services. When selecting quality services, customers tend to concentrate on elements such as food, pleasant employees, safety and on-time performance (Zikmund & Babin, 2007). This means that the approaches go hand in hand and quality services cannot be achieved when one approach is not successful. Thus, all approaches must be effective in satisfying customers’ needs. Both methods are fundamental and can allow the FlyAway Airways to compare the domestic performance with airline industry.  However, the approaches differ in measuring quality services where a consumer survey approach (subjective aspects) has direct elements concerning quality services to consumer. In this approach, subjective surveys concentrate much on consumer opinion and airline industry chooses a non-comparable method for monitoring the quality. Unlike subjective survey which uses consumer opinion, a weighted average in quality rating uses reports based on airline performance (Zikmund & Babin, 2007). The results help the industry to create comparable elements with other airlines.  A weighted average approach (objective aspects) focuses on published performance data which has to do with consumer complaints, financial performance, safety and more. In addition, this approaches focuses on inventory items and measures the weight of each item   in terms of both positive and negative aspects.  There are various factors such as customer service, on-time performance, flight problems, load factors and more. A weighted approach method weights the factors which will lead to AQR (Zikmund & Babin, 2007).


Before offering recommendation on course of action which the FlyAway Airways will take, Shocker should consider positive and negative aspects in both approaches. In a consumer survey approach, Shocker should consider higher level of satisfaction after implementing subjective aspects (Bowen et al, 2013). Consumers will be motivated to have a positive perception after   being provided with high quality services. This means that there will be a connection between expectation and satisfaction.  Due to high positive consumer expectation, dissatisfaction may not occur.  It is also important to consider the customer loyalty. This measures customer satisfaction in that positive actual behavior will create returning customers. Other positive aspect to consider is employee happiness. Highly level of customer satisfaction will be achieved as a result of  showing happiness to employee and so it is important to allow the employees feel appreciated  and  hold a positive effect of the industry (Bowen et al, 2013).  In negative aspects, Shocker should consider the demographic factors. Customers have different preferences and so the company should forecast the demand for future generation in order to maintain the competitive edge.  In a weighted average approach, Shocker should consider the importance of obtaining objective information based on service performance. However, there are negative aspects to consider such as customer interest (Bowen et al, 2013). It is important to understand that customers are interested in subjective opinion in regard to quality services.


In both approaches, there are specific aspects of services which are addressed well and   others are poorly addressed. For example in consumer survey approach, the route structure is well addressed (Zikmund & Babin, 2007). According to the percentage of people who responded to airline quality, 46percent had a positive perception. This means that   in monitoring quality services, Shocker should recommend the company to focus on route structure.  Food, as an aspect of quality is poorly addressed in that people who responded to this were only 12 percent. This means that FlyAway airways should overlook this aspect and concentrate on other aspect which makes the business remain competitive. In a weighted average approach, on-time performance was well addressed (Zikmund & Babin, 2007).  This shows that on-time performance has a positive impact on customers. In monitoring quality services, FlyAway airways should focus on providing on-time performance in order to avoid wastage of valuable resources, reduce economic cost and maintain high competition. However, the approach which is poorly addressed is the average seat-mile cost. Therefore, this should not be an option but rather the industry should try to maintain on-time performance (Zikmund & Babin, 2007).



In measuring quality, the two approaches should demonstrate validity.  In this case, a consumed survey approach should use content validity. Initially, a consumer survey to measure different criteria was used and individual offered their response (Zikmund & Babin, 2007). In this case, content validity involves both alignment and subject area in order to achieve the performance domain. On the same note, face validity which is a type of content validity may be used. This is effective since it will measure reasonable tests and recognize valuable contributions. There is another option which is curricular validity which should be used in measuring quality. In creating high-stake decisions, the content of a test will be used to meet the objectives (Zikmund & Babin, 2007). In a weighted average approach, a criterion-Related Validity should be used. This is because, the quality of services is judged through evaluating a data from published sources. In other words, this type of validity will focus on behavior interest thereby predict future performance. Under criterion-related validity, it is easier to predict something such an evidence for validity. Concurrent validity will also help in differencing two groups in order to create empowerment (Zikmund & Babin, 2007).



Between the two methods, Shocker should recommend a weighted average approach (objective approach). This approach is wide and has to do with important things which customers consider or value. Many customers consider price and this play an important role in creating customer satisfaction.  The point is that FlyAway airways should meet customers’ expectations and provide favorable cost in order to avoid customer dissatisfaction (Bowen et al, 2013). Other point is that customers are interested with safety and comfort. Shocker should recommend the industry to consider this approach and in this case evaluate the physical evidence. The industry should strive to provide the best services which will meet the expectations and create customer satisfaction. In this case, the industry should have a block time development in order to run smooth operations (Bowen et al, 2013). Due to competition in air transportation services, block time schedule for summer and winter season will lead to greater accuracy and effective operations.  To ensure on-time performance, the industry should focus on operations control which will help in operating and coordinating airlines with other department thereby maximizing long-term benefits.  The point is that customer need quality services based on flight schedule options, reservation, seat comfort, baggage handling among many (Bowen et al, 2013). Since FlyAway has a route structure, the important thing is to use the weighted average approach to determine the need of customers rather than food, pleasant employees and other issues. The importance of this approach is that the industry will be in a position to understand the customers and the nature of quality services. Due to rapid growth of airline industry, quality services will help the FlyAway find and maintain a competitive position (Bowen et al, 2013).






Zikmund, W. G., & Babin, B. J. (2007). Exploring marketing research. Mason, Ohio: Thomson




Bowen E. Erin, Bowen D. Brent & Headley E. Dean (2013). Development of a Model of Airline


Consumer Satisfaction. AviationTechnology Faculty and Staff Publications.

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