Edudorm Facebook

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

Write a four to five (4-5) page paper in which you:

Describe the various types of management careers that can be offered within each industry (lodging, and food and beverage).
Compare and contrast the differences between the General Management (GM) positions within the two industries.
Analyze and describe the growth in overall employment within these two industries and how this overall growth is forecasted within the next ten years.
Recommend at least three human resource practices in which each industry can better recruit and retain management talent for their respective industry.
Use at least three quality references. Note: Wikipedia and similar websites do not quality as academic resources.
Format your assignment according to the following formatting requirements:
This course requires use of new Strayer Writing Standards (SWS). The format is different than other Strayer University courses. Please take a moment to review the SWS documentation for details.
Typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides.
Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page is not included in the required page length.
Include a reference page. Citations and references must follow SWS format. The reference page is not included in the required page length.
The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

Discuss various career opportunities in the food service and lodging industries.
Describe the significant trends impacting the hospitality industry.
Analyze the basic procedures involved in managing a restaurant operation.
Use technology and information resources to research issues in hospitality and tourism management.
Write clearly and concisely about hospitality and tourism management using proper writing mechanics.

294 Words  1 Pages

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

"Write an essay (with introduction and conclusion) on the suggested topic. Choose the aspect to speak about yourself.
Your introduction should include the thesis statement - main idea of the paper (here is more detailed explanation - Don't include any new information in the conclusion. It should  restate the thesis statement of the paper.
Support your ideas with relevant arguments and examples (in-text citations). List 2-3 sources in the references. Make sure you stick to a required formatting style. Get benefits of these sources and
MLA format -

113 Words  1 Pages

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

Creates a highly positive experience for Museum guests that is conducive to repeat visitation, membership conversion, and positive word of mouth for the Museum. Sells daily and advance Museum admission, film, and program tickets, memberships, and member guest passes. Processes credit cards and coupons, rings up cash, and issues change. Generates proactive sales efforts throughout the Museum. Proactively and warmly welcomes guests, responds to questions, and offers guidance. Validates admission at points of entry to galleries. Ensures smooth flow of visitors by proactively guiding visitors to various queues and spaces. Resolves general complaints from guests and members on site. Stays abreast of current and upcoming exhibitions, films, educational programs, and marketing campaigns. Helps maintain inventory of printed information and marketing materials, and ensures signage is properly placed. Reports to Lobby Managers.

142 Words  1 Pages

Questions and Topics We Can Help You To Answer:
Paper Instructions:

zoos and aquariums: are these spaces in which he are inspired by a common sense of dread and terror, as with sharks and snakes,  or rather a sense of kinship with less threatening animals, such as the primates, or dolphins?
What sort of cultural narrative is being generated? Is it centered on a place, like the US South, or it global, like Coke?
Is it premised on a shared commitment to an ethical ideal, like racial/religious tolerance? Or is the presumed commonality among museum-goers an investment in identity formation via consumption?

102 Words  1 Pages


Pacific Ocean Beaches

Research Problem

People of different cultures and originality have invaded Pacific Ocean beaches. The invasion has made the beaches dirty and overly unhealthy. Some of the human activities that directly impact the beaches are the restaurants and cultures that do not appreciate the importance of clean beaches.  The purpose of this research is to examine the differences in beaches of different areas to determine how the beaches have been affected by cultures around the area. Furthermore, the research would evaluate the relationship between the beaches and the culture of restaurants concerning the conservation of the beach, making it friendly or not. More importantly, the research aims to come up with a solution that would help clean the bad beaches.


Along the pacific coast, many restaurants have been built and are operational. Some of the big hotels under the surf rider include the Bahia Resort and Blue Sea Beach hotels in the San Diego Beachfront area. These two restaurants have their location on the beaches with commitment and care on offering a clean environment to their guests and employees. However, there has been a challenge with the pollution of the beaches with waste, which results in air pollution. According to the air quality technical report for California, on Bahia Resort hotel, according to the report the hotel emits ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and other toxic air contaminants. Both hotels also contribute to solid waste disposal in the ocean (Kiessling et al., 2017). A report from EIA has revealed that the discharge of sewage from the hotels into the surface water should be watched. In order to avoid the severity of solid waste, it is essential to ensure that all the waste is treated before its disposal.

The restaurant cultures are to create a clean and safe environment. More so, the hotel is under the regulations of the Surfrider Foundation, whose main aim is to ensure the protection of the world’s ocean and beaches. The aim of doing this is to ensure controlled action on climate change as coasts are the epicenters for climate change. Surfrider campaigns against plastic pollution are highest around the California region, which borders the Pacific Ocean. These restaurants should arise and join surfing day collections to help in the reduction of these solid wastes that pollute the ocean beaches (Wilts et al., 2020). This will help in the protection of the local coasts.


It is essential to work on interventions that help eliminate the differences in culture and focus on cleaning beaches and maintaining cleanliness. In this fight, we will focus on plastic pollution, reducing the impacts of plastics on marine environments. Also, we could focus on ocean protection; these are measures that help defend oceans from threats, a significant concern on the importance of the ecosystem. This effort will result in coastal preservation, where the interest is to protect the threatened beaches and shorelines (Kiessling et al., 2017). Furthermore, another solution should be directed towards protecting the world’s precious natural resource, water, to ensure its clean, healthy, and sustainable. Lastly, it is to ensure that the beach is accessible to all people to enjoy; this sends a notice to decision-makers to offer complete and fair access to the beach. With these elements set in place, the beach that will be created is a good one, free from pollution. Additionally, incorporating all people in the solutions will create a sense of belonging make people take full conservation responsibility (Rodríguez-Revelo et al., 2018).



Flores, S. (2018). Hawaii’s Sea of Trash.

Kiessling, T., Salas, S., Mutafoglu, K., & Thiel, M. (2017). Who cares about dirty beaches? Evaluating environmental awareness and action on coastal litter in Chile. Ocean & Coastal Management137, 82-95.

Morang, A., Dunkin, L. M., Bucaro, D. F., Wethington, J. A., Chrzastowski, M. J., & Theuerkauf, E. J. (2019). Sediment Budget for the North Illinois Shore from the Wisconsin Border to Wilmette Harbor. ERDC Vicksburg United States.

Rodríguez-Revelo, N., Espejel, I., García, C. A., Ojeda-Revah, L., & Vázquez, M. A. S. (2018). Environmental services of beaches and coastal sand dunes as a tool for their conservation. In Beach Management Tools-Concepts, Methodologies and Case Studies (pp. 75-100). Springer, Cham.

Wilts, H., Schinkel, J., & Feder, L. (2020). Prevention of plastic waste in production and consumption by multi-actor partnerships.



Appendix B

Figure 1: Kamilo Beach, Hawaii (Flores, 2018)


Appendix B

Figure 2: South Shore Beach, Wisconsin (Morang et al., 2020)

739 Words  2 Pages



 Smart City and Smart Tourism Destination in China



Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction. 17

1.1 Background. 20

1.2 Problem Statement 25

1.3 Significance of the Study. 29

2.0 Literature Review.. 31

2.1 Research on Smart Cities. 31

2.2 Features of Smart Tourism.. 33

2.3 Benefits of Smart Tourism Destinations. 35

2.4 Smart Tourism Challenges. 36

2.5 Factors Contributing To the Development of Smart Tourism in China. 39

2.5.1 Technology. 39

2.5.2 Innovation. 41

2.5.3 Human Capital 42

2.6 Smart Cities and Smart Tourism in China. 43

2.7 Smart Tourism Framework. 46

3.0 Methodology. 48

3.1 Introduction. 48

3.2 Research Method. 48

3.3 Research approach and Strategy. 49

3.4 Cases Selection. 50

3.5 Data Collection. 50

3.6 Data Analysis. 51

3.7 Ethical Consideration. 52

3.8 Research Limitations. 52

4.0 Findings. 52

4.1 Destinations’ Characterization. 53

4.2 Technology and Innovation. 55

4.3 Human Capital 57

4.4 The smart Tourism Destinations System.. 58

Figure 3: Smart Destination Technology (ICT) Infrastructure (Yalçınkaya, Atay, & Korkmaz, 2018). 59

4.5 New framework for Smart Tourism and Smart Tourists Destinations. 59

4.5.2 Smart Governance. 63

4.5.3 Smart Technological Systems. 64

4.5.4 Human Capital 65

4.5.5 Smart Innovation. 66

4.5.6 Smart Heritage Aspects. 67

5.0 Discussion and Implication of Research. 68

5.1 Overall Discussion. 70

5.2 Implication of Research. 71

5.3 Limitations. 71

5.4 Future Research. 72

6.0 Conclusion and Recommendations. 73

References. 75

















In recent years, the fast growth of information technology has generated numerous opportunities for the global tourism industry. Smart city and smart tourism destinations are gaining intense attention as novel frameworks within which the effect of information and communication technology (ICT) on tourism in the contemporariness of the business landscape today can be understood. Smart tourism stands as one of the latest tourism trends, founded on smart technologies. Smart tourism is growing rather rapidly in Asia particularly in China and is rapidly spreading in Europe. The objective of the research is to analyze the factors that contribute to the development of smart tourism in China. As the concept of smart tourism is relatively new in the research setting, a case study approach following a qualitative research method was adopted to understand the factors influencing smart city development in China. The findings of the study indicate that the factors that contribute to smart tourism development in China are ICT, innovation, and human capital. Hence, the findings are vital in understanding the level of smart tourism development and in turn suggest ways through which these factors can best be improved to create the needed conditions for smart tourism development in China. Thus, the study will be valuable in understanding the level of smart cities' development in China as the insights are needed for sustainable development which will facilitate the growth of smart tourism destinations in the country. The emergence of the smart tourism sector aligns with China’s economic ambitions, growth, and industrial changes. Hence, with reference to these transformations, this study explores the current position and development capability of smart tourism and smart cities in China and provides applicable recommendations.

Keywords: Smart tourism, smart city, ICT, innovation, human capital, sustainable development, smart tourism destinations

1.0 Introduction

Information and communication technology (ICT) has led to significant changes as well as the development of new business trends in tourism over the past few years. ICT has changed tourism and every other sector globally and therefore become a determinant of the overall level of competitiveness among tourism firms and destinations. The role that information technology plays in the tourism sector in the face of technological advancement has evolved from the use of the internet for marketing, the use of mobile phones to the application of smart technology. Smart technology currently describes a new phenomenon in tourism known as smart tourism. According to Jasrotia, & Gangotia (2018), the concept of smart tourism is derived from the framework of smart cities which depict the environments in which technology is integrated into a city to improve the quality of life for its occupants and enhance service delivery within the city. The smart city is a relatively new development and management model in relation to urban social structures that encompass technology incorporation, industrial convergence as well as intelligent services.

China is one of the fastest-growing economies globally and the concept of smart tourism is well established in its territory. The steady and continuous growth of China’s economy following the implementation of a reform and open policy is one that has attracted the attention of many individuals across the globe (Li, Hu, Huang & Duan, 2017). The country has already ventured into a phase of fast urbanization and is predicted that in the next ten years urbanization will be at 68 percent. Therefore as the process of urbanization continues to intensify, the need to improve the quality of life, in urban locations has become an important matter. In this context, smart city refers to the development of urban space which generally contains the physical setting, virtual internet world, and the intelligent worlds made up of the internet of things (IoT) have become very crucial (Wang, Li & Li, 2013). The integration of smart city and information technology which are grounded on the urban information system has resulted in substantial innovative prospects for future strategy in terms of urban development in China.

Yalçınkaya, Atay & Korkmaz (2018) posits that, in today’s technology-driven business landscape and society, the smart city is an unavoidable trend in the development of Chinese cities. The strategy involves the process of integrating information technology as well as an intellectual economy to expansively enhance urban planning, management, and service delivery level across China. The strategy involves the feasible application of information technology, industrialization as well as urbanization. Dabeedooal, Dindoyal, Allam & Jones (2019), establishes that, essentially, the approach encompasses a transformation from technological development in the industry set to social intellectualization. From a business perspective, the most vital value that is linked with the rapid advancement of technology is the exponential growth of information which impacts every aspect of the business on a day to day basis allowing the sector to make a reliable prediction of consumers’ interests. A smart city is a concept that additionally focuses on the cultural and social life and might, therefore, lead to improved social interactions. Since tourism is significantly related to the concept of culture, therefore, a smart city is an ideology that is directly related to tourism. Smart technology is a buzzword that has suggestively been changing how individuals about the use of websites, mobile applications, and smartphones in making travel decisions including transportation, tour activities, and the availability of accommodation in their desired tourism tourisms (Zhu, Zhang & Li, 2014). Consequently, smart tourism entails a smart tourism experience representing technology-centered experiences that integrate personalization, real-team observation, and context-awareness.

Gretzel et al. (2016), asserts that Smart tourism is taking shape in China courtesy of innovation and technological advancement but it has not been adequately expounded in literature. There is therefore a need to explore and analyze the factors that continue to affect the development of smart cities and smart tourism in China. Thus the objective of this research is to explore and analyze the key factors that impact the development of smart cities and smart tourism in China. Beginning by exploring the nature of smart tourism and the opportunities and challenges that it creates, the paper examines forces that influence smart tourism development in China as labeled in literature and following a case study of the leading smart tourism destination across China. The analysis will mainly be narrowed to three main factors which are ICT, the innovation of the business landscape, and human capital (Guo, Liu & Chai, 2014). The analysis will provide insights about existing challenges and opportunities and propose feasible strategies to improve the travel and tourism industry in China through smart technology.

1.1 Background

For organizations to survive in the highly competitive tourism industry there is a need to be smart. According to Wang, Li, & Li (2013), smartness is a requirement for attaining and maintaining competitiveness based on the ability to offer clients personalized experiences. In this case, smartness shapes service delivery by ensuring that customers receive real-time services at their convenience. As the business world is characterized by rapid changes that created unforeseen challenges, smart technology is vital as it can generate feasible solutions to the existing issues. Normally, smart entails the application of the latest technology in creating a comfortable working environment that is dominated by productivity and high performance. Tourism organizations have realized that the sustainability of the industry lies in their ability to offer customer-centered services. Customer satisfaction is mainly achieved by combining affordability, accessibility, and convenience as the main values which lead to customer satisfaction.

Gretzel, Reino, Kopera & Koo (2015) highlights that, while the concept of smart city has been gaining popularity globally, in the last couple of years, due to technological advancement, there lacks definite definition to specifically explain the concept. The meaning of the concept varies depending on its application as it was initially coined to promote the improvement of service delivery in major cities. In general the term smart is related to fast operations using technological developments. The engagement of Information Technology (IT) in different aspects of city life has resulted in the evolution of smart cities (Boes, Buhalis & Inversini, 2015). Various challenges stemming from globalization and the growth of the population in China have been forcing major cities to establish smart solutions in the management of existing issues. Modern cities with the capability to deal with emerging challenges are regarded as a smart city.

Tourism represents a cultural, social, and economic phenomenon that involves the movement of people to places or countries outside their normal setting for different reasons. Tourism is one of the most information-intensive settings and this has resulted in the application of the smart concept to transform the general tourism landscape to align with customers' demand (Guo, Liu & Chai, 2014). The Smart City phenomenon encompasses a wide range of sectors, including the tourism sector. Introducing smartness into tourism destinations necessitates that the organizations and destinations to enable the exchange of information amongst stakeholders to improve the decision-making process. Ultimately, this helps the service providers in the tourism sector to offer improved services to their customers.

Gretzel, Werthner, Koo & Lamsfus (2015), establishes that, in regard to IoT technology, ICT and cloud computing, smart tourism is focused on the application of intelligent perception of different types of tourism information such as tourism economy, tourist resources, tourism operations, and tourism stakeholders among others in the realization and transfer of tourism information from the internet. Therefore, smart technology is becoming a vital aspect of China’s smart city approach while ICT is at the core of the smart tourism system. Currently, the country is following the theme of smart travel which was launched in 2014 to boost tourism in the country as one of its economic agendas (Jasrotia & Gangotia, 2018). China is focused on developing its economy from different levels by ensuring all sectors record a substantial growth and transformation and the use of ICT is making this dream possible.

Based on Zhu, Zhang & Li (2014), the peak of ICT as a result of the digital revolution has changed the tourism market by shifting it towards increased diversity. The competitiveness of the industry is dependent on its ability to achieve constant growth in terms of market share and profit maximization. ICT plays a crucial role in shaping the growth of smart tourism due to the wide use of smartphones and correlated technologies that are present in every field. The use of ICTs such as IoT enabled gadgets and sensors are constantly changing the way of life in the modern world as they significantly contribute to urban development including the utilization of resources, sustainable development, and economic growth. The speedy growth of urbanization is responsible for crowding due to dense population concentration, poor living conditions, and serious challenges within cities that are faced with progressively sophisticated smart systems. Cities gain better insight into feasible solutions to dealing with the issues of urbanization by being using smart technology while building smart cities (Su, Li & Fu, 2011). In other words, smart is a phenomenon that refers to economic, technological, and social developments that are augmented by ICT developments hence facilitating connectivity and information exchange from one party to the other which eases the decision making process. Forward-thinking or smart cities are constantly making significant investments in the development and design of the cities which are originally known as intelligent and digital cities. With the great innovation within the current information technologies, cities can develop more intelligent and connected designs. A smart city refers to high technology and an extensively connected city that utilizes advanced and novel technologies in creating sustainable capital, innovative businesses, and improved quality of life for residents and visitors.

Buhalis& Amaranggana (2013) suggest that smart tourism which is an outcome of smart city has been presented as one of the most pressing issues in China’s travel and tourism sector for the last decade. Most studies agree that smart tourism is an ICT incorporated urban tourism stand that combines tourism concepts and information techs like artificial intelligence (AI), IoT, and cloud computing to offer explicit information as well as effectual services to tourists in specific cities following the rapid development of advanced mobile technology. Smart tourism is beneficial to the Chinese travel and tourism industry in different ways. First, a section of urban tourism information can be sourced, integrated, and managed from a centralized approach hence providing convenience to tourists in acquiring the needed information as well as services (Boes, 2015). Also, it facilitates the application of monitoring strategies within scenic zones which can enhance real-time tracking of tourists, needed services, and analyze the services they demand. Smart tourism should be founded on offering information exchange which substantially improves response time in the handling of information.

From a tourism perspective, a smart city is a phenomenon that has enormous influence particularly in the travel experiences and decision making among tourists. Also, to the economic benefits of a smart city based on the ability to attract a significant number of tourists, the tourism industry normally affects the destination environment (Guo, Liu & Chai, 2014). Smart technology is beneficial as it improves the perception of city residents with regard to the tourism business as their city serves as a tourism destination. Major tourism destinations are often faced by major challenges resulting from population growth such as traffic and overcrowding. Tourists are highly attracted by tourism destinations with less crowding as the population density is crucial in determining their satisfaction rate. However, urbanization is China is an inevitable trend and with an increase in population smart city is focused mainly on improving the experiences of city residents and visitors by improving service provision. In the face of globalization, the tourism industry has the potential to grow significantly both in the short-run and long-turn (Liu & Liu, 2016). The growth, in this case means securing a significant market share hence enhancing the ability to maximize profitability. In other words, competitiveness in the industry relies on the ability of tourism destinations to attract more tourists while retaining existing ones. Stakeholders in the industry term smart tourism as an important channel for enhancing visitors’ and residents’ experiences simultaneously. Smart tourism cities in China are willing to increase their investment in resources in the bid to develop, implement and sustain the smart system that helps in solving tourism-related issues, protecting citizens as well as providing them with improved living conditions (Liu & Liu, 2016). Thus, smart cities act as innovative tourist destinations that facilitate sustainable development that allows tourists to enjoy unique interactions and experiences with their chosen destinations and ultimately improve the quality of life for residents.

However, with the embedment of technology in the cities’ setting, the concept of smart tourism depicts new challenges that affect sustainable development efforts. Existing research on smart cities has not focused on the factors that influence the development of smart cities and smart tourism destinations in China (Gretzel et al., 2016). Therefore, this study will be important in uncovering crucial components that facilitate or hinder the development of smart cities and smart tourism in China. Key insights with respect to the role of smart tourism cities in sustainable development have also been discussed.

Currently, the development and implementation of smart city and smart tourism are faced with major challenges such as coordination issues, lack of adequate technical support, lack of knowledge and skills, and minimal construction level (Wang, 2019). For a long time, the construction of smart construction is mainly dependent on effective management and to achieve this unified coordination as well as information sharing is needed. This, therefore, makes the overall development very challenging. Besides financial funding, technical support is highly required in the development and implementation of smart technologies in a timely and effective way (Wang, 2019). The information that exists with regard to the system is particularly minimal and this, therefore, implies that varied practices exist and this ends up creating more challenges. The lack of skilled and competent individuals to support the project further creates more challenges for development.

1.2 Problem Statement

Societies and economies in general have always been susceptible to changes. However, change has never been so strong and rapid as it has been witnessed in recent years particularly in the case of China which has been a source of a surprise based on its rapid developments. Currently, global forces that are shaping the world have continued to become more complex and very challenging by causing a disruptive transformation in every aspect of contemporary society. According to Sigalat-Signes et al., (2020), to be successful as an organization, in today’s fast-changing society, there is a need to generally understand the practices that are required to adapt to the forces and how they can be utilized as an advantage. Technological changes play a critical role in shaping the tourism industry and recent developments that involve the development of smart phenomenon have been acknowledged as a source of a paradigm shift within the current tourism industry.

The smartness phenomenon emerged as a multifaceted technological infrastructure embedded in urban areas as a smart city to fuel social, economic, environmental, and environmental growth. The application of ICT in tourism has resulted in improved processes as the industry continues to face social issues related to urbanization (Xu, Huang, Zhu & Zhang, 2018). The technology is important as it serves as the model through which future tourism operations are based. The Chinese government recognizes that to enhance its global positioning in terms of growth it must integrate economic, environmental, and social success. Smart cities and smart tourism destinations are in the view of smartness concepts classified as complex eco-systems with an extensive range of stakeholders that eventually work together in creating values for others and selves (Wang, Li, Zhen & Zhang, 2016). The public sector in China has begun to acknowledge the value of smart technologies in enhancing economic development and economic growth. 

It has been a decade since the government of China began to development of smart tourism as part of its economic development ambitions (Gretzel, 2018). Throughout the decade, several achievements in the travel and tourism with regard to the application of smart technology and smart city concepts have been achieved. Urbanization remains to be one of the crucial indicators of modernization in China and globally and is likely to continue in the future in the face of globalization, economic growth, and rapid technological advancement. While the concept of smart tourism has been embraced by stakeholders in the industry and projects implemented in several cities as pilot studies and real development, the current performance of the industry is still lagging of the set goals (Buonincontri & Micera, 2016). China is one of the most advanced nations in terms of ICT which is the main facilitator of smart tourism and smart tourism but several issues are responsible for adversely affecting the implementation of the smart tourism system.

The concept of smart tourism is relatively new and therefore not fully understood. While the phenomenon appears as simple, its practical application is rather challenging. In actual sense, the structure of a smart tourism system does not only involve the construction of an information technology scheme but the project needs to be implemented in alignment with the informatization and economics needs of the travel and tourism industry (Xiang, Tussyadiah & Buhalis, 2015). In China, smart tourism refers to a government focused system that is likely to differ when compared to that of different regions such as Europe. The government retains control of the project which affects the implementation and decision making process since tourism enterprises and stakeholders are rarely involved throughout the process of development and implementation. The situation mainly stems from several reasons such as funding and time. The smart tourism system requires immense investment and tourism enterprises are unable or unwilling to invest massively in supporting the cost of a project that is unlikely to generate short term benefits (Buhalis & Amaranggana, 2015). Smart tourism in China is considered as a public resource that mainly benefits tourists, which involves the integration of resources. Unarguably, the Chinese government has the most advantage in terms of mobilizing resources and it, therefore, plays a crucial role in the development of smart tourism systems.

With reference to Buonincontri & Micera (2016), the shortage of integrated standards greats challenges in managing smart tourism as well. The lack of standard measures in the evaluation of the development of smart tourism hinders the successful development and implementation of the system. There is also limited literature with regard to standards that needed in facilitating the successful implementation of the process. While most cities in China tend to rely on a variety of approaches as proposed by public tenders, accepted solutions differ based on existing situations that affect the evaluation of the entire tourism system. With reference to details, the presence of unified standards for data exchange can offer convenience in terms of communication which is critical in enhancing the system’s effectiveness (Gretzel, Ham & Koo, 2018). The lack of unified standards leads to the emergence of challenges in management.

Also, the government of China serves as the main investor and guider in the ongoing development and implementation of smart tourism. The government is currently involved in the development of several economic projects that are vital in enhancing its global economic position (Kaur & Kaur, 2016). The situation might result in major challenges as the government might not afford the huge funds that are necessary for supporting smart tourism leading to termination, delay, or interruptions of the entire projects which explain why some projects are still lagging in the set goals. The government of China takes a rather huge responsibility in controlling the development of smart tourism which might affect the effectiveness of the smart tourism business by making the initiative rather government-centered on marketization leading to low revenue generation (Wang, Li, Zhen & Zhang, 2016). Ultimately the outcome of this is indicative of the challenges faced in the development of the system. Therefore, investment attraction acts as a vital role in the development of smart tourism in general.

Smart business systems are the foundation of smart tourism. Alongside technology infrastructure, they help in determining the structure and system to be followed in achieving the desired results. Smart tourists rely on the use of personal technologies in exploiting existing resources that contribute to the development of data. Smart tourism, therefore, takes advantage of the values provided by smart technology in the development, managing, and offering intelligent touristic experiences that are characterized by intensive sharing of information (Gretzel, 2018). Gathering, processing, and sharing of tourism relevant information serve as the primary function in the smart tourism system. An additional issue of the technology is that there is a significant digital gap that is likely to affect the experiences of tourists. In China and across Asia it is worth noting that smartphones are rather affordable and easily accessible which is aimed at closing the existing digital gap among tourists. Today, traveling without the use of the smart networks is rare and while smart tourism help in creating convenience and ultimately improving the travel experience of tourists, the need to constantly rely on smart devices might also impact the experiences of the visitors negatively (Wang, Li, Zhen & Zhang, 2016). The smart tourism system has a rather complex infrastructure that necessitates the investment of knowledge.

Undeniably, the successful development of a smart tourism system within the national scope serves as a long-term and challenging task which mainly incorporates technological innovation and the collaboration between tourism enterprises and the government within operating phases. While China has achieved significant development with regard to smart tourism, the lack of standard measures and clear policies regarding the role of both the government and enterprises needs to be clear to solve the existing challenges.

1.3 Significance of the Study

The findings of the current research will mainly benefit the travel and tourism industry in China and across the globe, considering the vital role that it plays in socio-economic development. The tourism industry has developed rather extensively over the last couple of years, and it is considered as one of the leading economic growth indicators today. The increased demand for smart travel which is associated with convenience and comfort justifies the need to develop and sustain smart tourism in China. With the fast growth of urbanization which is taking shape in China, it is rather clear that tourism destinations must equip themselves with all the necessary resources to provide tourists and city dwellers with high-quality services while boosting socio-economic growth. Cities in China have been investing heavily in achieving smartness over the last couple of years and the development which has been significantly successful even though coupled with several challenges illustrates the long-run potential of smart cities and smart tourism (Buhalis & Amaranggana, 2015). Therefore, the study will provide an in-depth discussion of the factors that contribute to the development of smart cities and smart tourism destinations in China as part of urban development (Kaur & Kaur, 2016). Therefore, the tourism enterprises and destinations that adhere to the recommended practices will acquire the ability to deliver high-quality services to tourists and cities’ residents hence fostering better interactions between them.

The smart tourism project is headed and funded by the government based on its extensive need for resources and the fact that it does not generate short-term benefits. Therefore, the findings of the study will provide the Chinese government with a standard framework to follow in the development and implementation of the smart tourism system. It is worth noting that it has widely been cited in literature that the lack of collaboration between the government and major stakeholders in the industry has contributed to the delayed success of the projects given that most of them are yet to achieve the set goals close to a decade after the initiative began (Buhalis & Amaranggana, 2015). Additionally, the study will help inform tourism enterprises and investors on the role they play in urban and smart tourism development in general. The research will also help in establishing the existing gaps in innovation and ICT and therefore, inform the involved stakeholders on the appropriate measures to be taken in overcoming the hurdles in the short and long-term for sustainable development and economic growth. Tourism plays in facilitating development, and therefore, the findings of the research will benefit society in general, by providing useful insights into the importance of smart tourism in maximization of revenue. The findings will help in ensuring that sustainability in the travel and tourism sector in China is achieved through the development of smart cities and smart tourism destinations that aligns with the needs of its citizens and visitors as well.

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Research on Smart Cities

It is without a doubt that smart tourism which originated from the concept of a smart city is a relatively new phenomenon in the tourism industry. As a result of globalization and urbanization which have facilitated the movement of the population from one place to the other, tourism has experienced drastic growth. According to Jovicic (2019), intense diversification makes the sector highly competitive and globalized due to ongoing innovations.  Therefore, there is no coincidence, that the industry has become of one the fasted growing industries in China and globally.  At the moment, there lacks a mutual agreement on what smart tourism entails and there is a significant gap in the literature with regard to the factors affecting the development of smart tourism destinations within the existing smart cities. Tourism is directly associated with economic, social, and urban development and dynamism has been useful in converting the sector into economic progress. In today’s increasingly competitive, technological driven and globalized landscape, the role has been left to the leadership and management of the smart tourism destinations to adapt innovative as well as sustainable practices for ensuring the best results for the industry with time (Sodhro, Pirbhulal, Luo & de Albuquerque, 2019). The growth of innovation in the industry is fostered by the wide use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) which have in turn changed the demands of the customers and service delivery among travel and tourism enterprises. A theoretical perspective is valuable in addressing the development value for smart cities and smart tourism for all the involved stakeholders with respect to smart tourism destinations in China following the Service-Dominant logic model (S-D Logic). Thus, this section is divided into four sections which cover the main components of the smart tourism system. In the last decade, the smart city is a concept that has widely been cited as the driver of urban development. The concept has gained significant attention globally as it is been considered as an essential component in the overall development of urban policies. The concept, however, has several definitions thus the lack of a consensus definition. However, one of the most embraced by the scientific community is coined by Caragliu et al. (2011) holding that a city is considered smart once its social investments, communication, infrastructures, and human capital can coexist harmoniously to promote efficient and sustainable socio-economic development while relying on the application of ICT. In recent literature smart city model is welcomed as the overall use of IoT alongside the use of big data in capturing as well as analyzing information which leads to data supported management. The smart city phenomenon is additionally been promoted as the best practice for urban development and management. Digitally supported cities are currently being set up and used as standard solutions to modern problems in urban locations while encouraging urban citizens to seek to create and maintain more sustainable and functional cities (Dorcic, Komsic & Markovic, 2019). However, the overall development of Smart cities from scratch is a progressing initiative across China and some account that it is likely to result in cultural erosion given that the smartness of the city prioritizes the use of technology and other forms of modernity concepts hence ignoring the need for cultural preservation. Thus, breaking away from the corporate-driven smart city developments should mainly focus on the capitalization of human capital while simultaneously minimizing urban uptake and improving livability across the cities. Li, Liu, Dai & Zhao (2019) found out that, the smart city model emphasizes urban development and sustainability in promoting massive investment in cultural legacy and the growth of the travel and tourism sector. China hosts several smart cities as the initiative is funded by the government which is well equipped in terms of resources but the expected success rate is yet to be achieved given the lack of adequate information about the smart tourism system. It is widely asserted that the development of smart cities might lead to the decay of other urban areas due to the low level of tourism which is an essential economic contributor leading to unstable competition from the greatly incentivized government-funded smart cities. Therefore, there is a need to support the growth of all cities as a whole as a way of promoting economic stability and improved quality of life for all (Sodhro, Pirbhulal, Luo & de Albuquerque, 2019). The approach mainly relies on the ability to enhance the competitiveness of the cities, economic resilience as well as livability sustainably meaning that the existing cities should generally adapt and acquire improved models for exploiting the opportunities presented by smart tourism while mitigating the challenges associated with ICT gap and urbanization. In the case of Jinan as a tourism destination in China, the city is already one of the leading tourism destinations in China and past studies have indicated that following the right type of government and collaboration with stakeholders, the city can achieve even greater economic success.

2.2 Features of Smart Tourism

Smart tourism involves the overall application of large data ideas alongside the use of technological inputs as a response to the changing situations in the travel and tourism industry. Even though the smart paradigm has been widely been cited with the optimization of technology by major cities in achieving better resource management, sustainability, livability, and improved governance, its connection with the tourism industry is directly related to the ability to increase the economic competitiveness among tourism destinations (Shen, Sotiriadis & Zhou, 2020). Smart tourism is therefore a multifaceted system that is connected by ICT and is founded on three pillars namely the smart destination, smart experience, and smart business system. ICT plays an important role in ensuring that the process of collecting, processing, and exchange of information is fast and efficient. The focus on the smart tourism system relies on the application of IoT and ICT in the development of urban infrastructure in the quest of facilitating the experiences of tourists through the use of digital platforms. For example in Jinan and Beijing, smart scenic spots and interactive bus tours are provided to tourists and this allows them to have unique experiences and also create convenience and accessibility of information while allowing them to share the experiences online (Wang, Li & Li, 2013). Some host spots additionally provide additional information to tourists in a timely manner by ensuring access to free WI-FI hence boosting their experiences further. The smart experience generally highlights the important role of tourists from both economic and social perspectives. In this case, the management of tourism destinations can access data on the services that the tourists demand the most and work on providing them as a way of boosting client satisfaction. The integration of ICT based infrastructure and the smart tourists’ experience substantially contribute to the growth of smart businesses. It is the collaboration between the public and private entities in the development and maintenance of the smart tourism system and resources that contribute to the smart experience within the smart tourism destinations (Jovicic, 2019). The collaboration helps in the identification of existing opportunities thus promoting fast response leading to business efficiency. From a theoretical point of view therefore, the development of smart tourism should be based on the needs of the client base and the existing gaps in the tourism industry. The strategy helps in optimizing the use of technology while supporting livability in the cities as a whole.

2.3 Benefits of Smart Tourism Destinations

The theory of smart or intelligent tourism destination arises mainly from the idea that smart cities serve as the catalyst for tourism and urban development in contemporary society. Smart cities create enormous business opportunities as well as challenges. The ability to implement smart structures in major cities in which tourism serves as the main economic force has been coined as become known as smart tourism destinations. A smart city according to Boes, Buhalis, & Inversini (2015), refers to an innovative and tourism-focused setting which is centered on the adoption of advanced technological infrastructure guaranteeing sustainable regional development while at the same time promoting integration and interactions within the area hence improving the livability of residents and tourists within the destination. A smart city is a feasible business strategy that involves creating opportunities for tourists and city residents to gain experience in exceptional life while increasing the ability of tourist destinations to maximize economic gains (Guo, Liu & Chai, 2014). However, perfect smart cities are characterized by a set of challenges including population growth, governance, economic factors, infrastructure, and skills. In this context, it is believed that in terms of urban development smart cities are likely to lead to improved life’s quality registering the effort towards the transformation of the socio-economic structures in cities based on the accessibility of information. Thus, ICT is the basis of every smart city which is mainly intended to boost the competitive advantage and sustainability of the industry on the ground of interactions, information exchange, service delivery infrastructure development, service delivery, and service consumption. The assertion matches the argument by Guo et al. (2014) that Smart tourism destinations (STDs) heavily rely on the technological infrastructure in a city and information resources in supporting intelligent operations. According to Gretzel, Werthner, Koo & Lamsfus (2015), essentially, the adoption of ICT in the city landscape is vital in gaining the ability to collect information about tourism that is created by tourist once they visit the selected STDs to offer personalized and real-time services whereas positioning them to optimize the strategic benefits of management to aid in improving the travel experiences among tourists. Technological innovation additionally provides a foundation for creating newer tour experiences. Jovicic (2019) asserts that the motive behind evolving towards the development of STDs is to create innovative resources in the industry while enhancing the overall efficiency in service delivery. Serving in any service industry is dependent on the ability of the existing enterprises to fully optimize the existing opportunities while also transforming the industry fully.

2.4 Smart Tourism Challenges

Liberato, Alen & Liberato (2018), emphasizes that acknowledging the economic potential of smart technologies and the need for businesses to adapt to the rapid technological changes is a critical step towards achieving business success. The knowledge has triggered entities in the travel and tourism industry to start the implementation of the smart business paradigm as a way of improving their competitiveness and increasing sustainability. Hunter, Chung, Gretzel & Koo (2015), highlight that, the launch of intelligent technologies in the sector has allowed tourists to gain more personalized experiences. The tourism sector has been gradually adopting innovative models as a way of satisfying the needs of their clients and businesses respectively. The need to optimize the use of technology and meet the needs of the changing client base has resulted in smart tourism. The type of innovation that is used in smart tourism in China’s smart tourist destinations such as Jinan and Beijing involves the use of smart management, smart ticketing, smart monitoring, and intelligent tour and travel systems.

According to Del Chiappa & Baggio (2015), past studies have widely ignored some features of smart tourism that fosters both opportunities and challenges. Studies have widely cited that the lack of standardized information on the use of smart travel hinders the ability for tourists to connect positively with their travel destinations. However, through the mobile application and information provided on social networking sites, tourists can, therefore, orient themselves about the respective tour destinations. Smart tourism is responsible for changing tourists’ experiences by ensuring that the required information and services are readily and conveniently available (Dameri, Benevolo, Veglianti & Li, 2019). For instance the facilitation of cashless payment work in ensuring that tourists’ time and effort that would be spent trying to exchange money is saved. Also, the use of a simulation system to manage and inform them about traffic further helps in achieving transportation efficiency hence boosting their experiences positively.

As noted by Femenia Serra & Perea Medina, (2016) smart tourism is centered on the application of different tourism opportunities in ensuring that there is a positive interaction between locals and tourists. The goal is achieved primarily through the combination of real and virtual based aspects. Other than the provision of information, the system provides additional services such as ensuring fast service and products delivered through the use of e-commerce. The online representation of the destinations is particularly attractive and this enables the users to make decisions on the sites that appeal to their travel needs the most. Besides, it is worth noting that the payment of the services is done online to boost convenience (Tsaih & Hsu, 2018). Besides the provision of exceptional experiences to tourists, this additional benefits the involved benefits as they can maximize their gains. in this case this the management of tourism destinations to identify new and effective ways of managing tourism, providing improved services, and the application of service promotion and marketing for increased gains.

As spotted by Femenia-Serra, Neuhofer & Ivars-Baidal (2019) smart tourism destinations are built on innovative infrastructure which allows tourists to interact with the surroundings and locals which enhances the overall quality of their experiences within these destinations. The concept of STDs allows the tourism destination managers to share knowledge and information and this creates more opportunities for creating new experiences for tourists and improving the existing ones. Consequently, smart destinations normally provide tourists with not just visiting destination but also transform their experiences for the better. The main objective of this approach is to mainly create platforms that encourage competitiveness without ignoring the need to achieve socio-economic prosperity for all the involved parties.  Koo, Ricci, Cobanoglu, & Okumus (2017) support that the main goal is to meet the demands of the tourists by providing services that meet their needs and also fosters economic growth. In other words, STDs allow the management to create a balance between their economic goals and the wellbeing of their customers in this case tourists and residents of the respective destinations.

Tsaih & Hsu (2018) found that, since smart tourism is particularly new, tourism destinations in China particularly Jinan and Beijing encounter several challenges. One of the leading challenges that are faced by smart tourism is that they are heavily reliant on the experiences of visitors and technological feedback. In reality, this implies that the responsiveness of the tourism destinations depends on whether tourists utilize smart options and applications in delivering smart and efficient services. Also, smart devices constantly rely on the use of charged batteries which might limit the use of the smart application. According to Figueredo et al. (2018), it is worth noting that there are travelers that are only interested in gaining direct experiences without relying on their phones to avoid any form of distractions, a need that is not fully supported by smart technologies. The main problem that is associated with delayed implementation and development of smart tourism destinations is the fact that a huge investment share is required to develop the required infrastructure as a whole. ICT allows the control and efficient management of data but this additionally requires the companies to protect the confidentiality of the residents and tourists as well. The privacy concern in this case is likely to deter most tourists from using smart devices due to fear.

2.5 Factors Contributing To the Development of Smart Tourism in China

As aforementioned, smart tourism destination serves as a special development of smart cities as they utilize similar principles as well as infrastructure that characterizes the cities. As a result the factors that affect the development of smart cities additionally influence the development of smart tourism. Thus, for this research three factors were identified based on their immense contribution to the development of smart tourism in China which includes technology, innovation, and human capital.

2.5.1 Technology

Modern ICTs are without a doubt the main elements in the design, development, and maintenance of smart tourism. Smart technology is vital given that it enables authorities in the tourism industry to collect information, acquire knowledge about the tourists’ trends and effectively respond to the situations in a timely manner (Dameri, Benevolo, Veglianti & Li, 2019). In this context, smart tourism destinations are classified as a knowledge-centered destination in which the existing information technologies are utilized in providing platforms and devices with the ability to generate information and share it will all the other stakeholders. Technology enhances communication by ensuring that the process of sharing information is fast and efficient. The approach additionally allows the parties to interact throughout the decision-making process. In the tourism industry today, tourism entities are required to upgrade their marketing techniques, products, and services as their responses are vital in shaping the attitudes and behaviors of tourists in the future as well.

In the face of rapid advancement of information technologies China been recording positive socio-economic in recent years. The development has been witnessed even though some notable levels of political instability due to the intense control exerted by the government over social and economic aspects. The economic development has intensified the overall process of ICT adoption and its integration in almost every sector including tourism (Liberato, Alen & Liberato, 2018). In today’s setting, there is substantial application and development of Information technologies particularly in the tourism sector but China still lags behind its set smart tourism goals post the implementation of the project close to a decade ago. China’s technological preparedness and capabilities are admirable even though the implementation is still low as a whole. Technological advancement in China is responsible for its increased competitiveness on the global economic scale. Based on recent data, since 2013, the technological readiness of the country has increased significantly with the availability of modernized technologies and high-speed internet which makes it possible to collect and analyze data while marketing the tourism sector (Del Chiappa & Baggio, 2015). With regard to technological advancement and readiness, China is positioned 4th globally after the United States, United Kingdom, and Japan as illustrated below.

Table 1: Technological Readiness and Competitiveness Index


Technological Readiness/Competitiveness Index

1. U.S


2. U.K


3. Japan


4. China


2.5.2 Innovation

According to Del Vecchio, Mele, Ndou & Secundo (2018), the main objective of smart cities and smart tourism destinations is to stimulate innovation and entrepreneurship. Innovation remains to be one of the most critical inputs and an outcome of smart cities and smart technologies integration. Smart tourism develops at that point in which all the existing factors work collaboratively and the importance is widely depicted in the competitive nature of smart cities and their respective tourism destinations. Innovation results from ICT development play a vital role in the development of smart tourism since it allows individuals to navigate easily within the smart spaces. Also, innovation is crucial when it comes to the application of smart technologies given that it permits tourists to get in touch with their friends and families while also sharing their experiences (Yalçınkaya, Atay & Korkmaz, 2018). Innovation is grounded on the assumption that tourist organization can never depend exclusively on their personal resources since cooperation is needed to enhance their innovativeness. It is only through this route that resources can be sourced and utilized in value creation within the existing smart tourism destinations.

Since technology is the main contributor to the development of innovation in China, when compared to that of its competitors it is not fully developed and utilized. China has achieved a significant level of innovativeness but due to the lack of technical support and standardized development measures which discourages collaboration its application is rather minimal (Wu, Chen, Wu & Lytras, 2018). However, it is undeniable that innovation has played a key role in enhancing the efficiency of the smart tourism sector in China in recent years. The government has heavily invested in development and research and the existence of high-level scientific institutions in technological development and data has grown drastically.

Table 2: Innovation Competitiveness Index


Innovation Competitiveness Index

1. U.S


2. U.K


3. Japan


4. China


Compared to the U.S, Japan, and the U.K it is evident that China has a rather weaker potential in innovation competitiveness. However, based on the growth that it has experienced in recent years and its economic position, it is clear that the country has a substantial basis that is necessary for developing smart tourism (Yalçınkaya, Atay & Korkmaz, 2018). Therefore, the collaboration between the public and private sectors would be valuable in sourcing the needed resources and skills in enhancing China’s innovativeness through research and technological development.

2.5.3 Human Capital

Based on Um & Chung (2019), smart tourism destinations are urbanized tourism sites that are perceived as a multifaceted system through which distinct players work together in value creation. In this context, this forms an existing link between technology and society in which both are considered to be equal parties as their collaboration leads to socio-economic and environmental growth.  The tourism sector is a servicing economy that relies on the knowledge held by people and therefore human capital is vital in exercising the needed practices in the development of smart destinations. The labels of the city mainly refer to the overall capacity in which intelligent people develop the needed solutions in solving urban-related issues (Shen, Sotiriadis & Zhou, 2020). Therefore, with reference to smart tourism destinations, human capital is the innovativeness’, education, skills, and social learning. The integration of technological on its own is not capable of creating a smart destination rather people must be involved in offering solutions that in turn promotes collective development. In China, human resource plays an important role in promoting economic and social development. With increased literacy rates China hosts some of the most skilled, competent knowledgeable workers a component that has been critical in promoting innovation throughout the country. Besides, the government and private entities are investing heavily in training and development as a way of developing skilled and innovative workers (Jovicic, 2019). Since individuals are the holders of innovation China is relying on education to enable its workforce to learn, acquire, and develop an extensive set of skills that are required for innovation.

2.6 Smart Cities and Smart Tourism in China

As established by Wang, Li, Zhen & Zhang (2016) in the last decade, the world, and particularly China has witnessed a dramatic growth of urban areas and population increase in these spaces. The overall process of urbanization has resulted in a situation where close to half of the Chinese population is currently living in the cities and the number is expected to grow even further in the next ten years. According to Shafiee, Ghatari, Hasanzadeh & Jahanyan (2019), the ongoing expansion across major cities has created a new set of challenges that were not there before such as the exploitation of natural resources, high carbon emission, traffic congestion, social complexity, political issues, and waste management difficulties. In this context overcoming the challenges despite the severity is a possibility through the use of innovative practices in urban management and development which has led to the growing development of smart cities. The foundation of the smart city paradigm is smartness which acts as the cement that connects all the systems and stakeholders in the provision of the needed infrastructural development thus creating a sustainable ecosystem. The smart city concept demonstrates the overall application of smart technologies in enabling contemporary cities to prosper through qualitative and quantitative improvement in terms of productivity.

Pan, Li, Cai & Zhang (2016) posits that the overall functionality of smart cities is a phenomenon that is founded on information technologies that comprise of business, physical, and social infrastructures. The infrastructures help in the application of intelligent processes to improve operational competence and life’s quality for the residents and tourists. A conventional city that has the needed physical infrastructure can become a contemporary space that has virtual systems allowing it to gather and analyze data thus making informed decisions. Today, courtesy of big data companies have the opportunity to study the behaviors of their clients based on the services they demand and therefore understand their needs quickly. The approach helps in increasing the responsiveness of the organizations in meeting the needs of their clients as a whole. Cimbaljević, Stankov & Pavluković, (2019) illustrate that with such infrastructures not only are the enterprises able to boost the satisfaction of tourists but also boost their competitive advantage. The unique experiences that are acquired by tourists as a result of smart technologies increase the capability of the travel and tourism industry to attract more travel while retaining the existing ones. The use of technological devices allows tourism destinations to offer improved services since they can collect data in a timely manner. To achieve these the management relies on the use of cameras, sensors, smartphones, websites, and social networking platforms to track data while also interacting with the users. The normal functionality of smart cities needs the use of high-technological equipment as well as infrastructure in promoting better governance on the use of technology.

Ivars-Baidal, Celdrán-Bernabeu, Mazón, & Perles-Ivars (2019), asserts that the new China is a nation that is arming itself with the use of technology as a way of strengthening its economy, achieving high levels of modernization and creating a path for a brighter future. Some of the leading smart cities in China include Beijing and Jinan. The cities have no shortage of attractive sites and this creates major opportunities for both tourists and residents. To begin with, Beijing being China’s capital city is well known for its attractive tourist attractions which include the popular Great Wall of China. The city has recently been setting a rather fast pace in the development of a smart city being the capital city. Delivery and access to public services for residents and tourists in the city are becoming convenient and easier post the introduction of the Citizen social service cards which is an integration of different forms of information such as education details, identity data, health and social security information (Cacho et al., 2016). Also, tourists can easily access information through the existing virtual platforms which provide them with updated and comprehensive information to guide them throughout their stay and visit within the city. With regard to transportation, the city has already created a real-time recreation road system that is founded on ICT and provides extensive details about the congestion points hence guiding urban traffic through the use of IT. The city is the first to introduce an AI restaurant where the whole processes such as ordering, servicing and cleaning the space is done through the smart system (Shafiee, Ghatari, Hasanzadeh & Jahanyan, 2019). The city is currently planning on the development of smart museums as a replica of popular exhibition sites for the leading museums to improve the experiences of travel and city residents.

Similarly, Jinan city is the capital of Shandong province and is one of the fastest-growing tourism destinations in China based on the wide application of smart technology. The city is known for its many natural spring and landscape (Cacho et al., 2016). The contemporary Shandong museum that is located in the city hosts an extensive collection of provisional artifacts. The smart city pilot test was adopted in Jinan in 2014 and it features developed tourism resources and more solid interactivity between the tourists and their chosen destinations through the use of technology such as the internet. The city’s authority developed a mobile application with detailed content regarding the city and the attractive sites that they should visit and does it marketing through the use of social media (Cacho et al., 2016). As users browse through the information provided on the application and online platforms, this allows the management to analyze the trends and interests of the tourists. The city has also been developing smart scenic spots for tourists and residents intending to promote better interactions between them and hence improving the competitiveness of the city in terms of boosting the economic value of tourism.

2.7 Smart Tourism Framework

From a theoretical lens, to gain a better understanding of the factors that contribute to the development of smart tourism destinations in China, the S-D Logic model was determined as a suitable framework for this research. According to Polese et al. (2018), the S-D logic is a model that argues that the overall collaboration between different stakeholders is necessary for the creation of a valuable system in an industry, and their interactions should be well supported by the ability to conveniently exchange information. Even though the framework might lack empirical evidence on its application in smart tourism which is a relatively new concept, it is likely to offer a better comprehension of the factors that contribute to value creation in smart tourism destinations while focusing on China as the case study. Figure 1: Smart City Framework (Allam & Newman, 2018).   The cooperation and collaboration between stakeholders are essential in creating social, economic, and environmental value for all the involved parties has always been considered as a complicated process that is challenging to manage. From the S-D logic view such as system is multilayered and therefore requires the integration of useful resources in the creation of value. The S-D logic ideology generally exploits the existing interaction between the system players, existing socio-economic practice, and the reintegration of innovative resources in the bid of value creation (Polese et al., 2018). The objective is to create a balance in meeting the needs of every party to avoid conflict which might in turn affect the effectiveness of the entire system as a whole. Thus, this mainly entails ensuring that the economic goals are prioritized to generate economic returns, the needs of the city residents and tourists are met as well. The objective involves the attempt to align both social and economic goals for comprehensive growth as a whole. Gretzel et al. (2016), illustrate that the success in the development of STD is a shared and collective role that involves both tourism and local institutions in general. Urban planning and management are unlikely to be effective in the absence of collaboration. Addressing the challenges presented by the development of smart cities and exploiting business opportunities of smart tourism generally involves the overall participation of different actors which mainly necessitates participative governance. It is worth noting that ICT is rapidly evolving thus requiring STDs to adapt to the changes rather fast in ensuring that the set objectives are achieved without disrupting operations (Polese et al., 2018). Improving their competitiveness is not only a matter of possessing all the necessary resources by focusing on innovativeness as the core of a successful smart-centered business. 3.0 Methodology

3.1 Introduction

This chapter entails a discussion and outline of the research methodology adopted for the dissertation. The section covers in detail, the research method, research strategy, data collection method, case selection/sample selection, data analysis, ethical considerations and concludes with research limitations associated with the current research.

3.2 Research Method

To satisfy the main objective of this research, which is to explore the factors that contribute to the development of smart tourism destinations in China, a case study approach under the qualitative research method was adopted. A case study approach was selected based on the exploratory nature of the research subject. The main features of a qualitative method are that it is highly suitable for a small study sample or case studies even though the outcomes are not measurable. Also, when compared to quantitative research, a qualitative approach is more advantageous because it provides a comprehensive description as well as analysis of the research subjects without countering the scope of the study and responses from the participants (Starman, 2013). However, it is worth noting that is a success is highly dependent on the researchers’ skillfulness and knowledge since it is vulnerable to the personal interpretations and judgment of the researcher which might affect the reliability of the study’s outcome. Besides, the study which is suitable for a small study sample implies that the results cannot be generalizable to the worldwide tourism sector. Thus, the approach was selected as it is suitable for application following the case study of China where Jinan and Beijing are the selected tourism destinations. A case study approach has widely been applied in research projects within the tourism industry which helps in collecting specific and reliable data. The concept of smart tourism is rather new and one that has recently gained the attention of researchers across different fields and existing literature is still in its early phases. Thus, adopting the case study approach allowed the researcher to attain a holistic view regarding the core elements of smart tourism in China.

3.3 Research approach and Strategy

The study followed an inductive research approach and an applied research strategy. According to the inductive research approach, the research starts by making specific observations that lead to the generation of theories and conclusions. The approach was deemed as suitable given that it takes account of where the research efforts are highest and are appropriate for small samples leading to the collection of maximum data to support the research.

3.4 Cases Selection

The emergence and development of smart cities in the last decade initiated the idea of smart tourism destinations which are growing rather gradually in China and other parts of the world. In this case, smart cities are in the best position of implementing smart tourism based on existing resources that are established in ICT. Currently, China has several smart cities that have been developed while some are still been planned and this justifies the selection of the case studies from the country. In selecting the most suitable smart tourism destinations in China the classification of smart cities was used as provided by Robinson (2014). The selection criteria were useful in informing and guiding the entire process of case selection given that the classification associates various global, national, and regional rankings. Through this selection, a list of 8 smart cities in China was identified, and based on the limited nature of the research while most of the cities are not fully developed the list was narrowed down to 2. In narrowing down the case list purposive sampling is the approach that was used. The approach is based on the notion that the sample members should be selected based on their knowledge, competence, and relationship with the study subject and experience. Jinan and Beijing are among the first cities to adopt the smart city system in 2014 and they are both leading in the development of smart tourism which makes them credible and reliable sources of data. The two cities were ranked as the ones that are the leading in innovative readiness and smart solutions and they were thus selected for the research.

3.5 Data Collection

Smart tourism in China has not been adequately explored in recent literature since it is a relatively new concept and therefore, to acquire adequate information about the selected cases different databases and research strategies were applied which helped in obtaining relevant materials such as Google for news and business articles, EBSCOHOST and Google scholar in sourcing academic articles. A five steps approach for data sourcing, in this case, was applied which involved the use of keywords and phrases, document identification, assessment on quality, extraction of relevant data, and summarization and analysis. The systemic process mainly involved the use of key phrases such as ‘’smart city’’ and ‘’smart tourism in China’’. The phrases where in turn combined with city names Jinan and Beijing as the case studies to yield specific information. The research resulted in an extensive range of data such as case studies, online news, business reports, and academic case studies providing a comprehensive description of the smart city. The studies that were carried out within China as the case study were in this case included in the research while that are older than ten years were eliminated given that the concept is relatively new and more recent data is preferable as it is relevant and credible when it comes to the case of smart tourism.

3.6 Data Analysis

Thematic data approach was selected as the data analysis method in this case. The method involves summarizing and classification of data into specific themes and subthemes (Starman, 2013). In this case, the main themes included technology, innovation, and human capital. The themes were derived from literature on the factors that contribute to the development of smart tourism destinations in China. The method as it is suitable in reducing large data quantity into a specific theme which aligns with the needs of the research

3.7 Ethical Consideration

The study followed a case study approach of two major cities in China which are Jinan and Beijing based on their smartness characteristics. Given that the initiatives are funded and controlled by the government, this was a rather sensitive subject. Permission to research the cities was obtained from the relevant authorities. The management was informed that the research would be free from any form of biases and the findings would only be used for academic and not commercial purposes.

3.8 Research Limitations

Similar to any other given research, this study was subject to several research limitations. First, the research sample for the research was rather small meaning that the outcomes cannot be generalized to the wider tourism sector. Generating quantifiable and generalizable results requires the use of a large sample. Also, the findings of the research relied on the existing data as the researchers utilized an applied rather than a new approach based on the novel nature of the smart tourism paradigm and travel restrictions to the case study areas. 4.0 Findings From the case studies, the findings of the research indicate the dominant presence of advanced technological infrastructure in China which aids in the management of information while creating a balance between social and economic players of urban development. In addition to the evident existence and establishment of smart technologies, two more additional components were derived from the analyzed data which are human/social capital and innovation. The three elements collaborate in facilitating the development of smartness in the tourism industry across China. However, about leadership, it was established that the lack of collaboration between the public and private sector is responsible for the delayed implementation of the smartness project across China. Thus, this section provides an in-depth discussion regarding the identified factors contributing to smart tourism destinations’ development in Jinan and Beijing China.

4.1 Destinations’ Characterization

Jinan popularly referred to as the city of springs is widely known for the presence of a wide range of clear springs as well as other attractive natural tourists’ sites. The city has 72 springs and it is believed that there are more that have not yet been registered by the government or are yet to be discovered as tourist sites. The city being the capital of Shandong is one of the leading tourist destinations in China and is among the first cities to adopt the smart tourism destination initiative in 2014 as a pilot study which has significantly grown over time. According to Wang (2019), the commencement of smart tourism in Shandong Province began rather early.  About 17 cities across Shandong Province began the development of smart tourism on the ground of their tourism features and tourism information relying on sites such as WeChat, Weibo, QQ and other different APPs to intensively promote their tourism reputation while at the same promoting local tourism development (Wang, 2019). Jinan Municipal Tourism Bureau, in 2014 finalized its smart tourism plan and initiated smart tourism scenic hotels, scenic spots, and social settings for tourism in the quest of resolving issues experienced by most of the tourism enterprises and destinations in the construction of a reliable information system. Four years later to strengthen the project for the construction of smart tourism cities, the city’s development committee proposed the establishment of municipal and provisional data to facilitate the management of media and websites that are intended at promoting the effective development of a consulting system. Figure 2: Smart Tourism Components (Gretzel, Werthner, Koo & Lamsfus, 2015). With reference to the management perspective of the entire project, Jinan city possesses relevant data but the government has not yet been successful in unified planning and coherent development of a smart tourism system (Wang, 2019). With respect to marketing, even though the city has created several websites for tourism marketing, most of these platforms have issues such as the inability to update data promptly, while retaining misleading travel details. Such issues fail in facilitating the main objective of smart tourism which mainly revolves around enhancing the travel experience of tourists. Thus, this affects the ability to retain or attract new travelers to the respective travel destinations. Also, it is worth noting that the popularity of the travel websites and application of smart tourism in the region is still low and most people are not aware or familiar with smart tourism practices. Digital development is similar to a virtualized design and marketing, therefore, requires more effort. Lastly, most of the smart scenic spots across Jinan have lack smart services and are therefore not intelligent. However, this is an exception to the Word’s Best Spring Scenic Area as one of the most advanced scenic spots (Wang, 2019). The development of smart tourism is still in the initial development stages and much has to be done. On the other hand, Beijing is the capital of China, and being a smart city has allowed it to accommodate the smart tourism system easily based on the existing technological and innovative infrastructure. As a smart city, the management has mainly been focusing on ensuring that the quality of life for both the residents and visitors is improved through the use of technology. Over the years it has introduced several smart devices and instruments to promote the initiative such as the use of smart cards for identification and data storage. Accessibility to basic services has such as payment has become rather easier which has improved the standard of life for its citizens and it continues to develop other mart projects such as virtual museums to attract more tourists while retaining the existing share as its strategy for boosting its overall competitiveness (Wieland, Polese, Vargo & Lusch, 2012). However, while the city’s project is funded by the government based on the need to invest vast resources, its smart tourism goals have not been fully achieved due to lack of technical support and collaboration between the public and private stakeholders as the initiative is particularly complex.

4.2 Technology and Innovation

From a theoretical and empirical perspective innovation is one of the most important factors that influence the development of smart tourism destinations. With reference to Jinan and Beijing innovation has been recognized as an important element that leads to the success of smart technologies application in tourism. According to Malek & Costa (2015), innovation is important in ensuring that the involved entities gain competitiveness. Thus with reference to Jinan and Beijing, innovation has been identified as a desirable outcome of all the practices that are adopted in developing smart tourism destinations which are greatly influenced by the existence of ICT. One of the best approaches through which innovation has been developed in the cities involves heavy investment in research as it pertains to urban development. With the Chinese population moving to urban areas it has become rather clear that the growth of population in these regions not only promotes socio-economic growth but also leads to major issues such as congestion and over-crowding. Smart technology has introduced new ways of doing things in general. ICT infrastructure in both cities is the foundation in the development of innovation. Meijer & Bolívar (2015) indicate that, with the high ICT development, achieving high innovation levels mainly necessitates the presence of different smart technologies like sensors and Wi-Fi to ease the process of data collection and analysis. In turn, the data is shared with all the involved stakeholders as part of creating shared value from innovation and developing innovative solutions. Jinan has been focusing on the development of innovation as part of the smart city concept while Beijing prioritizes smartness as part of the innovation development project for the city. Both of the cities have acknowledged the benefit of smartness in boosting economic growth which explains their heavy investment in the smartness initiative while focusing on tourism which forms the backbone of their economies. Michaelides, Morton, Michaelides, Lyons & Liu (2013), posits that Innovation serves as a vital out in the integration of smart technologies within smart cities. Conventionally speaking innovation mainly involved a process that was mainly adopted by the well-established corporation but this study has established that innovation is needed in the development of every community today as a whole. The cities have been utilizing innovation as a way of facilitating social and economic development over the last couple of years which is mainly indicated the improved quality of life and exceptional experiences for both the residents and tourists. Based on Piro, Cianci, Grieco, Boggia, & Camarda (2014), It is through the existing ICT infrastructure that collaboration is encouraged between stakeholders which is important in the development of smart cities based on the ability to share and access information conveniently. The availability of data makes it possible to carry out comprehensive analysis by the creative communities, entrepreneurs, and research centers which in turn promotes innovation leading to the success of smart cities and smart tourism destinations. Thus, the readiness of ICT in these cities has been a crucial facilitator of smart tourism development in general and the existing opportunities need to be exploited fully by ensuring that all the involved parties are fully involved in the process as a whole. Hence, in this context, both cities are well-positioned to exploit the benefits of ICT by focusing on the implementation of smartness technologies.

4.3 Human Capital

Based on the complex nature of the smart tourism system and smart city sinfulness and knowledge are crucial in determining competitiveness. Human capital generally refers to the skills, knowledge, attributes, and competencies that are possessed by individuals which facilitate the development of personal, social, and economic welfare leading to operational efficiency. Spencer, Buhalis& Moital (2012), assert that human capital is closely linked to social capital and in the case of Jinan and Beijing they are closely related. The findings of the research indicate that innovative developments that are necessary for driving the success of smart cities are reinforced by the presence of human capital. Supporting human capital as a way of developing innovation mainly relies on the support that is derived from the educational systems. Both Jinan and Beijing have been investing heavily in training and research which has been crucial in boosting their innovative preparedness in general. Also, the findings indicate that innovation is not something that has only been facilitated by large enterprises and the government in the tourism sector given that communities also play a role in assisting the smart cities’ management in understanding ongoing trends in the sector. The cities have been attracting and retaining creative and skilled professionals to manage the smart city. The case studies demonstrate that human capital is boosted through attracting creative and skilled people while focusing on training and education which further boosts the success of the smart tourism system. Smart tourist cities are therefore considered as the platforms from which human capital is fully developed. The networks of people assist in promoting collaboration while ensuring that the management process becomes smartness based. Tuohino & Konu (2014) illustrate places with a knowledgeable workforce and an extensive number of investors help in driving innovation and thus achieve greater social and economic growth. Therefore, improving human capital fuels shared intelligence among the involved persons and the integration of knowledge leads to the development of smart cities and smart tourism destinations.

4.4 The smart Tourism Destinations System 

Based on the S-D logic model, social and economic factors are the main drivers of success when it comes to the use of smartness technologies. The findings of this study illustrate that while ICT is the basis of a successful smart tourism system, innovation and human capital play a role in determining the success rate of the entire process. Vargo, Wieland & Akaka (2015) establishes that human capital is important as it encompasses the skills and knowledge which is crucial in developing creative solutions for solving existing issues which leads to innovation. On the other hand, innovation stems from technological infrastructure particularly ICT which creates meaningful economic opportunities for businesses in general. Therefore, to survive in the tourism industry in today's globalized business landscape there is a necessity to ensure that the industry adopts innovative solutions that involve the use of smart technologies as a whole. In addition, collaboration is important as it allows the entities to maximize their overall earning while also boosting their competitiveness. By transforming the experiences of the tourists through the provision of convenience and accessibility of information and important services, this boosts their satisfaction rate and allows the destinations to gain more potential in attracting more tourists. Smartness technologies have provided Jinan and Beijing with major economic opportunities that ought to be utilized to boost the competitiveness of the tourism sector in the cities and across China. Figure 3: Smart Destination Technology (ICT) Infrastructure (Yalçınkaya, Atay, & Korkmaz, 2018). 4.5 New framework for Smart Tourism and Smart Tourists Destinations

Based on the findings of literature review and following a case study of Jinan and Beijing smart tourist destinations in China, this study proposes a new framework for the analysis of smart tourism destinations that is comprised of six factors which were derived from the components of a successful tourism destination. The factors have widely been cited by researchers as the main determinants in the building of smart tourism services which include smart city, governance, technological system, human capital, innovation, and heritage. The indicators determine the overall influence of innovation, technology and human capital as the driving forces behind the development of smart cities and smart tourist destinations. Therefore, the new proposed framework or model will follow 6 factors that must be considered in developing successful smart tourist destinations which include, smart city, smart governance, Smart technological system, human capital, Smart innovation and smart heritage aspects. 




Proposed New Framework: Factors Contributing to Smart Tourism



5.1 Smart City

Evidently, smart tourism stems from the existence of smart cities. A smart city refers to urban location that utilises diverse types of electronic techniques as well as sensors for data collection. The information acquired from the systems is then used in managing resources, assets and services in an efficient manner thus improving operations across respective cities. The primary indicators that must be considered include E-governance, increased mobility, safe and liveable neighbourhoods, sustainability and technology-driven progress.


Table 3: Smart City influence on Smart Tourism

Smart City


  1. E-governance

In smart cities, most government services are virtual through mobile applications and e-government websites. The approach encourages tourists and locals to actively participate and collaborate with the government by providing feedback to guide administrators in decision making.

The systems should offer adequate information to help visitors access all the attractions conveniently. Traffic tends to make major cities less desirable. Therefore, in smart cities efficient management of transport routes and the flow of people and vehicles to and from the attractions are needed for efficiency.


  1. Increased mobility

Urban mobility is improved through increased access to public transport, innovative solutions such as intelligent traffic control, smart parking, and pedestrian friendly infrastructure with cycling paths.

Smart cities provide great connection between train stations, airports, bus stations and other cities. Adequate availability of public transport in a close proximity to the attractions is important. The approach increases the ability to visit the sites at ease. 

  1. Safe and liveable neighbourhoods

Smart cities’ government reconstruct poorly-planned regions to make the neighbourhoods less vulnerable to disaster while creating spaces to accommodate the increasing local and tourist population, by creating playgrounds, parks and recreational facilities to improve the standards of living.  Installation of video surveillance and deploying security personnel create a sense of security and also deters crime.


  1. Technology-driven progress

Smart cities use information, technology and system based data in improving services and infrastructure. The features include electricity, water, education, affordable homes, ICT connectivity and human services.

  1. Sustainability

Effort is mainly made in generating energy through waste reduction strategies, developing modern buildings, renovation and effective management of water resources.


4.5.2 Smart Governance

Smart governance entails the use of technologies in supporting and facilitating better planning as well as decision-making. It is about improving the democratic systems as well as transforming the delivery of public services. Smart governance includes e-governance, strategic information system and service quality.

Table 4: Smart Government and Smart Tourism



  1. E-governance

The management of the smart tourist destinations is achieved through collaborative approaches.  The participation of the private and public sector is necessary in creating transparency while enhancing the ability to attract and retain tourists. The use of ICT system within the attraction cites also helps in increasing transparency in the management process. Listening to the needs and interests of visitors allows the management to adopt the recommendations in advancing the sites.

  1. Strategic information system

The competitive nature of the business landscape requires that smart tourist destinations should perform to their level best in managing routines. Strategic decisions that encourage accessibility and information transparency are encouraged.

  1. Service quality and Transparency

Online information allows smart tourism to be more efficient in delivering services hence improving credibility among tourists and locals. In addition, this creates accountability, sensitivity and promotes economic growth. Casinos, night clubs, cinemas, live bands and theatres, shopping malls and convenient stalls. The entities are normally situated in accessible and easy to find location and since they are smart attractions they utilise ICT systems in their operations and promotions.


4.5.3 Smart Technological Systems

In building smart amenities, there is a need to create a sustainable smart infrastructure to support the systems. Modernised systems lead to improved quality of life and efficiency in service delivery and access. Thus, the following aspects should be included in smart tourist destinations. The primary indicators that must be considered include management of traffic, safety, internet, internet and websites.

Table 5: Smart Technological Systems Influence Smart Tourism


Smart Technological Systems


  1. Infrastructure for tourists with physical disabilities

Providing smart tourist infrastructures for elderly and disabled tourists such as elevators and public transport with wheelchair accommodation can be vital.

  1. Public safety

Installation of video surveillance and deploying security personnel create a sense of security and also deters crime.

  1. Traffic Management

Traffic tends to make major cities less desirable. Therefore, in smart cities efficient management of transport routes and the flow of people and vehicles to and from the attractions are needed for efficiency.

  1. Websites

Tourism websites should provide content and information that is useful for guiding visitors and potential investors.

  1. Internet

Providing free WI-FI connection in public areas such as parks, city centres, bus stations, and airport and tourism offices enhances connectivity and increases information access.


4.5.4 Human Capital


Without a doubt human capital is one of the most important factors in developing successful smart tourist destinations. Human capital entails experience, skills and knowledge. Smart cities in China have several characteristics such as complex social systems, skilled workforce and cultural norms.

Table 6: Human Capital and its influence on Smart Tourism

Human Capital


  1. Complex social systems

Smart tourism is an attempt to create harmony between local and international systems. The amenities should accommodate local and international populations. The management should create system for the visitors to provide feedback on the services offers. The complaints or positive feedback can be used in enhancing the services.

  1. Skilled workforce

The cost of labour is high in developed urban areas where smart tourism is based. With skilled labour, the quality of services is satisfying leading to improved living standards.

  1. Cultural norms

Blending existing cultural norms is important in enabling smart sites to attract and retain tourists. It involves focusing on cultural competence.


4.5.5 Smart Innovation

Smart cities mainly encompass enabling the advancement of new technologies. The implementation of these innovations should consider the needs of all stakeholders including locals, institutions, investors and the government. It includes compatibility, communication channels and social systems.

Table 7: Smart Innovation and Its influence on Smart Tourism



  1. Compatibility

The application of technological management systems for managing to manage operations, promote attractions and develop amenities. The development should be compatible with the needs of tourists.

  1. Communication channels

The use of ICT systems in the management of customer relationship is an efficient approach. Hotels should be well placed in mobile applications, systems and sites. The users should also have the ability to provide timely feedback.

  1. Social systems

Innovative social networks are necessary through the adoption of technologies to offer support to visitors while allowing innovation to advance.

4.5.6 Smart Heritage Aspects

Smart tourist destinations have smart display of cultural heritage that is reflective of the host country. Cultural and other heritage aspects can be depicted through creating heritage attractions, which are either natural or man-made.

Table 8: Smart Heritage Aspects and its Influence on Smart Tourism

Smart Heritage


  1. Amusement and Parks

Equipped with sporting complex, unique experiences and theme park. The parks are built within the city with aquarium, gardens and oceanographic.

  1. Heritage Attractions

Chinese historical Immersion is achieved through the utilisation of smart devices which provide guidance to tourists.

  1. Cultural Events

Special events are organised to show case the cultural heritage of the host country and communities. The use of crowd control systems and sensors is applied in large shows and events.

  1. Communal governance

The management of the smart tourist destinations is achieved through collaborative approaches.  The participation of the private and public sector is necessary in creating transparency while enhancing the ability to attract and retain tourists (Jeong & Shin, 2020). The use of ICT system within the attraction cites also helps in increasing transparency in the management process. Listening to the needs and interests of visitors allows the management to adopt the recommendations in advancing the sites.


5.0 Discussion and Implication of Research With respect to the study’s findings, it is thus concluded that Jinan and Beijing can be classified as cities that possess smartness features which makes them smart tourist destinations. The cities have an innovative and technologically advanced infrastructure that aids in the management of operations to make them livable. The cities are considered smart as they have been at the forefront of adopting smart technologies for residents and tourists. As established by Clarysse, Wright, Bruneel& Mahajan (2014), technology serves an important role in society today which mainly involves making the lives of people easier through the provision of smart solutions to the existing problems such as traffic congestion, overcrowding, and pollution which are dominant in urban locations. China rapidly moving towards urbanization and therefore urban development while relying on the use of smartness technologies is a vital aspect for effective management. Innovation and technological advancement are inevitable as they are likely to become more prevalent in the future and therefore, city management must be fully prepared to respond to the changes. Figure 4: Framework of smart tourism system (Boes, Buhalis & Inversini, 2015). China is among the leading technologically advanced and innovative nations after other developed nations such as the U.S, UK, and Japan. The country has attracted the attention of the globe due to the rapid economic growth that it has recorded in the past decade as so. The growth is recorded in almost every sector which generally allows it to achieve comprehensive growth in general. According to Hielkema& Hongisto (2013), its substantial level of economic advancement, in general, is well reflected in every sector and tourism is not an exemption. The country has well established smart cities, which further aids the development of smart tourism destinations across major cities such as Beijing and Jinan. However, the implementation of the projects is still in mid-stages and the cities are lagging not due to lack of adequate resources but as a result of problems with collaboration. With reference to innovation, technology, and human capital as the factors that are contributing to the development of smart tourism destinations, it was established that China is adequately prepared.

5.1 Overall Discussion

As illustrated by literature, most studies agree that Smart tourists’ destination is a concept that has evolved from smart city and smart tourism. However, while smart tourism is a reality particularly across China with sites such as Jinan and Beijing among other smart cities, there is still much that has to be done to successfully develop the destinations. The findings indicate that while innovation, technology and human capital are a necessity, there is a need to consider smart city, smart governance, Smart technological system, human capital, Smart innovation, and smart heritage aspects for the successful development of smart tourism destinations.

The new framework suggests that innovation, system, smart cities and technological systems are crucial in ensuring that smart tourism is successful. The framework mainly emphasises on the application of ICT systems in the management and promotion of the attraction sites in general. Smart destinations cannot exist where technology is absent as tourists must access information easily and conveniently based on their interests and needs. The model suggests that people consider the accessibility of information and attractions as important in decision making in general. While the provision of the services and activities is needed, efficient management helps in saving energy thus creating more time for the visitors to enjoy their stay.

The main objective of smart tourism is not only providing entertainment to tourists but also ensure that all other needs are accommodated. People tend to consider enjoyment as the main factor which can be achieved through the use of existing innovative systems and attractions. The main aim is to evoke and also satisfy the emotions of the visitors in general. The model additionally assumes that while the destinations provides satisfying and unique experiences the packages should be broad, inclusive and favourable to attract and retain more tourists. Innovativeness and accessibility increase the movement of people to the destinations and retaining them therefore requires commitment.

In governance of smart tourist destinations, the collaboration between the public and private sector is encouraged in ensuring that the needs of the visitors are taken into consideration in decision making. In addition, the use of the systems helps in creating transparency hence building trust based relationships and also creates a sense of security and safety. However, it is evident that the tourism sector in China as demonstrated by Jinan and Beijing is mainly governed by the government and this denies the public sector the opportunity to be part of the process. The participation of all the stakeholders is critical in addressing the needs and preferences of both local and international visitors.

5.2 Implication of Research

While the application of smart technologies in tourism as an economic opportunity has recently been gaining attention in the literature, the factors that impact the development of smart tourism and challenges that the management face are yet to be explored. Future researchers should focus on investigating the challenges presented by smart tourism destinations and how to overcome them. The findings of the study will be useful in informing the management of smart tourism cities about the factors that influence the development of tourism destinations but potential challenges that they are likely to face. The findings will, therefore, create awareness and familiarity on the measures that the smart tourism destinations need to adopt to achieve maximum and desired outcomes from the economic opportunities presented by smart technologies. The findings of the study will be useful in informing the management of smart tourism cities about the factors that influence the development of tourism destinations but potential challenges that they are likely to face. The findings will, therefore, create awareness and familiarity on the measures that the smart tourism destinations need to adopt to achieve maximum and desired outcomes from the economic opportunities presented by smart technologies.

5.3 Limitations

The study mainly focused on a critical analysis of the factors that affects smart tourism in China focusing on Jinan and Beijing Smart cities. Therefore, one of the main limitations of the study is that existing literature is limited on the sites. Smart tourism is a relatively new concept and while a significant number of studies have investigated on the concept its development in China is limited. The main limitation of the cities that was identified is related to the lack of collaborative governance between the public and private sectors. The systems are mainly developed with the support and supervision of the government and stakeholders in the private sector barely participate which erodes on transparency and affects the ability to ensure that the needs of the tourist are fully accommodated in the development of the sites. Despite the fact that China is a technologically advanced and innovative country, it is clear that the issue of management is a major problem that continues to affect the development of smart cities and tourist destinations in the country.

In summary, it has been established that with innovative systems which seeks to improve the standard of living for locals and tourists, this can help in attracting visitors to the sites while providing them with unique experiences, which lead to sustainability. Jinan and Beijing both demonstrates that China is leading in smart tourism courtesy of its well-developed and established technological and innovative infrastructure that facilitates the application of ICT systems in managing smart tourism and promoting it both locally and internationally. Participative management is encouraged in enhancing the efficiency of the systems for competitiveness and sustainability in the future.

5.4 Future Research

 While the application of smart technologies in tourism as an economic opportunity has recently been gaining attention in the literature, the factors that impact the development of smart tourism and challenges that the management face are yet to be explored. Future researchers should focus on investigating the challenges presented by smart tourism destinations and how to overcome them. Future researchers ought to investigate the factors that affects and contribute to the development of smart tourism destination in China and other parts of the world. In addition future studies need to determine whether smart city, smart governance, Smart technological system, human capital, smart innovation, and smart heritage aspects are the indicators that affect the success of smart tourism in China. The aspects that need to be explored encompass three main factors which are human capital, innovation and technology. 6.0 Conclusion and Recommendations The development of smart cities has significantly facilitated the emergence and adoption of the smart tourism destinations project in China and globally. The management of smart tourism destinations is a rather complicated matter due to the rapid advancement of technology which empowers collective incorporation of resources for shared value among the stakeholders in the smart tourism sector. Since smart tourism similar to the smart city is based on technology, the initiative is one that has created enormous opportunities that ought to be exploited fully for social and economic growth. However, it has also created its new set of challenges in the face of the rapid growth of urban areas and population growth which is responsible for major issues such as traffic congestion, waste management, and pollution. However, the smartness technology when utilized appropriately can aid cities in countering these challenges and ultimately providing city residents and tourists with unique experiences and liveability. The success of the project relies on the overall ability to create a balance between economic ambitions, social and environmental needs. While business smartness allows tourism entities to focus on the maximization of profit, the well-being of society which involves protection of cultural norms and improving the standard of living must be upheld at all times. In a nutshell, the findings of the study indicate that the application of ICT is not sufficient or a guarantee of the success of smart tourism destinations. The respective teams must in this context acknowledge the complex nature of smartness technology in the creation of value for all the stakeholders hence boosting their competitiveness in general. According to the S-D logic framework, it is suggested that while smart tourism offers undeniable economic opportunities it is worth understanding that its success mainly lies in collaboration rather than the use of existing resources. While China is a technologically competitive nation that is characterized by vast resources, it is unlikely to harvest the benefits of smartness technology in tourism as a result of a lack of collaboration between the public and private sectors as the main stakeholders of the industry. In this case, it is recommended that the management should aim at adopting the participative approach which allows the representation of stakeholders and in turn focusing on their needs. With reference to Jinan and Beijing, it is evident that human capital, innovation, and technology are the leading forces that currently contribute to the development of smart tourism destinations in China. China has achieved a significant level of growth when it comes to innovation and technological preparedness in the last few years which explains its overall economic competitiveness against countries such as the U.S, Japan and U.K.  There is still much that needs to be done to ensure that the smart cities achieve their intended goals in terms of boosting the competitiveness of tourism destinations in China and facilitating social development for an improved standard of living in this technology driven era.                   References

Allam, Z., & Newman, P. (2018). Economically incentivising smart urban regeneration. Case study of Port Louis, Mauritius. Smart Cities, 1(1), 53-74.

Boes, K. (2015). Smart tourism destinations: Smartness as competitive advantage. In ENTER2015 PhD Workshop (p. 11). DOI: 10.1108/TR-02-2019-208

Boes, K., Buhalis, D., & Inversini, A. (2015). Conceptualising smart tourism destination dimensions. In Information and communication technologies in tourism 2015 (pp. 391-403). Springer, Cham.  DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-14343-9_29

Buhalis, D., & Amaranggana, A. (2013). Smart tourism destinations. In Information and communication technologies in tourism 2014 (pp. 553-564). Springer, Cham. DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-14343-9_28

Buhalis, D., & Amaranggana, A. (2015). Smart tourism destinations enhancing tourism experience through personalisation of services. In Information and communication technologies in tourism 2015 (pp. 377-389). Springer, Cham. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-14343-9_28

Buonincontri, P., & Micera, R. (2016). The experience co-creation in smart tourism destinations: a multiple case analysis of European destinations. Information Technology & Tourism, 16(3), 285-315. Doi:10.1007/s40558-016-0060-5

Cacho, A., Figueredo, M., Cassio, A., Araujo, M. V., Mendes, L., Lucas, J., ... & Prolo, C. (2016). Social smart destination: a platform to analyze user generated content in smart tourism destinations. In New Advances in Information Systems and Technologies (pp. 817-826). Springer, Cham.

Cimbaljević, M., Stankov, U., & Pavluković, V. (2019). Going beyond the traditional destination competitiveness–reflections on a smart destination in the current research. Current Issues in Tourism, 22(20), 2472-2477.

Clarysse, B., Wright, M., Bruneel, J., & Mahajan, A. (2014). Creating value in ecosystems: Crossing the chasm between knowledge and business ecosystems. Research Policy, 43(7), 1164-1176. doi:10.1016/j.respol.2014.04.014

Dabeedooal, Y. J., Dindoyal, V., Allam, Z., & Jones, D. S. (2019). Smart tourism as a pillar for sustainable urban development: An alternate smart city strategy from Mauritius. Smart Cities, 2(2), 153-162.

Dameri, R. P., Benevolo, C., Veglianti, E., & Li, Y. (2019). Understanding smart cities as a glocal strategy: A comparison between Italy and China. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 142, 26-41. DOI: 10.1016/j.techfore.2018.07.025

Del Chiappa, G., & Baggio, R. (2015). Knowledge transfer in smart tourism destinations: Analyzing the effects of a network structure. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 4(3), 145-150. DOI: 10.1016/j.jdmm.2015.02.001

Del Vecchio, P., Mele, G., Ndou, V., & Secundo, G. (2018). Creating value from social big data: Implications for smart tourism destinations. Information Processing & Management, 54(5), 847-860. DOI: 10.1016/j.ipm.2017.10.006

Dorcic, J., Komsic, J., & Markovic, S. (2019). Mobile technologies and applications towards smart tourism–state of the art. Tourism Review. DOI: 10.1108/TR-07-2017-0121

Femenia Serra, F. R. A. N. C. I. S. C. O., & Perea Medina, M. J. (2016). Analysis of three Spanish potential smart tourism destinations. In En 6th International Conference on Tourism: New Challenges and boundaries in tourism: policies, innovations and strategies (Nápoles, Italia). Del (Vol. 29).

Femenia-Serra, F., Neuhofer, B., & Ivars-Baidal, J. A. (2019). Towards a conceptualisation of smart tourists and their role within the smart destination scenario. The Service Industries Journal, 39(2), 109-133.

Figueredo, M., Ribeiro, J., Cacho, N., Thome, A., Cacho, A., Lopes, F., & Araujo, V. (2018, March). From photos to travel itinerary: A tourism recommender system for smart tourism destination. In 2018 IEEE Fourth International Conference on Big Data Computing Service and Applications (BigDataService) (pp. 85-92). IEEE. DOI: 10.1109/BigDataService.2018.00021.

Gretzel, U. (2018). From smart destinations to smart tourism regions. Investigaciones Regionales, (42), 171-184. DOI: 10.14650/88817

Gretzel, U., Ham, J., & Koo, C. (2018). Creating the city destination of the future: the case of smart Seoul. In Managing Asian Destinations (pp. 199-214). Springer, Singapore. DOI: 10.1007/978-981-10-8426-3_12

Gretzel, U., Reino, S., Kopera, S., & Koo, C. (2015). Smart tourism challenges. Journal of Tourism, 16(1), 41-47.

Gretzel, U., Werthner, H., Koo, C., & Lamsfus, C. (2015). Conceptual foundations for understanding smart tourism ecosystems. Computers in Human Behavior, 50, 558-563.

Gretzel, U., Zhong, L., Koo, C., Boes, K., Buhalis, D., & Inversini, A. (2016). Smart tourism destinations: ecosystems for tourism destination competitiveness. International Journal of Tourism Cities. DOI: 10.1108/IJTC-12-2015-0032

Guo, Y., Liu, H., & Chai, Y. (2014). The embedding convergence of smart cities and tourism internet of things in China: An advance perspective. Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR), 2(1), 54-69.

Hielkema, H., & Hongisto, P. (2013). No Developing the Helsinki Smart City: The Role of Competitions for Open Data Applications. Journal of Knowledge Economy, 4(2), 190-204. doi:10.1007/s13132-012-0087-6

Hunter, W. C., Chung, N., Gretzel, U., & Koo, C. (2015). Constructivist research in smart tourism. Asia Pacific Journal of Information Systems, 25(1), 105-120. DOI: 10.14329/apjis.2015.25.1.105

Ivars-Baidal, J. A., Celdrán-Bernabeu, M. A., Mazón, J. N., & Perles-Ivars, Á. F. (2019). Smart destinations and the evolution of ICTs: a new scenario for destination management?. Current Issues in Tourism, 22(13), 1581-1600.

Jasrotia, A., & Gangotia, A. (2018). Smart cities to smart tourism destinations: a review paper. Journal of tourism intelligence and smartness, 1(1), 47-56.

Jovicic, D. Z. (2019). From the traditional understanding of tourism destination to the smart tourism destination. Current Issues in Tourism, 22(3), 276-282.

Kaur, K., & Kaur, R. (2016). Internet of things to promote tourism: An insight into smart tourism. International Journal of Recent Trends in Engineering & Research, 2(4), 357-361.

Koo, C., Ricci, F., Cobanoglu, C., & Okumus, F. (2017). Special issue on smart, connected hospitality and tourism. Information Systems Frontiers, 19(4), 699-703. DOI 10.1007/s10796-017-9776-9

Li, C., Liu, X., Dai, Z., & Zhao, Z. (2019). Smart city: A shareable framework and its applications in China. Sustainability, 11(16), 4346.

Li, Y., Hu, C., Huang, C., & Duan, L. (2017). The concept of smart tourism in the context of tourism information services. Tourism Management, 58, 293-300. DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2016.03.014

Liberato, P., Alen, E., & Liberato, D. (2018). Smart tourism destination triggers consumer experience: the case of Porto. European Journal of Management and Business Economics.

Liu, P., & Liu, Y. (2016, September). Smart tourism via smart phone. In 2016 International Conference on Communications, Information Management and Network Security. Atlantis Press. DOI: 10.2991/cimns-16.2016.33

Malek, A., & Costa, C. (2015). Integrating Communities into Tourism Planning Through Social Innovation.Tourism Planning & Development, 12(3), 281-299. doi:10.1080/21568316.2014.951125

Meijer, A., &Bolívar, M. P. R. (2015). Governing the smart city: a review of the literature on smart urban governance. International Review of Administrative Sciences. doi:10.1177/0020852314564308

Michaelides, R., Morton, S. C., Michaelides, Z., Lyons, A. C., & Liu, W. (2013). Collaboration networks and collaboration tools: a match for SMEs? International Journal of Production Research, 51(7), 2034-2048. doi:10.1080/00207543.2012.701778

Pan, B., Li, J., Cai, L., & Zhang, L. (2016). Guest editors’ note: Being smart beyond tourism. Journal of China Tourism Research, 12(1), 1-4.

Piro, G., Cianci, I., Grieco, L. A., Boggia, G., & Camarda, P. (2014). Information centric services in Smart Cities. The Journal of Systems & Software, 88, 169-188. doi:10.1016/j.jss.2013.10.029

Polese, F., Botti, A., Grimaldi, M., Monda, A., & Vesci, M. (2018). Social innovation in smart tourism ecosystems: How technology and institutions shape sustainable value co-creation. Sustainability, 10(1), 140.

Robinson, O. C. (2014). Sampling in interview-based qualitative research: A theoretical and practical guide. Qualitative research in psychology, 11(1), 25-41.

Shafiee, S., Ghatari, A. R., Hasanzadeh, A., & Jahanyan, S. (2019). Developing a model for sustainable smart tourism destinations: A systematic review. Tourism Management Perspectives, 31, 287-300.

Shen, S., Sotiriadis, M., & Zhou, Q. (2020). Could Smart Tourists Be Sustainable and Responsible as Well? The Contribution of Social Networking Sites to Improving Their Sustainable and Responsible Behavior. Sustainability, 12(4), 1470.

Sigalat-Signes, E., Calvo-Palomares, R., Roig-Merino, B., & García-Adán, I. (2020). Transition towards a tourist innovation model: The smart tourism destination: Reality or territorial marketing?. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge, 5(2), 96-104.

Sodhro, A. H., Pirbhulal, S., Luo, Z., & de Albuquerque, V. H. C. (2019). Towards an optimal resource management for IoT based Green and sustainable smart cities. Journal of Cleaner Production, 220, 1167-1179. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.01.188

Spencer, A. J., Buhalis, D., & Moital, M. (2012). A hierarchical model of technology adoption for small owner-managed travel firms: An organizational decision-making and leadership perspective. Tourism Management, 33, 1195-1208. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2011.11.011

Starman, A. B. (2013). The case study as a type of qualitative research. Journal of Contemporary Educational Studies/Sodobna Pedagogika, 64(1).

Su, K., Li, J., & Fu, H. (2011, September). Smart city and the applications. In 2011 international conference on electronics, communications and control (ICECC) (pp. 1028-1031). IEEE. DOI: 10.1109/ICECC.2011.6066743

Tsaih, R. H., & Hsu, C. C. (2018). Artificial intelligence in smart tourism: A conceptual framework. Artificial Intelligence.

Tuohino, A., & Konu, H. (2014). Local stakeholders’ views about destination management: who are leading tourism development? Tourism Review, 69(3), 202-215. doi:doi:10.1108/TR-06-2013-0033

Um, T., & Chung, N. (2019). Does smart tourism technology matter? Lessons from three smart tourism cities in South Korea. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 1-19.

Vargo,S. L., Wieland, H., & Akaka, M. A. (2015). Innovation through institutionalization: A service ecosystems perspective. Industrial Marketing Management, 44, 63-72. doi:10.1016/j.indmarman.2014.10.008

Wang, A. (2019, August). Research on the Development of Jinan Smart Tourism in the Age of Big Data. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1302, No. 2, p. 022011). IOP Publishing. DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/1302/2/022011

Wang, D., Li, X. R., & Li, Y. (2013). China's “smart tourism destination” initiative: A taste of the service-dominant logic. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 2(2), 59-61. DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/1302/2/022011

Wang, X., Li, X. R., Zhen, F., & Zhang, J. (2016). How smart is your tourist attraction?: Measuring tourist preferences of smart tourism attractions via a FCEM-AHP and IPA approach. Tourism Management, 54, 309-320. DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2015.12.003

Wieland, H., Polese, F., Vargo, S. L., & Lusch, R. F. (2012). Toward a Service (Eco)Systems Perspective on Value Creation. International Journal of Service Science, Management, Engineering, and Technology, 3(3), 12-25. doi:10.4018/jssmet.2012070102

Wu, S. M., Chen, T. C., Wu, Y. J., & Lytras, M. (2018). Smart cities in Taiwan: A perspective on big data applications. Sustainability, 10(1), 106.

Xiang, Z., Tussyadiah, I., & Buhalis, D. (2015). Smart destinations: Foundations, analytics, and applications. Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, 4(3), 143-144. DOI 10.1007/s12525-015-0196-8

Xu, C., Huang, X., Zhu, J., & Zhang, K. (2018, January). Research on the construction of sanya smart tourism city based on internet and big data. In 2018 International Conference on Intelligent Transportation, Big Data & Smart City (ICITBS) (pp. 125-128). IEEE. DOI: 10.1109/ICITBS.2018.00040

Yalçınkaya, P., Atay, L., & Korkmaz, H. (2018). An evaluation on smart tourism. China-USA Business Review, 17(6), 308-315. Doi: 10.17265/1537-1514/2018.06.004

Zhu, W., Zhang, L., & Li, N. (2014). Challenges, function changing of government and enterprises in Chinese smart tourism. Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism, 10.

18198 Words  66 Pages


The tourism hospitality sector plays a crucial role in economic development through job creation, productivity, and diversifying economic activities, leading to improved standards of living. The emergency of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) in recent years has provided businesses with new mechanisms for operations and gaining competitiveness within the domestic and global scope. A significant number of studies have been conducted in recent years to explore the adoption of ICTs by the tourism hospitality firms but have mainly been focusing on the need for ICTs in enhancing business competitiveness. Thus, the current study was set out to examine the factors that influence the adoption of the Internet of Things (IoT) by the tourism hospitality organisations in Mauritius to fill the existing gap in the literature. The low adoption of IoTs by tourism hospitality firms continues to hurt the hospitality sector in Mauritius as firms continue to lose out on the ability to exploit the benefits of ICTs thus limiting their competitiveness alongside the growing cost of operation and low productivity. Following a quantitative research methodology, a sample of 400 participants will be used from 20 firms from the tourism hospitality industry in Mauritius. Thus, SPSS will be used to summarize and analyse data from surveys. Thus, there is a need for supportive networks from stakeholders and the government in supporting the tourism hospitality sector to successfully adopt IoT and exploit the associated economic and competitive benefits.










In Mauritius, the tourism hospitality sector today is recognized the pillar of any given economy across the globe and Mauritius is not an exemption. The tourism hospitality sector plays an essential role in the creation of jobs while also ensuring that the economic stability of a nation is stable and sustainable (Roopchund, 2020). Essentially, the tourism hospitality industry in Mauritius is considered as an important element of the contemporary industrialized society. According to Dethine, Enjolras, & Monticolo (2020), in the face of globalization and rapid technological advancement, businesses irrespective of their size are finding themselves in a constantly changing environment which further creates challenges for retaining competitiveness especially for the tourism hospitality sector (Widyastuti & Irwansyah, 2018). Therefore, this requires them to integrate the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to maintain their business operations given that Information technology is widely perceived as a vital tool for enhancing the economy while boosting business efficiency leading to competitiveness.


1.1 Research Setting/Context

The study will be based in the tourism hospitality industry in Mauritius. The sample population for this study will, therefore, include tourism hospitality firms, which will be selected across the country. The hospitality industry is one of the fastest-growing sectors in Mauritius which indicates the need to implement and adopt ICT based operations. Therefore, the large sample population from the sector will be vital in ensuring that the study generates reliable, relevant, and credible information regarding the factors that influence the adoption of IoT by the tourism hospitality sector in Mauritius.


To understand the challenges that are faced by the tourism hospitality sector in the adoption of IoT in the Mauritius, this study will seek to acquire data from several Sun Resorts hotels workers ranging from small to medium levels. A survey will be used to collect the data in order to better understand their perceptions on IoT and challenges and the factors as well.

The findings of the current research will be helpful to the selected organizations and the tourism hospitality sector in general by creating awareness and familiarity about not just the opportunities presented by IoT but also the challenges that continue to hinder their ability to adapt to technological changes. Therefore, this will offer vital insights on how the companies can change their strategies to exploit the opportunities presented by IoT despite their limited resources and capacities to invest in technological business instruments for greater economic gains.


1.2 Research Rationale

The rationale of the research is to examine the existing gap in the literature regarding the challenges that continue to counter efforts by the tourism hospitality sector to embrace the use of technology to achieve operational efficiency and competitive over the large business enterprises. Allam (2020), posits that, compared to large enterprises, tourism hospitality sector organizations are characterized by a limited scope in terms of investment in the Internet of Things (IoT) as part of the ICT system that is crucial in increasing the sustainability of businesses (Narwane et al., 2019). Over the last decade, it has been recognized that the adoption of ICT by businesses has increased rather significantly. Whereas empirical evidence has widely identified the importance of technology integration in boosting the success of the business, the diffusion of IoT among the tourism hospitality sector remains particularly low (Narwane et al., 2019). Therefore, to survive the highly competitive market, there is a necessity for businesses to put more effort in developing and implementing the use of technological tools despite limited funds and resources as typically dominant problems among the tourism hospitality firms. According to Jaddo (2019), it is without a doubt that the tourism hospitality sector is the future of the economy in Mauritius and therefore the low adoption of ICT is worrying and a major threat to the socio-economic well-being of the nation (Roblek, Stok & Mesko, 2016).


To boost the potential of businesses and the competitiveness of the tourism hospitality sector there is a need to identify and understand the factors that affect IoT adoption among the tourism hospitality sector and the most prevailing challenges that they are likely to face to create awareness on mitigation strategies. Thus, the results of the research will inform the Sun Resorts managers on how best to explore the enormous opportunities presented by IoT even with their limited resources and competences.




1.2 Research Objectives

The current research seeks to achieve the following objectives:

  1. To explore the advantages of IoT adoption by the tourism hospitality sector in Mauritius
  2. To determine the challenges faced by Sun Resorts hotel in the adoption of IoT in Mauritius
  3. To analyse the reliability of the Technology, organization, and environment context (TOE) model with regards to IoT adoption when applied in the Mauritian tourism setting

1.3 Research Questions

  • What are the challenges that affect the adoption of IoT in the tourism hospitality sector in Mauritius?
  • What strategies should tourism hospitality sector use in the adoption of IoT to mitigate the challenges?
  • What is the reliability of the TOE model in regards to the adoption of IoT in the Mauritius tourism sector?






2.1 Internet of Things (IoT) Technology

Balasubramanian & Ragavan (2019) posits that the Internet of Things (IoT) improves network connection by facilitating the communication between devices as well as systems. In recent years, firms have been using smart devices in different ways to enhance operational efficiency and attain competitive advantage. According to Hsu and Lin (2016), the evolution of IoT offers a wide range of services across different sectors including the hospitality industry. IoT continue to change the manner in which individuals interact as well as view technology. IoT is a relatively new paradigm that has gained popularity in today’s technology-driven business landscape, thus there is no consensus with its definition (Sahadut, Bundhoo & Catherine, 2015). Riggins and Wamba (2015) define IoT as the networking of physical devices through the utilization of sensors and technological devices with the ability to collect as well as share information regarding the objects. On the other hand, Roopchund, (2020) defines IoT as the worldwide network comprising of interconnected devices with rather unique identifiers while communicating through the use of standardized protocols. The objects include anything like physical devices or a person with the capability to share data over the network. Similarly, Amer & Alqhtani (2019) defines IoT as the interconnection of the physical things across the globe with the virtual world through the internet, technological platforms and standards are popularly used in enabling interconnections.

According to Hsu and Lin (2018), IoT has presented new and diverse innovations that are applicable in almost every sector. The application of IoT has significant effects on society and the economy in general. IoT represent one of the largest technological disruptions that are focused on improving efficiency and productivity across different sectors (Nadkarni et al., 2019).  Brous, Janssen, and Herder, (2019) argue that IoT are everyday objects that provide internet connectivity and therefore allows effective information exchange. Babu & Subramoniam (2016) concludes that the users of IoT as customers and services providers are likely to acquire about 90 per cent value which is aligned to the use of ICT. Customers of any given firm that utilises IoT systems benefit the most through cost-saving, receiving goods of utmost quality and satisfactory services that align with their needs (Navío-Marco, Ruiz-Gómez & Sevilla-Sevilla, 2018).



2.2 IoT importance

The adoption of IoT continues to intensify as a tool for attaining competitive advantage and economic growth. Close to every aspect of contemporary life generates specific sets of data. The IoT continues to take charge of almost every part of life particularly in business by easing operations and ensuring that individuals remain connected with others and to the things that matter to them (Lu, Mao, Wang & Hu, 2015). The utilization of technology in the business landscape has widely been praised based on its ability to boost productivity through fostering operational efficiency. Lee (2019) argues that IoT devices are needed in recording and transferring crucial data that is needed in keeping track of day to day processes while giving crucial insights that are needed to boost productivity while allowing companies to make informed choices based on existing market needs. According to Hsu and Lin (2018), IoT informs organisations on changes in the market without requiring them to mainly depend on cases which ultimately boost their competitiveness.


The incorporation of IoT is a necessity for the growth of the tourism hospitality sector as it ensures that the firms have adequate information to guide their operations. Based on Nadkarni, Kriechbaumer, Rothenberger, and Christodoulidou (2019), the ability to retrieve and analyse data is vital as it ensures that The tourism hospitality sector  are able to interact with their customers and thus improve efficiency, minimize the cost of operation, authenticate decision making, identify emerging trends in the market and maximize profit. Kansakar, Munir, and Shabani (2019) illustrates that, as a servicing industry, the success of the firms depends on their ability to satisfy the needs of the consumers. Hence, AlHogail and AlShahrani (2018) hold that to achieve success, there is therefore a necessity to keep track of emerging trends in the market which includes recognizing the expectations and changing needs among their customers. Thus, IoT help in ensuring that the companies are aware and familiar with the changes to strategically make decisions that support their competitiveness.


As established by Car, Stifanich, and Šimunić (2019) one of the main benefits of IoT is that it promotes continuous customer engagement. The incorporation of smart products is likely to increase users’ ability to remain connected and control devices through the use of the internet and networking connections (Kansakar, Munir & Shabani, 2019). The same communication competences can in turn be utilised in monitoring as well as providing active support to operational processes. Equally, Hsu and Yeh, (2017) agree that IoT creates diverse data streams that allow companies to gain better understandings into the most effective operational practices as well as the use of its services and products. By understanding the needs of the customers, allows servicing companies to satisfy their needs leading to improved customer experiences. Prud’homme and Raymond (2013) assert that customers are mainly attached to firms that prioritize their needs over the maximization of profit in general. In this context, the use of IoT helps in ensuring that the firms deliver the best possible services to their customers in a timely manner (Kruja, Hysa, Duman & Tafaj, 2019). Consumers’ needs and expectations are changing rather fast which therefore implies firms’ needs to adapt first to these changes as a way of achieving efficiency and competitive advantage.


Roblek, Stok, and Mesko (2016) established that, in the hospitality sector, IoT mainly involves a reduction in conflict in the customers’ experiences by assisting them to interact with the services provided. For example, there is a growing trend for virtual bookings and therefore, the tourism hospitality sector needs to ensure that they have reliable virtual connections that align with the expectations of their customers. As illustrated by Ives, Palese, and Rodriguez (2016) large organisations tend to retain more efficiency in terms of technology use, as they focus on the needs of the customers. However, the tourism hospitality sector lacks the flexibility of adapting quickly to changes due to the lack of vast resources. Kwon, Bae, and Blum (2013) findings indicate that IoT additionally helps the tourism hospitality sector in reducing their operational cost leading to increased profitability. Operational efficiency leads to increased productivity and reduced operating expenses as a result of using IoT (Ivanov et al. 2019).

2.3 Challenges when adopting IoT

IoT has widely been cited as a crucial force in enabling the tourism hospitality sector to achieve competitiveness, increased production, low cost of operation, and efficiency, the adoption of IoT systems remains low in Mauritius as depicted in the hospitality sector. The tourism hospitality sector contributes up to 40 percent of the nation’s GDP and they account for 54.6 per cent of the overall employment (Government Mauritius, n.d). In this context, the tourism hospitality sector can potentially become an economic pillar in the near future as they play a significant role in building the economy and stirring growth (Nguyen & Simkin, 2017). However, the enterprises encounter numerous problems in their day to day ventures as they try to adopt new measures and invent new approaches to enhancing their competitiveness such as legal and privacy issues.

2.3.1 High-Cost of Adoption

Rosman and Stuhura (2013) theorise that large organisations retain a substantial range of resources that allow them to conveniently and successfully adopt ICT systems. However, the tourism hospitality sector is limited by financial and human resources that are vital in the adoption of ICT systems (Hsu & Lin, 2018). The lack of financing is one of the main issues that continue to affect ICT adoption among the tourism hospitality sector. Large companies have a reliable network of support that provides guidance and financial support to the companies (Yildirim, 2019). The tourism hospitality sector has limited collateral security and this hinders their ability to acquire loans and those that are successful suffer from the high-interest rates which further their financial troubles.

For the tourism hospitality sector, it is not about the most effective IoT systems rather it involves adopting the most convenient and yet cost-effective system. Most of the firms in the tourism hospitality industry exist as either small or medium enterprises meaning that they are limited in terms of finances. The firms’ revenue generation is limited as they tend to focus on the minimization of expenses to enhance their profit (Pencarelli, 2019). Therefore, the adoption of IoT systems tends to perceived as a luxury rather than a necessity since it affects profit generation. The challenge is further complicated by the inability to access loans from financial institutions as they are deemed as incapable based on their limited resources.

2.3.2 Administrative Structure

Haseeb, Hussain, Ślusarczyk, and Jermsittiparsert (2019) identified the dominant lack of ICT knowledge and skilfulness as an additional factor that hinders the tourism hospitality sector from adopting IoT systems in Mauritius. It is worth noting that in the tourism hospitality sector most of the management operations are controlled by one individual particularly the sole proprietor (Tabane, Zuva & Ngwira, 2015). The proprietor is responsible for making operational and entrepreneurial decisions, which in turn determine the strategic focus of the company (Hecht, Mayier & Perakslis, 2014).  The lack of skilfulness and professional training with respect to strategic business operations affects efficiency. Kim, Park, and Choi (2017) highlight that most the tourism hospitality sector is identical since the firms imitate the approaches adopted by others rather than inventing their own techniques. Rather than focusing on the existing needs in the market, the companies mainly rely on following existing trends which affect their ability to recognize and respond effectively to changes (Tussyadiah, 2020). The lack of knowledge further creates marketing challenges as the firms are unable to identify and take advantage of emerging opportunities (Guo, Liu & Chai, 2014). Marketing has to be aligned with the expectations and needs of the customers and the inability to apply this knowledge significantly affects the competitiveness of the organisations.

2.3.3 Security, Privacy and Legal issues

According to Maple (2017), privacy and legal uncertainties also affects the adoption and utilization of IoT among firms in the tourism hospitality sector. Most Internet online business in the tourism hospitality sector across Mauritius operates within the domestic scope unlike other sectors where companies operate within the global scope (Aleisa & Renaud, 2017; Losavio, Chow, Koltay, & James, 2018).  In spite of the fact that there might be different reasons, for example, the utilization of local money, legal regulations and administrative challenges are some important factors that affect the adoption of IoT in the industry (Kumar, Kunwar & Sachan, 2016). Legal vulnerabilities and clashing administrative practices may influence the adoption of IoT. It is without a doubt that companies have the responsibility to protect the customers’ data by implementing measures for enhancing confidentiality and privacy (Cha, Hsu, Xian & Yeh, 2018; Zheng, Cai & Li, 2018). However, the Internet of Things which mainly involves relying on internet-based systems creates the vulnerability for hacking which further creates fear among stakeholders in the tourism hospitality industry (Padyab & Ståhlbröst, 2018). Sun resorts has implemented GDPR and they work with tourism mainly EU citizen. EU GDPR law commenced as at 25 May 2018 and as it is residing in Mauritius, they abide with Mauritius Data Protection Act 2017. There are legal uncertainties regarding the consequences that the firms might face or regulations and guidelines to direct the firms in the adoption (Aleisa, & Renaud, 2017; Pagallo, Durante, & Monteleone, 2017). Therefore, the lack of a clear legal infrastructure and privacy issues significantly affect the willingness and readiness among tourism hospitality firms to adopt the IoT systems (Yaqoob et al., 2019).

2.3.4 Size, Government Support and Technological Infrastructure

Technology adoption is dependent on the size of the firm and its administrative structure. Most firms in the tourism industry exist as small and medium enterprises which imply that their sizes hinder the adoption of IoT systems. Technological adoption entails the process, through which innovation is normally communicated through the use of specific channels over a time period among individuals belonging to a specific social system. In the adoption of ICT, the focus must be placed on innovation. In that, the context needs to be placed on whether IoTs systems provide greater value compared to existing tools (Pencarelli, 2019). The value of any adoption has to be greater and compatible with existing practices. The tourism hospitality sector is late adopters of technology based on the perception that it is expensive and therefore not compatible with their needs (Car, Stifanich & Šimunić 2019). Even though they understand that technology is beneficial to their business they tend to focus on the complex operational issues instead of the tools that might be useful in addressing the challenges since they are conservatives (De Cremer, Nguyen & Simkin, 2017). The tourism hospitality sector tends to dwell on their challenges rather than potential capabilities that disrupt their overall focus.

The lack of developing ICT infrastructure is actually one of the leading problems that the tourism hospitality sector face in Mauritius which hinders service delivery and operational efficiency. Most of the tourism hospitality firms have opted to use basic communication systems as a way of operating under the least expense. The process of adopting IoT is rather complex since it requires not just the acquisition of equipment but also the need to hire and train employees on the use of ICT systems (Car, Stifanich & Šimunić 2019). The lack of government support and coordination among stakeholders is responsible for poor ICT infrastructural development and this severely affects the willingness and readiness of the companies to adopt IoT. Even though the government has in the recent demonstrated its support to the adoption of technological system by organisations, minimal effort has in turn been placed in allowing firms that are limited by resources to adopt the systems as a whole.

2.3.5 Negative Perception of IoT systems

Perceived usefulness and ease of technology use are the main determinants of adoption (Buhalis et al., 2019). In the case that people perceive technology to be useful, this significantly boosts their willingness and readiness to adopt. However, if the user is perceived to be complex in nature, they are therefore likely to be less willing to use it citing that it will generate major issues (Hsu and Lin, 2016). If the use of technology is characterised by less effort, this promotes usefulness and creates a rather positive attitude towards the system. Performance plays an integral role in facilitating the adoption in general.  If the technology is perceived as one that is likely to result in increased productivity and efficiency, this will fuel a decision making towards its adoption (Benckendorff, Xiang & Sheldon, 2019). However, the final decision is determined on the degree of effort that the system will require to achieve the set success. Therefore, the overall effectiveness of the technology alongside the standards of applications is responsible for the slow IoT adoption by the tourism hospitality sector (Filimonau & Delysia, 2019). The tourism hospitality sector is affected by the belief that technological use in business is complex in nature and less effective in a setting that has limited resources (Buhalis & Leung, 2018). The belief blocks their ability to see the potential benefits of the system in enhancing operational efficiency.

2.4 Conceptual Framework

Several theories and models have emerged in the quest to explore the factors responsible for influencing IoT adoption among the tourism hospitality sector. The factors are technological based, psychological, and industrial driven. Thus, this indicates the suitability of Technology, organization, and environment context (TOE).

2.5 Technology, organization, and environment context (TOE)

The TOE conceptual framework for the adoption of technology was created by Tornatzky and Fleischer in 1990. It recognizes three parts of a business venture's setting those impacts the process of technological adoption including: Technology, organizational, and the environment. (a) Technological setting depicts both the inside and outer forces applicable to the firm. This incorporates current practices and resources owned by the firm, in addition to the availability of technological systems outside to the firm (Tornatzky and Fleischer, 1990). (b) Organizational setting alludes to engaging measures about the association, for example, degree, size, and administrative structure (Tornatzky and Fleischer, 1990). (c) Environmental context is the field where a firm leads its business—its industry, business rivals, and alliances with the government (Tornatzky and Fleischer, 1990).














The TOE structure as initially introduced, and later adjusted in IT adoption in the business world considers, gives a helpful diagnostic system that can be utilized for contemplating and making effective decisions on IT advancement (Salleh & Janczewski, 2016). The TOE system has a strong hypothetical premise that aligns the ideas behind the diffusion model. These are indistinguishable from the innovation and association setting of the TOE system, yet the TOE structure likewise incorporates another and significant part, condition setting (Kumar & Krishnamoorthy, 2020).

In summary, there is an apparent gap in literature with regard to the factors that continue to hinder the adoption of IoT systems among the tourism hospitality sector in the hospitality industry across Mauritius. The findings of this research will be vital in creating awareness among The tourism hospitality sector that are striving to adopt IoT by identifying measures to take to mitigate the lack of resourcefulness. The empirical evidence will additionally guide future studies on exploring the challenges faced by the tourism hospitality sector in Mauritius while adopting technology.


2.6 Hypotheses

With respect to the findings of research, most firms in the tourism hospitality industry across Mauritius are unable to adopt IoT systems due to their sizes, cost, administrative structure, technological availability and government regulation. Limited resources the firms have minimal access to new technologies such as computers and the internet. Therefore, the hypotheses followed by the study are as follows:


H1: There is poor administrative structure and high cost affects the adoption of IoT in the             Mauritius tourism sector


H2: There is lack of technological structure and government support limits the adoption   of IoT systems by the tourism hospitality sector


H3: There is technological availability of IoT systems for adoption in the tourism hospitality sector



Technology Context

  1. IoT security and privacy affects the utilisation and adoption by the Mauritius tourism hospitality sector.

            Strongly Agree | Agree | Neutral | Disagree | Strongly Disagree

  1. The unavailability of customised technological options for the Mauritius in the tourism hospitality sector affects IoT adoption.

            Strongly Agree | Agree | Neutral | Disagree | Strongly Disagree

  1. Lack of awareness on the application of IoT systems leads to low level of IoT adoption in the Mauritiustourism hospitality sector?

            Strongly Agree | Agree | Neutral | Disagree | Strongly Disagree

Organization Context

  1. The resources limitation among enterprises in the Mauritius tourism hospitality industry affects the adoption of IoT

Strongly Agree | Agree | Neutral | Disagree | Strongly Disagree

  1. The high cost of IoT adoption deters willingness and readiness for technological advancement among tourism firms in Mauritius.

Strongly Agree | Agree | Neutral | Disagree | Strongly Disagree

  1. Administrative structures and management practices are the main hinderances in the adoption of IoT in the Mauritius in the tourism hospitality sector?

Strongly Agree | Agree | Neutral | Disagree | Strongly Disagree

Environment Context

  1. Government regulation on IoT development and management affects the adoption of IoT systems in the Mauritius in the tourism hospitality sector.

Strongly Agree | Agree | Neutral | Disagree | Strongly Disagree

  1. Lack of well-established technological infrastructure impacts IoT adoption in the Mauritius in the tourism hospitality sector.

Strongly Agree | Agree | Neutral | Disagree | Strongly Disagree

  1. Negative perception towards IoT benefits to the tourism hospitality sector limits the adoptipon of technological systems.

Strongly Agree | Agree | Neutral | Disagree | Strongly Disagree


3.1 Introduction

As illustrated by the title, this section provides an in-depth discussion of the research methodology adopted by the research. In detail, the researcher provides an outline of the research methodology, research philosophy, sample population, data analysis, ethical considerations, and research limitations.

3.1.1 Research Aims and Objectives

Quantitative data collected through surveys will be used for statistical analysis. The objective of the research is to establish the following in relation to the tourism hospitality sector in Mauritius. 

1.      To explore the advantages of IoT adoption by the tourism hospitality sector in Mauritius

2.      To determine the challenges faced by Sun Resorts hotel in the adoption of IoT in Mauritius

3.      To analyse the reliability of the Technology, organization, and environment context (TOE) model with regards to IoT adoption when applied in the Mauritian tourism setting

3.2 Research Methodology

To effectively satisfy the objective of the research which is to determine the factors that affect the adoption of IoT by the tourism hospitality sector in Mauritius a quantitative approach was undertaken. The main benefits of a quantitative approach are that it is suitable for a large sample population and the outcomes are measurable and quantifiable. Also, the method does not limit the scope of the researcher and it allows the researcher to collect data that was not anticipated.  In addition, the approach helps in avoiding biases from the personal interpretations of the researcher which might affect the credibility of the study (Basias and Pollalis, 2018). The approach, therefore, ensures that maximum data is acquired regarding the support in alignment with the objectives of the research. However, it is worth noting that the effectiveness of a quantitative research approach is dependent on the skills and abilities of the researcher for the outcomes to be considered as reliable (Basias and Pollalis, 2018). Descriptive research design is focused on accurately and methodically describing the research population and population (Pal, 2017). The design is reliable in investigating more than a single variable. As the research targets 20 firms in the tourism hospitality sector and therefore the number of participants might be larger hence, a quantitative research methodology was deemed more appropriate.

3.3 Research Philosophy

The research philosophy that guided the research is an inductive approach. An inductive approach is a logical reasoning process whereby different premises that are all perceived as true or are found to be true in most cases are combined in order to develop specific conclusions. Inductive reasoning is normally utilised in predicting behaviours. According to this philosophy, the researcher starts the research process by making specific observations which lead to the generation of theories and related conclusion. The reason behind the adoption of an inductive research approach is that it considers the context of the study where research effort lies and is suitable for small samples that lead to producing quantitative data (Gentles et al., 2015). In this context, the philosophy helps in narrowing down the scope of the research based on the objective of research even though the outcomes are not generalizable to the wider population.

3.4 Sample Population and Sampling

The study applied purposive sampling to select the right research sample. Purposive sampling is a non-probability sampling approach in which the sample members are normally selected on the ground of their knowledge, relationships with the research subject, and expertise (Durbarry, 2017). Thus, for the current research, the sample members selected are the ones that have direct involvement in the tourism hospitality sector hospitality industry in Mauritius. The tourism hospitality sector has sufficient and active involvement in the industry which thus places them in a suitable position to provide relevant and reliable information about the industry and the factors that affect IoT adoption by the tourism hospitality sector. In this context, a sample of 20 the tourism hospitality sector was selected to participate in the study. The businesses selected are those that have been in operation for 5 or more years in the hospitality industry as the tourism hospitality sector since experience and knowledge of how the industry operates are critical in gathering adequate information.

3.5 Data Collection Methods and Instruments

For the objective of the study, online surveys will be used as a data collection tool for the research. A semi-structured questionnaire will be used as a guide for the survey. A survey was selected based on its ease of use, convenience, and ability to obtain maximum information (Fryer, Larson-Hall and Stewart, 2018). To maximize information acquired from the participants while ensuring that the research does not deviate from its objectives the questionnaire will contain closed-ended questions (Gentles et al., 2015).

3.6 Ethical Procedures

Adequate ethical procedures were ensured by providing confidentiality to the participants. The responses were treated as anonymous as no personal data was collected such as their names, company they work for, phone number, email, or address. The approach helps in enhancing their confidence and thus generating more reliable responses (Durbarry, 2017).

3.7 Research Limitations

The main limitation faced by the research is a small study sample. In generating generalizable and reliable results, a larger sample would have been appropriate. However, the limitation will be mitigated by using a quantitative approach as the outcomes are quantifiable and measurable hence reliable.

3.8 Results and Findings

In analysing quantitative data generated from the survey, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) will be used to assess the factors that impact the adoption of IoT in the tourism hospitality sector in Mauritius. SPSS refers to a set of programming programs that are joined together in a solitary bundle. The method will involve descriptive statistical analysis and representation using charts, graphs, standard deviation and modes.   This information can be utilized for statistical surveying, reviews and information mining. The approach was selected as it is useful for generating comparable data that can in turn be generalized to the larger tourism hospitality sector in Mauritius.



4.0 References

Aleisa, N., & Renaud, K. (2017, January). Privacy of the Internet of Things: a systematic literature review. In Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2017 (pp. 5947-5956). DOI:10.24251/HICSS.2017.717

Aleisa, N., & Renaud, K. (2017, January). Privacy of the Internet of Things: a systematic literature review. In Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2017 (pp. 5947-5956). DOI:10.24251/HICSS.2017.717

AlHogail, A. and AlShahrani, M., 2018, July. Building consumer trust to improve Internet of Things (IoT) technology adoption. In International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (pp. 325-334). Springer, Cham. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-94866-9_33

Allam, Z. 2020. On culture, technology and global cities. In Cities and the Digital Revolution pp. 107-124. Palgrave Pivot, Cham. DOI 10.1007/978-3-030-29800-5_5

Amer, M., & Alqhtani, A. 2019. IoT applications in Smart Hotels. International Journal of Internet of Things and Web Services, 6. doi:10.3390/su11195372

Babu, S. R., & Subramoniam, S. 2016. Tourism management in internet of things era. Journal of Information Technology and Economic Development, 71, 1. doi: 10.1109/IEEM.2012.6837979. 37

Balasubramanian, K., & Ragavan, N. A. 2019. What are the key challenges faced by the Malaysian hospitality and tourism industry in the context of industrial revolution 4.0?. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes. DOI: 10.1108/WHATT-11-2018-0079

Benckendorff, P. J., Xiang, Z., & Sheldon, P. J. 2019. Tourism information technology. Cabi.

Braun, V., Clarke, V., Boulton, E., Davey, L., & McEvoy, C. 2020. The online survey as a qualitative research tool. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 1-14.

Brous, P., Janssen, M. and Herder, P., 2019. Internet of Things adoption for reconfiguring decision-making processes in asset management. Business Process Management Journal.

Buhalis, D., & Leung, R. 2018. Smart hospitality—Interconnectivity and interoperability towards an ecosystem. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 71, 41-50.

Buhalis, D., Harwood, T., Bogicevic, V., Viglia, G., Beldona, S., & Hofacker, C. 2019. Technological disruptions in services: lessons from tourism and hospitality. Journal of Service Management. DOI: 10.1108/JOSM-12-2018-0398

Campiranon, K. 2020. Factors influencing Thailand as a smart tourism cestination. CAUTHE 2020: 20: 20 Vision: New Perspectives on the Diversity of Hospitality, Tourism and Events, 85.

Car, T., Stifanich, L. P., & Šimunić, M. 2019. Internet of things IoT in tourism and hospitality: opportunities and challenges. Tourism in South East Europe..., 5, 163-175. DOI: 10.20867/tosee

Cha, S. C., Hsu, T. Y., Xiang, Y., & Yeh, K. H. (2018). Privacy enhancing technologies in the Internet of Things: Perspectives and challenges. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 6(2), 2159-2187. DOI: 10.1109/JIOT.2018.2878658

Dabeedooal, Y. J., Dindoyal, V., Allam, Z., & Jones, D. S. 2019. Smart tourism as a pillar for sustainable urban development: An alternate smart city strategy from Mauritius. Smart Cities, 22, 153-162.

De Cremer, D., Nguyen, B., & Simkin, L. 2017. The integrity challenge of the Internet-of-Things IoT: on understanding its dark side. Journal of Marketing Management, 331-2, 145-158. DOI:10.1080/0267257X.2016.1247517

Dethine, B., Enjolras, M., & Monticolo, D. 2020. Digitalization and The tourism hospitality sector ’ Export Management: Impacts on Resources and Capabilities. Technology Innovation Management Review, 10(4).

Filimonau, V., & Delysia, A. 2019. Food waste management in hospitality operations: A critical review. Tourism management, 71, 234-245.

Gcaba, O., & Dlodlo, N. 2016, May. The internet of things for South African tourism. In 2016 IST-Africa Week Conference pp. 1-8. IEEE. DOI: 10.1109/ISTAFRICA.2016.7530573

Gentles, S. J., Charles, C., Ploeg, J., & McKibbon, K. A. 2015. Sampling in qualitative research: Insights from an overview of the methods literature. The qualitative report, 20(11), 1772-1789. doi:10.1177/104973239600600407

Government Mauritius. n.d. 10 - Year Master PlanFor The SME Sector in Mauritius. Ministry of Business, Enterprise and Cooperatives. Retrieved from:

Guo, Y., Liu, H., & Chai, Y. 2014. The embedding convergence of smart cities and tourism internet of things in China: An advance perspective. Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research AHTR, 21, 54-69.

Haseeb, M., Hussain, H.I., Ślusarczyk, B. and Jermsittiparsert, K., 2019. Industry 4.0: A solution towards technology challenges of sustainable business performance. Social Sciences, 8(5), p.154. DOI: 10.3390/socsci8050154

Hecht, H., Mayier, M., & Perakslis, C. 2014, March. Pervasive connectivity: The thriving hotel of the future. In 2014 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communication Workshops PERCOM WORKSHOPS pp. 357-363. IEEE. DOI: 10.1109/PerComW.2014.6815232

Hsu, C. S., Ting, H., Lui, T. W., Chen, S. C., Jun-Hwa, J. C., & Cobanoglu, C. Challenges and Prospects of AIoT Application in Hospitality and Tourism Marketing. doi:10.2753/mis0742-1222280303

Hsu, C. W., & Yeh, C. C. 2017. Understanding the factors affecting the adoption of the Internet of Things. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 299, 1089-1102. 

Hsu, C.L. and Lin, J.C.C., 2016. An empirical examination of consumer adoption of Internet of Things services: Network externalities and concern for information privacy perspectives. Computers in Human Behavior, 62, pp.516-527. DOI:10.1016/j.chb.2016.04.023

Hsu, C.L. and Lin, J.C.C., 2018. Exploring factors affecting the adoption of internet of things services. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 58(1), pp.49-57. DOI:10.1080/08874417.2016.1186524

Ivanov, S., Gretzel, U., Berezina, K., Sigala, M., & Webster, C. 2019. Progress on robotics in hospitality and tourism: a review of the literature. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology. DOI:10.1108/JHTT-08-2018-0087

Ives, B., Palese, B. and Rodriguez, J.A., 2016. Enhancing Customer Service through the Internet of Things and Digital Data Streams. MIS Quarterly Executive, 15(4).

Jaddo, J. 2019. Sanjay Rajkoomar : “Mauritian organisations are still at the conceptual phase of IoT projects.’’ Retrieved from:

Kansakar, P., Munir, A. and Shabani, N., 2019. Technology in the hospitality industry: Prospects and challenges. IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine, 8(3), pp.60-65. DOI: 10.1109/MCE.2019.2892245

Kendall, L., 2014. The conduct of qualitative interviews: Research questions, methodological issues, and researching online. In Handbook of research on new literacies (pp. 151-168). Routledge.

Kim, Y., Park, Y. and Choi, J., 2017. A study on the adoption of IoT smart home service: using Value-based Adoption Model. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 28(9-10), pp.1149-1165.

Kruja, A. D., Hysa, X., Duman, T., & Tafaj, A. 2019. Adoption of Software as a Service SaaS in small and medium-sized hotels in Tirana. Enlightening Tourism, 92.

Kumar, A., & Krishnamoorthy, B. (2020). Business Analytics Adoption in Firms: A Qualitative Study Elaborating TOE Framework in India. International Journal of Global Business and Competitiveness, 1-14.

Kumar, P., Kunwar, R. S., & Sachan, A. (2016). A survey report on: Security & challenges in internet of things. In Proc National Conference on ICT & IoT (pp. 35-39). DOI: 10.1109/ICWISE.2017.8267153

Kwon, J.M., Bae, J.I.S. and Blum, S.C., 2013. Mobile applications in the hospitality industry. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology.

Lad, K., & Waghmare, N. The Impact of Information & Communication Technology ICT in Smart Hospitality Ushering into Digital Era.

Lee, I., 2019. The Internet of Things for enterprises: An ecosystem, architecture, and IoT service business model. Internet of Things, 7, p.100078. 0 078.

Legrand, W., Sloan, P., & Chen, J. S. 2016. Sustainability in the hospitality industry: Principles of sustainable operations. Routledge. DOI: 10.4324/9781315690261

Lu, J., Mao, Z., Wang, M., & Hu, L. 2015. Goodbye maps, hello apps? Exploring the influential determinants of travel app adoption. Current issues in Tourism, 1811, 1059-1079. DOI: 10.1080/13683500.2015.1043248

Maple, C. (2017). Security and privacy in the internet of things. Journal of Cyber Policy, 2(2), 155-184.

Nadkarni, S., & Dutt, C. S. Digital & Data Driven Ecosystem: Implications for Hotel Operations and Guest Experience. Knowing Enough to Be Dangerous: The Dark Side of Empowering Employees with Data an d Tools, 129.

Nadkarni, S., Kriechbaumer, F., Rothenberger, M. and Christodoulidou, N., 2019. The path to the Hotel of Things: Internet of Things and Big Data converging in hospitality. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology. DOI: 10.1108/JHTT-12-2018-0120

Narraidoo, G., 2020. The Role of Internet of Things in Hotels’ Profitability.

Narwane, V. S., Raut, R. D., Gardas, B. B., Kavre, M. S., & Narkhede, B. E. 2019. Factors affecting the adoption of cloud of things. Journal of Systems and Information Technology. DOI: 10.1108/JSIT-10-2018-0137

Navío-Marco, J., Ruiz-Gómez, L. M., & Sevilla-Sevilla, C. 2018. Progress in information technology and tourism management: 30 years on and 20 years after the internet-Revisiting Buhalis & Law's landmark study about eTourism. Tourism management, 69, 460-470.

Nguyen, B., & Simkin, L. 2017. The Internet of Things IoT and marketing: the state of play, future trends and the implications for marketing.

Oogarah-Hanuman, V., 2012, February. A study of the CRM implementation process, its antecedents and impact on marketing effectiveness: The case of the Hotel Industry in Mauritius. In Conference Programme & Proceedings (Vol. 14, p. 205).

Padyab, A., & Ståhlbröst, A. (2018). Exploring the dimensions of individual privacy concerns in relation to the Internet of Things use situations. Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance. DOI: 10.1108/DPRG-05-2018-0023

Pagallo, U., Durante, M., & Monteleone, S. (2017). What is new with the internet of things in privacy and data protection? Four legal challenges on sharing and control in IoT. In Data protection and privacy:(In) visibilities and infrastructures (pp. 59-78). Springer, Cham. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-50796-5_3

Pencarelli, T. 2019. The digital revolution in the travel and tourism industry. Information Technology & Tourism, 1-22.

Prud’homme, B. and Raymond, L., 2013. Sustainable development practices in the hospitality industry: An empirical study of their impact on customer satisfaction and intentions. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 34, pp.116-126. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2013.03.003

Riggins, F.J. and Wamba, S.F., 2015, January. Research directions on the adoption, usage, and impact of the internet of things through the use of big data analytics. In 2015 48th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (pp. 1531-1540). IEEE. DOI:10.1109/HICSS.2015.186

Roblek, V., Stok, Z. M., & Mesko, M. 2016. Complexity of a sharing economy for tourism and hospitality. In Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management in Opatija. Biennial International Congress. Tourism & Hospitality Industry p. 374. University of Rijeka, Faculty of Tourism & Hospitality Management. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.3000.2165

Roopchund, R. 2020. Mauritius as a Smart Tourism Destination: Technology for Enhancing Tourism Experience. In Advanced Computing and Intelligent Engineering pp. 519-535. Springer, Singapore. DOI: 10.1007/978-981-15-1483-8_44

Rosman, R. and Stuhura, K., 2013. The implications of social media on customer relationship management and the hospitality industry. Journal of Management Policy and Practice, 14(3), pp.18-26. Corpus ID: 167871569

Sahadut, M. R., Bundhoo, M. H., & Catherine, P. C. 2015, June. The Establishment of Smart Cities in Mauritius: Requirements, Challenges and Opportunities. In The Second International Conference on Data Mining, Internet Computing, and Big Data BigData2015 p. 69.

Salleh, K. A., & Janczewski, L. (2016). Adoption of Big Data Solutions: A study on its security determinants using Sec-TOE Framework. In International Conference on Information Resources Management (CONF-IRM). Association for Information Systems AIS Electronic Library (AISeL).

Tabane, E., Zuva, T., & Ngwira, S. M. 2015, June. The Socio-Economic Impact of Internet of Things towards Smart Cities. In The Third International Conference on Digital Information Processing, E-Business and Cloud Computing DIPECC2015 p. 102.

Tornatzky, L. and Fleischer, M. (1990) The process of technology innovation, Lexington, MA, Lexington Books.

Tussyadiah, I. 2020. A review of research into automation in tourism: Launching the Annals of Tourism Research Curated Collection on Artificial Intelligence and Robotics in Tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 81, 102883.

Um, T., & Chung, N. 2019. Does smart tourism technology matter? Lessons from three smart tourism cities in South Korea. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 1-19. DOI: 10.1080/10941665.2019.1595691

Vaughn, P. and Turner, C., 2016. Decoding via coding: Analyzing qualitative text data through thematic coding and survey methodologies. Journal of Library Administration, 56(1), pp.41-51.

Widyastuti, D., & Irwansyah, I. 2018. Benefits and challenges of cloud computing technology adoption in small and medium enterprises (The tourism hospitality sector ). Bandung Creative Movement (BCM) Journal, 4(1). DOI:10.2991/BCM-17.2018

Yao, Y., Wohl, M., Watson, E. and Chen, Y.S., 2003. Customers’ decision to adopt application service provider and applications service providers’ business strategy in the hospitality industry: A research framework. Journal of Information Technology Case and Application Research, 5(3), pp.57-75.

Yaqoob, I., Hashem, I. A. T., Ahmed, A., Kazmi, S. A., & Hong, C. S. (2019). Internet of things forensics: Recent advances, taxonomy, requirements, and open challenges. Future Generation Computer Systems, 92, 265-275. DOI:10.1016/j.future.2018.09.058

Yildirim, M., 2019. The effect of the Internet of Things on the customer relations aspect of business model innovation: a multiple case study of startups (Master's thesis, University of Twente).

Zheng, X., Cai, Z., & Li, Y. (2018). Data linkage in smart internet of things systems: a consideration from a privacy perspective. IEEE Communications Magazine, 56(9), 55-61.DOI: 10.1109/MCOM.2018.1701245





7595 Words  27 Pages

Lesson 3 Portfolio Task

Topic 1: Summer Holidays

Main Idea: Summer holidays bring out the best and worst in families

Topic 2: Ice Cream

Main Idea: Ice Cream is the sweetest snack to have when it is sunny.

Topic 3: Alarm clocks

Main Idea: The alarm clock enables me to wake up in a good time.

Topic 4: Dreams versus Nightmares

Main Idea: Dreams come in a form of peaceful feelings, happy moments while nightmares come in the form of fearful, terrifying feelings while we sleep.

Topic 5: Laughter

Main Idea: The comedian brought so much laughter to the audience.

Task 2

Ice cream rejuvenates the body when it is hot and sunny. Ice creams are normally frozen hence making a person feel fulfilled when taken at this particular time. It causes a lot of happiness to people because of its sweetness. It is made with different flavors full-filling every person’s needs and likes. Ice cream can be taken by anyone including the adults because it brings a feeling of satisfaction. It also has benefits to the body because as the name sounds it is made of cream or milk. It is normally sugared therefore adding more energy to the body especially when it is hot and energy that has been lost needs to be rejuvenated. When it is sunny, friends and family go out together to have Ice cream and this means that it brings more love and togetherness amongst people. Sunny days and hot weather are the most convenient times for having ice cream and in those times you feel the rejuvenation impact of it.



Opinion Essay

My family should buy a car because it has a lot of benefits compared to a dog. It will help us as a family move from one place to another while running errands. A car will enable us to make family trips to wherever we want and at whatever time we want. This will be so much fun for the family because we will be able to stop at any place we wish to and make lots of memories. There will be no travel inconveniences in our family because our means of transport will always be ready. In case of any emergency, the car will be of aid to our family rather than start looking for a means of transport maybe to the hospital or any other emergency that might occur. A car will be used for drop-offs and pickups from schools and this will come with a lot of conveniences in terms of going to school.

In terms of work, inconveniences like the breaking down of a train, for example, will not be experienced if my family buys a car. A car will reduce the costs of so many things like for example when you purchase items and they have to be delivered to the house and you have to pay for the transport services. In such a case the transport services will be used or saved for something else. A car will enable my family to save a lot of time spent on the roads because whenever one is in a hurry the only stopover would be the arrival of their destination. A car for the family will bring so much independence because you don’t have to adjust your time to fit other people’s time when traveling.

558 Words  2 Pages


Consumer Behavior in Tourism



Consumer behavior can be defined as how consumer select goods and services to satisfy their needs and wants. Consumer behavior is one of the most studied topics in tourism.  In tourism context, consumer behavior can be described as the study of why tourists choose a certain destination and the study of the factors affecting this choice. A tourist destination can be a city or a town or any other place with certain characteristics that attract a tourist. Consumer behavior can be influenced by various factors such as motivation. Motivation factors are divided into two intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsically tourism may be a way for people to satisfy their psychological needs, travelling being among these needs. The intrinsic factors of motivation are the attitudes, perception, value and beliefs and personality of the tourist. Extrinsic factors are the external factors that motivate a tourist; place of origin, family and age, culture and social class and the tourism market.

Geographical factors are another factor immensely affecting tourists’ behaviors, the climatic conditions of tourist destinations which is attributed to the geographical location of the destination can alter the decision making of the tourist (Swarbrooke, et al., 2007). Place of origin also largely influence consumer behavior a lot, for example tourists from North America love following their cultural framework while tourists from Korea and japan love travelling in groups.  The level of education of the tourist is another factor affecting the consumer behavior of tourists, education drives the decision-making process when it comes to choosing the destination (Juvan, et al., 2017). Consumer behavior is a vital aspect in every market, studying consumer behavior in tourism is important in explaining the reasons why different consumers make decisions to visit different tourist destinations.

Personal factors can be regarded as psychological factors, a tourist personality is made up of beliefs, convictions and habits. These characteristics are different in each of them.  Self-Image which is how an individual view themselves has a huge influence on how they behave.  Attitude helps the tourist answer to a tourism product favorably or unfavorably (Tichindelean, et al., 2010).  Perception is a complex process through which people make choices, organize and interpret sensory stimulation into a meaningful picture. The perception of a tourism destination is as a result of the interaction with the incentives of the place such as the shape and color and the factors similar to the tourist’s personality (Cohen, et al., 2014).  Therefore, one tourist destination will be perceived differently by various tourists since they all perceive the destination differently.  Perception improves with time depending on how many incentives about the destination a person perceives and the persons ability to put these stimuli in mind.

Motivations, Lifestyles & Personality

In tourism studying consumer behavior is an important step towards the discovery of the motivations that influence modern tourists. The study of consumer behavior in the tourism industry allows providers to understand the motives of tourists and be able to tailor products that will meet the long-term needs of tourists (Fratu, 2011). Factors that affect tourists’ decisions are dived into; motivation which are the factors pushing the tourist to desire to purchase a certain product; Determinants which are factors that determine the extent to which the tourist is able to afford the product.  Tourism is a product and a service, this is because of the tangible materials that include beds, hotels and food and it also intangible because of the various services. Tourists are the major component of the production process in tourism; therefore, their moods, beliefs, lifestyle and expectations heavily influence their travel experience.

There is a wide range of motivating factors that are tourism related. However, different types of motivators affect various types of tourism products differently.  These motivation factors can be sub dived into two; the motivators that push the individual towards taking a vacation and the factors that push the individual to take a vacation at a particular destination and time (Alvarez, n.d.).  The main factors that determine travel motivators are; personality, lifestyle, past experiences that one has as a tourist from different types of trips, past place of living that the tourist desires to revisit and perception. Life style is a personal factor that affects consumer behavior in the tourism industry, the life style of an individual is composed of interests, ideas and an individual consuming habit. Age is a physical discriminator of consumer behavior. For example, young people do not share the same taste and regards on products and services with the old.  The spending rate of the young is also higher compared to that of the old (Cuculeski, et al., 2015). The profession of tourists also has a great impact on the tourist destination preference.

There are internal and external motivation. For internal motivation individuals view tourism as a way of satisfying their psychological needs and desires such as traveling to different places, exploring new places and ideas, relax and have fun while exploring novelty and capabilities. Intrinsic motivation drives a tourist to opt to choose tourism as a result of intangible reward such as fun and to fulfil other emotional needs (Cohen, et al., 2014). Other internal factors that motivate tourists include, attitudes of tourists, the attitude an individual has is as a result of the knowledge the tourist has about a place. There are also external motives in tourism that influence tourists and pull them towards making a decision. While intrinsic motivation is as a result of the constant desire to have fun extrinsic motivation is as a result of external factors such as money.

External motivating factors include place of origin, the behavior of tourists may as well depend on the place of their origin. For example, in the list of preferential things to do for Indian married women tourism might come last when compared to their American counterparts who favor tourism more (Bhattacharya, et al., 2017).  Family is another motivating factor, family maters when it comes to the structure and the income. In the modern world families with a nuclear structure and earning a double income prefer to travel long distances and extravagant tourism while joint families and families with a single earning member prefer to visit tourist destinations domestically (Kasapi, et al., 2012).  Age is a physical factor as mentioned above and can act as a motivation that influence the behavior of consumers in tourism, for example tourists that fall between the age of 5 to 35 years might prefer to visit destinations such as Disneyland more than senior citizens.


Culture and social classes can also act as external motivation factors that influence tourists to pick various destinations. Tourists often prefer to visit place with different cultures compared to their places (Horner, et al., 2016).  The ever-changing variables that are constantly altering the tourism market often act as a motivation factor, these market changes include, currency value, political situations and also the economic wellbeing of a nation often goes a long way in influencing the decision of tourists. Social classes are formed as a result of the division that is undergone in the society on the basis of status and prestige. The level of education and one’s occupation are the determinants of social classes (Kozak, et al., 2018). Every social class is different from the other in terms of lifestyle, values, attitudes and perceptions (Cuculeski, et al., 2015). For example, many tourists’ destinations and among them ski resorts have a defined social class orientation. Cultural factors have major impacts on the consumer behavior. Cultural factors have the ability to influence the behavior of consumers through the norms and values set by society, over time culture has been known to influence the kind of cloths people wear and the service and products they purchase. Tourism is a service and culture will heavily influence the tourism activity an individual chooses.

Learning &Socialization

Learning can be termed as one of the factors influencing consumer behavior, in the modern world learning helps one acquire a deeper knowledge and understanding of various destination and creates a further potential for human culture. For each individual learning has become much easier and as a result of the vast trends that are as a result of learning there are greater opportunities for tourism customers to gain more knowledge about their desired tourist destinations before they can make the actual visit (Cuculeski, et al., 2015). Socialization is defined as the process of interaction between new member of a society with the old members of the society. During socialization the new members of the society are forced to adapt to the habits, attitudes and norms of the people and embrace the knowledge of the existing members in order to be integrated into the social group of a wider community.  When tourist visit new destination they are the new members  that interact with the original member of the place to adapt their habits, belief, knowledge and norms in order to integrate with the society (Cuculeski, et al., 2015).Socialization plays an important role in influencing the behavior of consumers  in the sense that tourist will choose destinations where they are comfortable and can socialize with the people freely and a destination with people whose beliefs, attitudes and norms tune in with the beliefs, norms and attitudes of the tourists. 

Situational & Economic factors  

In addition to the social, physical and psychological factors affecting the consumer behavior in tourism there are situational factors that also largely affect the behavior of consumers.  The consumer behavior of tourists can also be influenced by the situation they find themselves in. The duration that is between the time a tourist makes a purchasing decision is very influential. For example, the tourists fail to pay much attention to the details when the time to make the purchasing decision is short (Pawaskar, 2016).  The physical environment such as the weather, climate and the beauty of the scenery influences the decision of the consumer when choosing a tourist destination (Cuculeski, et al., 2015). Economic factors also influence the behavior of consumers in all industries. These economic factors include the income of the individual, the price of the tourism products and services and the inflation rate. 


Determinants are dived into two; those that determine if someone will be able to go on holiday and those that determine which type of vacation an individual will go on provided that the first set of determinants allow the individual to go on holiday (Pinky, 2016). These determinants can further be subdivided to those that are personal for the tourist and those that are external. The personal determinants include; the state of health, the amount of disposable income, leisure time available, the family and work commitment, the amount of knowledge on has about the tourism product and the availability of other alterative tourism products (Fratu, 2011). These determinants differ in various tourists depending on the time and as a result different individual view certain determinant more important compared to others based on their attitudes, personalities and previous experiences (Moutinho, et al., 2011). The external determinants are political factors, immigrant restrictions, visa requirements, taxation policies affecting tourists, terrorism and civil disorder (Alexandra, 2013). The behavior of tourists is driven by the personal and external determinants and the influence of personality and lifestyle of the tourist.  These determinants facilitate the transformation of motivations and desires into reality.

Tourists also have a tendency of travelling in groups, groups of families and of friends, the determinants of this kind of travelling are complex based on the type of group. While each individual has their own determinant the determinants of the whole group many differ depending on the on the most dominant factors. To satisfy the needs of a group it is important to satisfy the needs of each member of the group which could prove to be quite difficult (Alexandra, 2013). To satisfy the needs of a group the final decision is made by taking into account considerations of the majority of the group.

Leisure Constraints & Negotiation Strategies

Leisure constraints act as the negative determinants that deter a consumer from taking a vacation. Leisure constraints are divided into three intrapersonal, interpersonal and structural. Intrapersonal constrains are made up of the individuals psychological state, the attributes that affect one’s preferences and the attributed leading to the individual’s non-participation. Example of these attributes are; lack of interest, stress, religion and anxiety. Interpersonal leisure constraints occur because if the unavailability of other people to participate with in the leisure activities or as a result of other people not being able to understand one’s leisure preferences (Crawford, et al., 1991). Structural constraints occur by intervening factors between leisure preferences and participation, these factors are lack of time, money, information and access and the lack of opportunity.

 Negotiation strategies can be used to overcome leisure constraints. Having to understand the constraints of traveling is critical to tourism marketers and travel agencies. To overcome intrapersonal leisure constraints the negotiation strategy of changing people’s psychological barriers such as creating and arousing interest in perspective tourist is more suitable and preferred.  For interpersonal it is important that marketers and travel agencies develop package tours for singles, provide information to the consumers about the availability of a variety of holiday opportunities that appeal to different prospective tourists’ friends and families. To overcome structural leisure constraints, it is important to explain the accessibility of a place beforehand. The negotiation strategy of offering short packages and offering cheap trips is also helpful in overcoming structural leisure constraints (Crawford, et al., 1991). Negotiation strategies play an important role in overcoming constraints that deter tourists from taking vacations.


In conclusion, the study of consumer behavior in tourism is a complex and vital process for the industry.  It is important to be aware of all factors that influence the behavior of consumers in the tourism industry. This behavior can be influenced by various factors that can be classified as physical, psychological, social and situational factors, these factors can either be motivators or determinants. There are internal and external motivators and personal and external determinants. Motivations, lifestyle, perception, beliefs, attitudes, determinants and culture play an important role in influencing the decision of tourists.  There are also leisure constraints that act as negative determinants that deter consumers from taking vacations. However, there are negotiation strategies that help in overcoming these barriers.  According to the research presented above culture immensely influences the decision of tourists, the culture of the individual influences the beliefs, attitude and even how one perceive things. Economic factors also play a vital part in influencing consumer behavior since consumers make decisions on how much to spend depending on how much they earn.  It is only by understanding the many factors that influence consumer behavior that one can identify an individual need.


















Alexandra V., (2013). "Consumer Behavior In Tourism And The Influencing Factors Of The       Decision Making Process," Revista Economica, Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Faculty   of Economic Sciences, vol. 65(2), pages 186-198.

Alvarez, M. D. (n.d) Consumer behavior in travel and tourism.

Bhattacharya, S., & Kumar, R. V. (2017). A RIDIT approach to evaluate factors influencing tourist             destination brand selection behaviour pertaining to Indian tourism sector. Journal of          Modelling in Management, 12(4), 583-602.

Cohen, S. A., Prayag, G., & Moital, M. (2014). Consumer behaviour in tourism: Concepts,           influences and opportunities. Current issues in Tourism, 17(10), 872-909.

Crawford, D.W., Jackson, E.L. & Godbey, G. (1991) A hierarchical model of leisure constraints.             Leisure Sciences, 13, p.309-320.

Cuculeski, N., Cuculeski, V., & Taskov, N. (2015). The influence of the factors of consumer        behavior in tourism. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing.

Fratu, D. (2011). Factors of influence and changes in the tourism consumer behaviour. Bulletin of           the Transilvania University of Brasov. Economic Sciences. Series V, 4(1), 119.

Horner, S., & Swarbrooke, J. (2016). Consumer behaviour in tourism. Abingdon: Routledge.

In Kozak, M., & In Kozak, N. (2018). Tourist behavior: An experiential perspective.

Juvan, E., Gomezeli Omerzel, D., & Uran Maravic, M. (2017, May). Tourist behaviour: An         overview of models to date. In Management International Conference (pp. 24-27).

Kasapi, I., & Koc, M. (2012). Changing Tourism Consumer Behavior: The Impacts on Tourism   Demand in Albania. Creative and Knowledge Society, 2(2), 16-34.

Moutinho, L., Ballantyne, R., & Rate, S. (2011). Consumer behaviour in tourism. Strategic          management in tourism, 2(2), p83-126.

Pawaskar, P. (2016). Consumer Behavior Analysis in Tourism Opportunities and Challenges for Goa.

Pinky, P. (2016). Consumer Behavior Analysis in Tourism: Opportunities and Challenges for Goa             (Doctoral dissertation, BITS Pilani).

Swarbrooke, J., & Horner, S. (2007). Consumer behaviour in tourism. Routledge.

Tichindelean, M., & Stanciu, O., (2010). CONSUMER BEHAVIOR IN THE DIFFERENT         SECTORS OF TOURISM. Studies in Business and Economics. 5. 277-285.

2782 Words  10 Pages


                        In the process of embarking with your journey, it is important to consider checking for travel advisors. The reason for that is because safety ought to be your priority during the journey. Due to that fact that that will be your foreign country, it is vital to ensure that you have been informed about the risks involved during the journey. Take the opportunity of checking out the United States’ Government travel site and learn more about the travel information provided.  Likewise, it is recommended to consider signing up for the Safe Travel Program so that it will be easier for the U.S embassy to contact you just in case an emergency arises. In addition to that, other than a passport, it is important to understand the fact that each country has its own entry requirements. Since those requirements might be different, it is advisable to look for them in the United States Government travel site so as to ascertain that you meet them.

            Traveling to another foreign country can be something intimidating for a large percentage of seasoned travelers. As a result of that, it important to consider grasping the language used by the local natives, depending on the area you will be visiting. During your adventure, it is not obvious that you could have mastered the language used by the locals of the country to visit. The truth is that there exist a lot of local languages hence one of the most important things to do is concentrating on studying them. This is to imply that it is important to ensure that you have learned some few words before traveling. Such few words will ultimately make you socialize the locals smoothly.

            Before leaving, take the opportunity of informing your bank as well as other credit card companies about the date and the place you are travelling to. The reason for that is because there is the possibility of your card being locked down once they realize that it is being used in a foreign country. The intention here is to ensure that they have minimized issues related to fraud. Take your time to inquire from your credit card companies about oversea transaction surcharge. Since each country has different oversea transaction surcharge, it is important to consider shopping ahead of time.

                        Additionally, it is important to check whether all your electronics are functioning before leaving your motherland. It is important to ensure that you have consulted your cell phone provider so as to avoid getting stuck because of high fees or roaming charges. On arrival, consider purchasing a new SIM card. You can have the opportunity of purchasing them on train stations, kiosks, cell phone stores, and airports for a nominal fee. Conversely, since different states have different voltage requirements, it is advisable to consider checking to ascertain that you have all that you need for your electronics. You can decide to purchase them earlier on so as to avoid encountering difficulties while looking for them in the foreign country. Likewise, consider carrying only those electronics that are important so as to avoid carrying unnecessary luggage that can hinder your travel time.

            Since traveling to a foreign country for the fast time is tricky, it is vital to consider buying tickets for all the places you desire to visit earlier on. The reason for that is because purchasing for them in advance will ensure that you have not wasted a lot of time on lines. It is also easy to find other deals that are targeted towards you. In addition to that, consider having guidebooks, including phrases or keywords, maps, and so on. These facilities are important because they provide detailed information regarding the area to visit.  It is also important to download travel applications like Goggle Maps. Consider also booking in advance the hotel to stay to avoid inconveniences at the rush hour.

            Another point of consideration is the need of ensuring that you have followed the local laws and customs. This will have to take into account the need of dressing modestly while in places like synagogues, mosques, or churches. In order to enjoy your stay, it is advisable to keep in mind the need of respecting the values and culture of the natives. In case you are not familiar with it, take your time and inquire from the locals or your travel advisors.

            To make your stay to be enjoyable, it is important to ensure that you have researched for important events going on while you are there. The reason as to why this important paramount is the fact that it will ensure that you have not missed the majority of the best events, for instance, natural events, ceremonies, festivals, and so on. During your stay in the host country, there is the need of ensuring that you have checked for local dishes to try. It will be a shame to leave the country without having experienced their local meals. Of course, this will be a personal decision to make because people have different choices and preferences as far as diet is concerned. It is also important to consider purchasing food translation card in case you have food allergies. To do so, it means that it will be easier for you to ensure that you have not made any mistake or mistakes while dining.

            Nonetheless, despite the fact that your travel schedule might be tight, flexible, or not, it is important to consider checking out the daily weather of the places you will be visiting. In case your travel date becomes flexible, it is important to plan for tours around most favorable weather times. You can depend on websites such as Weather Base and other weather forecasting platforms to assist in planning for your tours.  The significance of that is that they provide detailed information about the daily weather at a glance.

            As much as luggage and light packing is concerned, it is important to keep in mind the fact that each airline has its own set of guidelines concerning the number of bags to be carried on. Take the opportunity to learn about the rules and guidelines of the airline you will be using to avoid any incremental charges. In case you will be forced to connect during the trip, consider understanding the luggage fees or rules for the other airlines, particularly for low-cost or regional carriers. 

            To sum up, it is important to ensure that you have grasped something about the place or places you will be visiting because it will give you an opportunity of understanding what is offensive of acceptable in the host country. Take your time to benefit from the diversities of the host country. The reason as to why people travel entails the need of encountering a new way of life, therefore embrace it. The new experiences you will encounter outside the United States are part of the joy of traveling.



1151 Words  4 Pages

 Sustainable tourism

The blueprint provided by World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) for new tourism offers a strategic approach which strives to ensure that travel and tourism will be beneficial in the future  to all stakeholders. In accordance with the new blueprint, tourism and travel will focus on how it can benefit the tourists as well as the locals and the communities frequented by tourists both in the short term and the long term as well (WTC, 2018). To achieve these long term benefits for all stakeholders, the framework for the blueprint takes into consideration the impact that tourism and travel activities has on natural resources, the local people and also the social and cultural environment of the regions frequented by tourists. By regulating how tourists interact with the locals and the community they travel to, the blueprint will be able to draw attention to issues that may affect the sustainability of the tourist attraction sites (WTTC, 2018). Since both tourists and locals enjoy the benefits of tourism and travel, the approach is expected to create an environment where tourism and travel activities are not only enjoyed in the short term, but over a long period of time.

One of the strategic priorities included in the blueprint is the need for the government to recognize the tourism and travel sector as a major sector and prioritize approaches made towards its improvement. The tourism and travel industry is a major boost to a country’s economy, not to mention the employment opportunities it creates (Blanke, 2008). As such, boosting tourism and travel in a country is likely to promote economic growth and the government should therefore focus on maintaining its sustainability.  Another strategic priority is finding a balance between the business side of tourism and travel and the impact its operations have on locals, their culture and the environment in which the activities take place (Grimaldi, 2019). Rather than focusing on just the business end, the sustainability of tourism and travel relies on good relationships between the tourists and the locals and maintain good relationships is likely to benefit all parties involved. Lastly, the blueprint calls on all stakeholder to develop a shared quest for long term growth of the industry as a way of sustaining its prosperity. If tourists, locals, the government and other relevant authorities work together to  enhance the sustainability of tourism and travel, their joint effort will gather enough support and create awareness on the importance of properly maintaining tourist destination sites.

In 2018, the tourism and travel industry was responsible for creating 319 job opportunities on a global scale and it generated 8.8 trillion dollars through tourism related activities (WTTC, 2017). At present, the industry is responsible for one out of every five jobs created across the world. If the same trend continues, WTTC has predicted that tourism and travel could create over 100 million new jobs across the globe in the next 10 years to reach 421 million jobs by the year 2029 (WTTC, 2017). Among the countries expected to benefit the most from tourism in future include Asia, Africa and the Middle East. This is especially because they have the infrastructure, resources and tourist destination sites that will increase traffic to the region (WTTC, 2017). In the case of Asia, the strong economy and wealth of countries like China will help fund sustainability efforts as well as promote local tourism. Africa on the other hand has various tourist attraction sites that will attract tourists from different parts of the world.







Blanke J, (2008) “The travel and tourism competitiveness report 2008: Balancing economic         development and environmental sustainability” Geneva, Switzerland

Grimaldi E, (2019) “Travel and tourism continues strong growth above global GDP” retrieved     from,

Word Travel and Tourism Council, (2017) “Travel and tourism economic impact 2017” retrieved            from,

World Travel and Tourism Council, (2018) “Travel and Tourism: Global economic impact and    issues 2018” retrieved from,


659 Words  2 Pages

Business Convention Analysis

This report will provide an analysis of Visit Florida Corporation’s strategic plan. Visit Florida is the official tourism marketing corporation that mainly serves as the state’s travel planning sources for tourists globally. The company is as a result of collaboration amid private and public association that is not profit based but seeks to establish Florida as the leading tourism destination in America and globally. The main aim of Florida Visit is to institute Florida as the leading travel location in the world through the use of effective marketing strategies that best fit the interests. In order for this objective to be met fully, a number of goals are to be achieved fully. To begin with, one of the leading goals of the company is to increase and sustain Florida’s travel and tourism market share in the globe (Visit Florida, 2018). The second objectives are maximizing the financial and economic gains in relation to travel and tourism in Florida. On the other hand, the third goal is to become a hundred billion tourism industry by 2020 while enhancing innovativeness (Visit Florida, 2018). This report will support the above-mentioned objectives with a portfolio management strategy and a Strategic Meetings Management Program (SMMP) by demonstrating the potential of each.

Strategic meetings management programs (SMMP) have acquired rapid popularity and support in the corporate world in the recent years as an essential strategy process. This approach is mainly adopted in the quest of increasing the output of organizational meetings while lowering expenses (Morrison, 2013). The approach also has the responsibility of ensuring that meetings that are held on daily basis result in the highest benefits regardless of the effort needed and the expenses. The portfolio management strategy is grounded on minimizing the involved operating threats while increasing gains for the company. Visit Florida as a marketing corporation mainly spends a lot of meetings that are aimed at creating a strategic positioning for the corporation. However by creating efficiency and ensuring that there is smooth operations flow uniformly in the corporation then fewer risks in relation to management and cost are generated.

With respect to the objective of being the travel and tourism leading destination in the world to be achieved by Visit Florida, it is best that the corporation maintains its consistent innovation approach in support of portfolio management approach. Visit Florida remains one of the most preferred corporation in regard to tourism marketing in the United States and beyond. The company has built a desirable brand that is not only popular but well recognized in the global setting. The company has emerged successful despite the increasing handles in the contemporary society that have thus been created by the ever-changing market trends, consumer needs, and technology. Most tourists prefer the services offered by the company based on its adherence to quality and the fact that it consistently strives to create consumer satisfaction as its leading approach to mitigating the involved risks. It cannot be ignored that with the increasing competition it is hard for the company to sustain its position and it is thus needed to innovate constantly as well as focus on expanding its operation reach as a way of expanding its market. This is because there is a greater share that the company has not yet exploited that has the capability of offering the company a more improved and guaranteed venture.

SMMP is not only focused on creating efficiency but guaranteeing effective communication. In order for Florida to become the leading destination in regards to tourism globally, there is a need to expand constantly. The company has already created an accepted brand and should, therefore, utilize it as its marketing and strategic advantage in all its operations. In that, with the support that it has and the positive image, the corporation has the ability to expand its services beyond the American setting in order to increase Florida’s economic share in the market while strategically offering competition for all other companies. In addition, the corporation should also begin to offer more customized services such as advisory services to the tour companies as well as seeking to offer more differentiated services to the consumers. The tourism industry is one that is subjected to seasonality as tourists tend to travel during holidays thus creating the necessity of creating diversified services that seeks to guard and strengthen the economic earning of Florida (Morrison, 2013).

Visit Florida mainly relies on the notion of achieving marketing operations efficiency due to the fact that all its operations are marketing based. The company can focus on offering more training skills to its staffs in order for effective marketing to be conducted which will, in turn, result in higher economic gain for Florida and a larger share in the tourism market when equated to that of its competitors. In this context, there is a need to integrate the company’s culture with its strategic plan and objectives. In that, the employees should be made to understand the essence of the corporation’s culture towards its strategic success and wellness of the company. This will help in creating a sense of belonging to the staffs and keep them motivated towards achieving the set goals. Having motivated staffs will ultimately result in higher productivity which means that the marketing will attain higher market share by establishing Florida as the preferred location. This approach will ensure that the staffs are closer to achieving the stated objectives in general particularly by ensuring that Florida becomes the leading tour destination globally while reducing its operating expenses and increasing its economic gains and market share.

Visit Florida is also striving to become a hundred billion tourism industry by 2020 while enhancing innovativeness. The portfolio management approach that the company will utilize on the ground of its brand image is grounded on the creation of a desirable image that is based on innovativeness. The company believes that innovation is generated by challenging the existing status by developing some of the existing ideas and encourages the development of cultures that encourage staffs to be creative. The company can, therefore, depend on information technology systems such as creating social media platforms and mobile applications for easier communication with customers on the online platform. This is one of the most effective means through which customer experience can be enhanced while reducing the operating expenses and time (Davidson & Rogers, 2012). In addition payment means can be innovative that permits support through mobile payment and systems pays. This approach will not only enhance its innovation abilities but increase Florida’s Economic gains by 2020.

In conclusion, the above analysis offers a discussion of Visit Florida’s strategic plan that seeks to ensure that the company becomes the leading tourism marketing company, based on its innovation, improved consumer experience and differentiated servicing as part of portfolio management approaches. All the objectives best support the implementation of is to become a hundred billion tourism industry by 2020 while enhancing innovativeness.











Alastair M. Morrison. (2013). Marketing and Managing Tourism Destinations. Routledge, Print.

Davidson, R. & Rogers, T. (2012). Marketing Destinations and Venues for Conferences, Conventions and Business Events. Routledge, Print.

Visit Florida. (2018). Strategic Plan Retrieved from

Visit Florida. (2018). Visit Florida Strategic Plan. Retrieved from


1207 Words  4 Pages

Hanauma Bay State Park

Hanauma Bay is a naval embayment which is formed inside a tuff ring, located in the southeast coast O’ahu Island which in the neighbourhood of Hawaii Kai. The island lies in East Honolulu in the Islands of Hawaii. The bay was historically known to be the best fishing spot for Hawaiian royalty ali’i. The bay was also used by King Kamehameha V, who used it often for fishing purposes (Scott & Schrichte, 2013). The Queen, would also visit the site for a whole month from time to time, and she was entertained by Hula dancers, and sports and games which took place there. Legends were also told about the bay, whereby they were used to mould the culture of the people of Hawaii. For instance there was a story which was told about a girl known as Keohinani who asked the gods to turn her into a mountain in order for peace to prevail, after two men were asked to fight, whereby the winner would marry her (Dreese, 2010).

The state of Hawaii has really gained from the bay, since it has helped in the economic growth of the state. The admission fees is $5, whereas the parking and concession fees are not included. The revenues collected over the years from the bay have increased, and the bay accumulates up to $3,000,000 each and every year (Scott & Schrichte, 2013). This has really improved the economy of the state, since it’s one of the income earning sites in the state. The bay also provides employment opportunities to most people, thus making the economy of the state to grow, due to the high living standards of people living within that area. In addition, due to the huge numbers of people visiting the area, the social status of people have improved, since most people can now be able to engage with visitors from different areas. Moreover, people who visit the area from other parts of the country influence the people of Hawaii, making them to adapt to new living standards (Dreese, 2010). Hanauma bay is a tourist destination, thus it receives people from different parts of the country and the world in general. It is estimated that about 3,000,000 people visit the bay each year. This consequently leads to the absorption of new culture due to the interaction between the Hawaiians and the tourists.




 This site is very beautiful, since it is a beach which is surrounded by hills. This area provides a beautiful natural scenery, which can be good for vacations. The area should be preserved in order to allow people to be able to enjoy the beautiful scenery, and to also see the variety of fish breeding areas in the ocean (Scott & Schrichte, 2013). I thought of the Hanauma bay as a boring place, prior to visiting the place. After visiting the bay, I understood the beauty of nature. Moreover, I also understood how people can be able to enjoy staying in such an area since it provides a conducive climate for one to be able to relax his or her mind. According to my point of view, this is the most beautiful place in the world, since this is not an ordinary place and one cannot be able to see such a beautiful place without visiting the Hanauma bay (Dreese, 2010). Visiting the Hanauma bay is very important as it allows one to refresh his or her mind and to also enjoy interacting with people from different areas.


Scott, S., & Schrichte, D. R. (2013). Exploring Hanauma Bay.

Dreese, D. N. (2010). America's natural places. Santa Barbara, Calif: Greenwood Press/ABC-CLIO.

611 Words  2 Pages

Page 1 of 2

Get in Touch

If you have any questions or suggestions, please feel free to inform us and we will gladly take care of it.

Email us at Discounts

Busy loading action
  Working. Please Wait...