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Paper Instructions:

Final essays will require you to respond to a broad-based question about public administration. In essence, you will be asked to demonstrate critical thinking about controversial issues in public administration and take a position on which course of action would be the best approach for public administrators. You should format your essays as you would a formal paper, following the guidelines set forth for papers in this course (see Rubric).  The paper should be a minimum of 2-3 pages in length, title page, and reference page.  A minimum of 5 scholarly sources.

Final Essay question:  How is public administration different from private management? What are the implications of these differences for the public administrator in the areas of: a. Decision Making, b. Human resource management. Accountability?

137 Words  1 Pages


Public Sector Unionism



Public-sector unionism is a sector that works towards the needs of public employees. Public unions offer collective bargaining as a platform where negotiations between the employer, employee and union representative take place. The unions come up with contracts for the employee including the rules and regulations that have been agreed upon. This allows employees to air out their opinions and discuss their wages and their working conditions. Unions give job security and benefits to the employees and promote equality in the workplace. Public unions influence the public opinion whereby candidates who are supported by a certain union are voted in so that they can increase job opportunities. As part of Gross State Product unionization positively impacts the government expenses on public wellbeing and education. Public-sector unions have many advantages but also has its disadvantages too. Advantages include job security and benefits, increased wages, and the right of an employee to negotiate their working conditions among others. Disadvantages of unions include a contribution towards the union so that it can be successful, individual opinions do not count since decisions are made collectively and sometimes the contract may not include some of the important issues in the workplace. Public-sector unionism should be allowed because it works for the good of the employees and mostly covers the needs and interests of the workers.







Public-sector unionism is a union that represents the needs of people working in the public sector or government organizations. The public sector is the section of the economy that comprises of the public services and enterprises. These include public goods and government services. The unions represent workers at every level of the government and influence the workers positively by taking care of their interests and allowing them to negotiate their working conditions.

Hagedorn, Paras, Greenwich, and Hagopian (2016), state that public-sector unions are the major influencers of government policies. In particular, they are influential to the states that allow unionization through collective bargaining. Collective bargaining is a process of negotiations between employees and their employers. The employee’s interests are normally presented by a representative of the union that the employee belongs to. The negotiations are normally aimed at agreements that regulate working conditions, salaries, and all the other rights of the employees.

The density of a union is influenced by the extent of collective bargaining. It is higher when employers are given the duty to discuss and come to an understanding with the labor unions. According to Norcross (2011), collective bargaining policies vary in how tolerant or restricting they are. There is a very big relationship in the density of a union and how the public sector bargaining policies have been set. In places where collective bargaining is not allowed, the highest percentage of the workers are not unionized. When the agency shop is permitted, the number of unionized workers increases.

According to Hagedorn et al. (2016), unions help in making the employees working conditions better in different ways promoting them individually, their families and their well-being. Reduced labor unions leave workers at risk in terms of reduced healthcare and safety standards. The value of unions has been established whereby it has helped to advocate for economic equality in the workplace. The lack of unions has shown the highest level of inequality in the nation. For employees, the salary they get determines their lifestyle, health and their well-being and that of their family members. An employee’s salary is higher in union jobs compared to salaries in non-union jobs. Pension plans develop stability of finances especially during retirement and in the old age. Union employees mostly have retirement and pension plan funded by the company they are working for contrary to workers that are not unionized.

Hagedorn et al., (2016) state that unions work towards developing safe and healthy workplaces. Unions help their members to have control, over how they work and the security of their jobs. This leads to a good working environment strengthening their physical and psychological health. Union contracts are used to legally bind employee’s terms and conditions for the job over a specific period. They are long-lasting and cannot be easily changed unless there is a needful reason that arouses negotiations. Contracts help to improve the working conditions and employees according to rules and regulations stated.

According to Norcross (2011), public employees are more likely to be members of a union compared to workers from the private industries. Unions help to improve the employee’s pay, their benefits the working conditions. Public-sector unions have an effect on the government’s financial policies by influence through the collective bargaining process. It also affects political projects by supporting candidates who are likely to support the union’s plans. The impact of these proposals raising payments, employment and how it is used depends on the collective bargaining policies and the political activity of the unions. Collective bargaining policies that are favorable, generate high wages. Lack of collective bargain contracts leads to low employment in some departments. This is because such departments that lack agreements pay high wages to avoid unionization.

Norcross (2011), expounds that public-sector unions work as a monopoly benefactor of labor within an official domain. Employers of the public sector are likely to influence their employees politically mostly for those who want to enlarge their constituencies by increasing employment. In the public sector, through employer negotiations, unions can increase their payments. The unions can grow their labor demand through political and regulatory processes hence increasing employment and payments. The public sector unions thrive more because when the public sector increases its employment rate the other private businesses go out of business but the government does not. The government’s stability makes it easier for new employees to be unionized in the public sector.

Public employee union is influenced by political activity which is a form of a legislative act developed to grow the demands of union labor. According to Narcross (2011), public sector workers can vote for their employers and are motivated to support leaders who will probably increase their wages and employment opportunities. Unions can influence public opinion in regards to campaigning for candidates and using union funds and hence the demands for public services through advertising for the benefit of their members. A union that has many members increases its political impact. Public-sector unions have an impact on the distribution of public goods. Unionization positively impacts the government expenses on public wellbeing and education as a part of the Gross State Product.

According to Bivens et al., (2017), unions help people to come together and work towards improving the standards and working conditions at their place of work. It is a human right for workers to join a union and negotiate with their employers about their working policies. These negotiations include increased wages, better healthcare, reasonable working hours and safe working environments. Unions also help to solve issues and settle disagreements that the workers and the employees are unable to solve individually. When collective bargaining is agreed upon, the union representative’s work towards making sure the rights of the employees in the agreement are followed accordingly. It gives the employee a voice in terms of their employment, wages and working hours among others. They also have the certainty of knowing that there is a procedure to be followed in case they want to air out any working problems.

Almost half of the employees covered by union contracts are public sector workers. Laws developed by the state control state and local government workers unions. Bivens et al., (2017) explain that each state has its laws governing collective bargaining. Some of the states give full rights to collective bargaining, in some states it is prohibited and in others, some activities are limited. Public Sector unions represent all workers from every level of education. Industries that are highly represented by public unions include health care, education, public administration, transportation, construction and information that includes broadcasting, publishing, and other communication services.

Bivens et al., (2017) state that union representatives are not company owners to be able to have a voice and be fair in the policy and strategy debates. The important laws that unions work towards strengthening include, child labor laws, social security, and unemployment insurance. They also strengthen safety and health laws and ones that offer compensation to employees who get hurt while working. There is a decrease in inequality when unions are involved and work towards low and middle-wage employees being able to acquire a fair share of economic growth. Wages for women have been raised by the help of unions. Unions have also helped to reduce the racial wage gaps by being transparent and coming up with better agreements in terms of promotions and pay rise. They have assisted employees who have been discriminated against because of their race or gender to achieve equality.

According to Walter (2019), labor-management partnerships with public unions are important because they ensure that public sector training programs serve the interests of the workers and are of high quality. These training programs are used to increase the diversity of the public sector workers and ensure that the government is ready to work with diverse populations and provide employment. This is mostly for those people who encounter different barriers in finding employment. These programs enable the employer to recruit and keep skilled workers, improving the quality of work.

They increase productivity and enhance employee relationships. Low-quality training is provided when public sector employers do not partner with unions to offer training.

For unionized workers, labor-management partnerships help in the expansion of employment opportunities. Walter (2019), states that they enable their employees to advance their carriers leading to higher pay. Unions help workers to be able to access training during their paid work hours and make sure that managers make their participation in training a priority. When unions link people with good jobs and allow them to advance their careers, workers will likely maintain their membership and other workers are likely to join the union.

The advantage of unions is that they have the power to discuss higher payment, good working conditions, and other benefits. According to Weinlink (2015), union workers are given the certainty of safety and fair treatment in the workplace. The disadvantage of the high wages discussed is that sometimes they are unreasonably too high such that a company has to increase the price of goods or services offered to be able to maintain the employee wages. This can lead to a decrease in the number of new employees hired leading to reduced workers to manage the workload. This sometimes is a cause of overworking for the employees.

Weinlink (2015) explains that in terms of job protection and security, the union and not the employer has the authority to decide how an employee should be disciplined and this includes terminating them too. The disadvantage of this is that it makes it difficult even for the employer to discipline, promote or even terminate their workers. Unions can decide whom they accept in a company and his aspect leads to associates and friends getting job opportunities that they do not qualify for. In many unions, being a member is less about the skills one has but rather more about interactions.

 According to Weinlink (2015), in terms of balancing power, workers are given power by the union through a collective opinion. To maintain efficiency in the workplace, employers have to negotiate with the union. The disadvantage is that the pressure between the employer and the employees which is a result of labor unions is often unfavorable. It makes the workplace environment hostile rather than a place where there should be cooperation and harmony. Unionized workers are likely to follow a rule in regards to striking and this leads to loss of wages for the employee and profit loss for the organization.

“Advantages and Disadvantages of Labor Unions for Employees”, (2019) helps to expound on the pros and cons of public sector unionism. The pros include better access to pension or retirement benefits for the unionized employees and pay very little for these benefits compared to employees that are not union members. Employees who are members of unions have more power in the workplace because they act as a group and not as individuals. When they speak in a unanimous voice, the employers have no choice rather than to find a way to meet their needs. Written contracts are written by the labor unions and act as references when something erupts in the workplace and with this, everyone knows the outcome of every situation. The collective bargaining agreements are normally short term agreements. In a union environment, there are many opportunities for making changes and this means more opportunities to negotiate about the working terms and conditions. The collective bargaining agreements develop a procedure in which every party knows how to air their grievances which makes it easier for workers to handle conflicts that come up in the workplace.

“Advantages and Disadvantages of Labor Unions for Employees”, (2019) expounds on the cons of public sector unionism which are, employees have to contribute towards the union for it to be successful. The contributions normally depend on the employee’s salary and the union may require a certain percent royalty from each paycheck. Despite the union offering protection for employees, there is a lack of self-direction. This is so because when the majority of the workers agree on something and some do not agree, the lesser opinions are not considered. The collective bargaining document does not permit immediate termination and this can be a challenge to fire disorderly employees. Unions can overlook the educational and working experiences of an employee and do away with someone who has a master over one with ten years’ experience. This can cause a company not to grow because of a lack of innovation.


Public-sector unionism represents a big part when it comes to employees. The unionism offers agreements that favor the employees and enable them to have good working conditions. Unions act on the rights of employees and make sure each one of them is followed. The collective bargaining offered by unions gives the employee the right to have a say in their working terms, their wages and their job security. Unions are a positive influence on workers and should be encouraged in every way possible



Bivens J., Engdahl L., Gould E., Kroeger T., McNicholus C., Mishel L., Mokhiber Z. … Zipperer B. (2017). How today’s unions help working people: Giving workers the power to improve their jobs and unrig the economy. Retrieved from / publication/how-todays-unions-help-working-people-giving-workers-the-power-to-improve-their-jobs-and-unrig-the-economy


Hagedorn, J., Paras, C. A., Greenwich, H., & Hagopian, A. (2016). The Role of Labor Unions in

Creating Working Conditions That Promote Public Health. American journal of public

health, 106(6), 989–995. S

Norcross E (2011). Public Sector Unionism: A Review. Retrieved from https://www.mercatus.

org/system/files / WP1126-Public-Sector-Unionism.

Walter K. (2019). Public Sector Training Partnerships Build Power: Retrieved from https://www.americanprogress. org/issues/economy/reports/2019/10/03/475355/public- sector-training-partnerships-build-power Weinlink J. (2015). Pros and Cons of Unions: Retrieved from /articles/ pros-and-cons-of-unions

16 Big Advantages and Disadvantages of Labor Unions for Employees (2019). Retrieved from




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Public management in Mexico



  Over the years public management has undergone many changes both in developed and developing countries. Mexico is a culturally and political rich country. So many changes that characterize its public sector have taken place. The economy of the country is shaped by the reigning government, which its operations are at a regional and central level but under one constitution that governs them. Housing and health which fall in the public sector have become more affordable, the countries trade agreement is vital to its economy. This essay seeks to explain the various changes that the public sector has undergone, the methods of budgeting used by the country, the strengths and weaknesses of the budgeting used in Mexico, look at how the NPM policies are being implemented in the country and the challenges this implementation is facing. Lastly, to make recommendations on the possible solutions that can help ease implementation of NPM in the country.

            The public sector of Mexico is shaped by its politics.  The economy of the country is shaped by the political regime. Unlike many countries in North America that are defined by plurality, in Mexico the state makes all the decisions.  The agreement signed by Mexico in conjunction with unites states and Canada is very important for the development of Mexico. This agreement will continue to make reforms in energy, financial, fiscal and the telecommunication sector which will help increase the economic growth of the country.  Housing in the affordable, despite the fact that the country has experienced poor housing in bigger cities such as Neza-Chalco-Itza. The healthcare of the country composes of good public and private hospitals that affords quality healthcare to the citizens. The public sector of a country reflects on the government policies of the country. health sector that is under the public sector was well catered for by the budgeting program in 2018 where 31 programs in the budget were allocated to it (Lakin, 2018).

The public sector of an economy defines its economy. Mexico is quickly becoming an emerging market despite the fact that it is smaller than its trading agreement partners.  The growth of the country’s public sector has slowed since 2016. When Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador was elected to a sixth term, he made promises to end corruption and violence and reduce poverty in the country. Sustainable development takes most part of the Mexican budget therefore they are guided by a result-based approach of budgeting where they focus more on the results. Its method of budgeting for results can be considered an elaborate system. This form of budgeting links allocation of finances to specific results such as the output and the services provided by the government. Program budgeting has not yet been used in Mexico; the last decade has seen a number of different budgeting ways being used in order to enhance the performance indicator of targets (Amadeo, n.d).

 As mentioned earlier budgeting program is not something that is new but something that has been in existence for the past ten decades.  Budgets programs were introducing in Mexico 1970s, and were revised in 1996 and in the 2000s the budgeting programs were reviewed and the number of indicators were reduced. In 2008 the state begun to carry out reforms in order to develop a modern performance budgeting system ready to take on a new program structure. The budgeting approaches. At first the budgeting program were first centered on the social sector and with time the approach soon spread to be adopted by the government (Lakin, 2018). Despite the continuous use in the country it has shown a weakness.

At a point some programs are a funding for other programs. For example, Seguro Popular funds other programs such as vaccination program and hospital program which means that the budget of these program fails to reflect on their actual cost. These suggests a problem when it comes to the design of the program. This weakness undermines the transparency that the program is supposed to achieve and the ability to use program tools to prioritize expenditure across objectives. Another weakness see in this budgeting approach is including Seguro Popular whole amount is not determined by the budget process but by the health law, this raise the question of whether it should be included in the budget with the others yet it is determined differently from the rest.  Also, its presence tends to create a perception that the small programs budgeted for are not important, therefore comparing these two different programs does not bring fairness and effectiveness of these results-based program. Lastly, the result-oriented budget does not include sub-programs in its structure thus making it give less emphasis on its framework and elaborations have continued to be sought as to why the budgeting does not allow sub programs (Lakin, 2018).

 In Mexico NPM was introduced due to lack of accountability, corruption, and the emergence of better and alternative forms of delivering services to the people (Abu, 2006). In many developing countries a New Public Management is typically used improve existing institution where bureaucracy is controlled by agencies or even institutes. However, Mexico is not a developing country therefore NPM is currently being used ad a top-down reform strategy in institutions where; rule of law, accountable systems, rule of law are ineffective. In Mexico this reform approach faces dangers such as; the process of changing the bureaucratic culture of the country is hard and should not be underestimated, and the country has depended on techniques over substance reform (Abu, 2006).  Looking at the political and institutional scene of the country, the outcome of implementing NPM ideas is symbolic rather than the actual change that will happen.

NPM policies in the country are of great help, Mexico is a country that is defined by corruption and the policies brought about by NPM are for promoting promotion and making bureaucracy more responsible using, these policies have been able to expose some of the weak pillars of the Mexican government (Cabrero, 2005).  The implementation of NPM policies will aid Mexico when it comes to developing both economically and politically. The fact that Mexico operates under a decentralized system of government is a challenge, at a local level the NPM policies have been able to be implemented easily since the population number is low. The fact that the local government is concerned with benefit their people then institution NPM policies is easy.  The fac that there is tension between the federal government and the local government implementation of NPM policies is likely to be a challenging process. Implementation of NPM would not only require understanding of these policies but a reconstruction of the country’s institution in place (Cabrero, 2005).

            The government of Mexico is institutionalized, it is recommendable for it to change its structure and be reconstructed again so as to facilitate changes in its management policies thus making them more effective to accommodate NPM.  In order to establish the root of the problem the challenges facing the implementation of NPM approach should be evaluated from the lowest level which is corruption, for a very long time Mexico has been characterized by corruption. Corruptions responsible for distorting all the plans to have an effective and transparent institution of governance. The leaders and leaders have to be taught to work without resulting to corrupt ways.  The abolishment of corruption in the country will also help to rise the level of economic development, when the country is more economically developed it is likely to face minimal challenges when implementing NPM.  It is recommendable that Mexico accepts that the politics of the country and the social economic dynamics influence the implementation of NPM policies (Abu, 2006). It can be noted that the only thing the implementation of this approach is change; change in the institutional structure of the country, and the social economic structure of the government need change.



Mexico’s economy is defined by the regime that is in power. Over the years so many changes have been undertaken in the public sector of this country. Housing and healthcare have been made affordable. The main method of budgeting in the country is results based budgeting that focuses on the results of the funds that were allocated to a certain program. Despite the use of this method it has its weaknesses such as the allocation of other programs under other programs which brings it out as a method that is not transparent and lack of sub programs. Mexico is a country whose government is divided at the regional and central, this poses the first challenge of trying to implement NPM, corruption in the country poses another problem when it comes to the implementation of this approach. This approach was introduced to Mexico due to lack of accountability and the wide spread corruption in the country. NPM policies in the country are a great benefit when it comes to promoting and making bureaucracy more responsible. These policies are responsible in exposing the weak pillars of the government of the country. There have been many more challenges that hinder the implementation of New Public Management. There are recommendations that can be made so as to facilitate the implementation of this approach. The first and fore most step is reconstruction the political structure of the nation and ending corruption which has always been in the way of social economic development.






Abu, S. (2006). New Public Management in Developing Countries: An Analysis of Success and    Failure with Particular references to Singapore and Bangladesh. Retrieved from;    loping_            countries_An_analysis_of_success_and_failure_with_particular_reference_to_Singapore            _and_Bangladesh

Amadeo, K. (n.d). Mexico’s Economy Facts, Opportunities and Challenges. Retrieved from;   

Cabrero, E. (2005). Between New Public Management and New public Governance: The Case of             Mexican Municipalities. Retrieved from;

Lakin, J. (2018). Program budgeting for health within Mexico’s result based budgeting    framework. Retrieved from;    content/uploads/case-study-health-budget-programs-in-mexico-ibp-2018.pdf



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  1. What is design thinking and how does it work in public agencies? What are some of the key challenges to address and key principles to follow in design thinking based innovation? What are some of the benefits of citizen involvement and how does it help in co-creation and co-production?

Design thinking uses essentials from the designer’s toolkit such as empathy and experimentation to arrive at innovative solutions (Bason, 2010). Through using design thinking, it is easier to make decisions centered on what imminent customers really want other than relying on historical information or making risky decisions. It is useful in making processes within the government more inclusive. Through designing thinking, public officials may therefore be equipped with a sequence of tools necessary for the exploration of the user perspective in their daily work. In addition, it infuses creativity within the decision-making process and also provides a constructive interface between the government and the citizens. While design is perceived more like creation of new things, today it is more often creation of services. Design thinking process includes knowing, analyzing, synthesizing, and creating. It is based on movement from abstract to concrete. Particularly, it is the movement from knowing to analyzing, and further to synthesizing and creating.

Design thinking principles are four credos. The first one is to see everything as an experiment. It is always not known for sure how a new policy will affect people and government. The second credo is to challenge a status quo. This means that there is a need to be ready for unknown future, which can be totally different from the present-day situation (Bason, 2010). The third one is to value the citizens. This means that the people’s wishes, and practical situations must be placed in the center of the creative process. The fourth and the last principle of innovation design is to be concrete. Designers can easily visualize the problem that needs to be solved or the situation that needs to be changed. For example, in seeing everything as an experiment, civil servants should take risks, and whenever they encounter obstacles, or when their plans are not effective, they should forge forward and not look back.   

The first challenge of innovators is to start considering themselves not only as civil servant, but as design thinkers. Another challenge of manager- designer is to shift from the more familiar role of being the solver of problems to be the one who empowers others to do solving (Bason, 2010). Finally, there is a need to remember that the wicked problems are not eventually solved. For instance, a manager who is very authoritative, is supposed to change the way he approaches the employees, through encouraging them to focus on the strategies, hence allowing them to feel at ease while working. On the other hand, innovators should perceive themselves as the main drivers of the public office, hence working hard in coming up with good results.   

Citizens and their practical needs are the first concern for government. Therefore, when designing innovation, there is a need to have needs and expectations of citizens at the center of a design process. It is important to learn experiences and feedback of citizens to improve the situation. People are a heart of social networks, and this makes them the most important (Bason, 2010). Private businesses may be especially helpful in designing the innovation because they have the influence in the society and are usually aware of what aspects of government administration need to be changed. In addition, public interventions help citizens to feel that their needs are addressed properly. Citizens can help decision makers to find suitable regulations, programs and interventions. When included to co-creation, citizens help public servants to explore urgent issues and find practical solutions for them.


Bason, C., 2010. Leading public sector innovation: Co-creating for a better society. 2nd ed. Bristol: Policy Press.

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*What are the various ways in which public agencies can measure their specific processes and each of the four bottom lines. Be sure to discuss each of these specific measurable concepts when you explain specific measures.

Measuring the public innovation processes is based on assessing the potential to innovate, learning from individual innovation processes, and measuring the value of innovation. In turn, assessing the potential to innovate addresses four Cs that show how we can strengthen the efforts of the organization and implement undertaken innovation. The innovation potential of organizations can be assessed by the four Cs: consciousness, capacity, co-creation, and courage. Consciousness is the ability to see the same concepts. Capacity is about the political and legal context of innovation. Co-creation is the ability to work with citizens and includes methods of such cooperation. Courage is the ability to lead innovation. Learning from the individual innovation processes helps to measure the innovation and improve it. This follows up for feedback on the quality of the process. Finally, measuring the value of innovation considers how to measure the four bottom lines of innovation discussed below.

The four bottom lines of public sector innovation are productivity, service experience, result, and democracy. Productivity of the innovation is difficult to measure. Most often it is measured as a case output per staff input. However, when the innovation is successful, productivity grows. For example, employing new techniques increases the productivity of organization operation. Therefore, it is relatively easy to register the rise of productivity after implementing the innovations in the process and equipment. The use of digital systems is a good example of the introduced innovation that made the workflow more effective. Service experience puts citizens in the center of the governmental organization work and measures the subjective experience of citizens in getting the service. Citizen satisfaction surveys are good at this point to measure public service satisfaction methods. Results are often the most obvious bottom line of the organization operation. Results are outcomes that organizations aim to achieve. These outcomes can be short-term and long-term. Finally, democracy is the main and the most important result of the innovation in the public sector. At this point, democracy is not a barrier for innovation, but rather its result. Democracy consists of different dimensions, such as equality, transparency, accountability and participation. Innovating these dimensions makes the innovations democracy innovations, which is beneficial for both the government and the citizens.

*How do these measurements help public agencies in innovation and change?

These measurements allow to track the innovation process in public agencies and assess it. It is easier to determine a performance of the organization having this information. While the road to effective innovation is learning the ways to improve existing practices and improving them, having the timely feedback is the same important. However, innovations are assessed by their outcomes, and the outcome is in fact the major cause of transforming the public organizations and the way it works. Moreover, these innovations help in tracking the company’s performance records, based on the effectiveness of new innovations within the company. In so doing, the business, or even a government can be easily able to move forward without any problems whatsoever.    


Bason, C., 2010. Leading public sector innovation: Co-creating for a better society. 2nd ed. Bristol: Policy Press.

550 Words  2 Pages

Liberty, Concepts, & Applications. Role of Public Administrators

Public administrators are mandated with the task of protecting the civil liberties of the innocent citizens under their rule. This consequently requires the public administrators to ensure the civil liberties of the citizens are guaranteed regardless of the challenges which they might be facing. Public administrators are therefore required to either use power, or the judiciary in order to deal with issues which might pose or put the civil rights of the citizens at stake (McKelvey, 2011). This is a constitutional requirement, whereby public administrators must make sure that they come up with the right mechanisms of combating any issue or person who might be putting the civil liberties of other people at risk.

In this case, this paper is going to base its reasoning on the murder of Anwar Al-Aulaqi, who was killed by the Obama administration. After the death of Al-Aulaqi in Yemen by the U.S soldiers, his father went ahead and petitioned against the murder of his son in the court of law (McKelvey, 2011). This is consequently a case which aimed at affecting the protection of civil liberties by the public administrator and in this case being the department of justice. It was clearly evident that the department of justice aimed at protecting the rights of its citizens through killing Al-Aulaqi who was allied to terrorists.

On the other hand, the law provides clear procedures in dealing with issues such as the one above. In this case, Al-Aulaqi was an American citizen living in Yemen, and killing him was similar to killing an American (McKelvey, 2011). However, the law provides that public administrators can use different ways in order to protect its citizens from any harm and this includes killing those suspected to be linked with terrorist activities. For instance, the court did not in any way hold Obama’s administration liable for the murder of Al-Aulaqi, but it explained how the civil rights of the majority is more important than that of an individual who might be putting the lives of other in danger.


McKelvey, B. (2011). Due process rights and the targeted killing of suspected terrorists: The unconstitutional scope of executive killing power. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 44(5), 1353–1384.


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            Organizational communication is a complex phenomenon which is used inside and outside the organization. It affects overall activities, it determines success, failure and future and it involve rules and instructions which are applied in all departments. Organization cannot move forward without effective communication and this means that it is vital since both external and internal groups understand the responsibility and objectives (Cohen, Eimicke & Heikkila, 2013). Eternal communication is essential as it plays an important role in creating collaborative cultural organizations, promoting organizational activities and corporate identity. Communication is important to both internal team and external audience as it ensures the groups are informed and engaged.  In addition, communicating with eternal groups such as stakeholders is important for the protection of public awareness and for the creation of strong relationship with regulatory network (Cohen, Eimicke & Heikkila, 2013).  Communication also strengthens public relation and collaborative partnership and builds a public image. In working in a networked structure, both public and nonprofit organization focus on creating public relations and through communication, organizations are able to portray the image based on company’s workplace and environmental efforts. External communication is important for public awareness and it also helps the organization to create its reputation (Cohen, Eimicke & Heikkila, 2013).  As a leader, I would communicate with external group through advertising.  This is an effective way of spreading the message about the organization’s products and services. Internet and social media are also effective since the organization is able to provide the organization’s overview.

 Johnson III & Borrego (2009) assert that U.S is an industrialized nation with an aging population and growing diversity which is due to demographic shifts. The article asserts that with this current trend, it is important to consider social equality and justice between dominant culture and minority cultures. In other words, it is important to develop a cultural competency in order to manage demographic changes and ensure quality services to clients (Johnson III & Borrego, 2009). As a leader, I would ensure culture competency through creating an accessible and a visible public services programming or in other words by ensuring translated program. This means that the target populations will again an awareness of services they are entitled to achieve. As a leader, I understand that the high level of demographic changes leads to an increase of opportunities in public sectors and innovations. Thus, as a public sector leader, culture competency will play a great role in developing inclusive work cultures (Northouse, 2013).  Cultural competency will also help me as a leader to develop a socially equitable organization which will serve the diverse populations. Due to culture difference, cultural competency will help employ knowledge and skills-based components which help serve the diverse population. However, culture competency is an area which requires effective approaches in order serve all cultures in an effective manner.  As a leader, it is my responsibility to develop cultural competency at a personal level.  The first approach is to develop culture awareness, gain adequate skills and knowledge on other cultures and developing cross-cultural skills (Northouse, 2013). To demonstrate culture competency, I would implement culture-awareness by evaluation values and assumptions and accepting personal bias and culture diversity.  In addition, I would learn about other cultures and interaction with cultures in cultural backgrounds. This is effectively done through interacting with community organizations, reading about other cultures and attending seminars. Finally, I value cross-cultural skills and  I would develops these skills through  cross-culture communication, creating collaborative models with  people from diverse backgrounds and  identifying  barrier which may hinder collaboration with diverse people (Northouse, 2013).



Johnson III, R. G., & Borrego, E. (2009). Public Administration and the Increased Need for Cultural

Competencies in the Twenty-First Century. Administrative Theory & Praxis (M.E. Sharpe), 31(2),

206-221. doi:10.2753/ATP1084-1806310204


Northouse, P. G. (2013). Leadership: Theory and practice. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.


Cohen, S., Eimicke, W. B., & Heikkila, T. (2013). The effective public manager: Achieving success in government organizations.

660 Words  2 Pages

Perpetual Crisis in Public Management

According to Cohen, Eimicke & Heikkila, (2013) U.S government has been incompetent in addressing issues which Americans have faced. Even though the government had a great confidence during the period of Great Depression and World War One, it lost the confidence or developed a ‘crisis of confidence’ in 20th century. The opinions polls represented this evidence through conducting a research and found that U.S citizens started to lose government trust in 1960s.  Other evidence of lack of trust developed in 9/11 crisis and in 2012,  only 38% U.S citizens  revealed trust on state-level government and 24% revealed trust on federal government (Cohen,  Eimicke & Heikkila,  2013).  Opinions from collective American consensus show that government programs and policies are not effective since they do not solve problems or create quality life but they bring more problems. The conservative views show that the community has lost trusts since the government has failed to create and implement public polices since 1930s after the Great Depression. Government is incompetent and has engaged in wasteful and corruption actions which have made the public to suffer from crime, homelessness, lack of public services and more (Cohen, Eimicke & Heikkila, 2013). Americans believe that private and religious institutions have played a big role in making a difference. However, the public challenges the government for failing to improve people’s life.  Even though the government tried to address crisis on World Trade Center and others, still there is a challenge since it did not bring changes as it was expected. The author argues that the government has development a crisis of confidence or in other words the government is able to improve public management (Cohen, Eimicke & Heikkila, 2013). 

            Government has a big role to play in order to meet the needs of the people. The authors assert that the government needs to improve its performance but in order to achieve this, it must implement institutional changes and policies so that managers can take new step and work effectively (Dunn & Miller, 2007).The most important thing is to prevent the reemergence of political patronages and create a competitive position for public procurement. In addition, the government contractors should be accountable by fulfilling the agreement and   act as agents in monitoring public views and ensuring effective functions of the government. Effective and honest management  should be  achieved through ensuring that  managers are accountable,  agencies are responsible and adheres to  hiring rules,  allow the  inspector general and whistleblowers to  monitor and report the corrupt officials (Dunn & Miller, 2007). On the same note, all governmental levels should adhere to the rules and ensure accountability.

  A second response from the government is that it should create training programs to public managers. The purpose of training is to create value, give the public managers an opportunity to explore personal and organizational approach of addressing crisis in public management. This method will create flexible public management. Note that in order to  ensure effective and  excellent public services,  public managers must  have  skills and knowledge such as analytical techniques, creative thinking and  have the skills to apply modern technology in addressing current and future issues. In addition, public managers need to have an adequate knowledge on social science and this will assist in thinking about the best polices and social interaction.  Generally, both private and public managers must learn these skills through training in order to run their organizations effectively.

            As a nonprofit/government organization leader, I might improve accountability and responsiveness by using these approaches. As a leader, I acknowledge that public participation in a community is important and the leader must show accountability, responsibility and present an authentic role in addressing the concern of the community (Bertelli, 2017). In addition, it is my role as a leader to develop the community. First, I might develop some approaches like creating a common agenda, a strong rapport between community members, administrative team and develop teamwork. In other words, this approach is a managerial model and a strategic planning which will help in creating a conductive operational environment. For example, I may focus on workforce planning, infrastructure management and training (Bertelli, 2017). Other approach which would assist in becoming accountable and responsible is legislative model.  I would take actions such as distributing resource, create community acceptance and develop operational guidelines. Third, I would use the approach of community participation model where I would focus on strengthening the citizen interaction and creating harmony between them and the administration. The crisis of confidence creates a gap between the government and the community and during this situation; it is my role as a leader to create a common agenda and strategic planning activities which will bring success (Christensen & Lægreid, 2015). Other point is that as a leader, I would take action by focusing on community empowerment model. This means that as a leader, I would create an empowerment process by developing extensive community participation. This is important as it will help create a community agenda, evaluate community issues and implement solutions toward the issues.  Finally, community engagement is important and this is done by creating multi-faceted project where community members are involved in developing community such as improving economic conditions (Christensen & Lægreid, 2015).




Cohen, S., Eimicke, W. B., & Heikkila, T. (2013). The effective public manager: Achieving success in

government organizations.


Dunn, W. N., & Miller, D. Y. (2007). A Critique of the New Public Management and the Neo-Weberian

State: Advancing a Critical Theory of Administrative Reform. Public Organization Review, 7(4),

345-358. doi:10.1007/s11115-007-0042-3


Bertelli, A. M. (2017). Who Are the Policy Workers, and What Are They Doing? Citizen’s Heuristics and

Democratic Accountability in Complex Governance. Public Performance & Management

Review, 40(2), 208-234. doi:10.1080/15309576.2016.1180306



Christensen, T., & Lægreid, P. (2015). Performance and Accountability-A Theoretical Discussion and an

Empirical Assessment. Public Organization Review, 15(2), 207-225. doi:10.1007/s11115-013-


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Public Relations

Public relations is one of the major functions of how organizations can be able to grow, through relating with its customers. The type of rules which therefore govern the management of the organization therefore fully depend on the thinking of the person setting the rules of the organization. This is consequently because, even though the person might be given the rules to follow while setting such rules, he or she will first and foremost do whatever he or she thinks is right regardless of whether it is according to the given guidelines or not (n.w, Chapter 10).

Public relations, fully relies on the following key aspects, morality, ethics, law, tradition and the opinion of the public. Therefore, in order for a company to be able to maintain a good view from the public, it therefore needs to conduct a research (Chapter 10). This therefore requires the management of the organization needs to conduct a research in order to understand whatever it is that they are actually lacking. Secondly, what the company wants to reach in order to be able to achieve its goals.

On the other hand, the company should plan on how it is going to achieve this. After planning on how the company will be able to achieve certain goals, it should go forward and implement the given plans ((n.w), Chapter 10). This will consequently enable the company to be able to actively work hard in order to be able to reach its goals. In addition, the company will also be able to come up with possible solutions to the challenges which it might be currently facing.

Finally, the organization needs to evaluate and come up with type of technique which it will require in order to attract more customers ((n.w), Chapter 10). This may therefore include the target number of people, how they will be able to get this number of customers, the approach which should be employed in order to enable the company to be easily able to get a positive view from the public.


Chapter 10. Standard Ethics and Values.

351 Words  1 Pages


SUBJECT: Public Relations Ideas

Public relations writing are basically about designing thoughts for a specific public and media. Public relations description and demands vary from a writer to the other by on the intentions social, economic as well as political forces.  Public  relation is best  described  as  the  science and art  of evaluating  trends,  making  implications predictions, counseling the  organization’s management and  the  application  of  designed  programs that serves  the company  and the  interest  of the public. The description shows the complexity of PR but its usefulness cannot be underrated.

According to Newsom & Haynes, (2011), from the description of public relations the central point is grounded on the evaluation, prediction and counseling as the main responsibilities of a professional writer.  The personnel  is  required  to  help the organization’s  management  in the  framing, adjustment  and  implementation of the  necessary  policies  that  best  interests  with the  public trends. PR  does not  merely  involve the  communication  of  the management’s perspective to the public rather  the  responsibility involves  the  communication  of the  views  of the  public to the  management.

PR is designed  to  identify the  public’s needs and  the institution’s objective  so that the PR programs  can be framed  alongside  the  needs  and  preferences  of the  public in consideration. The PR individuals evaluate the opinions and needs of the public thus creating effective modes to facilitate the flow of information.  With the  obtained  report , the  PR profession  offers  advice  to the  management  on the effective  practices that can yield  maximum benefits for both the organization  and the public.

In the direction of PR communication amid the both parties is the sole responsibility of the PR writer. The PR efforts  must be  directed to a selected group  that  is  associated  with  more  importance  in regard to the communication.  In reaching the public via PR distinct communication channels must be selected.

Discussion Questions

What is the role of a PR writer? Why is communication important in PR?

What are the primary roles of Public relations?







Newsom, D., & Haynes, J. (2011). Public relations writing: Form and style. Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

348 Words  1 Pages

Reflection paper

            Over the past years there have been fewer threats as compared to the current world that we are living in. thus the infrastructure that was there earlier on was basically defined in relation to the adequacy of the state’s public works. Since the 1990’s there has been an escalating growth in threat of the international terrorism (Moteff & Parfomak 2004). As a result there has been strategies such as the formulation of policies where the policy makers has been necessitated by the situation 0f these threats to reconsider the definition of the infrastructure in terms of the homeland security.             Critical infrastructure therefore ensures that all the systems as well as the assets either physical or virtual that are so vital to the security of the United States nation are protected. Any destruction, manipulation or incapacity of these systems and assets may result to a devastating impact on the security of the nation, the national economy, public health as well as safety or the combination of all of them. Therefore for these critical infrastructures to be implemented, a total characterization of the site must be first completed then a security risk assessment is undertaken. Thus the foundation of the risk assessment is offered by the completion of the facility characterization. Homeland security therefore ha a complex task of first ensuring that they carry out the characterization of the area where they later carry out the assessment of all the risks that may occur before implementing any of the policies that has been established. In doing this they are able to have the right resources and infrastructures, the right personnel who are experts in the various fields and in using certain facilities and they are also able to come up with priorities through their critical decision-making process.

            According to the Orange team, it is evident that while determining the critical assets it is important to group them into several groups so as to enhance easier protection and assessment of the risk associated with these categories of assets. Thus there may be employees’ assets who include all the people who might in the building, the power supply assets, cyber infrastructure as well as the HVAC mechanisms. For a facility to be successfully characterized, critical assets undesired events list, protection goals and the description of the facility are key elements in ensuring that risk is mitigated. The group has adversely integrated these key elements in trying to demonstrate how facility characterization is paramount in ensuring that safety is accorded to the citizens and to the environment around. Terrorism attacks are major threats in US and most of the areas are targeted thus causing the lives of the people and that of the environment be it the natural environment or the built environment to be at risk. However, with the right facility characterization followed by the appropriate security risk assessment, security agencies such as the homeland security are able to be successful in their mission and vision of ensuring that they offer security to the nation. Hence in situations such as terrorists attack, they are able to make goals and to make hard decisions based on the facility characterization and safety risk assessment report hence prioritizing on the critical assets that require protection the most with the right identification of the undesired events that may occur and planning for these events in advance.

            Critical infrastructure therefore is accorded all the safety measures following their fundamental role and services that they offer to the nation. They are thus complex systems that require critical characterization and assessment safety risk strategies. This is because, any effect on them by the terrorists it may go beyond the targeted asset and the reversibility after the immediate change is a long-term occurrence. Therefore for all the sectors to be fully protected, the characterization of the anticipated area to be affected has to undergo through a characterization with the collaboration of the risk assessment so as to fully protect al, the critical assets that are potential in facing these risks of destruction (Bringer et al 2007). In doing this manipulation or destruction of one asset is eliminated as all the vulnerable assets such as those systems that contain critical information or those that hold dangerous equipments or medications are safely assessed and protected in totality. Different departments have got different critical assets and thus generalization of critical assets is not wise. Hence, for the homeland security to clearly determine the critical infrastructure in each department it requires that they first carry out a thorough assessment of the department, its environment, the people, the systems and the goals of security in this department. Then they later examine the extent of the risk and the undesired event that may be attributed by this risk and hence they are able to secure the department as they have the knowledge o the critical infrastructure of each and every department in the entire nation. Therefore, the assets, services as well as systems within each and every critical infrastructure sector are not equally essential.












Moteff J & Parfomak P. (2004). Critical Infrastructure and Key Assets:

            Definition and Identification. Congressional Research Service.

Bringer, B. E., Matalucci, R. V., & O'Connor, S. L. (2007). Security risk assessment and management: a professional practice guide for protecting buildings and infrastructures. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.




887 Words  3 Pages

Financial Impacts of Unions and Collective Bargaining

 The merit reward program legislated by the state can help the agency to differentiate between higher performing and low performing employees and thus reward the high performing employees. Such a program helps in differentiating the entire organizational performance from that of individual staff members. Hence, the program can provide use the reward in the promotion of values such as positive relationships between staffs, teamwork and effective delivery of services. Such a program remains the best for the organization retaining the outstanding employees, and when corporation among various managers on how to develop the manner of merit distribution, an effective system could be achieved. For the program to be better structured there should have been a one-time basis of performance so that to reward the employees who could have participated in a short-time projects (Kearney &Mareschal, 2014).

There are various issues raised in the implementation of this merit reward system.  It is not easy to accurately differentiate the individual employees who are most deserving of this merit pay.  Those contributions and accomplishments which are most desirable are most of the times never measurable. Hence a judgment of the manager will remain constant in determination of merit pay. In addition, it can prove to be very difficult for a manger to communicate to all employees the value of their contribution individual and the merits used in payment (Kearney &Mareschal, 2014).  

The merit pay plan will involve a determination of the degree of merit for each employee and then a score of 1 to 5 will be assigned for every category. Then an average of subsequent scores will be done so that the overall level of achievement is determined.


Kearney, R., Mareschal, P. (2014).Labor Relations in the Public Sector, Public Administration and Public Policy. CRC Press.

302 Words  1 Pages

Strategic Human Resource management

Labor relations is an essential aspect to the effective operation of any organization and involves a system in which workers  and their representatives , employers and even the government directly or indirectly interact in order to set rules that govern work relationships. In modern management of human capital, labor relations involves the establishment of various laws and regulations which provide a framework for essential aspects of work life which include minimum wage, equality in payment , occupational safety and health and psychological harassment. Labor relations also involve different forms of workers participation, personal employment relations between a worker and an employer under an employment contract (Casademunt, 2016). Organizations gain various benefits from the existence of good labor relations especially when human capital management and workforce work towards the same objective or goal of a successful business with higher profits and employees satisfaction. There need not be adversarial relationship since when labor relations are strong an organization will succeed in the long-run.

In modern management of human capital, labour relations assist in lowering of turnover costs since it assists in the reduction of employee turnover. Every time workers leave an organization, costs are incurred that relates to the separation of employees and replacement with new ones. Labour relations also helps in human resource management structural changes which assist in retention of the best skilled human labor and attracted highly skilled o flexible workforce. Having labor relation interests is a good way of spotting any arising problems and generating various solutions to these problems at work level.  Management requires a workforce that has effectively developed soft skills like communicating clearly, active listening and the ability to empathize or even react to any situation non-defensively. The management also requires workers who can be comfortable with the exceptions norms as they would be with what is norm (Kochan &Litwin, 2011).  This because the workplace is changing too fast as the work changes and such changes if not handled with care can bring a lot of disharmony between the management and workers in relations to what each party expect from the other. Good labor relations ensures that the current workforce participates in a good education system that helps them in developing the analytical skills needed to be productive in workplace that is increasingly becoming technological and information driven.  As such, workers are provided with opportunities for learning and utilizing their kills in value creation as per their talents, values and abilities. This psychologically lifts the workers motivation as they enjoy the value of what they have created (Kochan &Litwin, 2011). Employee’s motivation is an important aspect in human capital management which applies even in the modern working environment and it determines the productivity of employees.

Labor relations play an essential role in ensuring the safety and health of employees at the workplace. By reducing the work fatalities in organizations such as manufacturing firms , labor relations helps in minimizing compensation costs , cost for health insurance , absenteeism and hence  assures workers productivity. By ensuring the safety and health of workers, human capital managers do not have to worry about low productivity (Casademunt, 2016).

Issues that concern the trade unions include collective bargaining, unfair practices, employee welfare and legislation.  Trade unions are essentially established to provide workers equal bargaining power with employers. Traditionally, employers have had the ability to set the rules, terms and conditions of employment exclusively.  The trade unions play the role of representing the workers in various industries in carrying out negotiations with employers. They are effective given that they are made up of a group of employees and this gives them a good chance that if they were to negotiate the terms individually (Aidt & Tzannatos, 2008). In addition, unfair practices are a big issue for trade unions, and the unions are established to check such practices perpetrated by employers. Issues such as discrimination, victimization or abuse of workers by employers are major ones among those that concern the unions.  This goes hand in hand with workers welfare, since the unions are involved in active fight for employees for workers terms and conditions at the workplace. The aim I to give workers dignity and constantly facilitate improved living standards. The other major issues concerning the unions include participating in the development of labor laws or regulations for effective protection of workers (Aidt & Tzannatos, 2008).




 In the current global business environment that is highly competitive, retention of employees has been a major concern for human capital management. It is necessary for any organization to implement various strategies of employee retention so as to efficiently and effectively manage employee turnover. A high percentage is an indication that the organization is losing higher number of employees as compared to those who have been recruited (Ramlall, 2004). It is an indication that there is no appropriate job selection or creation of an environment that can help employees in staying within a firm for longer periods. As firms in almost all industries decide on staking a bigger portion of growth plans on expansion globally, consistency and precision with which talent management capabilities are approached, the human resource leadership development and policies have to be increased(Ramlall, 2004). A major concern for the organizations that have global presence or which are intending on going global is the retention of employees.  Retention serves as a strategic opportunity that is used by many organizations in the maintenance of a competitive workforce.  The retention strategies are enhanced when workers are provided with benefits and compensation, the work culture is supportive and when they are allowed engages in activities that help in attaining work-life balance (Oladapo, 2014).

Retention management is essential in the global workforce given the large differences in the global markets which means that organizations have to bear with cost which comes with it. There is a big difference in labor laws which can be irreconcilable, workers policies and attitudes, leadership styles and which can undermine the operations of organizations that have global presence. The recruitment and hiring of employees amongst such differences can be very costly and time consuming especially in development of talents (Frank, Finnegan & Taylor, 2004). Therefore, it is in the interest of all organizations to retain their competitive workforce and highly dynamic global environment. This enables the companies to adopt and maintain global position which is competitive for their own profitability and success. Since the hiring process is tedious, costly and time consuming, the retention of recruited employees is an essential strategy for organizations.  In addition, retention management helps companies to save on time and resources used in preparing employees from different cultural backgrounds to understand and work in a corporate culture. It would be a total waste of time and resources for an employee to leave a firm that tapped his talents suddenly. The human resource management function has to restart the recruitment process for the same position all over again. The retentions strategy also helps in preventing an employee from joining competitors in the global market as they are likely to take all the advantages to the rivals (Frank 2004). In a global environment, individuals who have remained with a firm for a long time become accustomed to an organization and its management. Firms benefit always when workers are have been trained to become compatible with one another in a world market that is very diverse. Replacing an existing employee with a new person makes problems to arise. People in such an environment can find it very tough to build a comfort level with other persons. Moreover, hunting for the appropriate skills in the global market can be very challenging especially in countries whose human capital development levels are very low. In such areas, organizations would have to use a lot of resources in training of employees or sourcing talents from other developed markets, a process that can also be very time consuming (Oladapo, 2014). In addition, completing such a process can be hectic in some countries whose labor laws are very prohibitive. In such a scenario, it would be important for organizations to retain their employees at all cost rather than losing them to competitors. Hence retention management involves the use various techniques by firms to help the workers to remain them for the longest time possible. Employee retention becomes a real concern for firms with global presence.


Casademunt, A. M. L. (2016). Strategic labor relations management in modern organizations. Hershey, PA, USA: Business Science Reference.49 -105

Kochan, T., Litwin,A.(2011). The Future of Human Capital: An Employment Relations Perspective.4-17. Retrieved from:


Aidt, T. S., & Tzannatos, Z. (2008). Trade unions, collective bargaining and macroeconomic performance: a review. Industrial Relations Journal, 39(4), 258-295.


Oladapo, V (2014).The impact of talent management on retention: Journal of Business Studies Quarterly 2014, Vol. 5.3. Retrieved from:

Ramlall, S. (2004). A review of employee motivation theories and their implications for employee retention within organizations. Journal of American Academy of Business, 5(1/2), 52-63.

Frank, F. D., Finnegan, R. P., & Taylor, C. R. (2004). The race for talent: retaining and engaging workers in the 21st century. People and Strategy, 27(3), 12.







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